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AP United States History Final Study Guide

1. Reasons for settlement

a. Push Factors

i. Stuck in the Peasant Class (serfdom)

ii. Monarchs wanted new trade route

iii. Over Populated cities (disease)

iv. Religious Persecution (Reformation)

v. Lack of resources available

b. Pull Factors

i. Leave Peasantry

ii. Land availability

iii. Separatists and Puritans wanted religious freedom

iv. Resources Availability (Columbian Exchange)

*Columbian Exchange:

English gave guns, steel, domesticated animals, and disease.

Natives “gave” furs, gold, trinkets, growing tips, foods

1. Native societies

a. Mesoamerica (Incans Mayans Aztecs)

i. Political

1. Heredity

2. Emperor Ruled

ii. Economical

1. Agricultural

a. Main trade good for native societies

b. Consisted of beans and maize

c. Was the center of life

2. Many Taxes (Government funded benefits)

3. Active Traders

a. Created formal exchange networks

b. Created a strong bond with other societies


iii. Social

1. Distinct class system

a. Women did farming

b. Few wealthy ruled thousand of poor (Huge Gap)

2. Very strong polytheistic religion

a. Built huge temples

b. Leaders claimed divine right

c. Had mass sacrifices to please gods

b. Southwest

i. Political

1. Heredity

a. Few rulers dominated

b. Ruler best warriors (rich)

2. Confederations

a. Made in order survive Spanish conquest

b. Used to help combine power

c. Weak tribes followed strong tribes

ii. Economic

1. Agricultural

a. Developed irrigation

b. Land was really dry

c. Both sexes farmed

c. Woodlands

i. Political

1. God like rulers

2. Had a few larger cities (5k people)

ii. Economic

1. A lot of trade

2. Use of large amount of rivers


3. Had a ton of resource availability

a. Pearls

b. Furs

4. Some farming (Women & maize)

5. Mainly hunters

6. Slash and burn methods formed to clear land

iii. Social

1. Very religious

2. Built the mounds

3. Leader dies=all servants die

d. Non Farming

i. Political

1. Chiefs and families ruled in all aspects

2. A lot of trade and war

ii. Economical

1. Fishing

2. Hunting (Deer antelope, elk, bear)

3. gathering (acorns)
iii. Social

1. A lot of sharing of materials

2. Strong belief in social reciprocity

3. Lived in permanent settlements (multi-family houses)

2. Native life

a. Native Kinship

i. Valued Family especially wives

ii. Men hunted and got food

iii. Women prepared food and often farmed

iv. Strong respect for families

v. War was more recreational than violent

b. Native Religion

i. All life was sacred

ii. Respected there environment

iii. Polytheistic

iv. Not recognized by Europeans

3. Europeans in Africa

a. Positive

i. Brought new goods to Africa

ii. Brought Wealth to Africa

iii. Developed Trade routes in Africa

iv. Resulted in formation of empires (Mali, Ghana & Songhai)

b. Negative

i. Took many African slaves

ii. Took many resources

iii. Brought Holy wars in to Africa (Jihads, Crusades)

c. New Slavery

i. Much larger scale than Old

ii. Faced much worse treatment

iii. Increased Racial prejudice

d. Life in Africa

i. High death rate

ii. Forced to move around a lot

iii. Kings were like GODS

iv. Very sexual (necessary to survive)

v. Religions

1. Polytheistic

2. Muslims

3. Christians

4. New Spain

a. One of the First Nation to lay claims in New World

b. Conquistadors conquered many natives (set up missions)

c. Got a lot of gold

d. Caribbean, Florida, Central America

e. First permanent colony(St. Augustine 1565)

5. New France

a. Hoped to establish trading post

b. Strong control on fur trade

c. Good relations with Natives

d. Quebec, Montreal

e. Excepted mixing

6. New Netherlands

a. Established near Manhattan region

b. Befriended Iroquois

c. 1664 Britain seizes control

d. Area vastly grows

7. Colonial Britain

8. Topic New England Middle Southern

Colonies Colonies Colonies
-Massachusetts -Delaware -Maryland
States -Connecticut -New Jersey -Virginia
-Rhode Island -New York -Carolinas
-New Hampshire -Pennsylvania -Georgia

-Extreme cold -Many Large -Hot

Geography -Poor Soil Rivers -Swampy
-Oceanic Access -Good Soil -Broad Coastal
- Fast Flowing Plains

Religious - Mainly Puritan -Calvinist -Mainly Anglican

Religion -Separatist -Quaker -State Supported

-Democratic -Royal Governors -Royal Governors

Politics -Held Town -Colonial -Assembly
Meetings Assemblies -Rich Land Owners
- -Power

-Urban -Swedes -Plantation Owners

SocietySocially-Social Reciprocity -Dutch -Indentured
Tolerant -Strong -English Servants
Communities -German -Slaves
-Hard Working -Swiss

-Teacher per 50 -Some Education -Home Schooled

Education Houses -Columbia -Private Tutors
-Ivy League -Rich Sent to
High Medium
Salem,Plymouth,B Restoration Sugar Failed
Other oston Colonies Restoration
“City on a Hill” Domestic Slaves Colonies
Social Reciprocity “Feudal System”
Halfway Convent

9. James Town

a. First successful English colony in America

b. Where the discovery of tobacco took place

c. Named after King James I

10. New England Way

i. Separatists settled Plymouth in 1620

1. Established Mayflower document (First self-governing document in New


2. Created a civil body politic

ii. Puritans established City on Hill

1. Model society hoping to purify Anglican Church

2. Governed by Gods will


3. Denounced class systems

4. Strong sense of social reciprocity

5. Very strong education

6. Sainthood determined power

7. Forced to make half way convent

iii. Religious dissenters (Anne Hutchinson, Roger Williams) Create Rhode Island

b. Half way covenant

i. 1650 less than half adults were saints

ii. New generation did not want to share sins

iii. Few baptized children

iv. Half members could not take communion or vote in church affairs

c. Dissent in New England

i. Believed in a separation of church and government

ii. Bailed government would corrupt church

iii. Challenged the thought of predetermination

iv. Feared the Market Economy

d. Family life in New England

i. Eldest male was household head

ii. Marriage was treated like a contract

iii. Tough to get divorced

iv. Strong Peaceful and respected Families

v. Few disease

vi. Grew crops to feed family

vii. High Birth rates

viii. Career diversification

11. Native Wars

a. Pequot War 1637

i. Pequot’s resisted English movement

ii. English and native allies brutally slaughtered the Pequot


iii. Set precedent for further treatment of natives

iv. English later turned on native allies

b. King Phillips War 1675

i. Metacom united natives against the English

ii. English and Native allies kill 40% of enemies

iii. Starve and enslaved enemy

c. King Williams war 1689

i. England joined collation against France

ii. Colonial armies failed at capturing Quebec and Montreal

iii. Iroquois faced heavy losses

iv. Iroquois ended military agreement with English colonist

d. Queen Anne’s war 1702

i. England fought France and Spain

ii. English colonist got whooped

iii. Britain bailed them out


12. Colonial America

a. Problems in Salem

i. Had very rich and very poor

ii. 2nd largest port

iii. Split between rural and urban

iv. Witch trials occurred (often victims were women who would hold power)

v. Conflicted with Social Reciprocity

b. Chesapeake Region

i. Strong religious and political ties with England

ii. Most immigrants were young men

iii. Grew a lot of tobacco

iv. Slow growth rate

v. Anglican was main religion (Still weak)

c. State in Virginia

i. Two part legislature

ii. Followed England’s court system

iii. Justices appointed by Governor

iv. Set taxes, county officials salary important cases, oversee development

v. Most colonies followed this

d. State and church in Maryland

i. Catholic favored manor system (FAILED)

ii. Instead plantations were formed

iii. Predominantly protestant

iv. Maryland Acts for religious toleration

1. Made second colony to affirm religious toleration

2. Only protected Christians

3. Actually failed to secure religious peace

a. Protestants barred Catholics

e. Bacon’s Rebellion 1675

i. Citizens wanted to move westward

ii. Natives resented this movement

1. Outnumbered 10:1

iii. Citizens wanted to launch full scale war

iv. Bacon and his civilian army brutally attacked natives

v. At 1st bacon was popular

vi. Forced Berkeley place laws to restrict Natives

vii. Berkeley revoked the laws

viii. Bacon burned Jamestown

ix. Symbolizes dissatisfaction in the Chesapeake.

f. Slavery

i. 1st Indentured servant were more popular

ii. Slaves grew due to west indies demands

iii. Carolinas also held a demand for slaves

iv. All colonies had slaves but south had the most

v. Northern slaves did domesticated work

g. Cash Crops alter working conditions in the Chesapeake

i. Tobacco dominated Virginia

h. West Indies needed slaves for sugarcane

i. Carolinas build rice plantations and bring in slaves

j. Society of Friends (Quakers, William Penn)

i. Penn got land to West New Jersey and Pennsylvania

ii. Believed social status should be based on inner relationship with God

iii. Quakers were considered rebels

iv. Quakers were peaceful

v. Saw women as equals to men

vi. Very fertile soil

vii. Philadelphia rapidly grew

viii. Area was extremely diverse

13. Spanish expansion

a. Permanent settlements in Texas and Florida

b. Had many missionaries

c. Had much conflict with Natives

d. Buffed up military presence

e. Government had large investment

14. French expansion

a. Strong relations with Natives

b. Wanted claims in Ohio Valley

c. Settled New Orleans

d. Hoped to link Canadian colonies with New Orleans

15. Glorious Revolution & Royal centralization

a. Restoration inspired second wave of colonial expansion

b. Created dominion of New England

i. Centralized power

ii. Limited colonial government


iii. Gave England more direct control on colonies

c. Dominion Fails

i. Colonies become more democratic with the use of assemblies

ii. Ensured religious freedom

iii. Colonial elite got control

iv. Colonies allied interest with Britain

16. Zenger trial

a. A new Yorker protested the king

b. Britain then charged him but the verdict was not guilty

c. Set a precedent that allowed for the use of free speech and press

17. Mercantilism

a. Exported more than imported to increase self sufficiency

b. Enforced Navigation acts

i. 1st Imperial trade limited to British and English colonial vessels

1. Prevented Smuggling

ii. 2nd Cash crops had to be sent directly to England

1. Guaranteed goods would be bought

2. Allowed England to tax the goods

iii. 3rd Imports had to arrive through England

1. Gave England another tax opportunity

iv. 4th Taxed all foreign molasses

1. Reduced the consumption of Dutch molasses

1) Chapter 5

a) Triumph and Tensions: The British Empire 1750-1763

i) A Fragile Peace 1750-1754

(1) Britain and France begun preparation for another war

(2) A lot of tension arose in the Ohio Valley

(3) Virginia and Pennsylvania traders helped natives get along with the British

(4) French built forts to strengthen influence in area

(5) French and Native forces repelled Virginia militia led by George Washington

(6) British negotiated agreement with the Iroquois

(7) Attempted Albany Plan

ii) Albany Plan


(1) The Albany plan was the first attempt to have the colonies be united

(2) This plan failed

(3) Showed that colonies had the possibility of uniting

iii) Seven Years War

(1) In 1754 British General Braddock was sent to seize the French fort of Duquesne

(2) Braddock assumed his British soldiers would massacre the French and Natives resistance

(3) 250 Natives and 600 Natives ambushed and beat back 2,200 British troops.

(4) 900 British died including General Braddock vs. 23 French and Native casualties

(5) French Armed Natives raided Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia.

(6) French captured fort Oswego and Fort William Henry

(7) Two developments changed the tide of war in favor of the British

(a) Iroquois and most Ohio Indians changed sides or withdrew from fighting

(i) Allowed for the British to capture many French forts.

(b) William Pitt took control of military affairs

(i) Reinvigorated British Patriotism

(ii) Became colonial hero

(iii) Offered to finance the war if colonist became organized

(iv) Colonist organized over 40,000 troops

(v) Far more than British troops

(vi) Captured Duquesne, Louisburg, Montreal and Quebec

(vii)French surrendered after fall of Montreal

iv) End of French North America

(1) France gave up all claims of land east of the Mississippi (except New Orleans later change)
(2) France regains Cuba

(3) Spain cedes Florida to Britain


(4) France cedes Louisiana territory to Spain

(5) France now only owns small fishing isles

(6) Several thousand French colonists were now subjects to Spain and Britain.

(7) Strengthened Colonial and British military bonds.

(8) Planted seeds of misunderstanding between the two groups

v) Anglo-American Friction

(1) British officers complained about the colonist

(2) British felt that the colonist should be taxed on the war

(3) King George the III is appointed king

(4) Anglo American consumer revolution

(a) Colonist fueled british economy through mass purchasing

vi) Frontier Tensions

(1) Anglo-Indian conflicts increased British debt

(2) British did not help Natives who fought for them

(3) Pontiacs rebellion (Natives sacked 8 British forts)

(4) To decrease conflict British issue the Proclamation of 1763

(a) Proclamation of 1763

(i) Direct British control of land transactions, settlement, trade, all matters west of
Appalachians involving non-natives

b) Imperial Authority, 1760-1766

i) Writs of Assistance

(1) Gave British officials the right to search any ship for smuggled goods

(2) Threatened privacy of a family’s home

ii) Sugar act

(1) Goal was to raise revenue to cut back on military debt

(2) Taxed all goods imported through Britain


(3) Goods had to be exported through Great Britain


(4) Many documents had to be filed for colonial shipping

(5) Disregarded the right to a fair trial


iii) Quartering Act I

(1) Ordered for colonial legislatures to help pay for certain goods to help fund the British Army

(2) Angered Colonist has they felt there was no purpose for the troops

iv) Currency Act

(1) Made all colonial paper money worthless

(2) Only excepted specie (Gold & Silver)

v) Stamp Act

(1) Forced colonist to use a special stamp on almost all papers

(2) This stamp was heavily taxed by the British

vi) Declaratory Acts

(1) Affirmed parliamentary power to legislate the colonies in all cases

(2) This meant the colonist could not be excluded from any law including taxes

(3) Caused colonist to realize the crisis of the British Actions

vii) Townshend Acts

(1) Taxed imports to America from Britain

(2) Really heavy tax

(3) Colonist viewed it as the same as the Stamp Act

viii) Tea Act

(1) Lowered price of tea to colonist

(2) Allowed East India Company to sell directly to consumers

(3) Colonist had to pay tax on tea if it didn’t sell

ix) Intolerable Acts

(1) Closed the Boston Port

(2) Revoked the Massachusetts government

(3) Made colonist house British troops in their own homes

(4) Allowed British troops to be tried in Britain

c) Colonial Opposition

i) Stamp Act Congress

(1) Colonist got together to protest the stamp act

(2) British repealed Stamp Act


(3) British put in the declaratory acts

ii) Circular Letter

(1) Called for the colonial legislatures to condemn the Townshend acts

(2) Colonial legislature did not consider the idea

(3) British blew the letter out of proportion

iii) Committees of Correspondence

(1) First colonial attempt to strengthen political ties throughout the colonies

iv) Boston Tea Party

(1) A bunch of drunk colonist dressed up as Mohawk Indians and dumped a ton of British tea into the
Boston harbor

v) 1st Continental Congress

(1) America called for 56 delegates to defend the colonist rights

(2) Called for a boycott of all British goods

vi) 2nd Continental Congress

(1) Sent the Olive Branch Petition

(a) Olive Branch Petition

(i) Attempted to avoid war with Britain

(ii) Wanted to negotiate with the King of England

(iii) Rejected

vii) Women’s Role in Colonial Resistance

(1) Daughters of liberty

(a) Upper class female patriots

(b) Attended political rallies

(c) Expressed opposition in discussion

(d) Women agreed not to use tea

(e) Boycotted British manufactures

(f) Women began making their own clothing

(g) 1600 women participated in the spinning bees

(h) Helped show the idea women had power in politics

(i) Showed American protest extended to the heart of America


viii) African American Liberty

(1) Responded to calls for liberty and equality

(2) Marched through Charles Town shouting Liberty

(3) Filed three petitions to the colonial legislature

(4) Fight for Britain if war occurred

(5) Lord Dunmore Proclamation

(a) All slaves earned freedom if they fought for the crown

2) Chapter 6

a) Prospects of War

i) Loyalist

(1) 20% of all whites were loyalist

(2) Similar beliefs with Patriots just didn’t want war

(3) Viewed separation as an illegal act

(4) Viewed as betrayers and treated terrible

(5) Few in South Carolina Virginia and New England

(6) Strong in New York and New Jersey

(7) Many were recently immigrated Britons

(8) Canada was strongly loyalist

(9) German population supported the war cause

(10) British got a lot of support from non-whites

(11) 20,000 slaves escaped during the war

(12) Most Native Americans supported the British

(13) Iroquois was split

b) Battles

i) Lexington & Concord

(1) Gage sent 700 British soldiers to seize Massachusetts armory

(2) Colonist found out and ambushed the British soldiers

(3) Colonist beat back the British troops and stopped the British from taking their weaponry

ii) Bunker Hill

(1) Colonial militia dug in on Breeds hill to halt British movement on Boston

(2) Britain cockily charged at the American forced up hill

(3) American militia held valiantly until eventually being overrun

(4) Giant morale for the colonist

iii) Trenton

(1) George Washington attacked a bunch of hessian mercenaries around Christmas time

(2) Turned morale around for the struggling continental army

iv) Saratoga

(1) Americas first major victory in the war

(2) Proved to the French that America was indeed a country

(3) France then decided to help America in their war for independence

v) Valley Forge

(1) The newly trained American army faced off with the British

(2) The American forces won the war

vi) Southern Campaigns

(1) British attempt to take over the south and then slowly move northward

(2) There is less loyalist than expected

(3) British are doing very poorly in the war now

vii) Yorktown

(1) Final Battle of the revolutionary war

(2) French and American forces capture and defeat the last of the British forces

c) Treaty of Paris 1783

i) US became independent

ii) Mississippi river was the western boundary

iii) 31st parallel was the southern boundary

iv) Britain Kept Canada

v) Britain could collect debt

vi) Recommended restoring loyalist property

d) Women in Wartime

i) Female camp followers helped soldiers with cooking and cleaning

ii) Managed families, farms, households, and businesses


iii) Went disguised as men to fight

iv) Boosted confidence that they could be self sufficient

v) Raised money to help support the troops

e) Blacks in War Time

i) 20% of population was black

ii) Free blacks had restrictions

iii) Provided opportunity to freedom

iv) 9k joined British forces

v) 5k joined American forces (majority were free)

vi) Opportunity because they were needed

vii) Quakers tried to abolish slavery

viii) Others wanted slavery spread

ix) Took gradual steps to weaken slavery

x) Not press issue in fear of southern emancipation

f) Native Americans

i) Native Americans suffered worse than any other group

ii) Population declined by 50%

iii) Incorporate European culture into its own culture

iv) New Nation disrespected Native Americans

g) Articles of Confederation

i) Written by Dickinson

ii) Each state had one vote

iii) Congress could ask for funds but couldn’t enforce taxes

iv) Needed every states approval for most things

v) Extremely weak federal government

vi) One house legislative branch

vii) No continental army

h) Shays Rebellion

i) Huge tax hike on poor farmers


ii) Required pay in specie

iii) Shay and a bunch of farmers rebelled against the government

iv) There was a great struggle to put the rebellion down

v) Showed the weakness of the articles of confederation

i) Constitutional Convention

i) American leader got together to draft a new bill to follow

ii) A lot of dispute argued at the event

iii) Virginia plan was introduced= bicameral based on population

iv) New Jersey Plan=unicameral equal power to all states

v) Connecticut compromise=modern day set up

vi) Three fifths compromise=60% of slaves count towards population

3) Constitution

Article One= Legislative Branch

Article two=Presidency

Article Three=Court System

Article Four=State Powers

Article Five=Amendments

Article Six=Federal power trumps state power

Article seven=requirement to ratify

Amendment 3= no quartering of troops

Amendment 4=police need a warrant

Amendment 5=plead the fifth

Amendment 6=speedy trial

Amendment 7=trial by jury

Amendment 8=no cruel punishment

Amendment 9=guarantee rights of the people

Amendment 10=Non mentioned powers go to the states


1. Chapter 7

a. Constitutional government takes shape

i. Implementing government

1. First election of the constitution resulted in a Federalist sweep

2. George Washington won presidency easily

3. John Adams became president

4. Five cabinets were set up

a. Secretary of state (handles foreign affairs)

b. Secretary of treasury (Handles countries finances and economy)

c. Secretary of War (Watches over military and naval affairs)

d. Attorney General (provide legal expertise in the government)

e. Post Master General (Not Important)

5. Decided President can dismiss cabinet members without senate approval

ii. The Federal Judiciary and Bill of Rights

1. Common fear that federal courts would override local customs

2. Congress quieted these fears by passing the Judiciary act of 1789

a. Established a federal court in each state that operated in terms of local


b. Supreme court still held final jurisdiction

3. Constitution provided some protection of citizens’ rights

a. It prevented the passing of ex post facto laws

b. It prevented guilt without a trial

4. Needed a Bill of Rights to get all states approval.

5. James Madison drafted the Bill of Rights

a. Had no serious check on the federalist government

b. Ratified in December 1791

b. Hamilton’s Domestic Policies

i. Hamilton and his objectives

1. Extreme Nationalist

2. Born on British Caribbean in 1755


3. Served on Washington’s staff during the revolutionary war

4. Strongly wanted a strong nationalist government

5. Wanted a strong economic environment attracted to investment

6. Feared war with Spain and Britain

a. Only finance through borrowing money

b. Debt weakened nation’s credit abroad and at home

7. Feared union would disintegrate because states interest were put first

8. Concluded survival depended on support of the rich

9. Private ambitions would then serve as national welfare

ii. Establishing the Nation’s Credit

1. Hamilton was ordered to investigate the war debt

2. Created the Reports of public credit

a. 54million in U.S debt

b. 42million owed to Americans

c. 25million in state debt

d. National government should support the national debt by selling

government bonds

e. Those who kept their bonds would receive 4% interest

f. Federal government should take over the 25million state debt

i. Angered states which already paid off debt (South minus S.C.)

g. Wanted Europeans to be paid back as quickly as possible

3. Created second report of public debt

a. Proposed debt could be paid off by duties and taxing liquor

b. Not pay back the U.S. citizens

c. Only burden on tax payers would be a small annual cost of interest

d. Never wanted the debt to be paid off

i. This ensured that other countries needed the U.S. to thrive

4. Many disliked his plans

a. Feared only the rich would gain money

b. Madison was a major opponent to the plan


c. He failed to raise money for the original owners

d. Plan was approved by agreeing to move the nation’s capital

iii. Creating a national Bank

1. Positives of the Bank of United States

a. Hamilton presented the idea of a national bank

b. Would raise $10million

c. Argued would cost the tax payers nothing and Greatly benefit the

d. Safe place to deposit tax revenues

e. Issue paper notes to serve as cash

f. Provide credit to expand the economy

2. Negatives of the Bank of United States

a. Madison & Jefferson led the opposition of the bank

b. Give an elite group too much power in the government

c. Holders would support bank at cost of the nation

d. Believed Philadelphia Convention rejected the bank

e. Expanded federal power too far

3. The decision

a. George Washington called on both Hamilton and Jefferson for advice

b. Jefferson stated a single step outside the boundaries was unacceptable

c. Hamilton argued the Constitution enact all measures necessary &


d. George accepted Hamilton’s proposal; known as a lose interpretation

e. Established in February 1791 for 20years

f. Signaled a deepening political divide in the political administration

iv. Emerging Partisanship (Strong support & Resistance)

1. Support of Hamilton's plan

a. Provided large gains to speculators, merchants & rich men of port cities

b. Liberated New England, New Jersey & South Carolina of debt

c. Pushing Industry led to support in New England, NJ, SC, PA, & NY

2. Resistance to Hamilton's plan


a. South had repaid their state debt

b. B.U.S. attracted few southern stock holders

c. South hated Federalist policy (Hamilton’s plan)

d. West received little benefit as Agriculture was unprofitable

e. Anti-federalist become Republicans

3. Republicans

a. Jefferson, Madison & supporters led the group

b. Implied Hamilton's schemes would threaten liberty

c. Supported the National Gazette (Anti-Federalist newspaper)

i. Attacked Hamilton accusing him of creating a Monarchy

d. Washington chose no sides

v. Republican Motherhood

1. Principal

a. Women became educated in values of liberty and independence

b. Mothers duty to put these value to their sons

c. Became role to educate and raise the family

vi. Whiskey Rebellion

1. Causes

a. First serious crisis in young republic

b. Excise tax on domestic whiskey

c. Hamilton thought the tax would help financials and reduce drinking

d. People warned congress not to pass the tax

e. Hurt western Pennsylvania people as they turned crops into liquor

f. Tax wiped out farmers profit

2. Event

a. Sept. 1791 crowd in Pittsburgh tarred and feathered tax collector

b. Large scale resistance erupted in July

c. 100men attacked a U.S. Marshall

d. 500men burned the chief revenue officers house


e. Bands burned buildings, chased tax collectors & chased government


f. Washington led troops into the region and crushed the rebellion

3. Effects

a. Set severe limits on public opposition to Federal policies

b. Americans thought it was reasonable to protest with force

c. Determined that protest had to be with end the boundaries of the law

c. United Sates in a Wider World

i. Spanish Power in Western North America

1. Spain enjoyed revival of N.A. fortunes with gaining Louisiana territory

a. Built many forts with Spanish troops in south west

b. Attacked many native tribes

c. Natives agreed to stop the attack on Spain

d. Spain traded with Natives often

2. Spain's competition with Russia

a. Russian traders made movement in N.A in 1740’s

b. Russians established a colony in 1799

c. Spain created Alta California in response to Russian movement

d. Territory lacked many Mexican immigrants

e. Contained a few missions and ranches

f. Native population fell from 78k-18k

ii. Challenging American Expansion

1. Spain, Britain, America and Natives competed for area between Miss R. and
App Mts.

2. Washington feared war and told Americans to not move west

3. In 1789 Spain opened up New Orleans

4. Spain bribed KY & TN officials

5. Washington tried to weaken the Creeks presence

a. Creeks had 20k people & 5k warriors

b. Hated the Georgia people

c. Return the Yazoo area


6. Washington and Henry Knox had Harsh policy to aggressive Natives

a. Natives embarrassed American forces twice

b. Matters worsened when Spain convinced Creeks to attack America

c. Washington’s policy was in shambles

d. America thought it could be counter balanced if they aligned with


iii. France and Factional Politics

1. Pro Rebellion Americans (South)

a. Republicans and Jefferson were pro rebellion

b. Thousands of French Planters fled to southern America

c. South Carolina was losing its support towards Federalist

d. Reliance on Britain was a menace to national self determination

e. Wanted to reduce British imports

f. Intensified after France declared war on Spain and Britain

g. Thought Spain and Britain would cease blocking expansion

2. Pro Monarchy Americans (New England)

a. Federalist like Hamilton were anti “Mobocracy”

b. Supported British against France

c. North viewed revolution as an open hell

d. Disliked French for worshipping reason over god.

e. Traded with Great Britain more than France

f. Feared alliance with France would piss off Britain’s Navy

g. Feared Britain would attack if we halted their imports

3. Washington & Genet conflict

a. Washington proclaimed neutrality from the conflict

b. Genet a French man came to try and recruit American mercenaries

c. Genet successfully got many privateers

d. Washington closed down American ports to Genet’s privateers

iv. Diplomacy and War

1. British sea acts against Americans


a. British passed an act saying it could confiscate any ship trading with
the French

b. The royal navy seized over 250 American vessels

c. British passed law saying they could impress crew men from U.S.

d. Pissed of many Americans

2. Territorial challenges to the united states

a. British influenced Natives to deny Americans north of the Ohio river

b. British troops built an eighth fort on U.S soil

c. Spanish built fort in Memphis Tennessee

d. Washington feared conflict

e. He sent Wayne to Natives, Jay to Britain, Pinckney to Spain

3. Treaty of Greenville

a. Natives scoffed at Americans peace proposal

b. Wayne led 3.5k troops into Shawnee territory

c. Slaughtered Natives at the battle of fallen timbers

d. British did not help the natives in the conflict

e. Natives were forced to sign the treaty of Greenville

f. Opened up Ohio and Indiana for white settlement

4. Jay’s Treaty

a. British Troops withdrew from American soil

b. America gained access to West Indies

c. Few Americans like Jays treaty

d. Britain got favorable trade rights with the U.S.

e. Britain did not have to return confiscated slaves

f. Defuse the crisis of war

g. Stimulated an enormous expansion of trade

h. Exports to Britain went up 300%

5. Pinckney’s Treaty (Treaty of San Lorenzo)


a. Won unrestricted trade through the Mississippi river

b. Recognized the 31st parallel as the southern boundary

c. Spain promised to discourage American attacks

d. Parties and Politics

i. Ideological Confrontation

1. Federalist Policy

a. Feared Mob rule

b. Horrified by the chanting of French slogan

c. Worried this was the beginning of another revolutionary war

d. Believed that the many did not think just followed

e. Thought democracy meant ruling by the passions of the many

f. Ordinary people should not be present with choices over policy

2. Republican Policy

a. Stressed corruption in a strong federal government

b. Thought power should be in all white male property owners

c. Did not go after the institution of slavery

d. Jefferson and madison rallied voters

e. Jefferson was fed up of having his ideas over turned

f. Jefferson resigned from cabinet in 1793

g. Organized political societies

ii. The Republican Party

1. Party development

a. Washington openly sided himself with the Federalist

b. Republicans attacked Federalist Pro British leaning’s

c. Republicans won a slight majority in the House of Reps

d. Signaled the creation of the party

e. Both parties used the press to attack their opponent

2. Washington’s view

a. Washington was impatient with the hostilities the parties had

b. Resented Republicans as they verbally attacked Washington


c. Washington began to hate his job as being President

d. Believed parties hurt the republic chances of survival

e. Believed avoiding all war ties with European conflict

f. Did not enter the election of 1796, died in 1799

iii. The Election of 1796

1. Republicans cultivated a large body of voters

a. Got many voters through clubs

b. Targeted many immigrants

c. U.S. recently acquired 80k immigrants

2. Candidates

a. Federalist- Adams

b. Republicans- Jefferson

c. Federalist got the north

d. Republicans got the south

e. Adams became president

f. Jefferson became Vice President

g. Adams sucked as a President

iv. French Crisis

1. French negative acts toward America

a. French were pissed about Jay’s Treaty

b. France began seizing American ships

c. French wanted to hang our sailors

2. American response

a. Adams sent a peace convention to Paris

b. French refused to meet with our peace party


c. French sent agents x,y,z and demanded 250k and 12mil loan

d. Americans got PISSED

e. Congress armed 54 ships and went into the “Quasi War”

3. Quasi War

a. America seized 93 French vessels

b. America lost only one vessel

c. Britain was pleased with the American actions

d. Tripled the size of regular army

v. Court Cases

1. Marbury vs. Madison (1803)

a. Marbury was midnight appoint of Adams

b. Madison refused to process Marbury’s papers to become a judge

c. Marbury then sued Madison (First court case to reach supreme court)

d. Marbury won (Established Judicial Review)

2. Fletcher vs. Peck (1810)

a. John Peck sold Fletcher land

b. Fletcher claimed Peck had no right to land (State couldn’t sell land)

c. Fletcher lost (contract is legally binded through constitution)

3. Dartmouth vs. Woodward (1819)

a. Dartmouth President wanted the college to become a public college

b. Board was against this

c. Court ruled in favor of the board because the charter for the college was
older than the constitution

4. McCullough vs. Maryland (1819)

a. Maryland was trying to levy a tax on the B.U.S.

b. The bank said a state cant tax a federal institution

c. Marshall ruled that state couldn’t tax it (favored federalist)

5. Gibbons vs. Ogden (1824)

a. Ogden had a monopoly on steamboats

b. Gibbons wanted a permit


c. Marshall ruled that monopolies were void

vi. Alien & Sedition Acts

1. Alien Enemies Act

a. Determined if citizens of a country at war posed a threat

b. If so they were deported or jailed

c. Established fundamental principal for national security

d. Acted only if Congress declared war

2. The Alien Friends Act

a. President could expel all foreign people he thought posed a threat

b. Did not require proof of being guilty

c. Believed made just to deport future republicans

3. Naturalization Act

a. Increased residency from 5 to 14 years

b. Had to be in same state for five years

c. Made to limit the amount of Republican voters

4. Sedition Act

a. People could not verbally attack the U.S. government

b. The act broadly was broadly defined

c. This act went against the 1st amendment

d. Many republican press leaders were jailed

e. Federalist hoped this would scare future republicans from attacking


5. Resistance to these acts

a. Virginia & Kentucky had militias listen to anti federalist speeches

b. They signed petitions against the acts

c. Madison and Jefferson wrote the Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions

d. Declared state could nullify non constitutional laws

e. Showed great potential for disunion

f. People feared a civil war


vii. Election of 1800

1. Federalist were slaughtered in the election of 1800

2. The two republicans swept the election

3. Burr and Jefferson were deadlocked

4. People intended on Burr being the vice president

5. The split came down to Burr’s state of New York

6. Hamilton a staunch federalist from N.Y. sided with Jefferson(Burr is psychotic)

7. Jefferson won the election of 1800

e. Economic and Social Change

i. Producing for markets

1. Before Revolution

a. Industry was done in households

b. Patriarchal family (Head-male, wife, unmarried children)

c. Well off had slaves

d. Most were on small farms

2. After Revolution

a. Surplus of production went up

b. Hired experts to help increase outputs

c. Often had farms and rose output of dairy

d. Helped manufacture cloth

e. Enterprising merchants catered to urban customers

f. Class of businessmen started to rise

ii. White Women in the Republic

1. Woman’s rights

a. Some woman began to be able to vote

b. Recognized the right for women to pick their own husband

c. Daughters purposely got pregnant so they could marry the man

d. Women had fewer kids

2. Woman’s roles

a. Mutuality in relationships rose


b. Challenged sexual double

c. Wanted to prove women intellect

d. Republican motherhood, women raised kids to be patriotic

iii. Land and Culture: Native Americans

1. Weakening of Native Nations

a. Thousands of deaths result of battle, famine, and disease

b. Natives were very poor

c. Natives lost a lot of land

d. Natives were discriminated against

e. Cherokee went from 16k to 10k Iroquois went from 9k to 4k

2. United states military conflict with natives

a. Government regulated with Natives

b. Congress enacted Indian Trade and Intercourse acts

i. Prohibited transfers of Native land unless treaty with Congress

ii. Regulated intercultural trade

iii. Reduce the abuses natives faced

iv. Did not prohibit sale of liquors

v. Tried to civilize the native Americans

c. Cherokee ceded much land to Georgia

d. Seneca got hurt very bad

iv. Black Struggles

1. State reforms

a. North Carolina made it illegal to murder slaves

b. Most states outlawed Atlantic slave trade

c. Many states dropped restrictions on freedom and protect property

d. 3 states allowed for blacks to vote

e. Black sentiment fell

2. Federal law

a. Feds led the way to restricting rights to blacks

b. Military refused black forces


c. Black soldiers were treated poorly

3. Fugitive Slave Law

a. Required the return of escaped slaves

b. Free blacks were denied bill of rights protection

c. If you didn’t turn in an escaped slave you were fined

2. Chapter8

a. The Age of Jefferson

i. Jefferson and Jeffersonian

1. Jefferson was an educated man

a. Jefferson knew French Latin Greek and many native languages

b. He served more than 20years as president of the American

Philosophical Society

c. He designed his own mansion in Virginia

d. Invented a device to duplicate letters

e. Author of the declaration of independence

f. Governor of Virginia

g. Ambassador to France

h. Secretary of state

i. Vice President

2. Jefferson is considered a controversial man

a. He did not believe that blacks and whites could live together

b. He had a love child with a slave (bleach black)

c. Worried of high taxes, and large armies

d. Pro state governments

e. Believed backbone of America was the average farmer

f. Hated cities (breeding ground for mobs)

ii. Jefferson’s “Revolution”

1. Jefferson believed his election was a revolution

a. He thought federalist were bringing America into a despotism

b. Jefferson planned to correct the federalist 10million more debt


c. He reduced spending

d. Cut Taxes including the whiskey tax

e. Brought army from14k to 3.287k

f. Thought in 16yrs the nation would be debt free

2. Tripoli conflict

a. Jefferson believed in a strong navy

b. He used a naval squadron to crush the Tripoli pirates

c. The cost of war was half of the annual tribute America paid the pirates

iii. Jefferson and the Judiciary

1. Federalist issues

a. Washington and Adams appointed only federalist to the bench

b. Adams appointed judges in his last months of office

c. The Judiciary act of 1801 pissed of Jefferson because he couldn’t

appoint judges

d. Jefferson got the act repealed

2. Marbury vs. Madison

a. Marbury was a midnight judge but was too late

b. Madison refused to deliver Marbury’s papers

c. Marbury then sued Madison

d. Marshall said Madison can’t be forced to but he should

e. Jefferson was upset Marshall was talking about morale’s

f. Jefferson tried to impeach two judges

g. The feud between the judiciary and Jefferson then ended

iv. The Louisiana Purchase

1. Jefferson wanted an empire

a. Europe had more land in North America than Americans

b. Spain ceded Louisiana territory to the French

c. Jefferson wanted all of N.A. minus Canada plus part of S.A.

d. Feared America would be sandwiched between two feuding Americans

2. Bonaparte’s struggles

a. Bonaparte crushed Spain in war and took the Louisiana territory

b. He planned to use the territory as a bread basket for his Caribbean


c. He then invaded Saint Domingue

d. Due to disease and resistance Bonaparte’s forces got crushed

3. America’s purchase

a. America sent people to France to make sure America could still use
new Orleans

b. Bonaparte offered to sell the entire territory for 15mil

c. He needed money for a new war in Europe

d. Jefferson bought the land as he thought doubling size was good (DUH)

4. Effects of purchase

a. Federalist called Jefferson a hypocrite

b. Constitution didn’t mention acquiring land

c. Federalist felt the new edition would weaken New England’s hold

d. Jefferson did not care what the federalist thought

v. Election of 1804

1. Twelfth amendment was put into effect

2. Jefferson and Clinton swept Pinckney and King

vi. Lewis and Clark expedition

1. Issues

a. Jefferson was infatuated with the Louisiana territory

b. No one knew the western boundary of the territory

c. Even before the acquiring Jefferson planned an expedition

d. Sent Lewis and Clark to get educated

2. Trip

a. Lewis and Clark were hoping to find a water route to the pacific

b. Give Huge economic success

c. Started in St. Louis

d. Charbonneau & Sacajawea were there guides


e. Came in contact with many native tribes

f. Gave medals and uniforms to some chiefs

g. Reached the Pacific and then later returned to St. Louis

3. Result

a. Collected mass scientific information

b. Found a large mountain range

c. Had a bunch of lies in it

d. Jefferson was mocked for believing in the events

b. The Gathering Storm

i. The Suppression of American Trade and Impressment

1. Britain and France resumed conflict in Europe

a. Britain was angered with American trade with France

b. Britain blockaded all French controlled ports

c. France put into effect the continental system

d. Both Britain and France seized American ships

e. Americas navy became Britain’s navy’s Bitch

f. British started to practice impressment

2. Leopard(British) attacks Chesapeake (American)

a. Only a few miles off the American coast

b. Americans immediately called for war

c. It went unanswered

ii. Embargo Act of 1807

1. Reasons why advocated

a. Hoped to pressure Britain and France to recognize American neutrality

b. British sales did drop 50%

c. Britain later found new markets in south America

d. Napoleon still seized all American ships he could

2. Negatives of Embargo Act

a. 30k Americans lost jobs

b. Jails became over filled


c. Farmers could no longer pay their debts

d. Land prices plummeted

3. Positives

a. American Manufacturing grew

b. Started the American Industrial revolution

iii. James Madison and the Failure of Peaceable Coercion

1. Election of 1808

a. Republicans ran Madison and Clinton

b. Federalist ran Pinckney and King again

c. Republicans win but federalist win a few seats in the house and senate

2. War Hawks

a. From the south and the west

b. Wanted to go to war with Canada and Florida

c. Led by Henry clay

iv. Issues with natives

1. White expansion

a. White settlement shrank native hunting grounds

b. Forced natives to sell land for liquor and guns

2. Treaty of Fort Wayne

a. Governor Harrison believed they needed to offer Indian lands to whites

b. Harrison gathered starving Indians and bought land near Wabash river

c. They only paid 2cents an acre

d. Pissed of Tecumseh, the Shawnee chief

3. Battle of Tippecanoe

a. Tecumseh’s brother led a small force to attack American soldiers

b. Harrison won the battle and became known as a national hero

c. Natives had heavy artillery which was supplied by natives

d. The last straw with Britain

v. Congress Votes for War

1. For War

a. Most republicans

b. War Hawks and Westerners wanted war

c. Pennsylvania, Maryland& Virginia

2. Against War

a. Federalist

3. Madison wanted war

a. Listed impressment

b. Violations of neutral rights

c. Arming of Natives by Britain

d. Economic recession in west and south in 1808

c. War of 1812

i. On to Canada

1. Assault in 1812

a. General Hull led an American force from Detroit into Canada

b. Tecumseh cut his supply line

c. America lost Detroit and 2k men vs. Britain’s 1.3k men

d. Later crushed in Niagara falls

e. Men didn’t want to go into Canada to begin with

2. Assault in 1813

a. Harrison failed to retake Detroit

b. Parry used newly constructed fleet to beat a British squadron

c. Gained lake Erie

d. Britain withdrew from Detroit

3. 1814

a. Fought two inconclusive battles with Britain

ii. British Offensive

1. Launched assault to split New England off


a. 10k British veterans advanced down lake Champlain

b. Stopped by forces at Plattsburgh

c. Abandoned campaign on September 11

2. Assault of Washington

a. Intended to be a diversion

b. Sailed from Bermuda to Washington

c. Burned Washington

d. British were repelled at Baltimore

iii. Treaty of Ghent

1. Battle over New Orleans

a. British veterans from Napoleonic war sieged new Orleans

b. The cocky British general gave America time to dig in

c. America shredded Redcoats in an hour

d. Killed general Pakenham

2. Terms of treaty

a. No land or money was gained or lost

b. Britain wanted to create Indian buffers(rejected)

c. Neutral rights became a dead issue

iv. The Hartford Convention

1. Federalist further come back in 1812

a. Madison received no votes in New England except Vermont and NY

and NJ

b. Federalist got a decent amount of votes in 1812

2. Federalist upset

a. Believed country was misruled for 10years

b. Jefferson’s attack on judiciary ruined the law

c. Louisiana purchase lowered federalist power

d. Hated “Mr. Madison’s war”

3. Purpose

a. Some wanted to cede from the union


b. Moderates mostly ruled the convention

c. Wanted to eliminate the 3/5 clause to weaken republican power

d. Wanted a single term president

4. Downfall of federalist

a. Horrible timing right after Jacksons victory

b. Many viewed it as an act of treason

c. Restoration of peace stripped federalist power

d. The Awakening of American Nationalism

i. Madison’s Nationalism and the Era of Good Feelings

1. Called for internal improvements

a. Wanted Roads and canals

b. Called for tariff protection for new industries

c. The creation of the second B.U.S.

d. Vetoed internal improvements (wanted amendment)

2. Era of Good Feelings

a. No political splits were existent

b. Era was paper thin

c. There was disagreement in republican party

ii. Missouri Compromise

1. 2year controversy over Missouri statehood

a. Missouri attracted many slaveholders

b. Admitting Missouri would add too many slave states

c. Greatly Hurt the North’s influence

2. 36 30 compromise

a. Missouri and Maine were added

b. Missouri was slave Maine was not

c. Anything above 36 30 had to be slave free

3. Chapter nine

a. Tocqueville in America

i. Was sent to study American prisons

ii. Became infatuated with American society

iii. Believed eastern America was civilized and western America is not

iv. Americas transportation vastly improved while they were there

v. Farming was used to sell to European markets as they were hurt due to Napoleonic wars

vi. Believed America was the get rich quick scheme nation

b. Life in the West

i. People move west because

1. Hated the increase in federal power

2. West had removed natives

3. There was an agricultural boom

ii. Men competed in physical activities for fun

iii. Women had to kill animals and work hard out in the west

iv. Mountain men traveled the unexplored territory and became legends for their tales

c. Government Policies, Native Relations, and Western Expansion

i. The government gave soldiers cheap land

ii. Britain wanted to put buffers in Maine and Michigan region

iii. Civilized Indians were Cherokee, Chickasaw, Creeks, Seminoles, Choctaw

iv. Native American nations could not exist in the united states

v. Andrew Jackson forced the natives unto the trail of tears

d. Agriculture and the Growth of the Market Economy

i. Farm prices rose as Europe’s demand for our food rose

ii. The cotton gin made for the creation of cotton to happen a lot quicker

iii. Post 1812 farmers could make more money being substance farmers

iv. Farmers of gamblers are risky because the buying of land is very risky

e. Federal land policies

i. Federal government made money by selling western lands

ii. Federal government still believed in strong manufacturing was the way to go

iii. Land became cheaper and people could buy smaller amounts

iv. The second B.U.S. was put into effect

f. Panic of 1819

i. Destroyed the value of land

ii. State banks couldn’t finance their notes and had to loan from the fed banks

iii. Farmers didn’t get money couldn’t pay for stuff and foreclosed

iv. Farm goods prices dropped and farmers lost all profits

v. People began to distrust banks

g. Transportation Revolution

i. Government created the national road and also created toll roads

ii. The invention of the steamboat brought a lot of attention to water travel

iii. Government financed the Erie canal which increased lake city importance

iv. Trade could be done better and cities could then grow

h. Industrialization

i. Cotton mill was introduced to America

ii. Factories came to America changing the way of life

iii. Daily life in a factory sucked long hours in poor conditions

i. Social Gaps, Economic Divisions, and Social Relationships

i. People would inherit their wealth from parents and would not earn more or less

ii. People didn’t make money in the winter as crops weren’t grown

iii. Irish immigrants did most physical labor in the America

iv. Federal government limited freedom for blacks

v. Young Americans could now earn money without parents

j. Women

i. Women were now considered superior morally

ii. Men were still superior in every other manner

1. Chapter 10

a. Rise of Democratic Politics

i. Democratic Ferment (Democratic Uproar)

1. Universal white male suffrage rose

a. Voters no longer needed to own property


b. Written votes replaced the corruptible oral voting system

c. Electoral college remained

2. Campaigning Techniques

a. Held “grand” barbeques to sway people in their interest

b. Opposing the common man=political suicide

ii. Election of 1824

1. All five candidates claimed to be republican

2. John Quincy Adams

a. Favorite of New England

3. John C. Calhoun

a. Favorite of the South

b. Dropped race and ran for vice president

4. Henry Clay

a. From Kentucky known for his American System

5. William Crawford

a. Bad health led to becoming insignificant

6. Andrew Jackson

a. Ring leader of the West

b. Known for being a self-made common man

c. Received most of the popular votes but wasn’t enough

7. Corrupt Bargain

a. No nominee received enough votes to become president

b. Went to the House for the 2nd time in U.S. history

c. Three candidates were left (Clay, Adams & Jackson)

d. Clay aligned with Adams as he had more similar views

e. Jackson called foul which led to the name Corrupt Bargain

f. John Quincy Adams won the presidency

iii. J.Q. Adams Presidency (FAILURE)

1. Surrounded in controversy

a. Called for internal improvements for federal aid


i. Strict Jeffersonians believed this unconstitutional

ii. New Yorks governor Martin V. Buren wanted imbursement

iii. Adams said no freaking way

b. Sent delegates to new South American Countries

i. He just wanted to find new markets for the country

ii. South got pissey because Haiti was a former slave area

1. Felt that Adams would support slaves uprising

c. Failed to recognize partisan politics

i. Guaranteed a one term presidency

iv. The Rise of Andrew Jackson 

1. Jackson gained support as Adams lost support

a. Winning the Battle of New Orleans Jackson became a hero

b. People distrusted general politics through Panic of 1819

c. Common man Jackson was the new kind of leader the people wanted

2. Need for two-party competition

a. Adams & Clay (Republicans)

i. For internal improvements

ii. Liked the national bank

iii. Generally favored the northeastern united states

iv. More aristocratic than opponent

b. Jackson (Democrats)

i. Against large federal government

ii. HATED the National Bank of the United States

1. Makes the rich richer and the poor poorer

iii. Strong support in the west & south

iv. Appealed to the common man

v. The Election of 1828

1. Dirtiest, meanest election America has seen

2. Rich vs. common man


a. Democrats ran Jackson & Calhoun

b. Republicans ran Adams again

c. Jacksons supporters viewed Adams as a sissy aristocrat

d. Adams retaliated by saying Jacksons a Hick

i. People liked this in Jackson (WOW)

e. Jackson won with over twice the electoral college than Adams

vi. Jackson’s Presidency

1. Targeted federal civil services

a. Common belief was long service=entitlement

b. Jackson didn’t agree (thought job should rotate with common man)

c. Known as the spoils system

d. Fired over half the higher civil service

2. Jacksons motives

a. Removals were concentrated in Northeast (Adams supporters)

b. Appointed unqualified leaders that he liked

i. Swartwort (appointed by Jackson) stole millions of dollars

c. Did not give reasons for his actions

3. Jackson beliefs

a. Against most federal aid

b. Did support some aid however

c. Firm stance on no federal aid for state improvements

4. South’s support

a. Enacted Indian Removal Act

i. Pleased southern civilians

ii. Went against John Marshalls ruling (supreme court justice)

iii. Terrible event in America’s history

b. Tariff issue

i. Adams people enacted a high tariff against the South

ii. South got mad at Jackson but they weren’t overly PISSED

vii. Nullification Crisis


1. Calhoun

a. Nationalist now turned to state’s rights advocate

b. Supported tariff of 1816 as measure for national defense

c. Northeast called for higher and higher tariffs

d. Wanted to be president after Jackson (needed south support)

2. South’s Issues

a. Cotton shift to Alabama and Mississippi hurt South Carolina

b. South Carolina was further weakened by the tariffs

3. South Carolina Exposition and Protest

a. Written anonymously by Calhoun

b. Argued tariff was unconstitutional and crippled states

c. Claimed states had right to nullify laws within their borders

4. The Force Bill

a. Jackson wanted to maintain support with pro-tariff states

b. He threatened to send in the military to force South Carolina

c. South Carolina started to increase the size of its militia

5. Compromise

a. Henry Clay proposed the Compromise Tariff

b. Made the tariff gradually decrease over time

c. Made to prevent a civil war which people saw coming

viii. The Bank Veto and the Election of 1832

1. Jackson take on the Bank

a. Viewed Bank as a way for the poor to get poorer and rich richer

b. It allowed wealthy to corrupt legislators

c. Viewed it as an evil monopoly

2. Bank set up

a. Capital of 35 million, double federal expenses

b. Government had little control over bank, controlled by rich capitalist

c. Set up in Philadelphia and not Washington D.C.


d. Run by Biddle a complete opposite of Andrew Jackson

3. The problem

a. Biddle knew if Jackson won election he would veto the bank

b. Passed a bill pushing the recharter up making it a political issue

i. Hoped to weaken support for Jackson

c. Jackson and Martin Van Buren crushed Clay

i. Banks in trouble

b. The Bank Controversy and the second Party System.

i. The War on the Bank

1. Jacksons attack

a. Jackson wanted to kill the Bank instantly instead of letting it die


b. Bank called in Loans and Credit

c. Jackson took feds money and put in state banks (pet banks)

i. Gave state banks too much power

ii. Over printed money

iii. Resulted in Panic of 1837

2. Specie Circular

a. Only specie could pay for public land

b. Jackson distrusted paper money (favored in public before Panic)

c. Helped to cause the panic

3. Locofocos

a. Grew out of workingmen’s parties

b. Three demands

i. free public education

ii. can’t be jailed for debt

iii. ten hour workday

c. Democrat party absorbed these working parties

ii. Rise of Whig Opposition

1. Causes for forming


a. Jackson was anti federal aid, for tarrifs, anti-bank(north)

b. Nullification crisis swayed many (south)

c. A group of Jacksons enemies

2. Goals of party

a. Wanted to end slavery

b. Wanted to end sale of liquor

c. Improve education and morality

d. Henry Clays American System

i. High tarrifs with high federal support

e. Heavily protestant

f. Anti-Masonic views (Hated free Masons)

iii. Election of 1836

1. Candidates

a. Democrats ran Martin Van Buren(Calhoun’s replacement)

i. Had Jackson’s support

b. Whigs ran four candidates

c. Democrats won but barely

iv. Panic of 1837

1. Causes

a. Removing federal money and putting it in state banks

i. Doubled amount of banks

ii. Value of bank notes tripled

iii. Prices soared

b. States began funding canals

c. Prices began to fall

d. Banks suspended specie payments

*Biddle charged with fraud and theft

2. Effects

a. Very few jobs were available


b. Average wage was cut 33%

c. People turned to psychos such as Miller (World end Oct 22)

d. Whigs swept the governors and legislative branch

e. Signed the Independent Treasury Bill

i. Failed on the state level

f. Democrats hard money anti bank stance rose a little bit

v. Election of 1840

1. Van Buren vs. Harrison

a. Van Buren campaigned lazily

b. Harrison practiced democratic campaign techniques and won

2. Harrison Wins (Whoooo)

a. Died of pneumonia
b. Tyler replaced him

c. Rise of Popular Religion

i. The Second Great Awakening

1. Start of reforms

a. Begun in Connecticut in the 1790’s

b. Early on educated Presbyterians dominated the revival

c. As frontier states revived they changed the process

d. Created huge revivals

2. Methodist

a. Most successful religion on the Frontier by far

b. Grew by over one million members

c. Appealed to the heart of the individual over the mind

d. Ministers traveled and were not “settled”

ii. Eastern Revivals

1. Occurred in western New York (Burned Over District)

a. Descendants of puritans craved new religious info

b. People were drawn by wealth due to Erie Canal

c. People held very high expectations


2. Charles G. Finney (Father of Modern Revivalism)

a. He became a Presbyterian minister

b. Many conducted religious stuff in Rochester

c. Devised many methods to spread the word

d. Denied the doctrine of human depravity (natural sin)

e. Claimed revivals were work man not god

f. Encouraged women to give public statements

iii. Critics of Revivals: Unitarians

1. Anti-Revival

a. Revivalism made permanent changes in behavior that were extravagant

b. Believed Jesus was more man than divine

c. Unitarian views tore apart standard religions

d. Only prominent in New England

e. Believed in strong character building

iv. The Rise of Mormonism

1. Joseph Smith

a. Spent childhood moving around quite often

b. His father was a bad man

c. Claimed an angel lead him to a buried book from god

d. Translated the book into The Book of Mormon

e. Saw himself as second Mohammed

2. Rise in Popularity

a. Meant to resolve the turmoil

b. Constantly moved west

c. Built model city of Nauvoo, Indiana

d. Practiced Polygamy

e. Originated in United States

v. Shakers

1. Purpose

a. Founded by Mother Ann Lee


b. Established several tight agricultural communities

c. Known for making excellent furniture

d. Gained support through converts and orphanages

e. Created own prosperous villages


a. Hated material items

b. Banned marriage

c. Were against sex

d. God was of both male and female parts

d. Age of Reform

i. The War on Liquor

1. Temperance reforms

a. Consisted of moderation and elimination of alcohol

b. Spread across Appalachian mountains led to increase of alcohol

c. Avg. person drank several gallons of liquor

2. American Temperance Society

a. Set up by Lyman Beecher

b. First national temperance organization

c. 1/3 to ½ members were women

d. Demanded total abstinence

3. Targeted Population

a. Mainly targeted drinkers in laboring classes

b. Factories needed a sober workforce to run efficiently

c. Factories refused to sell liquor

d. After Panic of 1837 workers turned to temperance society

e. Called for towns to ban liquor

ii. Public School Reform

1. Before Reform

a. Students ranged from ages 3-20

b. Schools consisted of a single room


c. Learned only to read and count

d. Barbaric (Constant Beatings)

2. Reasons for change

a. Students needed to be equipped for competitive industrial economy

b. Mann led the change

c. Spread uniform culture

d. Combat ignorance

3. Results (South made no change)

a. Got state to fund the schools

b. Extended school as many as ten months

c. Received standardized textbooks

d. Set up the grade system (1st grade, 2nd grade etc.)

e. Preached industry, honesty, sobriety and patriotism

f. Increased American culture

iii. Abolition

1. American Colonization Society

a. Main anti-slavery organization from 1800-1830

b. Composed of whites who were disgusted with slavery

c. Proposed a plan for gradual emancipation of slaves

i. Compensate slave owners

ii. Ship slaves off to modern day Liberia

iii. Convinced a few southern slave owners

2. Decline of American Colonization Society

a. Assumed blacks were inferior and didn’t belong in America

b. Underestimated the South’s need for slavery

c. Only moved 1.3k slaves to Liberia

d. America had 2mil (2000k) slaves

3. Rise of blacks against slaves

a. Most blacks opposed going to Liberia (born in America)

b. Formed scores of abolition societies


4. The Liberator

a. Launched in 1831by William Lloyd Garrison

i. Was most famous and controversial white abolitionist

b. Called for emancipation of slaves

c. Viewed slaves as equals to whites (VERY UNCOMMON)

d. Gained a lot of support from black abolitionist

5. Abolitionist differences

a. Unsure whether they should enter as a distinct political party

b. Concerned about the role of women in the abolitionist movement

c. Did hurt abolitionism too badly

6. Gag Rule

a. Flooded Congress with an endless amount of petitions

b. Congress Enacted the gag rule

c. Canceled all anti slave petitions to congress

iv. Women  (You know women in every section gets real old real fast, We know they were mistreated)
1. Negatives toward women 1830’s

a. Not allowed to vote

b. If married had no right to property (including inherited property)

c. Couldn’t really get a divorce (at least very difficult to divorce)

2. Seneca Falls Convention

a. Stated all men AND women are created equal

b. Called for twelve resolutions

3. Why Women failed

a. *Most women realized blacks and women could not be given rights at
the same time. Women then called for suffrage after the civil war with
more success than ever before

v. Utopias

1. New Harmony

a. Founded by Robert Owen

b. “perfected” social living for industrial bonuses


c. Fell apart due to a clash with a few ministers

2. Brooke Farm

a. Founded by transcendentalist

b. Attracted several writers

3. Oneida

a. Challenged all ways of life

b. Practiced communism

c. Everyone was married to everyone, different sexes of course (still


2. Chapter 11

a. Technological and Economic Growth

i. Agricultural Advancement

1. John Deere’s steel tipped plow

a. Allowed for farmers to till the prairies soil in In, Mi, Il, Mo

b. Cut the labor requirement by half

2. Rise of Wheat

a. Wheat in the Midwest was like cotton in the south

b. Most profitable crop in Midwest by far

c. Was hard to harvest until McCormick reaper was invented

3. McCormick reaper

a. Made harvesting wheat a very easy task

b. Before civil war sold 80k reapers

c. Allowed for North to maintain high wheat production in Civil War

4. Eastern farming Improvements

a. Fed animals better in order to produce better meat

b. Emphasized clean diary procedures to make better products

c. Used a lot of fertilizer such as guano

ii. Technology and Industrial Progress

1. American System of Manufacturing

a. Manufacture by interchangeable parts


b. Applied to guns(mainly revolvers), clocks and sewing machines

c. Made replacement parts possible to obtain

d. Allowed inventions to be mass produced

e. Attracted many investors

2. Telegraph

a. Used for politics and commercials

b. Some cities used them to report fires

c. More than 15k miles of line by 1852

iii. The Railroad Boom

1. European shock

a. Europe had many classes of travel on railroad (we had one)

b. Europeans were shocked for our love of the railroad

2. 1840 flaws

a. Scheduling was a disaster

i. Delays were frequent

ii. Many trains were forced to wait for others to pass

b. Only 3k miles of track

c. Open cars

d. No lamps for night travel

3. 1860 trains

a. 30k miles of track (more than everyone else combined (Whoo!)

b. Flat roof coach cars

c. Powerful engines enabled it to make tougher travels

d. Overtook canals (better in the Winter)

4. Effects

a. Turned Atlanta and Chattanooga into thriving cities

b. Was the link with the East and the Midwest

c. NYC connected to Buffalo, Philly to Pitt, Baltimore to Wheeling

d. Lines continued to move farther and farther west

e. Made Chicago Gigantic (Erie Canal helped)


f. Small towns developed around the railroads

g. Railroad companies controlled a lot of real estate.

5. New conduct of business (because of railroads)

a. States cut funding for railroads because of panic of 1837

b. Encouraged a shift toward private investment

c. Individuals bought railroad securities from the government

d. Railroad needed more capital than small investors could provide

6. Rise of New York Stock Exchange

a. The securities (stocks) of all leading railroad companies were traded on

the floor of the New York Stock Exchange

b. Firms evaluated the price and found buyers (stock brokers)

iv. Rising Prosperity

1. Lives of consumers went up

a. Prices of commodities dropped significantly

b. 25% in average workers real income(not wage)

c. Steam engines allowed for factories to operate for a longer time

d. Average wage rose form $163-201$ by 1859

2. Growth of towns

a. Towns worked year round (farms worked eight months a year)

b. Many job opportunities(get fired from one you could find another one)

c. Women and Children found opportunities to work

d. Many families lived close to poverty

b. The Quality of life

i. Dwellings

1. Housing

a. Went form scattered unorganized wood frame houses to row houses

b. Row Houses=cast iron balconies, curved stairs, different shaped rooms

c. Less likely to be occupied by more than one family

2. Rise of the middle class

a. Middle class purchased ornate furniture


i. Made in Grand Rapids and Cincinnati

b. Class differences could be seen by the house you lived in

ii. Conveniences and inconveniences

1. Increase in way of life

a. Coal burning stoves replaced open hearths(fireplaces)

b. Variety of diet rose immensely (transportation and stoves)

c. Mass water works

d. 68 public water sources

e. Women felt it their duty to make house beautiful(txt book said its +)

2. Negatives

a. Coal was messy and unhealthy

b. Seasons still affected the average person’s diet

c. Salt remained widely used as a preservative

i. Ate more pork than beef (taste better with salt)

d. Only a fraction of population had running water

e. Few people bathed once a year

f. Inefficient street cleaning

g. Stunk (large manure build ups outside of cities)

iii. Disease and Health

1. Epidemics

a. Yellow fever and cholera killed off 1/5 of New Orleans population

b. St Louis loss 10% of total population due to cholera

c. Life expectancy in NYC and Philly=24 years

2. Cholera Epidemic

a. First true national epidemic

b. Followed shipping routes

c. Hit NYC, Ohio, New Orleans and more

3. Downfall of physicians

a. Couldn’t explain the epidemics


b. People got really pissed (understandable)

c. Physicians had no idea bacteria caused the disease

d. Quarantines failed

4. Surgeons rose

a. Laughing gas used as a pain killer

b. Development of anesthesia public images of surgeons

c. Needed to learn about clean hands however

d. 87% of wounded soldiers died in civil war

iv. Popular Health Movements

1. Americans turned to a variety of improvements

a. Hydropathy was most common

i. Cold baths and wet packs were used to combat disease

ii. Used by well of women

b. Graham called for a change in diet

i. Affected a broad audience

ii. Total abstinence from alcohol

iii. Called for consumption of Fruits, vegetables, whole wheat

iv. Wanted Americans to cut back on sex

c. Democratic Pastimes

i. Newspapers
1. 1830’s

a. Only four pages long

i. Front page & back page=advertisement

ii. Second & third=editorials, ship arrivals, political

iii. Relied on political parties

iv. Only had a view readers

v. expensive

2. Transformation

a. Paper became more widely available

b. Penny Press was invested (allowed mass production)


c. Amount of newspapers rose from 78k-300k by 1840

d. Now covered commercial events(robberies, fire)

ii. The Theater

1. Antebellum theaters

a. Very large part of life(4k seats)

b. Seats cost approximately 12-50 cents

2. Attendants

a. Lawyers

b. Merchants

c. Artisans

d. Clerks

e. Sailors

f. Noisy boys

g. A lot of Hookers(whores)

i. Sat in the top gallery (dark, horrible, guilty place)

ii. The presence was taken for granted (accepted)

h. Very rowdy

iii. Minstrel Shows

1. Prejudiced

a. Helped from an image of America (clever, patriotic)

b. Mainly made fun of blacks (stupid, clumsy and musical)

i. Nubian Jungle Dance, African fling

c. Appeared at white house(tsk tsk)

iv. P.T. Barnum (inventor of Freak Show)

1. Popular movement

a. Exotics (cheated public)

i. 169 year old black slave nurse of Washington

ii. Ventriloquists

iii. Albinos

iv. Magicians

v. 5 year old midget

b. Tactics

i. Put a lot of ads in newspapers

ii. He had huge publicity

iii. Believed alcohol was evil

iv. Broke down barriers that divided households

d. The Quest for Nationality in Literature and Art

i. Europeans took little notice of American Poetry and fiction

ii. The only real writer was Washington Irving who wrote Sketch Book(1820) , “Rip Van
Winkle” and “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow”

iii. After 1820 the American Renaissance began

1. Main figures

a. James Fennimore Cooper (First important figure)

b. Ralph Waldo Emerson(most influential spokesman)

c. Henry David Thoreau(represented young Emersonians)

d. Margaret Fuller(intellectual women)

e. Walt Whitman(Loved America except slavery)

f. Nathaniel Hawthorne(Fiction) Pessimistic View

on Human nature

g. Herman Melville(Fiction)

h. Edgar Allen Poe(Fiction and poetry)

2. 40% of the books published in the U.S were written by Americans

3. Hudson River School (Wanted to preserve nature)

3. Chapter 13

a. Newcomers and Natives(Mainly Germans and Irish)

i. Expectation and Realities

1. Economic Opportunities

a. Believed America to be a utopia

b. Germans wanted large farms

c. Britons wanted the large amount of food availability

d. Ship conditions were horrible


2. Reality

a. Farming in America greatly differed from farming in Europe

i. Europeans=compact village life

ii. Americans=individual psychology

3. Patterns in immigration

a. Irish crowded many urban areas (NE,NY,PN,NJ)

b. Germans came in through New Orleans

c. Disgusted with the slavery in the south

d. Settled in the Ohio valley are

ii. The Germans

1. Diversity

a. Germany consisted of non unified states

b. Catholics, Jews, Lutheran, those who hate religion

c. Social classes varied

i. Farming

ii. Professions (Doctors, Lawyers etc.)

iii. Artisans

iv. Trades people

2. Bound by common language

a. Created self efficient neighborhoods

b. Hated the rest of America (became clannish)

iii. Irish

1. Similar

a. Protestant (few catholic)

b. Small land owners who the British screwed over in Ireland

2. Mass Flow

a. 800k-1mil came between 1815-1844

i. Potato famine caused many deaths of the Irish


ii. 1.8million migrated from 1845-1855

3. Role in America

a. Overwhelmingly poor they entered the workforce at the bottom

b. Irish men dug cellars, canals, railroad beds

c. Irish women became prime workforce in Lowell mills

d. Very harsh and drunk individuals

e. Few were middle class with selling liquor and food

iv. Anti-Catholicism, Nativism, and Labor Protest

1. Anti-Catholicism

a. Native born whites hated Catholics (originated in puritan times)

b. Mass amount of catholic Irish brought an increase in Anti-Catholicism

c. Burned entire buildings to the ground

d. Called to send all immigrants to the west away from society

2. Nativism

a. Rise of political parties (ex. Know Nothing/American Party)

b. Was originally local issues they became more national as immigration

c. Fed on a mixture of fears and discontents

d. Viewed Catholic Immigrants as a threat to their job

3. Labor unions (first attempts insignificant and usually failed)

a. Appealed to workers who couldn’t get land to farm

b. Even women organized some strikes

4. Common-wealth vs. Hunt

a. Supreme court ruled that labor unions were not illegal

b. Applied to less than 1% of workforce

v. Immigrant Politics

1. Many immigrants became politically active

a. Political organizations helped to find lodging and employment

b. Irish and German aligned heavily with the Democrat party

i. Whigs were antislavery (bad to Irish)

ii. Whigs moral reforms threatened their drinking


iii. Whigs were anti-Catholics

iv. Schools hurt German culture

b. The West and Beyond

i. The Far West

1. Mexico owns a lot of land

a. Texas, California, New Mexico Utah Arizona Wyoming and Colorado

2. Oregon land

a. Both Britain and America claimed the Oregon territory

ii. Far Western Trades

1. Trade post existed in California to create trade with far east

2. Had many resources

a. Coffee, tea, spices, silverware, clothes, hardware, hides & cattle

3. Trade links developed with far west and St. Louis (Santa Fe trail)

4. Created for many Americans to go into Mexican territory

5. Tensions rose as cultural differences rose

iii. American Settlement of Texas to 1835

1. Mexico encouraged immigration

a. Help to protect against Indian attacks

b. Offered generous land grants

c. Politics grew unstable

d. Americans brought 5k slaves (Mexico had no slaves)

iv. The Texas Revolution

1. Santa Anna’s brutality lead to stronger beliefs for independence

2. Santa Anna slaughtered at Alamo and Goliad

3. Sam Houston won a major battle forcing Santa Anna to recognize independence

c. Politics of Expansion

i. The Whig Ascendancy

1. Whigs ran William Henry Harrison

2. Used a lot of democrat techniques

3. Martin Van Buren was lazy in campaigning


4. Harrison died with

5. Tyler became president even though Whigs didn’t really like him

a. Former democrat

b. Anti-Bank

ii. Annexation of Texas

1. People didn’t want Texas as it would add another slave state

2. First draft of annexation failed because of it

3. People later realized its importance and we annexed it(POLK)

iii. Election of 1844

1. Henry clay ran against Polk

2. Polk won with his aggressive foreign policy

a. 54”40 or fight, annexing Texas

3. A large amount of immigrants got out to vote for Polk

iv. Manifest Destiny

1. God gave America the right to expand form coast to coast

2. Country had huge support of getting Texas

3. Desired profitable trade and power

4. Provide farmers with land and increase in foreign goods

v. Polk and Oregon

1. Polk originally planned to claim all of Oregon territory

2. He realized in order to do so would bring war

3. Knew America could not fight a two front war

4. Agreed to the 49th parallel as the accepted border

d. Mexican War

i. Origins

1. When America acquired Texas Mexico got really pissed

2. Americans wanted Rio Grande border Mexico wanted Nueces border

3. America sent 80% of army to corpus Christie

4. Built for Texas in disputed land area

5. Mexico killed an American scouting party


6. Taylor (general in charge) wrote to congress “hostilities” have commenced

ii. War Itself

1. Mexico had 3x bigger army

2. War was fought entirely on Mexican soil

3. America raped the Mexicans as they were untrained

4. America even took Mexico City

iii. Treaty of Guadalupe

1. Mexico ceded Texas with Rio Grande boundary

2. U.S. paid 15mill for all other territories gained

a. To make America seem nicer to rest of world

3. People didn’t know how to handle the new land

Territory Treaty Date President Country

Original 13 Treaty of Paris 1783 Washington Great Britain
East of Jays Treaty 1793 Washington Great Britain
Louisiana Louisiana 1803 Jefferson France
Florida Adams Onis 1819 Monroe Spain
Texas Annexation 1845 Tyler Texas
Oregon territory Oregon Treaty 1846 Polk Great Britain
California Treaty of 1848 Polk Mexico
territory Guadalupe
Gadsen Gadsen 1853 Pierce Mexico
purchase Purchase