TEXT TYPES a. Listening b. Speaking c. Reading d. Writing LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS a. Listening b. Speaking c. Reading d. Writing


Grade X (Smt 1) 1. Recount 2. Narrative 3. Procedure Grade XI (Smt 1) 1. Report 2. Narrative 3. Analytical Exposition Grade XII (Smt 1) 1. Narrative 2. Explanation 3. Discussion

Grade X (Smt 2) 1. Narrative 2. Descriptive 3. News Item Grade XI (Smt 2) 1. Narrative 2. Spoof 3. Hortatory Exposition Grade XII (Smt 2) 1. Narrative 2. Review

Additional Lesson Materials for Language Program

Grade XI (Smt 1) 1. Public Speaking: Master of Ceremony 2. Show Presenter (Host) 3. News Reader
Grade XII (Smt 1) 1. Public Speaking: Speech 2. Debate 3. Presentation

Grade XI (Smt 2) 1. English song 2. English Contemporary poetry 3. Film 4. Contemporary Drama 5. Novel 6. Figurative Languages
Grade XII (Smt 2) 1. English song 2. Contemporary Poetry 3. Film 4. Contemporary Drama

        Self introduction Introducing others Greetings Invitation Appointment Expressing happiness Sympathy Giving instructions

     Thanking Appreciating Congratulating Surprising Unbelieving

 Asking comments/opinions  Giving comments/opinions  Expressing satisfactions  Expressing dissatisfactions  Giving advice  Warning  Expressing relief, pain,
and pleasure

 Scolding  Expressing Annoyance  Expressing Anger  Asking for and Offering
Suggestions  Asking for and Offering Recommendations

Accusing Regretting Asking and Offering a Promise Asking and Expressing Wants, Hopes and Wishes

Asking Plans Asking Purposes Predicting Speculating Criticizing Persuading Encouraging Prohibiting

Short Functional Texts

 

 

 

Letters Listener’s letters Invitation cards Announcements Advertisements Manual instructions Editorials Schedules Contents Tourism information

Lesson Materials (Theory and Practice)

Functions of Texts
Texts Spoof Recount Report Analytical Exposition Functions
To retell a humorous twist

To retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining
To classify and describe the phenomena of our world. To persuade the reader or listener that something is in the case To inform readers, listeners or viewers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important

News Item

Functions of Texts
Texts Anecdote Functions

To share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident To amuse, entertain and to deal with actual experience in different ways, I.e. to gain and hold the reader’s interest in a story. To describe how something is accomplished through a sequence of actions or steps To describe a particular person, place or thing To persuade the reader or listener that something should or should not be the case




Hortatory Exposition

Functions of Texts
Texts Functions


To explain the processes involved in the formation or workings of natural or socio-cultural phenomena To present (at least) two points of view about an issue



To critique an art work or event for a public audience To explain the processes involved in the formation (evolution) of a socio-cultural phenomenon, as though a natural phenomenon

Schematic Structure of Recounts
Orientation Event

1 Event 2 Event 3 Re-orientation

Linguistic Features of Recount Text
Focus on specific participant  Use of material processes  Circumstances of time and place  Use of past tense  Focus on temporal sequences

Linguistic Features of Spoof Text
Focus on individual participants  Use of action verbs  Temporal Circumstances  Spatial circumstances  Use of past tense

Schematic Structures of Spoof Text
  

Orientation : sets the scene Event(s) : tell what happened Twist : provides the ‘punch line’

Schematic Structure of Reports

General Classification: tells what the phenomenon under discussion is. Description: tells what the phenomenon under discussion is like in terms of parts (and their functions), qualities, habits or behaviors, if living; uses, if nonnatural

Linguistic Features of Report Text
 Focus

on Generic Participants  Use Relational Processes  Use of simple present tense  No temporal sequence

Schematic Structure of Narrative Text
 Orientation

 Evaluation
 Complication

 Resolution
 Re-orientation

Linguistic Features of Narrative Text
 Focus

on specific and usually individualized participants  Use of material processes  Use of relational processes  Use of temporal conjunction  Use of past tense

Schematic Structure of Procedure
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Goal Materials Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5

Linguistic Features of Procedure
 Focus

on generalized human agents  Use of simple present tense, often imperative  Use mainly of temporal conjunction (or numbering to indicate sequence  Use mainly of material processes

Schematic Structure of Descriptive Text

Identification: Identifies phenomenon to be described Description: describes parts, qualities, characteristics

Linguistic Features of Descriptive Text
   

Focus on specific participants Use of attributive and identifying processes Frequent use of epithets and classifiers in nominal groups Use of simple present tense

Schematic Structure of News Item

Newsworthy Event(s): recounts the event in summary form Background Events: elaborate what happened, to whom, in what circumstances Sources: comments by participants in, witnesses to and authorities expert on the event.

Linguistic Features of a News Item
Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline  Use of Material processes to retell the event  Use of projecting verbal processes in sources stage  Focus on circumstances

Schematic Structure of Analytical Exposition

Thesis Position: introduces topic and indicates writer’s position Preview: outlines the main Arguments Point: restates main argument outlined in preview Elaboration: develops and supports each point/argument Reiteration: restates writer’s position

Linguistic Features of a Analytical Exposition
 Focus on generic human and nonhuman participants  Use of simple present tense  Use of relational processes  Use of internal conjunction to stage argument  Reasoning through causal conjunction or nominalization

Schematic Structure of Hortatory Exposition
 Thesis:

announcement of issue of concern  Arguments: reasons for concern, leading to recommendation  Recommendation: statement of what ought or ought not to happen

Linguistic Features of a Hortatory Exposition
 Focus on generic human and non- human participants  Use of simple present tense  Use of mental processes: to state what writer thinks or feels about issue e.g. realize, feel, appreciate.  Use of material processes: to state what happens e.g. drive, travel, spend, etc.  Use of relational processes: to state what is or should be e.g. doesn’t seem, is, are, etc.

Schematic Structure of Explanation Text

A general statement to position the reader A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs

Linguistic Features of a Explanation Text
 Focus on generic, non-human participants  Use mainly of material and relational processes  Use mainly of temporal and causal circumstances and conjunctions  Use of simple present tense  Some use of passive voice to get theme right

Schematic Structure of Discussion

Issue: - Statement - Preview Arguments for and against or statements of differing points of view: - Point - Elaboration Conclusion or recommendations

Linguistic Features of a Discussion
 Focus on generic human and generic nonhuman participants  Use of mental processes: to state what writer thinks or feels about issue e.g. realize, feel, appreciate, etc.  Use of material processes: to state what happens e.g. has produced, have developed, to feed, etc.  Use of relational processes: to state what is or should be e.g. is, could have, cause, are.

Schematic Structure of Reviews
1) Orientation 2) Interpretative recount 3) Evaluation 4) Evaluative summation

Linguistic Features of an Review Text

Focus on particular participants (on movies, TV shows, plays, operas, recordings, exhibitions, concerts and ballets Direct expression of opinions through use of attitudinal lexis Use of elaborating and extending clause and group complexes to package information Use metaphorical language

Schematic Structure

Dear Dewi, On Saturday I went to Mount Bromo. I stayed at Nisa and Achmad’s house at Cemara Lawang, Probolinggo. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a fishpond.

Linguistic Features
Specific participant

Event 1

Event 2

On Sunday Nisa and I saw Gunung Batok and went on the scenic ride on horseback. It was scary. Then we went to get a closer look at the mountain. We took pictures of the beautiful sceneries there. On Monday we went to the Zoo
at Wonokromo. We saw cockatoos having a shower. In the afternoon I went home. It was fun. Love, Dini

Material Process Circumstance of time Temporal sequence Circumstance of place Past Tense



Schematic Structure
Orientation Major Complication

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs
Snow White, She lived with her Aunt and Uncle
Once upon a time there lived a little girl named

Linguistic Features
Past Tense Temporal Circumstance Specific participant Mental process Relational process Material process Temporal Conjunction Temporal Conjunction Specific participant

because her parents were died. One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking about leaving Snow White in the castle because they both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have enough money to take Snow White.


Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. The next morning she ran away from home when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. She ran away into the woods.
Then she saw this little cottage. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. Meanwhile, the seven dwarfs were coming
She was very tired and hungry.


home from work. They went inside. There they found Snow White sleeping. Then Snow White woke up. She saw the dwarfs. The dwarfs said, “What is your name?” Snow White said, “My name is Snow White.”

Major Resolution

Doc said, “If you wish, you may live here with us”. Snow White said, “Oh could I? Thank you.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after.

Language Functions
Lesson Materials (Theory and Practice)


Transactional dialog Interpersonal dialog

Andy Benny Andy : Ben, did you buy any ice cream? : No. I only bought some bread, milk, and an apple. : Oh, okay. I’ll buy the ice cream then.

Interpersonal Dialog
A: Hi, Ben. How are you? B: Not bad. Thanks. And yourself? A: Fine, thanks. B: Good weather, isn’t it? A: Yes, … better than last week. B: I know. That was terrible, don’t you think? A: Indeed. I had never seen such heavy rain in my life. B: Neither had I. A: It was pouring! B: It was, isn’t it? A: The winds blew trees down. One of those trees fell on my neighbor’s car. B: That’s too bad. A: Yeah. Now if you’ll excuse me, I’ve got a class to attend. See you. B: See you. Bye.

Dialog 1:  Anny  David  Anny  David  Anny Dialog 2:  Masduki  Mr. Hartono  Masduki  Mr. Hartono

: Hi, Dave. : Hello, Ann. : How are you today? : Fine thanks. How is everything? : Good, thanks

: Good morning, Mr. Hartono? : Good morning. : How are you this morning? : Just fine, thank you.

Introducing people

     

Fred Tom Ronald Tom Dini Helen Bill Hilmi

: Tom, this is my brother, Ronald. : Hello. : Nice to meet you. : Nice meeting you, too. : Excuse me, are you Helen Smith? : That’s right. : Excuse me, are you Frederick? : No, I am not. I’m Nur Hilmi.

Inviting Someone
   

Toni Jaka Toto

Jaka  Toto
  

Jaka Toto Jaka

: Jaka, are you free on Sunday morning? : Yes, Toni. I have nothing to do. : “I was wondering if you’d like to come to a forum meeting to celebrate the Earth Day. : Sounds great. : And after the meeting we are going to save our earth. : What do you mean, Toto? : Just picking up the rubbish, cleaning the wastes and other litters. : That’s a very useful thing to do. That’s OK.

Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction
               

Fera : Morning, Tuti Tuti : Morning, Fera. Fera : How’s everything today? Tuti : It’s okay, but …. Fera : What’ the matter, Tuti. Are you not satisfied with reading that story? Tuti : Yeah. I’m a little dissatisfied with this story. The story makes me sleepy. Fera : Do you have any complaints? Wati : I don’t like the story. It is a lousy story. Fera : What are you complaining about? Wati : I’m a bit disappointed with the main character of the story. The story is also a sad ending story. Fera : Oh, I see. But don’t worry, Wati. Be happy please. It’s just a story. You can read other stories that can make you happy. Wati : Yes, that’s good idea. Thanks for your suggestion, Fera. Fera : You’re welcome. By the way, I must go now, Wati See you tomorrow at school. Wati : See you.

Asking and Giving Comments
     

  

 

Rudi : Jimmy, have you heard about our school’s plan to ban the cellular phones in the school? Jimmy: Yeah… Rudi : What do you think about it? Jimmy: Well, I think that’s fair enough. I agree with banning it. Rudi : Why do you think so? Jimmy: You see, cellular phone has caused so much trouble in our class. Remember yesterday’s English class? Our teacher got very angry because he was interrupted by cellular phone’s ringing many times. This may happen again and again. Rudi : Oh, that’s terrible. Jimmy: Another thing is cellular phone has caused bad effects, Students send SMS only for dating and gossiping their friends. They often keep forbidden photos. Rudi : What do you mean? Jimmy: You know… some of them see the pornography on the cellular phone display downloaded from internet. Rudi : Oh, that’s too bad. Jimmy: So, it’s a good idea if the school doesn’t allow students to use their hand phone in the school. Rudi : Your comments have been very helpful. Jimmy: Thanks.

Predicting and Speculating
Andi Susi Andi Susi Andi Susi Andi
Susi Andi Susi Andi

Susi Andi Susi

: Hi, Susi. : Hello, Andi. : Susi, do you feel that the wind blows fast. : Yes, I do. And it’s too cold today. : I was predicted that a big storm will come. : How do you know that? : I heard the forecast from the radio. The scientist predicted that the weather would turn next month. : What does it mean? : The following month our country would be in the bad weather. : Really? Or it is just a speculation, Andi. : I do not know exactly. It is not a speculation I think, because they did a research how to predict the weather. And it is not a speculation because all give logic reasons. : But I don’t believe it. : Yes, it depends on. By the way, I must go now. Bye, Susi. : Bye, Andi, See you later.

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