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PENDALAMAN MATERI 1. TEXT TYPES a. Listening b. Speaking c. Reading d. Writing 2. LANGUAGE

PENDALAMAN MATERI

1. TEXT TYPES a. Listening b. Speaking c. Reading d. Writing 2. LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS a.
1. TEXT TYPES
a.
Listening
b.
Speaking
c.
Reading
d.
Writing
2. LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS
a.
Listening
b.
Speaking
c.
Reading
d.
Writing
TEXT TYPES
TEXT TYPES
 Grade X (Smt 1) 1. Recount 2. Narrative 3. Procedure  Grade XI (Smt
 Grade X (Smt 1)
1. Recount
2. Narrative
3. Procedure
 Grade XI (Smt 1)
1. Report
2. Narrative
3. Analytical Exposition
 Grade XII (Smt 1)
1. Narrative
2. Explanation
3. Discussion
 Grade X (Smt 2) 1. Narrative 2. Descriptive 3. News Item  Grade XI
 Grade X (Smt 2)
1. Narrative
2. Descriptive
3. News Item
 Grade XI (Smt 2)
1. Narrative
2. Spoof
3. Hortatory Exposition
 Grade XII (Smt 2)
1. Narrative
2. Review
Additional Lesson Materials for Language Program
Additional Lesson Materials
for Language Program
 Grade XI (Smt 1) 1. Public Speaking: Master of Ceremony 2. Show Presenter (Host)
 Grade XI (Smt 1)
1. Public Speaking:
Master of Ceremony
2. Show Presenter
(Host)
3. News Reader
 Grade XII (Smt 1) 1. Public Speaking: Speech 2. Debate 3. Presentation
 Grade XII (Smt 1)
1. Public Speaking: Speech
2. Debate
3. Presentation
 Grade XI (Smt 2) 1. English song 2. English Contemporary poetry 3. Film 4.
 Grade XI (Smt 2)
1. English song
2. English Contemporary
poetry
3. Film
4. Contemporary Drama
5. Novel
6. Figurative Languages
 Grade XII (Smt 2) 1. English song 2. Contemporary Poetry 3. Film 4. Contemporary
 Grade XII (Smt 2)
1. English song
2. Contemporary Poetry
3. Film
4. Contemporary Drama
LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS (Grade X Semester 1)
LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS
(Grade X Semester 1)
 Self introduction  Introducing others  Greetings  Invitation  Appointment  Expressing happiness
 Self introduction
 Introducing others
 Greetings
 Invitation
 Appointment
 Expressing happiness
 Sympathy
 Giving instructions
LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS (Grade X Semester 2)
LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS
(Grade X Semester 2)
 Thanking  Appreciating  Congratulating  Surprising  Unbelieving
 Thanking
 Appreciating
 Congratulating
 Surprising
 Unbelieving
FUNCTIONS (Grade X Semester 2)  Thanking  Appreciating  Congratulating  Surprising  Unbelieving
LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS (Grade XI Semester 1)
LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS
(Grade XI Semester 1)
LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS (Grade XI Semester 1)  Asking comments/opinions  Giving comments/opinions  Expressing
LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS (Grade XI Semester 1)  Asking comments/opinions  Giving comments/opinions  Expressing
 Asking comments/opinions  Giving comments/opinions  Expressing satisfactions  Expressing dissatisfactions
 Asking comments/opinions
 Giving comments/opinions
 Expressing satisfactions
 Expressing dissatisfactions
 Giving advice
 Warning
 Expressing relief, pain,
and pleasure
satisfactions  Expressing dissatisfactions  Giving advice  Warning  Expressing relief, pain, and pleasure
satisfactions  Expressing dissatisfactions  Giving advice  Warning  Expressing relief, pain, and pleasure
LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS (Grade XI Semester 2)
LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS
(Grade XI Semester 2)
LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS (Grade XI Semester 2)  Scolding  Expressing Annoyance  Expressing Anger  Asking
LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS (Grade XI Semester 2)  Scolding  Expressing Annoyance  Expressing Anger  Asking
LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS (Grade XI Semester 2)  Scolding  Expressing Annoyance  Expressing Anger  Asking
LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS (Grade XI Semester 2)  Scolding  Expressing Annoyance  Expressing Anger  Asking
LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS (Grade XI Semester 2)  Scolding  Expressing Annoyance  Expressing Anger  Asking
 Scolding  Expressing Annoyance  Expressing Anger  Asking for and Offering Suggestions 
 Scolding
 Expressing Annoyance
 Expressing Anger
 Asking for and Offering
Suggestions
 Asking for and Offering
Recommendations
Annoyance  Expressing Anger  Asking for and Offering Suggestions  Asking for and Offering Recommendations
Annoyance  Expressing Anger  Asking for and Offering Suggestions  Asking for and Offering Recommendations

LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS (Grade XII Semester 1)

LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS (Grade XII Semester 1) Accusing Regretting Asking and Offering a Promise Asking and Expressing
LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS (Grade XII Semester 1) Accusing Regretting Asking and Offering a Promise Asking and Expressing
Accusing Regretting Asking and Offering a Promise Asking and Expressing Wants, Hopes and Wishes
Accusing
Regretting
Asking and Offering
a Promise
Asking and Expressing
Wants, Hopes
and Wishes
XII Semester 1) Accusing Regretting Asking and Offering a Promise Asking and Expressing Wants, Hopes and
XII Semester 1) Accusing Regretting Asking and Offering a Promise Asking and Expressing Wants, Hopes and

LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS (Grade XII Semester 2)

LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS (Grade XII Semester 2) Asking Plans Asking Purposes Predicting Speculating Criticizing Persuading
LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS (Grade XII Semester 2) Asking Plans Asking Purposes Predicting Speculating Criticizing Persuading
Asking Plans Asking Purposes Predicting Speculating Criticizing Persuading Encouraging Prohibiting
Asking Plans
Asking Purposes
Predicting
Speculating
Criticizing
Persuading
Encouraging
Prohibiting
XII Semester 2) Asking Plans Asking Purposes Predicting Speculating Criticizing Persuading Encouraging Prohibiting
Short Functional Texts  Letters  Listener’s letters  Invitation cards  Announcements  Advertisements

Short Functional Texts

 Letters  Listener’s letters  Invitation cards  Announcements  Advertisements  Manual
 Letters
 Listener’s letters
 Invitation cards
 Announcements
 Advertisements
 Manual instructions
 Editorials
 Schedules
 Contents
 Tourism information
 Advertisements  Manual instructions  Editorials  Schedules  Contents  Tourism information
ENGLISH TEXT TYPES Lesson Materials (Theory and Practice)
ENGLISH TEXT TYPES
Lesson Materials
(Theory and Practice)
Functions of Texts Texts Functions Spoof To retell a humorous twist To retell events for
Functions of Texts
Functions of Texts
Texts
Texts
Functions
Functions
Spoof
Spoof

To retell a humorous twist

To retell events for the purpose of

informing or entertaining

Recount
Recount

To classify and describe the

phenomena of our world.

Report
Report
Analytical Exposition
Analytical
Exposition

To persuade the reader or listener that something is in the case

To inform readers, listeners or viewers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important

News Item
News Item
To inform readers, listeners or viewers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or
Functions of Texts
Functions of Texts
Functions of Texts Texts Functions Anecdote To share with others an account of an unusual or

Texts

Functions

Anecdote

To share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident

 

To amuse, entertain and to deal with actual experience in different ways, I.e. to

Narrative

gain and hold the reader’s interest in a

story.

Procedure

Procedure

To describe how something is accomplished through a sequence of actions or steps

Description

To describe a particular person, place or thing

Hortatory Exposition

To persuade the reader or listener that something should or should not be the case

 
 

Functions of Texts

Functions of Texts Texts Functions Explanation To explain the processes involved in the formation or workings

Texts

Functions

Explanation

To explain the processes involved in the formation or workings of natural or socio-cultural

phenomena

Discussion

To present (at least) two points of view about an issue

To present (at least) two points of view about an issue Review To critique an art

Review

To critique an art work or event for

a public audience

Commentary

To explain the processes involved in the formation (evolution) of a

socio-cultural phenomenon, as

though a natural phenomenon

explain the processes involved in the formation (evolution) of a socio-cultural phenomenon, as though a natural
Schematic Structure of Recounts Orientation Event 1 Event 2 Event 3 Re-orientation
Schematic Structure of
Recounts
Orientation
Event 1
Event 2
Event 3
Re-orientation
Linguistic Features of Recount Text
Linguistic Features of
Recount Text
 Focus on specific participant  Use of material processes  Circumstances of time and
 Focus on specific participant
 Use of material processes
 Circumstances of time and place
 Use of past tense
 Focus on temporal sequences
Linguistic Features of Spoof Text  Focus on individual participants  Use of action verbs
Linguistic Features of
Spoof Text
 Focus on individual participants
 Use of action verbs
 Temporal Circumstances
 Spatial circumstances
 Use of past tense
Schematic Structures of Spoof Text
Schematic Structures of
Spoof Text
Schematic Structures of Spoof Text Orientation : sets the scene : tell what happened : provides
Orientation : sets the scene
Orientation : sets the scene

: tell what happened : provides the ‘punch line’

Text Orientation : sets the scene : tell what happened : provides the ‘punch line’ 
  Event(s)  Twist
Event(s)
Twist
Schematic Structure of Reports
Schematic Structure of Reports
 General Classification: tells what the phenomenon under discussion is.  Description: tells what the
 General Classification: tells what
the phenomenon under discussion
is.
 Description: tells what the
phenomenon under discussion is
like in terms of parts (and their
functions), qualities, habits or
behaviors, if living; uses, if non-
natural
Linguistic Features of Report Text  Focus on Generic Participants  Use Relational Processes 
Linguistic Features of
Report Text
 Focus on Generic
Participants
 Use Relational
Processes
 Use of simple present
tense
 No temporal
sequence

Schematic Structure of

Narrative Text
Narrative Text
Orientation Evaluation Complication Resolution Re-orientation
Orientation
Evaluation
Complication
Resolution
Re-orientation
Schematic Structure of Narrative Text Orientation Evaluation Complication Resolution Re-orientation
Linguistic Features of Narrative Text
Linguistic Features of
Narrative Text
 Focus on specific and usually individualized participants  Use of material processes  Use
 Focus on specific and usually
individualized participants
 Use of material processes
 Use of relational processes
 Use of temporal conjunction
 Use of past tense
Schematic Structure of Procedure 1) Goal 2) Materials 3) Step 1 4) Step 2 5)
Schematic Structure of
Procedure
1) Goal
2) Materials
3)
Step 1
4) Step 2
5) Step 3
6) Step 4
7) Step 5

Linguistic Features of

Procedure
Procedure
 Focus on generalized human agents  Use of simple present tense, often imperative 
 Focus on generalized human
agents
 Use of simple present tense, often
imperative
 Use mainly of temporal
conjunction (or numbering to
indicate sequence
 Use mainly of material processes
Schematic Structure of Descriptive Text  Identification: Identifies phenomenon to be described  Description:
Schematic Structure of
Descriptive Text
 Identification:
Identifies
phenomenon to be
described
 Description:
describes parts,
qualities,
characteristics
Linguistic Features of Descriptive Text  Focus on specific participants  Use of attributive and
Linguistic Features of
Descriptive Text
 Focus on specific
participants
 Use of attributive and
identifying processes
 Frequent use of epithets and
classifiers in nominal groups
 Use of simple present tense
Schematic Structure of News Item  Newsworthy Event(s): recounts the event in summary form 

Schematic Structure

of News Item
of News Item

Newsworthy Event(s):

recounts the event in summary form

Background Events:

elaborate what happened, to whom, in what circumstances

elaborate what happened, to whom, in what circumstances  Sources: comments by participants in, witnesses to

Sources: comments

by participants in, witnesses to and authorities expert on

the event.

whom, in what circumstances  Sources: comments by participants in, witnesses to and authorities expert on
whom, in what circumstances  Sources: comments by participants in, witnesses to and authorities expert on
Linguistic Features of a News Item
Linguistic Features of a
News Item
 Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline  Use of Material processes to
 Short, telegraphic information about
story captured in headline
 Use of Material processes to retell
the event
 Use of projecting verbal processes in
sources stage
 Focus on circumstances
Schematic Structure of Analytical Exposition
Schematic Structure of
Analytical Exposition

Thesis

Position: introduces topic

and indicates writer’s position Preview: outlines the main

Arguments

position Preview: outlines the main  Arguments  Point: restates main argument outlined in preview

Point: restates main argument outlined in preview Elaboration: develops and supports each point/argument

Reiteration: restates writer’s position

outlined in preview Elaboration: develops and supports each point/argument Reiteration: restates writer’s position
outlined in preview Elaboration: develops and supports each point/argument Reiteration: restates writer’s position
outlined in preview Elaboration: develops and supports each point/argument Reiteration: restates writer’s position
Linguistic Features of a Analytical Exposition
Linguistic Features of a
Analytical Exposition
 Focus on generic human and non- human participants  Use of simple present tense
 Focus on generic human and non-
human participants
 Use of simple present tense
 Use of relational processes
 Use of internal conjunction to stage
argument
 Reasoning through causal
conjunction or nominalization
Schematic Structure of Hortatory Exposition  Thesis: announcement of issue of concern  Arguments: reasons
Schematic Structure
of Hortatory Exposition
 Thesis:
announcement of
issue of concern
 Arguments: reasons
for concern, leading
to recommendation
 Recommendation:
statement of what
ought or ought not to
happen
Linguistic Features of a Hortatory Exposition
Linguistic Features of a
Hortatory Exposition
 Focus on generic human and non- human participants  Use of simple present tense
 Focus on generic human and non- human
participants
 Use of simple present tense
 Use of mental processes: to state what writer
thinks or feels about issue e.g. realize, feel,
appreciate.
 Use of material processes: to state what
happens e.g. drive, travel, spend, etc.
 Use of relational processes: to state what is
or should be e.g. doesn’t seem, is, are, etc.
Schematic Structure of Explanation Text
Schematic Structure of
Explanation Text
Schematic Structure of Explanation Text  A general statement to position the reader  A sequenced
 A general statement to position the reader  A sequenced explanation of why or
 A general
statement to
position the
reader
 A sequenced
explanation of
why or how
something occurs
Text  A general statement to position the reader  A sequenced explanation of why or
Linguistic Features of a Explanation Text
Linguistic Features of a
Explanation Text
 Focus on generic, non-human participants  Use mainly of material and relational processes 
 Focus on generic, non-human participants
 Use mainly of material and relational
processes
 Use mainly of temporal and causal
circumstances and conjunctions
 Use of simple present tense
 Some use of passive voice to get theme right
Schematic Structure of Discussion  Issue: - Statement - Preview  Arguments for and against
Schematic Structure of
Discussion
 Issue:
- Statement
- Preview
 Arguments for and
against or statements
of differing points of
view:
- Point
- Elaboration
 Conclusion or
recommendations
Linguistic Features of a Discussion
Linguistic Features of a
Discussion
 Focus on generic human and generic non- human participants  Use of mental processes:
 Focus on generic human and generic non-
human participants
 Use of mental processes: to state what
writer thinks or feels about issue e.g.
realize, feel, appreciate, etc.
 Use of material processes: to state what
happens e.g. has produced, have
developed, to feed, etc.
 Use of relational processes: to state what
is or should be e.g. is, could have, cause,
are.

Schematic Structure of

Reviews 1) Orientation 2) Interpretative recount 3) Evaluation 4) Evaluative summation
Reviews
1) Orientation
2) Interpretative
recount
3) Evaluation
4) Evaluative
summation
Schematic Structure of Reviews 1) Orientation 2) Interpretative recount 3) Evaluation 4) Evaluative summation

Linguistic Features of an

Review Text
Review Text
 Focus on particular participants (on movies, TV shows, plays, operas, recordings, exhibitions, concerts and
 Focus on particular participants (on
movies, TV shows, plays, operas,
recordings, exhibitions, concerts and
ballets
 Direct expression of opinions through
use of attitudinal lexis
 Use of elaborating and extending
clause and group complexes to
package information
 Use metaphorical language

Schematic

Structure
Structure

Dear Dewi, On Saturday I went to Mount Bromo. I stayed at Nisa and Achmad’s house at Cemara Lawang, Probolinggo. It has a big garden with lots of colourful

flowers and a fishpond.

a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a fishpond. Orientation Event 1 On Sunday
Orientation
Orientation
with lots of colourful flowers and a fishpond. Orientation Event 1 On Sunday Nisa and I
Event 1
Event 1

On Sunday Nisa and I saw Gunung Batok and went on the scenic ride on horseback. It was scary. Then we went to get

ride on horseback. It was scary. Then we went to get a closer look at the

a closer look at the mountain.

scary. Then we went to get a closer look at the mountain. Event 2 Reorientation We
Event 2
Event 2
Reorientation
Reorientation

We took pictures of the beautiful sceneries there.

On Monday we went to the Zoo at Wonokromo. We saw cockatoos having a shower. In the afternoon I went home. It was fun. Love, Dini

In the afternoon I went home. It was fun. Love, Dini RECOUNT TEXT Linguistic Features Specific
In the afternoon I went home. It was fun. Love, Dini RECOUNT TEXT Linguistic Features Specific
In the afternoon I went home. It was fun. Love, Dini RECOUNT TEXT Linguistic Features Specific
RECOUNT TEXT
RECOUNT TEXT

Linguistic

Features
Features

Specific

participant

Material

Process

Circumstance of time

Temporal

sequence

Circumstance of place

Past Tense

Schematic

Structure
Structure

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs

Linguistic

Features
Features

Once upon a time there lived a little girl named

Orientation
Orientation
Major Complication
Major
Complication

Snow White, She lived with her Aunt and Uncle because her parents were died. One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking about leaving Snow White in the castle because they both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have enough money to take Snow White.

Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt

Snow White . Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt to do this so
Snow White . Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt to do this so
Snow White . Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt to do this so

to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. The next morning she ran away from home when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. She ran away into the woods.

Resolution
Resolution
having breakfast. She ran away into the woods. Resolution Complication She was very tired and hungry.
Complication
Complication

She was very tired and hungry.

Then she saw this little cottage. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep.

but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. Resolution Complication Meanwhile , the
Resolution Complication
Resolution
Complication

Meanwhile, the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. They went inside. There they found Snow White sleeping. Then Snow White woke up. She saw the dwarfs. The dwarfs said, “What is

your name?” Snow White said, “My name is Snow

White.

Doc said, “If you wish, you may live here with us”. Snow White said, “Oh could I? Thank you.Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever

story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever Major Resolution after. Past Tense
Major Resolution
Major
Resolution
and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever Major Resolution after. Past Tense Temporal Circumstance Specific participant

after.

Past Tense

Temporal

Circumstance

Specific

participant

Mental process

Relational

process

Material

process

Temporal

Conjunction

Temporal

Conjunction

Specific

participant

Language Functions

Lesson Materials

(Theory and Practice)

Language Functions Lesson Materials (Theory and Practice)

FORMS OF DIALOG

 Transactional dialog  Interpersonal dialog
 Transactional dialog
 Interpersonal dialog
FORMS OF DIALOG  Transactional dialog  Interpersonal dialog
FORMS OF DIALOG  Transactional dialog  Interpersonal dialog
FORMS OF DIALOG  Transactional dialog  Interpersonal dialog
TRANSACTIONAL DIALOG Andy Benny Andy : Ben, did you buy any ice cream? : No.

TRANSACTIONAL DIALOG

Andy Benny
Andy
Benny
Andy
Andy
: Ben, did you buy any ice cream? : No. I only bought some bread,
: Ben, did you buy any ice cream?
: No. I only bought some bread, milk,
and an apple.
: Oh, okay. I’ll buy the ice cream
then.
you buy any ice cream? : No. I only bought some bread, milk, and an apple.
you buy any ice cream? : No. I only bought some bread, milk, and an apple.
you buy any ice cream? : No. I only bought some bread, milk, and an apple.
you buy any ice cream? : No. I only bought some bread, milk, and an apple.
you buy any ice cream? : No. I only bought some bread, milk, and an apple.
you buy any ice cream? : No. I only bought some bread, milk, and an apple.
Interpersonal Dialog
Interpersonal Dialog
Interpersonal Dialog
A: Hi, Ben. How are you? B: Not bad. Thanks. And yourself? A: Fine, thanks.
A: Hi, Ben. How are you?
B: Not bad. Thanks. And yourself?
A: Fine, thanks.
B: Good weather, isn’t it?
A: Yes, … better than last week.
B: I know. That was terrible, don’t you think?
A: Indeed. I had never seen such heavy rain in my life.
B: Neither had I.
A: It was pouring!
B: It was, isn’t it?
A: The winds blew trees down. One of those trees fell on my neighbor’s
car.
B: That’s too bad.
A: Yeah. Now if you’ll excuse me, I’ve got a class to attend. See you.
B: See you. Bye.
car. B: That’s too bad. A: Yeah. Now if you’ll excuse me, I’ve got a class
car. B: That’s too bad. A: Yeah. Now if you’ll excuse me, I’ve got a class

Greetings

Dialog 1:

Anny

David

Anny

David

Anny

Dialog 2:

Masduki

Mr. Hartono

Masduki

Mr. Hartono

: Hi, Dave.

: Hello, Ann. : How are you today? : Fine thanks. How is everything?

: Good, thanks

: Good morning, Mr. Hartono?

: Good morning.

: How are you this morning? : Just fine, thank you.

Introducing people

Fred Tom

Ronald Tom

Dini

Helen

Bill

Hilmi

: Tom, this is my brother, Ronald.

: Hello.

: Nice to meet you. : Nice meeting you, too. : Excuse me, are you Helen Smith? : That’s right. : Excuse me, are you Frederick?

: No, I am not. I’m Nur Hilmi.

Inviting Someone

Toni

Jaka

Toto

Jaka

Toto

Jaka

Toto

: Jaka, are you free on Sunday morning?

: Yes, Toni. I have nothing to do.

: “I was wondering if you’d like to come to a

forum meeting to celebrate the Earth Day.

: Sounds great.

: And after the meeting we are going to

save our earth.

: What do you mean, Toto?

: Just picking up the rubbish, cleaning the

wastes and other litters.

Jaka

: That’s a very useful thing to do. That’s OK.

Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction

Fera : Morning, Tuti

Tuti

Fera : How’s everything today?

Tuti

Fera : What’ the matter, Tuti. Are you not satisfied with reading that story?

Tuti

: Morning, Fera.

: It’s okay, but ….

: Yeah. I’m a little dissatisfied with this story. The story makes me

sleepy.

Fera : Do you have any complaints?

Wati : I don’t like the story. It is a lousy story.

Fera : What are you complaining about?

Wati : I’m a bit disappointed with the main character of the story.

The story is also a sad ending story.

Fera

: Oh, I see.

But don’t worry, Wati. Be happy please. It’s just a story.

You can read other stories that can make you happy.

Wati : Yes, that’s good idea. Thanks for your suggestion, Fera.

Fera : You’re welcome. By the way, I must go now, Wati

See you tomorrow at school.

Wati : See you.

Asking and Giving Comments

Rudi

: Jimmy, have you heard about our school’s plan to ban the cellular phones in the school?

Jimmy: Yeah…

Rudi

Jimmy: Well, I think that’s fair enough. I agree with banning it.

Rudi

Jimmy: You see, cellular phone has caused so much trouble in our class. Remember yesterday’s English class? Our teacher got very angry because he was interrupted by cellular phone’s ringing many times. This may happen again and again.

Rudi

Jimmy: Another thing is cellular phone has caused bad effects,

: What do you think about it?

: Why do you think so?

: Oh, that’s terrible.

Students send SMS only for dating and gossiping their friends.

They often keep forbidden photos.

Rudi

Jimmy: You know… some of them see the pornography on the cellular phone display downloaded from internet.

Rudi

Jimmy: So, it’s a good idea if the school doesn’t allow students to use their hand phone in

: What do you mean?

: Oh, that’s too bad.

the school.

Rudi

Jimmy: Thanks.

: Your comments have been very helpful.

Predicting and Speculating

Andi

: Hi, Susi.

Susi

: Hello, Andi.

Andi

: Susi, do you feel that the wind blows fast.

Susi

: Yes, I do. And it’s too cold today.

Andi

: I was predicted that a big storm will come.

Susi

: How do you know that?

Andi

: I heard the forecast from the radio. The scientist predicted that the

Susi

weather would turn next month. : What does it mean?

Andi

: The following month our country would be in the bad weather.

Susi

: Really? Or it is just a speculation, Andi.

Andi

: I do not know exactly. It is not a speculation I think, because they

Susi

did a research how to predict the weather. And it is not a speculation because all give logic reasons. : But I don’t believe it.

Andi

: Yes, it depends on. By the way, I must go now. Bye, Susi.

Susi

: Bye, Andi, See you later.