You are on page 1of 30

c 

1. INTRODUCTION

c  
 

  
  
  
   


 
  
 
 c    
  
 
 
  
     
 

  
 ! "

      #$ 
  
    #% ! 
  
  


 c  &  
 #
 
 $  
           

          "
      
 '(      
    

     

$
 
    

 & 

   
"  c 
#   
      
 
      
    
 

 
c   

   
$ 
 '(  
  
    ( )

*
 "
c 



 


     c 
   
+
$    % 
 ( 
 
 
           ,- 
( 
  % 
  (
    , %
  
  
 
 
      $         
 c  
 

 
 "   
      
  " $
     

         $ 

*   
"   c
.
 
%


c 
     

c 
Ê

1.1 Concepts of DNA computing and DNA computer

c  
  "

    
  
  
 $   
  
 
  "
"  
  
c   $    $
'
   

            
 '
(          $   $ 
 
   & 
  # 
       $   $     
$
 
    $
  
 
  
 c 
!

 c         


         c 

  
 
    
    
        

 
  
    
 # 
   
 $          
  


   
 
#   c 
  $   /
   $
   

  c  
 
 
  $       
    #  
     
  
$
 
     
 $    0   
 
  c 
%
   
* 
 &  
     $   $    $    

   $       
  
    
  
 
0 

 
      %# 
  $  
  c   

 1   
*  
0  #      
        
  $   
     #   
  
   
   $     $   
 c            
   
   
 
c  
    
  
 
   
 2 

 $  
 "
"    
   $  
    #        $    
$
 

 
 
      
  
      
    

  c    
 
   
  $   
 
 

            
   
$
 

    $         
 c    #   


   
           c          
  
 $ 
 

c 
     

c 
Ê

1.2 Why DNA Computing?

#   
 
 0  
 #       
  
  
 $  
  

 !The information density of DNA is much greater than that of silicon/  

  
 &   
  

   3        
$   
  
444444444444 

  

 ! Operations on DNA are massively parallel:       c  


 


  

.  

  c   



  
 


c 
     

c  
 Ê

[ TSTESTS

[ 
i  

c   
       
  
   

     
      
  c    /




 
(
 
  
  
    c           


 !
 ( "
 #$%& ' 
        
   
 
 
  
    
 / 



 

    

 

(
 
  (  "

  
( " 
 ( c 
 
  

  
  / &)

%)
 
  

    
      

  

 


!  *#/  c   

'
  
   
  
    
 
      


  c 
          


c  



   
c 
Ê

#  $
 
             
0     

 
   $     
 c   
 


      c 
"     
0 
$        

 $ 


 

-     


  $
 
 '     
#     
 
!  
c 
  

 
 !  

  
 
0 
$   


            
        
   
     &     
*     
è  
 $   

$ 

   
c 
c 

 

    '
 

 
 '
    
 
  $ 
  $   
$             0
  

   
 c   5  
    
  
        

 6
 c  

           $ 
   
 

% $          $    


     


  '   #    

 $
        
 c   

$  
 
 
  
$

   "
 c *
   

 


     
  $       "   )      $ 

c 
$$  $   

c 

c 
     

c 
Ê

2.2 Uniqueness of DNA computing

c     


0     
       
  
  
    "    
        
 
 
$ #
     
   

 0
 


3         '    
  
 ( +
   
  
 


   7
 

    



 
   
   0
   7
 

 
    
 
( +       , 
 &   ,$ 
$ 
 
     

 
 
        
   

&   
 
6  

  
 #   
5   


      
 ( 
    7
 


   
 8# 
                   " 
9, c     $   

 $
' 

   
 
 

  
 
   
$
  
  

# 
 
    
     
 
  
  
" 
 !      
  ( +


 
    1        &     
   "   
 
  5- $      
 :  c  
    
         
    
 6    $ 
 0
 c     &  *"  
   
c 6
   c 
      ;44    

)     0    4   
 
  !
 
  
 
  
   $  $ 
 )   
 444 <    

 * 
   
$   $ )"

  
     

1 "
c 

            

1  
  
    
    

c  $
   * 
 
  
%  
 =>444 < )"
     
 
 '
 
 c 

   &

 >    
!?  
  
 
     
     
    444 <  %   4

c 
     

c 
Ê

  
   c  
              - <    @4
  
 
  4442 < #   
 
  
  $ 

2.3 Motivation for DNA computing

#        
  
 c  
  $   

  

!# 
 

 c     
  
/ 
 
 
 &   
  

   3        
$   
  
444444444444 

  

>! 3  
 
 c     $   /      
 

   
 

.  

  c   


  

 

@! c  
  

   
      /    

       
     
   
  
   
 
      
  c 


c 
     

c 
Ê

2.4 Nature of DNA computing

2.4.1 General working aspects

) '  "   $ )    



     
 $         c   
     

  $
 
   
    
   


  

 
 
   3   
 
"  
     
     
       
 1 

-  
     
      
 c     =

 
     
  $
   
  
     $ 
 $ 
   
  
    
 
 
    
      

1 
     
 

c    
  

 
 c   

6
 
       
 
 
 c 
                  &

   

 
 
          
 c  
       

  
1               
* *  &       


c       & 


     

! ( 
! 2
 

! 
 # 
!      
 
  

 c   
0 
 
 & 
      

   
 6
  c   
 
"  
  
    
>A # 


     
  c   
   0
 
   


 
    
  c     &           
  
   $       
  1
 &
  

 


 c 
# 
  
  
    



   
 
 $
   
 

c 
     

c 
Ê

2.4.2 Information storage and processing capabilities

           


   
 
   c 
   
     
 
 
 
 & 
      
#   
  c  
    
  "
   
 

      
'      
          = 
 
0 '    1 
   

 '  

      c    
      
    
  

 
 
$ 

#  
   
 
      $  

        c  
   
 
     

(c

% c        "   '  6


       


   
c   
  
 c  
    4    
 
  

   
   
    1    

$
 
  *  
   #  c      
 $ 0
  
 

  
   
    
  c   

       
   
 
   $    6              
   
 
>444
 
  
c  
 0   
 

  ,?  
   
 
?   $  
 
 
     

 ,  % ! )          

$$     =  
 
   
          
    
 
 $ 
 
 

2.4.3 Efficiency

6
   '  ' 
    
c 
  

  
       

 $  #  
 $ 
 
  1   

    
 " 
c   
      
 
  
  
0   $   
 
  #     c  
  
     
 $  

c 
     

c 
Ê


  
 )   
        

 $    
  

-  
      

  
  
 " 
   
       
    
  /  
    
    

      
c 
?  
 c    "   
 
 
      

 $   
    


     
      

 0    
  
   

   444       


 c       
    $   
  
 
c $  
 
   $  

3 $    
   
  
   c   
 
  $     
 ?
  
   $  
    
    $
' 
$ 
' 
   "&  
  "+

 

$     
   
 
   

  
)
 
    
  =B4   
 
   $
444'-   

#  
 

   
  
 
$
 
   
 c 
         
/  
   $    


  !    c  (2  #!#      

   

1 
   c    ?!-

   

1  
  '
 c   
  

 $
 $ 
  
 '
  c  #     c     =
 
  
 $ 
   
( 
    * "

*+
    
 
c  
      
c 

c 
     

c 
Ê

   c   



 
   
     
 

. 
  
 
   
 6
  &  
  c  
      
 $   
          
 
5   
  =              
   
  
     
 )    " 
c 
  
      $  8 ,
 
6 
&  
" c    

  $


            
         
 "    

         $  4   
  
 
 
     
  
$    

c  
             '
    
"     
 

  $      1      
 
  .
    c     0 $
          (
$
 

   

 

 4*
*  &  
 
      
           c      


 

         
  c  (
   
 

  
  
  
$ 
 
   c     
  0   
  1
    0
  
c 
 
  
  
  6
   $   
5  
  
,
,     
c 


  0
 
 
,, 
 
  c 
 



    0
  


) 
 c     
    
        


  &
  


    
 
   


   

 
   


-      


  
   
      

  *"  "  
 $  
 


   $ 
1  #  c         = 
     


c 
     

c 
Ê

 
            
         
 

  
  
   
 ?

       
          
1    
  
  

 

  
 
  

 
 
  

    


(    
     "  c   
 $  7
 


    
  
 
 
    
   
 #   

     
     
 $      
 
 

       % 

   
             

 
       $
 

   &    



  0
 

6
 
   
 c   (2  #       & 

 

 >  c    
6
 

   
 
  3 'cc5.%%.c   c      &  
 C !
c ? 
"    
    c 
   $      
  0    

 c  =
 c # "  c  
   
       

c 
     

c 
Ê

2.5 Applications of DNA Computing

    


   
 
   
  0    
  
 
   

 
  
  
 


   

    6  
     c  
     $ 
  1 
   
$$
 
 
 
 #  
$$ 
  1
   
      6  $
    c  
   

 $ 
  
    

   


 "
    , , c  
           
 $      
 $
  $    
 
   



 
    
 
  


>  
"
  8
,   c 

 
"    
 
       
   
    & 
 

 
  
 


@ (
  
  

     
    
  
  
  
     
 

 &
      
    


 




    


( c  
 
0  $  
    
       /  "
   c .
 
 %
 c.%!    
   $   
 $  
 
$
 
  
0 
    
  
     c     c        &  


   $ #      
 c.%


c.%     

 C'        ;C'  "   
&
 $ 
  +
 % . 
 "   
 
    
  
<    
  $     ) 

      "      

     
 
   
          
  

c 
     

c 
Ê

    +


        
   
   
 

   
 
    "   c.% 
  

  $  
 $       0   >@ &    


  



     "

  
' &<  ' &  ! 
   

>;C  
 

" 
  C' 6
 
    c.%   "
 
  c      
   
     
*
 
0 #     &  
 "   
   

  
  
' &<  ' &    

&       &    $  
  & 
       # 
   
c  
     


  
    "  ! 
      
       $       
   
    c  


   
   " 1 
)  
  "      

    $  
   &
 $   

  0   
$
 
 
  
     #   

   
     
0 
 
 
   
   c   
   #   
    0   
    

4r444     
  
 $ c  0  c   
    
        & 
    c   

  $      
   
  
      
$
 
   6
 
   
   

  
   
           
   
 

 
 
 
$   
 


c 
     

c 
Ê

2.6 Comparison of DNA and Conventional Electronic Computers

   $ 
  
 
      c  (    


  c (  (


$
 
. 
( 

2.6.1 imilarities

Transformation of Data: ) c    


  
    
) 
    c 35  c 35!  
  #    

, c,     
c 

  0
 
 

 ,35,  
  
    c   
 


    
 0
  &    
8DE,   D   E 
  #       
      c  
  

 
,D,     

,E,

Manipulation of Data: . 


   
 c      

 

 
     
       7 0
   

 

  
  # 
 
 
 
c 
 0
 
 c   #  $  
 
 
        '  "    &   
  c  

 
  0
  " "   $   
 c 

Computation Ability:  


    

  

c     $        B4$   

444 c'35

 
#$  
$ c  0
   

4*
* $   
B4 

 7
   
 0
     &    

 
     

 
$   B4'  0
 

c 
     

c 
Ê

2.6.2 Differences

ize: (
$
 
        0       " 
 
 
0  
3

   
"


 


c    
 
 4440 
 
"
 0 % 
"     
    
   $  #   $ '  
 " 
       c     
!  44       
  
 c   ##'44     44    
'
   
    "   


peed: (
$
 
   
   &   44 -6 %   
 

 
  
!(

c 
 
   
 
 
 0 $
  4       $  44      
  
  # 
 
  c 
 


Minimal torage Requirements: c   


    
 

     
$
 
    0  4> 

  
  6
 
  
"
*  $  "
       

 " c  


Minimal Power Requirements: #   


    0    c  

      
 "
   #     
       

"c  
 
    #   
 

   0  

$
 
 

c 
     

c 
Ê

2.7 Advantages

Ê   
  
 

>Ê 2
    
  

@Ê (
    
Ê . 

  $ 
"
 
;Ê #  $
   $  
  "
  
CÊ #    
  
 
    0
  


 $    

   


 '

BÊ +
 
    
     "       
 

    "   $   
   
 
 


c 
     

c 
Ê

2.8 Drawbacks

 2

  
   $
      $          0  
  
 
c 
  0  !

> -
    
 
 

  
$$
/      

 
 

 
0 
    
  '
  
 
$


 $   $    
         
 

 
   !

@#    



 $  
    1   
$ 
   '
 $   
  

      
, ,
, ,    
- 

c 
     

c  
 Ê

Î ETS

   c     


       
    
  
     
    
  
     
  +  
     
c     


Î S i 

 
c 

 
     

    
 
 ,
  )
) 
      
   c 
 
     
 
   
   
  
  
   
    
  
  
   
  

  
 
      
 
  "   
     
  
 
 
  

   

!  &#/'
   
 
c 

GÊ '
   
 
c   (   

GÊ -   
   

 *  c    



c    !
 " # $%&' 
c  
() *+,-Ê

Î [ i  li li i 

c 
c    


 
 
 
    
       
     
   

- 
   "   
 
 
 
  
 +
 
 
 
 
 
     "  
   
 
  



 

      +
 (  =

  

      "     
 
 
    =
  
   
 
         "




 

 
  
    



 
 
    
      
  
 
  
 


 

 '
 
c  



 

    

   

  

  
  

    c     

. 
=


c 
  
 

!  /&*//     


c ./ 01 2324 5
3 3264 7 89:; 
c 
Ê

3.3 Hybridization separation

%  
     1 
  
   
 
  
 c   



$$   & 
  

 



   
  0
     &  
 


    0
  #2(#! 6  

 &
 



  0
 D    
 
  
?    
    
   


 
    &   & 6      

        $     &




D 

 
  

?
 
 &  $   
  
 

  $
 
 
 


 D
#  
  $   &

3.4 Gel-Electrophoresis

2      
 
 
0 
c 
  1 
.     $ 
   

    %
 c 
   
 $    
  
 
        
 
     $  #    
  

0 
 
  
 
    
      %
  c     $   
   

      

0  

 $          
         
  
 
 !   
     
      1  #               
 
"   
      $ %          
   
 
 1 # c    
 
  
  3
   

$ 
!
 
 $  1   #   $  

 c   
 
       

$ 
  
 $   
             
$

  3
    
   
  @@ 2   
       
  
  

  c 

c 
     

c  
<= >?@AÊ

!  &&/     

Î i  i  

 c         


 

 
   

   
  c   
        
  
   
 

    


  
%0<&0Ê   
 


  
 
   
 


      
  
 c    /  (

5  
   /(5 /(5         "     
     
   c 
   
   
 
    
 
    ( 
      
    
        

 

 
 
 
   
 '
            
 
c BC DE FGFH I
G GFJH K LMNO 
c  
PQ RSTUÊ

"
  1  
1
2   
  
  
 c     
 
      
   
     
   c  
  
           
         
 /(5   
 /           

    
 
      


        
 1  2  

c  
   
 /(5    

  
       "
=   


c 


   



!  /&3//(5/  

c VW XY Z[Z\ ]
[ [Z^\ _ `abc 
c 
Ê

3.6 Extraction

2 $
  V

è     & 

V


è  0
 
    


 

3.7 Union

2 $
    V V> rrr V    


   



 



V V> rrr V

3.8 Detection

(
  
 < 
 c 
 $
  

3.9 Restriction Enzymes

#   "

1        


     %            

1    c    

       0
  
  
 c 


    
   
  0
    
1 
#  $ 
  
  "  $ !
%
  

c 
 

   
 
  c       $   
  "



c 
     

c  
de fghiÊ

½ E SEXEET

'
 
    c  #$$3
   

   


  
      
 

 
 - " / -  

     
  

  
        

    
 

!  /3#/-  

/  

,   


     4

4   "
     -  

    4
  4          
 
 4



 4   

    

    -  

            4
 4    
  -  

  4
4 

c jk lm nonp q
o onrp s tuvw 
c 
Ê

#  
        $
    

     


27
7!

Ê 2
 

2
>Ê .&


 7



 7
@Ê .& 
 &
'
Ê .&

 $ $  &
 
;Ê      
     = 

 
  
  
 

Ê 7   
  2   c  
>Ê   
  c 
  


2
@Ê #  ?
'( "  
    
  7
 
 7     
& 
   





Ê 6
  


'    

   
;Ê &   
    c  
    "  $    
  
?
'( " 
 
!

  
 

CÊ #    
        
     


 


6
 
       
   
  (5!        

     

#  &  
    &  
 "  $
     " )  

 "    1
      
      
 
   
  

      
  $     


 
 
    
   $    3
     
  
  
  
   &

     
   $   F 
     

c 

c 
     

c 
Ê

 
     0  
 
    

        #  
     &
  
 

 
  1              & 
      
   
 0  

 $      
 
  &
 

   1     
 

    


     
     c       

?    
      4G>   
    
     
4G>4   
    
          
 
 %  
  $  $  
 
   
 
 
  
       /
  
 
 =   4G   
       
  
 
    >H4G   
   
 3
  $    $  

4G> 

   c  
 
 
 
  
 

  

6 

            ' 
 $

    
        $   
  

$
 
 

c 
     

c 
Ê

5. FUTURE OF DNA COMPUTER

%  
     
          +
$    % 

( 

  c 
 
 
 c5  


   
 c
 )

.  )
  .(5   6
  


 
 I?         $ 

 
 
 

  $
 
  
  
   5      "
 

  
 
 
      c  
    
<  
 # 

 
 


        
   
$  c   
     $        
   
 
  &    

    

(
   
             
  
      $ 6
  "    
J 
    


        
 
 c  $ 
       (

 
c K K 
        
 
  )"

 /

      % 
 + ( 
 $  -  )    
  
c  
     
  #
 
  
$       
 

 


#  c 
  & 
  $ 
    
 
 
&  6 
  

 


" 
 
 
 
    
 
 

    0 

   


$  


c 
     

c 
Ê

6. CONCU ION

#    
 c  
 
     $   
 


   c     
  $    
$$ 
   c    

"  c  
     #"
      c  

       
         

  


  )     c  (


              

$          
  
  
 
 $  
 c  
 
    $
       
 
   6
$  
   

  
 
    
  
   
   1   c  

   c   
      

 (    
 c 

  

  
          " 
   


c 
     

c 
Ê

7. REFERENCE

Ê 5 
c $ 

c '(
'c 
5 

>Ê c 
%
  
7 
'  AA 

@Ê ( 
c  
( 7  
c'?)



Ê -  


 

   ' 


;Ê c (
'c$ 6 


CÊ 
 

BÊ   "

LÊ  "   

c