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Submitted To:

Madam Sana Hassan


Submitted By:

Mobeen Shahbaz Ali


IEM-24

Hafiz M. Haris
IEM-26

Submission Date:
October 28, 2010

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TOPICS... Page No.

INTRODUCTION OF HMC4

PRODUCTION PLANNING CONTROL (P.P.C.).8

MACHINE SHOP.15

TOOL ROOM20

FABRICATION SHOP (CTC).23

WELDING26

QUALTY ASSURANCE CONTROL (NDT LAB)....29

MATERIAL TESTING LABORATORY38

PATTERN SHOP...39

FORGING SHOP (1 2)..41

HEAT TREATMENT45

INSPECTION.49
Acknowledgement

Countless thanks to Almighty ALLAH, Who guides us in darkness and help us in difficulties. Who
gave us courage to perform this work with zeal and zest. All respect for His HOLY PROPHET
MUHAMMAD (P.B.U.H) Who enable us to recognize our Creator.

Our extreme and heartiest thanks are for our Respected Sir syed Amir who guided us so well at
every stage of our internship at HMC. When we could not just step ahead without his kind
assistance. He is a true source of knowledge and information for all of us!

Not to forget the team of HMC TAXILA, and specially THANKS to


Sir Amjad without whose guidance the compilation of this report was not possible.

Introduction
Heavy Mechanical Complex (Pvt) Ltd
Heavy Mechanical Complex (Private) Limited is a leading engineering goods manufacturing
enterprise in Pakistan located at Taxila about 3Kilometers north of capital Islamabad. It is a
professionally managed progressive organization with over 160,00sq. meters covered facilities
and 110employees. HMC have the resources to handle large projects with demanding delivery
schedules. Being the largest and most extensive fabrication and machining facility equipped with
state of the art technology. HMC provide manufacturing services both on our own or customers
design.-
HMC have gained rich experience in designing and manufacturing of large projects through
collaboration with internationally reputed engineering organizations. All its processing facilities are
in-house-including Designing,Fabrication, Machining, Iron and Steel Castings, Forgings, Heat
Treatment, Assembly, Sand Blasting, Painting and Galvanizing etc.
HMC is ISO 9001 certified and is authorized to use 4 ASME stamps U, U2, S PP for equipment
manufactured according to ASME code. The manufacturing is backed by excellent quality control
and testing facilities to meet the product and customer quality requirements. 3rd party inspection
facilities are also available, where required.-
The Heavy Mechanical Complex (HMC), the biggest undertaking of its type in Pakistan, was
established in 196with Chinese assistance. The Heavy Forge Factory (HFF) at this complex has
proved crucial for Pakistan's defense production needs. The company's capabilities include
engineering and manufacturing of Sugar Mills ranging between 1,50- 12,00TCD (tons of cane
crushing capacity per day), Portland Cement Plants of 700- 5,50TPD (tons per day) module and
White Cement Plant of 5- 1,00TPD.
HMC specializes in Engineering, Designing, Manufacturing, Installation and Commissioning of
plants and machinery including,
Cement Plant and Spares
Sugar Plant and Spares-
Process Plant Equipment-
Chemical Petro-Chemical Plants
Industrial Boilers-
Thermal Power Plants
HydroPower Plants
Cranes-
Road Construction Machinery
Steel Structures-
Railways Equipment-
Facilities
Design Center
Fabrication
Machining
Steel Foundry
Iron Foundry
Hydraulic Press
Die Forge
Quality Control
Design Center
Established in 197
About 10highly qualified and experienced design engineers are engaged in designing.
Equipped with latest CAD tools
About 132 node local area network.
Complete design coherence
Integration through management information system.
Design plant machinery including cement, sugar, thermal hydro power plants, chemical, oil gas
processing plants, boilers, pressure vessels, heat exchangers, cranes, road construction
machinery, steel structure, piping, ducting and other similar heavy engineering equipment.
Fabrications
All the fabrication processing needs are available in-house which include; thermal and
mechanical cutting, beveling, plate bending, hot and cold forming, SMAG, TIG, MIG, SAW
Welding, stress relieving/heat treatment furnaces, abrasive blasting, painting and galvanizing.
The fabrication equipment particularly heavier ones are CNC type and others are conventional
Facilities for fabrication of complete membrane wall for power plant, boilers are also available.
Over 30welders including 12X-Ray Welders are employed.
The available facilities can cut plates by cold shearing/gas cutting. The maximum thickness of the
plate that can be gas cut is 30mm. Angles, bars, I-beams and other from sections can be cut by
shearing or gas cutting. Plate bending/rolling facilities can bend/roll the plate up to 12mm
thickness and 400mm width in cold condition and up to 25mm in hot condition.
The dish end forming facilities can produce dish ends in spherical and elliptical shapes in cold
forming condition upto 400mm dia and thickness 2mm, hot forming of dish end upto dia 1372 mm
and thickness 25mm.Pipe bending upto dia 114 mm and 8 mm pipe thickness is possible .The
fabrication facilities is well backed up by NDT facilities to control the quality of the welds. The
facility for heat treatment of the fabricated equipment can be done in available heat treatment
furnaces. The size of the largest heat treatment furnace available is 15M x 5M x 4.5M.The
facilities are used for manufacturing of fabricated equipment for various plants, pressure vessels,
heat exchangers, tanks as per ASME codes in accordance with the HMC's own design or
customer's design.
Die Forge
The shop is equipped with a 25 ton M.Steam Counterblow hammer, 3 ton, 1 ton steam drop
hammers, 100ton, 40ton, 16ton trimming presses, 50ton upset forging machine. Free forging
steam hammers upto 3 ton capacity and pneumatic hammers upto 56kg are available. Heating of
stocks for forging is done in box type heating furnaces. Heating for upset forging is done in slot
type furnace. Heat treatment of die forgings in carried out in furnaces equipped for this purposes.
The shop specialize in production of automotive die forged components in weight upto 15kg a
piece and steel balls upto 10mm diameter.
Machining
The facility has the ability to machine castings, forgings, fabricated parts, sub assemblies and
complete assemblies in accordance with the design requirements. The facility consists of
varieties of machine tools capable of performing various machining operations such as turning,
planning, milling, boring, drilling, deep hole drilling, gear hobbing, threading, slotting, spiral bevel
cutting etc. to the close tolerate specified in the design. The facilities are capable of machining
light, medium and heavy jobs for sugar, cement plants, construction parts for boilers, pressure
vessels, heat exchangers, road construction machinery, equipment for process industry, power
plants and parts for other equipment .The machining capability includes conventional machine
tools as well as CNC machines. The maximum machining capacities available are as follows:
Horizontal Turning Max.4.5M dia x 12M length x 11ton wt.
Vertical Turning Max.16.M dia x 6.5 M height x 32ton wt.
Planning Capacity Max.2.5 M dia x 8 M length x 4ton wt.
Plano Milling Boring Drilling Max.12M length x 6 M width x 3.2M height x 15ton wt.
Gear Hobbing Capacity 32 Module x 4 M dia
Spiral Bevel Cutting Capacity 16 Module x 0.8 M dia
Complete machining line for all types of Railway Axles. Heat treatment furnaces for normalizing,
annealing, hardening and tempering processes are also available.
A format quality control section ensures that all the specifications and tolerances in machined
parts are met.
Hydraulic Press
The shop is equipped with a 315ton hydraulic forging press, 8ton overhead forging crane, 1ton
forging manipulator, overhead traveling cranes having maximum lifting capacity of 5ton. A
number of ingot heating and car bottom and shaft type heat treatment furnaces, oil water
quenching tanks are available for meeting the annealing, normalizing, hardening/ quenching
requirements. The heaviest ingot that can be forged is of 5tons weight.
The shop specializes in manufacturing shaft forgings, ring, rolls/rollers for bloom/billet mills,
continuous slab casters and other rolls as per customer's specifications.
Quality Control
Inspection and testing is carried out as per the procedures established for ISO 9001 QA System
and ASME Code procedures. The inspection testing activities are well backed up with the
following facilities:
Non Destructive Examination.
The facility consists of VT, UT,MT,PT,RT(Max 80mm thickness).
Material Testing Lab
The laboratory has the facility for checking chemical analysis of iron and steels, non ferrous
metals by spectrographic and wet chemical methods, Metallographic Examination, Mechanical
testing.
Instrument Calibration Laboratory
This laboratory has facilities for calibration of measuring and testing devices such as pressure
testing gauges, thermocouple, temperature recorders, measuring devices.

PRODUCTION CAPACITY

Machining capacity = 500ton *12 months


Fabrication and Machining capacity= 1000ton *12months
Total = 500*12 + 1000*12 = 600tons per annum
This production capacity can be increased time to time with the extension of man power and
other sources subjecting to sub contractors.

Production planning and control (PPC)


PPC has been organized with the objective of improving companys performance. The department
is headed by Dy. General Manager PPC and comprises the following sections.
Core Planning/Data Processing
Project Planning
Material Management
Production Technology
Dispatch cell/Material Handling
ICR
PPC answers the following questions:
What to produce?
How to produce?
When to produce?
What mean (Resources) are needed in production?
How to coordinate the different resources of the system?
How to control the deviations from plan, such as meeting a due date of production?
The main function of PPC is related to directing and regulating the orderly movement of goods
and service in entire production cycle to meet the business objectives of customer service, high
productivity on time delivery, efficient production system.

SALES ORDER NUMBERING SYSTEM

The sales order numbering system allocates a unique identification system to each order
acquired by the sales and marketing department. This sales order consists of six digits. The first
two of these numbers designate the product group number of the products to be manufactured or
services to be provided by the organization. The next two digits specify the fiscal year in which
the order is received and the last two digits give the number of similar orders already received in
the same fiscal year.
For example, a job order given as 11-10-04 is read as follows
11_______ product group no. for sugar spares
10_______represents 201as the fiscal year
04_______specifies the fourth order for the current year
That is fourth order of sugar spares in 2010.

Core Planning/Data Processing:

This section has the following responsibilities:


Master scheduling planning
Order activity plans
Monitoring of all schedules
Preparation of various periodic reports for MIS
Monitoring of balance order position
Monthly sale and production reports
Sale/production budget
Project review meeting and follow up
Data entry for D.P list and updating of all data files
Processing of all data and generation of reports

Project Planning:

It does the following:


To ensure receipt of all drawings and documentation form design as per contract and according
to the schedule for production and procurement
To issue Material purchase requirement to MMG for item to be identified
To prepare requirements of material to be issued
To coordinate with production technology for preparation of necessary documents of
manufacturing
To prepare and issue job orders and follow up
To suggest alternate materials for use from available stock to design
To compile standard material requirements for all products and projects
To draw standard items from stores for dispatch to customer site
To prepare data for ICR for survey by CBR

Material Management

MMG Section:
Material requirement planning
Identify and follow up of indents
To keep updated purchase status of all the project demands
Establish stock levels for general consumables items and raw materials
Coding of store items
Issuance of material to the appropriate job
To keep and maintain updated stock status of all the store items
To look after stores and related functions

General stores:
To receive and issue all material and equipment in stores
Maintain detailed records of stock movement
Maintain stock location system
Ensure daily submission of issue and receipt statement to concerned department
Ensure that all storage areas open/covered are kept properly secured and organized

Production Technology

It is responsible of
Feasibility/Quantitative Detail:
Feasibility study and quantitative details of clients enquiries for cost estimate
Process planning:
For this following documents are prepared
Detail part list
Route cards
Cutting plans
Time sheets
Tool Designing:
It is responsible of
Designing of all types of press, tools, dies, templates, jigs and fixtures etc
To produce drawings for machining components for maintenance
Cutting plans, cutting/marking templates for shop

Dispatch cell/Material Handling


Material handling:
To keep all materials handling equipment operating worthy
Provide material handling services to stores and dispatch cel and shapes as and when required
Keep the open yard, tidy and organized
Receive materials from shops for surface preparation
Arrange sand blasting/paint as per contractual requirements
Receive raw materials from general stores for onward issuance to shop against job orders
Dispatch cell:
To receive finished goods from shops/material handling section
To draw standard items,/equipment from stores for dispatch to customers site
To organize preservation/packing
Maintain detailed dispatch record of finished goods, equipment, standard items, against each
contract
Organize transportation
Ensure complete and accurate documentation along with each dispatch
To prepare dispatch and ensure compliance
ICR:

To defend in legislation/adjudication and contravention


To organize industrial survey
To obtain consumption certificates and release guarantees
To obtain extension/condo nation from CBR and custom collect orate
To deal with matter pertaining to custom duty and sale tax
To clear consignments from dry part and Islamabad air port
To follow up for statement of all customer and sale tax matters with the concerned agencies

PLANNING SECTION

Marketing Department

Contract with customer

SHAPE* MERGEFORMAT

COSTESTIMATION

Profit is important for any origination and it is totally based on the cost which is estimated before
taking the project. Cost estimation is done in PPC department of HMC.
Sale and marketing department contract the project and design department make the complete
drawing about that project, than this drawing is sent to PPC department to estimate the total cost
of that project. Here in PPC cost estimation section, these people are expert to understand the
drawing of project and they make the bill of material BOM and bill of components in a detail
manner.

GENERAL STORE
HMC has one big general store which keeps all the parts which are used in manufacturing
products. Raw material parching is done by MMG (Material Management Group)
GENERAL STORE
DISPATCHING

Dispatching is the selecting and sequencing the available jobs to be run at individual workstations
and assignment of those jobs to workers
A dispatch list is a listing of manufacturing orders in priority sequence. The dispatch list is usually
communicated to manufacturing detail information on priority, location, quantity, and the capacity
requirement of manufacturing order by operation. Dispatch lists are normally generated daily and
oriented by work center
Dispatching starts with input as route select and schedule chart. It concerns itself with starting the
process and operation of production. It triggers the starting of the production activity on the shop
floor through release of order and instructions, that are based on pre-planned times and
sequences contained in route sheets and schedule charts.
Dispatching determined the person who will do the job work order and authorizations are issued
to perform the work according to a planned sequence, using pre-scribed tools and a time
schedule. It is the duty of dispatching function to issue requisition for material and tools on
production order.

Dispatching of final product to Client


Dispatching cell is the main cell pf PPC of HMC, when a product has been manufactured and
completed, than it is the responsibility of dispatch cell to dispatch the final completed product to
concern person or client.
When a product has been completed and assured by machine shop and fabrication shop than
they inform the dispatch cell, that product is ready for customer and move order slip sent to
dispatch cell.
Now dispatch cell after receiving the move order slip dispatch the final completed product to
concern person.

Dispatch Cell
Packing is done by dispatch cell and wood type packing or other type of packing depends on the
product quality and type. Painting also done by dispatch cell according to the customer demand.

After surface finishing and painting , dispatch cell give the sale and marketing issue number to
final product and attach the dispatched advice to product which include information and
precautionary measures about product uses and clearance by sale and marketing department..
Than dispatch cell deliver the final product to relevant customer. Delivery is two types, first
customer himself take his product from HMC dispatch cell, in this way delivery cost is not include
in the manufacturing cost. In second type of delivery HMC it delivers the product to customer site,
in this delivery transportation included in manufacturing cost. Sale tax invoice is also made by
Dispatch cell.

EXAMPLE OF WORKE ODER SLIP


MW-G/01

MECHANICAL WORKS DEPTT


WORK ORDERDATE--------------------
HMC
HEAVY MECHANICAL COMLEX TAXILA
WORK ORDER NO-------------------------------------CUSTOMER---------------------
S.NO DESCRIPTION FAB.WEIGHT
PLEASE ARRANGE TO CUTT/MANUFACTURE THE ABOVE CITED IETEMS AND DELIVER
AS PER ROUT AFTER INSPECTION

ENCL;
DRAWING SET.
PROGRESS SHEET.
PICK UP SLIP
CUTTING LIT ROLLED SECTION/CUTTING
PLAN/MARKING CUTTING TEMPLATE

O.I.C (LAYOUT) ---------------- PLANNER----------------O.I.C SECTION----------------- O.I.C


TECH.CELL-----

Machine Shop

Machine shop at HMC has following machines


Gear shaper machine
Straight bevel machine
Gear hobbing machine
Vertical turret lathe machine
Horizontal lathe machine
Horizontal vertical slope type boring and milling machine.
Universal boring, milling, facing, threading, taping machine.
Plano milling machine.
Horizontal boring machine.
Redial drilling machine.
Column drilling machine.
Gear shaper tool machine
Slotting machine
BVT boring vertical turret machine
Face plat lathe machine.
Double housing planne
Vertical milling machine.

Gear Shaper
A gear shaper is a machine tool for cutting the teeth of internal or external gears. The name
shaper relates to the fact that the cutter engages the part on the forward stroke and pulls away
from the part on the return stroke, just like the clapper box on a planer shaper. To cut external
teeth, a different machine called a hobbing machine can be used.
Spur Gears
They connect parallel shafts, have involute teeth that are parallel to the shaft and can have
internal or external teeth. They cause no external thrust between gears. They are inexpensive to
manufacture. They give lower but satisfactory performance. They are used when shaft rotates in
the same plane.
Helical Gears
Helical gears connect parallel shifts but the involute teeth are cut at an angle to the axis of
rotation. Two mating helical gears must have equal helix angle but opposite hand. They run
smoother and more quietly. They have higher load capacity, are more expensive to manufacture
and create axial thrust. They have longer and strong teeth. They can carry heavy load because of
the greater surface contact with the teeth. The efficiency is also reduced because of longer
surface contact. The gearing is quieter with less vibration.
Internal Gears
Internal gears are hollow. The properties and teeth shape is similar as of external gears except
that the internal gear had different addendum and dedendum values modified to prevent.
interference in internal meshes. They are designed to accommodate a wide range of equipment.
These are ideal and cost effective. The teeth are cut into the inside diameter while the outside
diameter is smooth. These gears are available only in brass. Internal gear offers low sliding and
high stress loading. They are used in planetary gears to produce large reduction ratios. When
choosing a mating gear the difference between the number of teeth of girth gear and the pinion
should not be less than 15. Their non binding tooth design ensures smooth, quiet operation. They
are used to transmit rotary motion between parallel shafts, the shaft rotating in the same direction
as the arrangement.
Worm Gears
The Worm gear is the heart of most mills and kiln drive system. They can't be used in spare parts
inventory. They are also used in steel industry, sugar industry, paper and pulp industry. The girth
gear has been preferred over the gearless drives due to their lower initial cost, simplicity to install,
operate and maintain.
Hobbing
Hobbing is a machining process for making gears, on a hobbing machine, which is a special type
of milling machine .The teeth or spines are progressively cut into the workpiece by a series of
cuts made by a cutting tools called a hob. Compared to other gear forming processes it is
relatively inexpensive but still quite accurate, thus it is used for a broad range of parts and
quantities. It is the most widely used gear cutting process for creating spur and helical gears and
more gears are cut by hobbing than any other process since it is relatively quick and inexpensive.

Milling machine
A milling machine is a machine tool used for the shaping of metal and other solid materials.
Milling machines exist in two basic formshorizontal and vertical, which terms refer to the
orientation of the cutting tool spindle. Unlike a drill press, in which the work piece is held
stationary and the drill is moved vertically to penetrate the material, milling also involves
movement of the work piece against the rotating cutter, the latter which is able to cut on its flanks
as well as its tip. Milling machines can perform a vast number of operations, some very complex,
such as slot and keyway cutting, planning, drilling, die sinking, rebating, routing, etc.
Vertical Milling Machine
The Milling Machine uses a rotating milling cutter to produce machined surfaces by progressively
removing material from a work piece. The vertical milling machine also can function like a drill
press because the spindle is perpendicular to the table and can be lowered into the work piece.

HYPERLINK http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Miniature_milling_machine.jpgo Enlarge


Peripheral and Face Milling Techniques
Peripheral milling uses teeth on the outer edge of the cutter body. The surface produced
corresponds to the contour of the milling cutter, which can range from a flat surface to a formed
shape.
There are two different methods of peripheral milling, Conventional or Up Milling and Climb or
Down Milling. The figures on the left show the rotation of the cutting tool with respect to the
direction of the part on the table.
In conventional milling the work is fed against the cutter which compensates for backlash in the
table. Each tooth of the cutting tool starts its cut in clean metal, prying the material off the work.

Down milling will give a better quality of work and is better suited for thin pieces of material since
the cutting action forces the work into the table. This method should not be used on hard
materials and the machine has to be rigid so backlash cannot occur. The cutting tool will also last
longer using Down milling as long as good tool pressure is maintained. The machines in the shop
are suitable for both types of milling. If you are unsure of which method you should use ask
somebody in the shop for assistance.
Face milling uses the bottom of the mill to machine the work instead of the sides. The cutting
comes from the combined action of cutting edges located on the face (or end) of the cutting tool
as well as the edges on the periphery. The direction of the feed with relation to the rotation is not
important when using this method.
Horizontal boring machine
A horizontal boring machine or horizontal boring mill is a machine tool which bores holes in a
horizontal direction. There are three main types table, planer and floor. The table type is the most
common and, as it is the most versatile, it is also known as the universal type.
A horizontal boring machine has its work spindle parallel to the ground and work table. Typically
there are 3 linear axes in which the tool head and part move. Convention dictates that the main
axis that drives the part towards the work spindle is the Z axis, with a cross-traversing X axis and
a vertically-traversing Y axis. The work spindle is referred to as the C axis and, if a rotary table is
incorporated, its centre line is the B axis.
Horizontal boring machines are often heavy-duty industrial machines used for roughing out large
components but there are high-precision models too. Modern machines use advanced CNC
control systems and techniques.
LATHE MACHINES
Metal lathe or metalworking lathe are generic terms for any of a large class of lathes designed for
precisely machining relatively hard materials. They were originally designed to machine metals;
however, with the advent of plastic sand other materials, and with their inherent versatility, they
are used in a wide range of applications, and a broad range of materials. In machining jargon,
where the larger context is already understood, they are usually simply called lathes, or else
referred to by more-specific subtype names (toolroom lathe, turret lathe, etc.). These rigid
machine tools remove material from a rotating work piece via the (typically linear) movements of
various cutting tools, such as tool bits and drill bits.
A lathemachine tool which spins a block of material to perform various operations such as cutting,
sanding, knurling, drilling, or deformation with tools that are applied to the work piece to create an
object which has symmetry about an axis of rotation.
Planer
A planer is a type of metalworking machine tool that is analogous to a shaper, but larger, and with
the entire workpiece moving beneath the cutter, instead of the cutter moving above a stationary
workpiece. The work table is moved back and forth on the bed beneath the cutting head either by
mechanical means, such as a rack and pinion gear, or by a hydraulic cylinder.Planers and
shapers were used generally for two types of workgenerating accurate flat surfaces and cutting
slots . Planers and shapers are now obsolescent, because milling machineshave eclipsed them
as the machine tools of choice for doing such work. However, they have not yet entirely
disappeared from the metalworking world

OPERATIONS PERFORMED ON LATHE MACHINE

FacingTool is fed radially in to the rotating work on one end to creat aflat surface on the end.
TurningIt is a process in which a single point tool removes the material from surface of a rotating
cyclindrical work piece.The tool is fed linearly in a direction parrallel to the axis of rotation.
Drilling making a hole in the work piece.
Taper turningInstead of feeding the tool parallel to the axis of rotation of the work the tool is at an
angle, thus creating a tapered cyliinder or conical shape.
Contour turningInstead of feeding the tool along a straight line parallel to the axis of rotation as in
turning the tool follows a contour that is other than straight, thus creating a contour form in the
turned part.
ChamferingThe cutting edge of the tool is used to cut an angle on the corner of the cylinde
forming what is called a chamfer.
CutoffThe tool is fed radially in to the rotating work at some location along its length to cutoff the
end of the part.
BoringIncreasing the diameter of an already drilled hole.
Forming:The shape of the part is created by the geometry of the cutting tool.
ThreadingA pointed tool is fed linearly across the outside surface of the rotating work part in a
direction parallel to the axis of rotation at a large effective feed rate,thus creating threads in
cylinder.
Knurling:It is a metal forming operation used to produce a regular crosshatched pattern in the
work surface.

OPERATIONS PERFORMED ON MILLING MACHINE

Plain millingThe surface cut is parallel to the periphery of the cutter.


Face millingIt is a process of producing a flat vertical surface on the sides or the ends of work
piece.
Straddle millingIt involves the used of two side milling cutter to machine the opposite sides of the
workpiece in one cutt.
Gang milling:
It is performed by using two or more cutters on the arbor to produce the desired shape.
Sawing and slitting:
Metal slitting saws may be used for milling narrow slots and for cutting off work.
Form millingThe exact shape the part to be produced is incorporated on the cutter.

THE SHAPERA shaper is a machine tool used for shaping or surfacing metal and other material.

TOOL ROOM
TYPES OF TOOLS
The various tools types are available in HMC tool Room
Turning tools
Facing tools
Internal thread cutting tools
External thread cutting tools
Forming tools
Boring tools
Counter boring tools
Parting tools
Round nose tools
Grinding tools
Turning Tools
Turning tools are used on lathes for cutting or finishing the outside diameter of a workpiece.
Turning tools can be used to produce cylindrical parts. In its basic form, turning can be defined as
the machining of an external surface with the workpiece rotating, or with a single-point cutting
tool. There are several types of turning tools.Turning tools are generally made from steel, carbon
steel, high speed steel, and powdered metal. To use turning tools for a turning operation, three
primary factors need to be consideredspeed, feed, and depth of cut. Other factors such as
material and type of tool also have a large influence. Speed refers to the spindle and the
workpiece. Feed refers to the cutting tool, and it is the rate at which the tool advances along its
cutting path. Depth of cut is the thickness of the layer being removed from the workpiece or the
distance from the uncut surface of the work to the cut surface. Wood turning tools are designed to
combat the torque problem commonly found when using simple, bent tools to hollow vessels on a
lathe. The best lathe cutting tool is made from high speed steel. When a lathe cutting tool
removes metal it applies considerable tangential force to the workpiece. To safely perform a
facing operation with a lathe cutting tool, the end of the workpiece must be as close as possible to
the jaws of a chuck. In machining hard work materials, the back rake angle must be small, even
negative for carbide and diamond tools. For high-speed steels, a back rake angle is normally
chosen in the positive range. The range of turning tools includes boring bars, which can be used
for internal shouldering, grooving, and profiling for producing complex profiles in one continuous
cycle. Boring is generally used for the enlarging of an existing hole. For turning tool sharpening, a
power sharpening system or a hand sharpening system can be used. Turning tools can also be
hand-made and can be used for ease of use and productivity. Turning tools are designed and
manufactured to meet most industry specifications.
Turning tools can be used in various applications. For example the roughing gouge tool is
designed to remove material quickly. Spindle gouges are useful in finishing a surface or to clean
up hollows and similar spots where skews won't work. Turning tools are used to create furniture,
bowls, platters and serving trays, pens, and a number of other items.
Boring Tools
Boring tools are used to cut or finish the inner diameter of holes. Products include both
automated industrial machinery and handheld tools such as drills and bits, punches, awls, and
chisels. Boring tools such as heavy-duty boring mills may be either vertically or horizontally
oriented, and use an adjustable mount with a cutting tool which is lowered onto or pressed into
the work piece. Boring tools use a variety of bits to determine the size and shape of the holes
drilled in the material, and can include mortising chisels, spur bits, and countersinks. A boring tool
can be used on metals, wood, and plastics.
Boring tools include pointed tools for making simple holes in wood, leather, fabric, or paper. Awls
and brad drivers are used to create holes by either punching through the material or punching a
brad, or thin wire nail, through the material. An awl is a sharp, pointed tools used to create holes.
A brad driver is a tool that hold brads in place so they can be pushed into the wood. Boring tools
for handheld usage also include braces and hand drills. Braces are handheld manual boring tools
that consist of a doorknob-shaped handle and a horizontally-oriented rotating arm that can be
hand-cranked to turn a drill bit. The drill bit is placed on the material. One hand holds the knob-
shaped handle while the other hand moves the rotating handle in a circular motion to drive the bit.
Hand drills consist of a drill bit and handle fitted with a manually-turned, vertically-oriented
gearing mechanism that turns the bit.

Counter boring tools


A counter bore can refer to a cylindrical flat-bottomed hole, which enlarges another hole, or the
tool used to create that feature. It is usually used when a bolt or cap head screw is required to sit
flush with or below the level of a work pieces surface (By comparison, a countersink makes a
conical hole and is used to seat a flathead screw). A very shallow counter bore, such as one
machined on a cast part to provide a flat surface for a fastener head, may also be called a spot
face.
Grinding machine
A grinding machine is a machine tool used for grinding, which is a type of machining using an
abrasive wheel as the cutting tool. Each grain of abrasive on the wheel's surface cuts a small chip
from the work piece via shear deformation.
Following Grinding tapes of machine available in HMC tool room
Crankshaft Grinding
Knife Grinding Machine
Double edge grinding
surface grinding machine
Tool Grinding Machine
Roll Grinding Machine
CUTTING TOOLS PROPERTIES
High carbon steel:
This tools are made from high carbon steel and are used an improvement on plain steel due to
the hardening and tempering capabilities of the material. These bits can be used on wood or
metal, however they have a low tolerance to excessive heat which causes them to lose their
temper, resulting in a soft cutting edge.
High speed steel (HSS)
This is a form of tool steel where the bits much more resistantto the effect of heat. They can be
used to drill in a metal, hardwood, and most other materials at greater cutting speeds then carbon
steel bits and have largely replaced them in commercial applications.
Tungsten Carbide
Carbide are extremely hard materials that can drill in virtually all work piece materials while
holding an edge longer than other bits. Due to high cost and brittleness, they are often used only
in tipped tools, in which small pieces are screwed or brazed
PROCEDURE FOR BARROW TOOLS THEIR USED
Daily return the tools after finishing the work time.
The name of worker who take tool from tool room can not change when it is go to account office.
Damage tool submitted with evidence report
To take tool for permanent, please contact with store in charge and tool issue for 9days.
If different section worker want to use tool than they must sign form then go relevant store
incharge.
Duplicate tool can not be accepted if someone do this , they will be punished
If there is any complaint against store staff than contact with incharge.
Old tools submitted daily from 9am to 2p.m
Without any permission , no worker can keep tool himself , if any one do this ,he ill get charge.
CTC Fabrication Shop

CTC stands for Central Technical Cell. Basically it is a drawing and planning section of
fabrication shop, in this section different drawings are analyzed and then sent to different
sections of fabrication shop depending upon the job and capacity of the shop. The main jobs of
CTC fabrication are
Job feeding to shop
Planning
Material check
Observation from manufacturing till sale.
FABRICATION SHOP
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FABRICATION SHOP
Basically Fabrication Shop is divided into four sections:
Heavy bay section,
Medium bay section,
Small bay section Marking
and layout section

LIST OF APPARATUS AND MACHINES


The machines in the fabrication shop and their capacities are given below:
SMALL BAY
2.5 ton press
5 ton bending machine
MEDIUM BAY
Shaft cutting Circular saw
Cutting Dia 1350mm
Shaft welding machine
Height of beam 450mm
HEAVY BAY
3000 ton press
1000 ton rolling machine
50 ton capacity cranes

MARKING LAYOUT AND CUTTING SECTION


Photo cell cutting machine
Electromagnetic or paper templates are used
CNC cutting machine
A German CNC cutting machine is used for cutting accurate and complex
parts
Plasma arc cutting machine for non ferrous metals
Semi automatic cutting machine
Oxygen and natural gas are used for cutting
Mechanical cutting machine(shearing machine)
Parallel cutting machine
Trennjaeger machine
Nine roller
Straightening machine
Fabrication is the process of marking, forming, casting, machining and welding of metals.
Fabrication, when used as an industrial term, applies to the building of machine, structures and
other equipment, by cutting, shaping and assembling components made from raw materials.
Small businesses that specialize in metal are called fabrication shop. Steel fabrication shops and
machine shops have overlapping capabilities, but fabrication shops generally concentrate on the
metal preparation, welding and assembly aspect while the machine shop is more concerned with
the machining of parts.
Metal fabrication
Metal fabrication is a value added process that involves the construction of machines and
structures from various raw materials. A fabrication shop will bid on a job, usually based on the
engineering drawings.
Raw materials
Standard raw materials used by metal fabricators are
plate metal
welding wire
co gas
argon gas
Cutting torches
silica etc
The raw material has to be cut to size. This is done with a variety of tools.
Marking
Proper and accurate marking plays a vital role in producing a product of great accuracy.The
accuracy of a component depends upon the accuracy of marking.Sufficient care is therefore
needed in performing this operation to maintain quality,production and productivity of a
component.
Marking on the workpiece is done by seting out dimensions as given in the working drawing or by
directly transferring them from a similar part.The surface to be marked is coated with red
lead,french chalk or copper sulphate and allowed to dry.After this the workpiece is laid on the
surface plate if it is flat or held in aV-block or angle plate.Marking of vertical lines is done by mean
of scribing block or height gauge.
Cutting
The raw material has to be cut to size. This is done with a variety of tools.The most common way
to cut material is by Shearing (metalworking);Special band saws designed for cutting metal have
hardened blades and a feed mechanism for even cutting. Abrasive cut-off saws, also known as
chop saws, are similar to miter saws but with a steel cutting abrasive disk. Cutting torches can cut
very large sections of steel with little effort.
Forming
Hydraulic brake presses with v-dies are the most common method of forming metal. The cut plate
is placed in the press and a v-shaped die is pressed a predetermined distance to bend the plate
to the desired angle. Tube bending machines have specially shaped dies and mandrels to bend
tubular sections without kinking them.Rolling machines are used to form plate steel into a round
section.
Machining
Fabricationshops will generally have a limited machining capability including; metal lathes, mills,
magnetic based drills along with other portable metal working tools.

Welding

Mainly welding is done in all bays of fabrication shop. The type of welding used in fabrication
shop is as follows:
1. Arc Welding:
Arc welding uses a welding power supply to create an electric arc between an electrode and the
base material to melt the metals at the welding point. They can use either direct (DC) or
alternating (AC) current, and consumable or non-consumable electrodes. The welding region is
sometimes protected by some type of inert or semi-inert gas, known as a shielding gas, and/or an
evaporating filler material. The process of arc welding is widely used because of its low capital
and running costs.
2. Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMW):
Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), also known as manual metal arc (MMA) welding or
informally as stick welding, is a manual arc welding process that uses a consumable electrode
coated in flux to lay the weld. An electric current, in the form of either alternating current or direct
current from a welding power supply, is used to form an electric arc between the electrode and
the metals to be joined. As the weld is laid, the flux coating of the electrode disintegrates, giving
off vapors that serve as a shielding gas and providing a layer of slag, both of which protect the
weld area from atmospheric contamination.
Because of the versatility of the process and the simplicity of its equipment and operation,
shielded metal arc welding is one of the world's most popular welding processes. It dominates
other welding processes in the maintenance and repair industry, and though fluxcored arc
welding is growing in popularity, SMAW continues to be used extensively in the construction of
steel structures and in industrial fabrication. The process is used primarily to weld iron and steels
(including stainless steel) but aluminum, nickel and copper alloys can also be welded with this
method.
3. Tungsten Inert Gas Welding:
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), also known as tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, is an arc
welding process that uses a no consumable tungsten electrode to produce the weld. The weld
area is protected from atmospheric contamination by a shielding gas (usually an inert gas such as
argon), and a filler metal is normally used, though some welds, known as autogenous welds, do
not require it. A constant-current welding power supply produces energy which is conducted
across the arc through a column of highly ionized gas and metal vapors known as plasma. GTAW
is most commonly used to weld thin sections of stainless steel and light metals such as
aluminum, magnesium, and copper alloys. The process grants the operator greater control over
the weld than competing procedures such as shielded metal arc welding and gas metal arc
welding, allowing for stronger, higher quality welds. However, GTAW is comparatively more
complex and difficult to master, and furthermore, it is significantly slower than most other welding
techniques. A related process, plasma arc welding, uses a slightly different welding torch to
create a more focused welding arc and as a result is often automated.
4. Metal Inert Gas Welding:
Gas metal arc welding (GMAW), sometimes referred to by its subtypes metal inert gas
(MIG) welding or metal active gas (MAG) welding, is a semi-automatic or automatic arc
welding process in which a continuous and consumable wire electrode and a shielding gas are
fed through a welding gun. A constant voltage, direct current power source is most commonly
used with GMAW, but constant current systems, as well as alternating current, can be used.
There are four primary methods of metal transfer in GMAW, called globular, short-circuiting,
spray, and pulsed-spray, each of which has distinct properties and corresponding advantages
and limitations.
WELDING DEFECTS
Defect found in the welding are
Cracks Blow holes
Crack Spatter
Lack of penetration Undercut
Pipes Tungsten inclusion
Porosity Restart of welding
Lack of fusion
Slag inclusions

BOILER FABRICATION

In the energy sector HMC has supplied over 30,000 tons of fabricated equipment and parts to
different power plants. Major strength is HMC's capabilities for manufacturing utility boilers
pressure parts. For this purpose some of the major machines are:
3 roller bending machines for making drums
Booster pipe bending machine for making super heater
Reheated and economizer coils
Specialised machine for machining and welding of headers and complete train of machines for
manufacture of membrane walls in panel and bent form

HMC has the capability to manufacture following type of boilers :


Natural circulation steam generators
Heat recovery steam generators
Fluidized bed combustion boilers
Besides boiler island, HMC have also capabilities and expertise for manufacture of balance of
plant equipment / parts such as :
Condensers
L.P. heater
H.P. heater parts
Water treatment plant
Deaerator and feed water tank
Pressure vessels
Oil storage tanks
Cooling water system
Heat exchangers
Steel structure
Elevator hoist and cranes
Piping
With a team of well experienced engineers and technicians, HMC is well prepared to carry out all
site construction work which include
Site fabrication
Erection / installation and commissioning
Civil works (if part of complete construction work, package)
HMC is also providing services for repair / maintenance and BMR of existing power plant for its
boilers, turbines, condensers, heaters and other equipment.
BOILER COMPONENTS
Super Heaters
One of the most important accessories of a boiler is a superheater. It affects improvement and
economy in the following ways.
The superheater increases the capacity of the plant.
Eliminates corrosion of the steam turbine.
Reduces steam consumption of the steam turbine.
ECONOMISERS-This is feed-water heaters in which the heat from waste gases is recovered to
raise the temperature of feed-water supplied to the boiler. They offer the following advantages:
Fuel economy
Longer life of the boiler
Increase in steaming capacity
Finned Tube Economisers
C.I. Gilled Tube Economisers
Plain Tube Coil Economisers

Steam Generating Tubes


These are tubes in the Boiler where water is evaporated to steam and are also called Steam
Generating Tubes. These Tubes also form the Walls of the Boiler and are hence called Water
Walls or Water Wall Panels.
These Tubes have very complicated shapes to allow Inspection openings and burner throats and
fabrication require bending Machines.
Boiler Fabrication Techniques.
HMC has 3.5 meter rolling capacity. And it can manufacture 2 ton to 8ton boiler.
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NON DESTRUCTIVE LAB

Nondestructive testing (NDT) is a wide group of analysis techniques used in science and industry
to evaluate the properties of a material, component or system without causing damage.

Non destructive test is used to identify the defects in welding joints in the NDT lab of HMC
.Following the main steps involved in non destructive lab.

Non destructive test is used for those materials which have sensitive properties, during the test
the characteristics or composition of material does not change.

PROCESS INVOLVED IN NON DESTRUCTIVES TEST


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NON DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION FACILITIES


x-ray radiography
Gamma ray radiography
Ultrasonic
Magnetic particle
Liquid penetrant
Eddy current
Spectroscopy

RADIOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES
Following Radiography techniques are in HMC non-destructive lab, but only three type of
radiography are used mostly X-ray ,ultrasonic ,and gamma ray radiography because other
radiography are expensive

X-ray Radiography
Gamma Ray Radiography
Neutron Radiography
Proton Radiography
Xero Radiography
Fluoroscopy
Micro Radiography
Flash Radiography
Auto Radiography
Electron transmit Radiography

PENETRANT PRINCIPLES:

A penetrant fluid applied to the surface of the piece which is to be tested and is drawn into any
defects.
Apply penetrant fluid; allow time for it to soak into cracks.
Remove surplus penetrant.
Apply a chalky developer provide which soaks up the dye penetrant from any defects by source
capillary action.
Surface show stain indict ion any defects.
CAMPARISON SELECTION OF NDT PROCESSES FOR WELDING

GAS POROSITY

CATEGORY= Processing
MaterialFerrous and non ferrous weldments.

Discontinuity characteristics

Surface or subsurface, rounded or enlongated, teardrop shaped, with or without a sharp


discontinuity at the point. Scattered uniformly throughout the weld or isolated in small group, may
be concentrated at the root.

METALLLURGICAL ANALYSIS

Porosity in the welds is caused by gas entrapped in the molten metals too much moisture on the
base or filler metal or improper cleaning or preheating.

NDT METHDS APPLICATION AND LIMITATIONS

Radiography testing Method.


Radiography is the most universally used NDT method for detection of gas porosity in the
weldments.

The radiography image of a Round Porosity will appear as oval shaped spots with smooth edges,
while elongated porosity will appear as oval shaped spots with major axis . Some times several
time longer then minor axis.

Foreign material such as loose scale,flux or splatter will effect validity of test results.

Ultrasonic Testing Method

Ultrasonic testing equipments are highly sensitive, capable of detecting micro separations.
Surface finishing and grain size will affect the validity of the test.

Eddy current Testing Method

Normally confined to thin wall welded pipes and tube.


Penetration restricts testing to a depth of more than one quarter inch.

Liquid Penetrant Testing Method

Normally confined to in processes control of ferrous and non ferrous welds.


Liquid penetrant testing is like magnetic particle is restricted to surface evaluation.
Extreme condition must be exercised to prevent any cleaning material and liquid penetrant
materials from becoming entrappedand contaminating the rewelding operation.

Magnetic particle Testing Method


Normally used to detect gas porosity .Only surface porosity would be evident. Near surface
porosity would not be clearly defined, since indications are neither strong nor pronounced

LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING


Liquid penetrate testing is normally destructive mean of locating and determining the severity of
surface discontinuities in a material, is based upon capillary, or capillarity attraction. is the action
by which the surface of the liquid, where it is in contact with a solid is elevated or depressed.
The material process and procedures used in liquid penetrate testing are designed to facilitate
capillary and makes the result of such action visible and capable of interpretation.

APPLICATION OF PENETRANT

In liquid penetrate testing, liquid penetrant is applied to the surface of specimen and sufficient
time is allowed for penetration in surface discontinuities.
If discontinuities are small or narrow as in crack or in pin hole, capillarity assists the penetration.
When opening in gross nature,such as tear,the liquid may be trapped when poured over the
specimen.

DISCONTINUITIES INDICATIONS

After sufficient time has passed for the penetrant to enter surface discontinuity,the excess
surface penetrant removed.The removal process clear the surface specimen but permits the
penetrant in discontinuities to remains.
Capillarity ia again employed in the process.A developer when acts as a blotter is applied to the
test surface.The blotting action of the developer draw the penetrant from discontinuities and
penetrant appear on the surface of specimen as an indication.
The size of indication, because of diffusion of the penetrant in the developer , is usually larger
than discontinuity. There are also penetrants that provide the sufficient discontinuity indication
without the use of developer, the developer is not required..

VISIBILITY OF INDICTION

The ultimate success of liquid penetrant testing depends on the visibility of indications.
To ensure almost visibility, the liquid penetrant contain either color dyes easily seen in the white
light or a fluorescent dye visible under black light. The dyes are obtainable in variety of colors.

TEST PROCEDURES
The sequence of test procedure is basically the same for all penetrant test,can be broken into six
main steps.
The surface of the specimen first clean and allowed to dry.
Penetrant test is applied to the surface and allowed sufficient time to seep into opening.
The penetrant remaining on the surface is removed without removing the penetrant from opening.
Developer is applied to aid in drawing the penetrant back to surface.
Surface of specimen is visually examined to locate penetrant indication that has formally
developer coating.
The test surface is again cleaned to remove developer residue and any minute traces of
penetrant.

VARIOUS CRACKS APPEARING IN THE WELD


ROOT CRACKS
Cause by.
Hydrogen in deposited metal.
Hardenability of steel
Degree of restraint
Concentrated stress
Longitudinal stress
Counter Measures.
Preheating
Postheating
Using low hydrogen type electrode and drying

LONGITUDINAL CRACKS
Cause by.
Hydrogen in deposited metal.
Harden ability of steel
Restraint force perpendicular to welding line.
High welding current
High welding speed
Counter Measures.
Preheating
Postheating
Using low hydrogen type electrode and drying
TRANVERSAL CRACKS
Cause by.
Hydrogen in deposited metal.
Hardenability of steel
Degree of restraint
Counter Measures.
Preheating
Postheating
Using low hydrogen type electrode and drying
UNDERBEED CRACK
Cause by.
Hydrogen in deposited metal.
Harden ability of steel

Counter Measures.
Preheating
Post heating
Using low hydrogen type electrode and drying
TOE CRACK
Cause by.
Concentrated stress caused by discontinuity in under cut configuration
Hydrogen in deposited metal.
Harden ability of steel
HEEL CRACK
Cause by.
Concentrated stress caused by discontinuity in under cut configuration
Hydrogen in deposited metal.
Harden ability of steel
Counter measures.
Long bead
Preventive angular measure
Grinding toe

MANNUAL FILMPROCESSING

Film
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Material Testing Laboratory

The objective of material testing laboratory is to check the chemical composition of different
alloys of iron, copper as well as other non metallic elements. The facility contains the following
laboratories:
Quick response section.
Mechanical testing section
Heat treatment section
Microscope section
Wet test laboratory
QUICK RESPONSE SECTION
The quick response section is situated near the steel foundry and it helps the foundry men to melt
different alloys in exact element ratios to get specific allows. It has the facility to inspect the
molten metal from the furnace at intervals and provide the feedback within a few minutes. The
facility has the following apparatus:
Emission spectrometer.
Spectrophotometer.
Carbon furnace.
Titration apparatus.

EMISSION SPECTROMETER
This instrument vaporizes the metal by producing an electric spark and then analyses the
spectrum of the resulting vapors to identify the percentage of 26 different metals in the given
alloy. It has the capability to detect both iron based and copper based metals. The elements that
are detected by it include the followingCarbon, silicon, manganese, phosphorus, sulphur,
chromium, molybdenum, aluminum, copper, cobalt, titanium, vanadium, tungsten, lead, boron, tin,
zinc, arsenic, bismuth, calcium, cesium, zirconium, and iron.
MECHANICAL TESTING SECTION
This testing section includes the following machines:
Universal testing machine
Impact test machine
Brinnel hardness testing machine
Rockwell hardness tester and Vickers
Wear testing machine
WET TEST LABORATORY
In the wet test laboratory, we use the element analysis to measure the moisture contents in any
material or a specimen or element.
PATTERN SHOP
Pattern is used for giving shape to a mould after which casting is done of that shape.Its types are
as follows:
Solid pattern
Split pattern
Sweep pattern
Self core pattern
Match plate pattern
Loose piece pattern
First drawing is made for making pattern. Then layout is made so that the mistakes are found in
the pattern. Required allowance is given so that the contraction doesnt affect the shape of the
piece. Allowance is of following type:
Draft allowance
Machine allowance
Pattern shop consists of following machines:
Band saw
Joint planner
Cross cut saw
Thickness planner
Wooden Lathe Machine
Wooden Milling Machine
Disc and Spindle Sander
Raw Material
Raw material wood is mainly deodar. Deodar is preferred because it is smooth and plane. It is in
form of beams.
In casting, a pattern is a replica of the object to be cast, used to prepare the cavity into which
molten material will be poured during the casting process. Patterns used in sand casting may be
made of wood, metal, plastics or other materials. Patterns are made to exacting standards of
construction, so that they can last for a reasonable length of time, according to the quality grade
of the pattern being built, and so that they will repeat ably provide a dimensionally acceptable
casting.
The making of patterns, called patternmaking (sometimes styled pattern-making or pattern
making), is a skilled trade that is related to the trades of tool and die making and mold making,
but also often incorporates elements of fine woodworking, Patternmakers (sometimes styled
pattern-makers or pattern makers) learn their skills through apprenticeships and trade schools
over many years of experience. Although an engineer may help to design the pattern, it is usually
a patternmaker who executes the design.
Contraction allowances
The pattern needs to incorporate suitable allowances for shrinkage; these are called contraction
allowances, and their exact values depend on the alloy being cast and the exact sand casting
method being used. Some alloys will have overall linear shrinkage of up to 2.5%, whereas other
alloys may actually experience no shrinkage or a slight positiveshrinkage or increase in size in
the casting process (notably type metal and certain cast irons). The shrinkage amount is also
dependent on the sand casting process employed, for example clay-bonded sand, chemical
bonded sands, or other bonding materials used within the sand.
Draft allowances
The pattern needs to incorporate suitable allowances for draft, which means that its sides are
tapered so that when it is pulled from the sand, it will tend not to drag sand out of place along with
it. This is also known as taper which is normally between 1 and 3 degrees.A sand casting or a
sand molded casting is a cast part produced by forming a mold from a sand mixture and pouring
molten liquid metal into the cavity in the mold. The mold is then cooled until the metal has
solidified. In the last stage the casting is separated from the mold. There are six steps in this
process:
Place a pattern in sand to create a mold.
Incorporate a gating system.
Remove the pattern.
Fill the mold cavity with molten metal.
Allow the metal to cool.
Break away the sand mold and remove the casting.
FORGING SHOP
Forging is the term for shaping metal by using localized compressive forces.
Cold forging is done at room temperature or near room temperature. Hot forging is done at a high
temperature, which makes metal easier to shape and less likely to fracture. Warm forging is done
at intermediate temperature between room temperature and hot forging temperatures. Forged
parts can range in weight from less than a kilogram to 17metric tons. Forged parts usually require
further processing to achieve a finished part.
FORGEABLE MATERIALS.
Forge ability of a material is the ability of a material to undergo deformation under compression
without rupture. Any metal or alloy which can be brought to plastic stage through heating can be
forged. The extent to which a material can be forged is governed by its composition as well as the
temperature of forging.Selection of a forging material depends on certain desirable mechanical
properties inherent in the material like strength, malleability, resistance to fatigue, durability,
shock or bending, machinablity etc. Any material having good malleability can be forged, since
compressive forces are involved.Some forgeable materials, in the order of their forgeability are
listed below.
Pure aluminium5.Aluminium alloys 8.Carbon and low alloy steels
Pure magnesium6.Magnesium alloys 9.Stainless steels
Pure copper 7.Copper alloys10.Nickle alloys
Most of the pure metals
Forgeablity of a material is evaluated on the basis of the following tests.
Host twist test
Upset test
FACTORS IN FORGING
Forgeability of a material depends mainly on
Metallurgical factors and
Mechanical factors
Metallurgical factors
Compsition and pyrity of the material 3. Number of phases present
Grain size
Pure metals posses good malleability and thus good forging properties.FFC materials have good
forgeablity followed by BCC and CPH in decreasing order.Fine grained materials containing
insoluble compounds and having lower concentration of impurities on grain boundaries have
better forgeability than coarse grained materials.Alloys containing elements that form insoluble
compounds exhibit poor forgeablity. Forge ablity of materials containing one phase is much more
compared to materials containing two or more phases.
Mechanical factors
Fogeability of a metal or alloy is influenced by mechanical factors like strain rate and strain
distribution.During forging,a material is subjected to compressive, and shearing streses.Rupture
is usually associated by shearing stresses.The general rule of forging follows that compressive
forces should be applied to more forgeable portions and tensle to less forgeable ones.Metals
possesing low ductility at cold working temperatures show reduced forgeability under increasing
strain whereas metals possesing high ductilty at cold working temperature have good forgeability.
FORGING
Open forging is what comes to mind when most people think of forging. It involves heating metal
to a workable temperature and working with it directly on the anvil hammering it into shape using
various tools. This requires a high degree of technical skill and strength. Open forging is still used
to manufacture fine art pieces, horse shoes, and customized metal components.
Drop forging is a technique for forcing metal into a die by striking it with a hammer. This has been
around for centuries, with blacksmiths making dies, heating the metal, and then pounding the
metal into the die, creating the desired shape. Mechanized hammers are used in manufacturing
facilities to keep the production line quickly moving, and some plants use a set of two dies which
are hammered together, forcing extra metal out the sides of the die while forming the molded
shape. Drop forging is often used for automobile components.
Press forging uses pressure to force metal into a die. Usually this involves putting a piece of
heated metal into a fixed die and then slowly compressing it from above with the other half of the
die. The metal will slowly deform into the shape of the die, and then will resolve into the desired
shape. Press forging is commonly used for tools.
Roll forging is accomplished by compressing a piece of heated metal between two rollers. The
rollers have a die embedded in them, and as they compress the metal, they will force it to
conform to the die. Roll forging is a popular forging technique because it can be made continuous
with the use of multiple rollers and dies. This is a type of draw forging, because the piece is
slowly drawn out into the needed shape.
Cold forging is used for smaller objects like screws and metal wire. When cold forging, cold metal
is extruded through a die to form a particular shape such as a threaded screw. If a head is
needed, another part of the machine can be used to create it. Cold forging can be done cheaply
and in high volume, and is the favored method for producing fasteners such as bolts, screws, and
nails.
Forging is preferred to simply cutting metal to shape it for a number of reasons. The first is that
forging improves the strength of the metal by aligning the grain along the lines of potential stress.
In other words, a forged hammer is better equipped to handle pressure and pounding than one
simply carved out of a base metal. The second is that forging is high economicalno part of the
metal is wasted during the process, and unused portions can be remelted for use in other pieces.
Forging Techniques
Hammer and Press ForgingGenerally, forged components are shaped either by a hammer or
press. Forging on the hammer is carried out in a succession of die impressions using repeated
blows. The quality of the forging, and the economy and productivity of the hammer process
depend upon the tooling and the skill of the operator. The advent of programmable hammers has
resulted on less operator dependency and improved process consistency. In a press, the stock is
usually hit only once in each die impression, and the design of each impression becomes more
important while operator skill is less critical.
The Processes

Open Die Forging Open die forging with hammers and presses is a modern-day extension of the
pre-industrial metalsmith working with a hammer at his anvil.
In open die forging, the workpiece is not completely confined as it is being shaped by the dies.
The open die process is commonly associated with large parts such as shafts, sleeves and disks,
but part weights can range from 5 to 500,00lb.
Most open die forgings are produced on flat dies. Round swaging dies and V dies also are used
in pairs or with a flat die. Operations performed on open die presses include
Drawing out or reducing the cross-section of an ingot or billet to lengthen it.
Upsetting or reducing the length of an ingot or billet to a larger diameter.
Upsetting, drawing out, and piercing--processes sometimes combined with forging over a
mandrel for forging rough-contoured rings.
As the forging workpiece is hammered or pressed, it is repeatedly manipulated between the dies
until it reaches final forged dimensions. Because the process is inexact and requires considerable
skill of the forging master, substantial workpiece stock allowances are retained to accommodate
forging irregularities. The forged part is rough machined and then finish machined to final
dimensions. The increasing use of press and hammer controls is making open die forging, and all
forging processes for that matter, more automated.
In open die forging, metals are worked above their recrystallization temperatures. Because the
process requires repeated changes in workpiece positioning, the workpiece cools during open die
forging below its hot-working or recrystallization temperature. It then must be reheated before
forging can continue. For example, a steel shaft 2 ft in diameter and 24 ft long may require four to
six heats before final forged dimensions are reached.
In open die forging of steel, a rule of thumb says that 5lb of falling weight is required for each
square inch of stock cross-section.

Compression between flat dies, or upsetting, is an open die forging process whereby an oblong
workpiece is placed on end on a lower die and its height reduced by the downward movement of
the top die. Friction between end faces of the workpiece and dies prevents the free lateral spread
of the metal, resulting in a typical barrel shape. Contact with the cool die surface chills the end
faces of the metal, increasing its resistance to deformation and enhancing barreling.
Upsetting between parallel flat dies is limited to deformation symmetrical around a vertical axis. If
preferential elongation is desired, compression between narrow diesis ideal. Frictional forces in
the ax ial direction of the bar are smaller than in the perpendicular direction, and material flow is
mostly axial.
A narrower die elongates better, but a too-narrow die will cut metal instead of elongate. The
direction of material flow can also be influenced by using dies with specially shaped surfaces.

Fig. 4. Impression die forging


Larger rolls cause greater lateral spread and less elongation because of the greater frictional
difference in the arc of contact, whereas smaller rolls elongate more. Lateral spread can be
reduced and elongation promoted by using specially shaped rolls
The properties of roll-forged components are very satisfactory. In most cases, there is no flash
and the fiber structure is very favorable and continuous in all sections. The rolls perform a certain
amount of descaling, making the surface of the product smooth and free of scale pockets.
Impression Die Forging
In the most basic example of impression die forging, which accounts for the majority of forging
production, two dies are brought together and the workpiece undergoes plastic deformation until
its enlarged sides touch the die side wallsFig. 4 Then, some material begins to flow outside the
die impression, forming flash. The flash cools rapidly and presents increased resistance to
deformation, effectively becoming a part of the tool. This builds pressure inside the bulk of the
workpiece, aiding material flow into unfilled impressions.
Impression die forgings may be produced on a horizontal forging machine (upsetter) in a process
referred to as upsetting. In upsetting, stock is held between a fixed and moving die while a
horizontal ram provides the pressure to forge the stock Fig. 5. After each ramstroke, the multiple-
impression dies can open to permit transfer of stock from one cavity to another.

Fig. 5. Upsetting.
A form of impression die forging, closed die forging does not depend on flash formation to
achieve complete filling of the die. Material is deformed in a cavity that allows little or no escape
of excess material, thus placing greater demands on die design.
For impression die forging, forging dies become more important, and operator skill level is less
critical in press forging operations. The press forging sequence is usually block and finish,
sometimes with a preform, pierce, or trim operation. The piece is usually hit only once in each die
cavity.-
Heat treatment
Heat Treatment The Processes
Annealing
Normalizing
Hardening
Surface
Full
Case
Tempering
Stress releasing
Carburizing
Gas
Pack
Phosphating

Heat treatment
Heat Treatment is the controlled heating and cooling of metals to alter their physical and
mechanical properties without changing the product shape.
Annealing
Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment wherein a material is altered,
causing changes in its properties such as strength and hardness. It is a process that produces
conditions by heating to above the re-crystallization temperature and maintaining a suitable
temperature, and then cooling. Annealing is used to induce ductility, soften material, relieve
internal stresses, refine the structure by making it homogeneous, and improve cold working
properties.
Normalizing Heat treatment is a method used to alter the physical and sometimes chemical
properties of a material. The most common application is metallurgical. Heat treatments are also
used in the manufacture of many other materials, such as glass. Heat treatment involves the use
of heating or chilling, normally to extreme temperatures, to achieve a desired result such as
hardening or softening of a material.. It is noteworthy that while the term heat treatment applies
only to processes where the heating and cooling are done for the specific purpose of altering
properties intentionally, heating and cooling often occur incidentally during other manufacturing
processes such as hot forming or welding. Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a
heat treatment wherein a material is altered, causing changes in its properties such as strength
and hardness. It is a process that produces conditions by heating to above the re-crystallization
temperature and maintaining a suitable temperature, and then cooling. Annealing is used to
induce ductility, soften material, relieve internal stresses, refine the structure by making it
homogeneous, and improve cold working properties. In the cases of copper, steel, silver, and
brass this process is performed by substantially heating the material (generally until glowing) for a
while and allowing it to cool slowly. In this fashion the metal is softened and prepared for further
work such as shaping, stamping, or forming.
Hardening
Flame Hardening:
A high intensity oxy-acetylene flame is applied to the selective region. The temperature is raised
high. The righttemperature is determined by the operator based on experience by watching the
color of the steel. The overall heat transfer is limited by the torch and thus the interior never
reaches the high temperature. The heated region is quenched to achieve the desired hardness.
Tempering can be done to eliminate brittleness.
Induction Hardening:
In Induction hardening, the steel part is placed inside a electrical coil which has alternating
current through it. This energizes the steel part and heats it up. Depending on the frequency and
amperage, the rate of heating as well as the depth of heating can be controlled. Hence, this is
well suited for surface heat treatment. The Induction and flame hardening processes protect
areas exposed to excessive wear. Items that we induction harden include Spur Gears and Spur
Pinions ,Helical Gears and Helical Pinions, Sprockets ,Internal Gears ,Bevel Gears ,Shafts and
Pins ,Rails and Racks ,Wheels and Rollers Sheave Wheels ,Links ,Axle Boxes and Bushes.
Tempering:
Tempering is a heat treatment technique for metals, alloys and glass. In steels, tempering is done
to toughenthe metal by transforming brittle martensite into bainite or a combination of ferrite and
cementite. Precipitation hardening alloys, like many grades of aluminum and superalloys, are
tempered to precipitate intermetallic particles which strengthen the metal. Tempering is
accomplished by a controlled reheating of the work piece to a temperature below its lower critical
temperature.
The brittle martensite becomes strong and ductile after it is tempered. Carbon atoms were
trapped in the austenite when it was rapidly cooled, typically by oil or water quenching, forming
the martensite. The martensite becomes strong after being tempered because when reheated,
the microstructure can rearrange and the carbon atoms can diffuse out of the distorted BCT
structure. After the carbon diffuses, the result is nearly pure ferrite.
Stress Releasing:
stress releasing is used to reduce residual stresses in large castings, welded parts and
coldformed parts. Such parts tend to have stresses due to thermal cycling or work hardening.
Parts are heated to temperatures of up to 60- 65oC (1112 - 1202 oF), and held for an extended
time (about 1 hour or more) and then slowly cooled in still air
Carburizing:
Carburizing, also known as carburization, is a heat treatment process in which iron or steel is
heated in the presence of another material (but below the metal's melting point) which liberates
carbon as it decomposes. The outer surface or case will have higher carbon content than the
original material. When the iron or steel is cooled rapidly by quenching, the higher carbon content
on the outer surface becomes hard, while the core remains soft and tough. This manufacturing
process can be characterized by the following key pointsIt is applied to low-carbon workpieces;
workpieces are in contact with a high-carbon gas, liquid or solid; it produces a hard workpiece
surface; workpiece cores largely retain their toughness and ductility; and it produces case
hardness depths of up to 0.25 inches (6.4 mm).

Phosphating

Phosphate coatings are used on steel parts for corrosion resistance, lubricity, or as a foundation
for subsequent coatings or painting. It serves as a conversion coating in which a dilute solution of
phosphoric acid and phosphate salts is applied via spraying or immersion, chemically reacts with
the surface of the part being coated to form a layer of insoluble, crystalline phosphates.
Phosphate conversion coatings can also be used on aluminium, zinc, cadmium, silver and tin.
The main types of phosphate coatings are manganese, iron and zinc. Manganese phosphates
are used both for corrosion resistance and lubricity and are applied only by immersion. Iron
phosphates are typically used as a base for further coatings or painting and are applied by
immersion or by spraying. Zinc phosphates are used for rust proofing (P&O), a lubricant base
layer, and as a paint/coating base and can also be applied by immersion or spraying.
LIST OF APPARATUS
Electric Furnaces :-
Car bottom furnace
Max. temp = 95C Size =90x 70x 180Plotter and temperature indicator is attached with it.
Box type air furnace
It is small and large.
Max. temp = 95C
Size =60x 50x 1200
Max. temp = 95C
Size =45x 45x 950
Pit type tempering furnace
Max. temp = 950oC
Salt bath furnace
Small, medium, large
Temp = 550-65C
Size =30x 40x 500
Temp = 700-900oC
Size =30x 40x 800
Temp = 1050-1270oC
Size =20x 30x 800
Flame quenching plant
Vertical 1200 x 600
Horizontal : 450 x 2400
High frequency induction machine
It is in isolated room, it uses 10,000 volts. It have a copper ring that induct heat to the
components external part, it have a mechanism of movement of job and quenching. Room is
provided with oil and water drum for the purpose of quenching.

Cleaner
It is use to wash salt from metal surface after sand bathing.
8Manual Straightening Press
It is used to straight long and thin metallic sheets.
9. Electric gas carburizing furnace
Temp = 950oC
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10. Electric tempering furnace
Temp = 650oC
Size =950 x 1220
11. Salt bath
Size =2000 x 2000 x 1400
12. Water quenching tank
Size =1500 x 3000 x 3000

INSPECTION AND QUALITY COTROL

To maintain the reputation of a firm and quality of a product every firm has a full-fledged
Inspection and quality control department. It inspects the product at various stages of its
production to maintain quality of the product as per set standards. Inspection is carried out when
a material is received from suppliers to ascertain its quality and practical utility as per standards.
Inspection of components is carried out as soon as it is finished in a work shop in HMC.
An inspection is, most generally, an organized examination or formal evaluation exercise. It
involves the measurements, tests, and gauges applied to certain characteristics in regard to an
object or activity. The results are usually compared to specified requirements and standards for
determining whether the item or activity is in line with these targets. Inspections are usually non-
destructive.
Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) or Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) describes a number of
technologies used to analyze materials for either inherent flaws or damage from use. Some
common methods are
visual,
Liquid or dye penetrant inspection,
magnetic-particle inspection
radiographic testing
ultrasonic testing
eddy-current testing
acoustic emission testing and
Thermo graphic inspection. In addition, many non-destructive inspections can be performed by a
precision scale,

PAGE * MERGEFORMAT 15

Sale order No given to product

Designer

Drawing made

Planning Section

List of Components
made

Material calculated

Demand for
Request form

Stock available

Yes

No

MMG cell

Purchasing Dept

Foreign purchase
parts

By ship

By air

On spot

Local Receive
e.g. Taxila
Received by G.S

Check

Inspection Note given

Wood work
Packing

M.H.S

Painting

Surface
Finishing

General
Painting

Special
Painting

Customer

Sale and marketing

Design deppt

PPC

Fabrication CTC

Fabrication shop

Material issue to fab shop

Job planning for fab shop

Deliver to dispatch cell

Check the work

Material purchase

Third party verify material

Marking & cutting layout

Pre bending

Rolling
LW fit up

Third party verify material

Welding

Re rolling

Radiography

Stress releasing

Hydraulic testing

Third party test

NON-DESTRUCTVE TESTING

INTERPRETATION

INDICTION

FALSE

NON-RELEVANT

RELEVANT

ACCEPT

REJECT

Forge welding

Master chart for welding processes

Brazing welding

Solid state welding

Resistance welding

Arc welding

Other processes

Gas welding

Infrared brazing

Furnace brazing

Torch Brazing
Induction brazing

Resistance brazing

Dip brazing

Diffusion welding

Cold welding

Ultrasonic welding

Friction welding

Explosion welding

Pressure gas welding

Oxyacetylene welding

Oxy-hydrogen welding

Flash welding

Upset welding

Percussion welding

Resistance seam welding

Projection welding

Carbon arc welding

Shield metal arc welding

Flux cored arc welding

Plasma arc welding

Stud arc welding

Gas tungsten arc welding

Laser beam welding

Therrmit welding

Electron beam welding

Electro slag welding

Induction welding
Film
Silver salt suspended in an emulsion
Protective gelatin coating

Exposure

The silver salt are actived upon by radiation.


The intensity of the reaction in the emulsion is directly propotional to the amount of radiation
received.

Developer
Alkaline 68 c
Changes the exposed salts to black
Metalle silver 5 to 8 mint

Stop Bath
Acidic 68c
Nuetralizes the developer and stop the developing process 1 to 2 mint

Fixing
Acidic 68c
Contnous nuetrazition
Dissolves unexposed silver salts allowing then to fall from film .
Harden the film 5 to 15 mint.
Twice clearing time..

Washing
Clean running water 68c
Hourly flow 4 to 8 times tank valume.
Remove all chemical 10 to 30 mints twice fixing time

Wetting
Aerosol solution
Eliminate most water stop and stears .5 to 1 mint

Drying
Warm ,filterted air ,circulating air dries the 30 to 45 mint