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# CONCEPTS & FORMULAE on BASIC MATHS

NUMBER THEORY

TYPES OF NUMBERS
Natural Number: 1,2,3,4,5,6………
Even: 0,2,4,6,8……
Odd: 1,3,5,7……
Whole Number: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6……..
Integer:..…-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3……
Fraction: -3/8, 2/9 ………
All of above are Rational numbers
Irrational number: Π, √3, √(4/7) ………..
All of above are Real numbers.
Imaginary/complex number: i, √(-1), 3+i, …….
Prime number: 2,3,5,7,11,13,17,19……
Composite number: 4,6,8,9…..
Unique number: 1
Special numbers
-even prime: 2
-pair of relative primes: (4,9), (8,15) etc
-perfect number: 6, 28, 496 etc where sum of divisors is twice the number itself.

By NON MATHS STUDENTS is meant a student who has studied maths only till 10th standard. If a concept in CAT is out
of range of 10th standard maths then the concept is usually explained in the exam paper itself. For example - Fibonacci
Series. Hence you should be aware of such numbers but don’t need to cram them.

Important Points
If ‘n’ is even then (n -1) or (n +1) is odd and vice versa.
Sum or difference of two even or two odd numbers is always even. Sum or difference of one even and one
odd number is always odd.
Product of even numbers is even and of odd numbers is odd. Product of even and odd is even number. Similar
properties can be extrapolated for exponents as they are only repeated multiplication.
If n >1 and odd then (n-1)n(n+1) is always divisible by 24.
NON MATHS STUDENTS: There are hundreds of such relations possible and if it is hard to remember all of them, verify
by inserting a few values. Then cancel out the choices to arrive at the right answer.

## If 1 to ‘n’ is a continuous series of counting (Natural) numbers then

- if ‘n’ is even then there are n/2 even and odd numbers. The 2 middle numbers are n/2, (n+2)/2
- if ‘n’ is odd then there are (n - 1)/2 even and (n +1)/2 odd numbers. The middle number is (n+1)/2

DIVISIBILITY
-2: number formed by last digit is divisible by 2
-4: number formed by last 2 digits is divisible by 4
-8: number formed by last 3 digits is divisible by 8

## -3: sum of digits divisible by 3

-9: sum of digits divisible by 9

## -5: number formed by last digit is divisible by 5

-25: number formed by last 2 digits is divisible by 25
-125: number formed by last 3 digits is divisible by 125

## -10: last digit is 0

-100:last two digits are 0
-1000: last three digits are 0
-6: number is divisible by both 2 & 3
-12: number is divisible by both 4 & 3
-15: number is divisible by both 5 & 3
-18: number is divisible by both 9 & 2

-11: subtract the sum of digits in odd places from sum of digits in even places. If result is divisible by 11 then
number is divisible by 11
NON MATHS STUDENTS: There are divisibility rules for 7,13,17, 19 etc. But rather than cramming them, one should
learn to extrapolate the rules of divisibility of basic numbers like 2,3,5 to larger numbers like 8,9,25.

To check if number is prime: check if the number is divisible by a prime number smaller than its square root.

SURDS
( a) = a
a
a

( a )( b ) =
n n n
ab
n
a a
= n
n
b b
m n
a = mn
a

## Rationalization by multiplication with conjugate

-for surds (√a+√b) x (√a-√b) or
-for complex numbers (a+ib) x (a-ib)

## HCF and LCM

HCF of fraction
= (HCF of Numerator)/(LCM of Denominator)
LCM of fraction
= (LCM of Numerator)/(HCF of Denominator)
For two positive numbers ‘a’& ‘b’
a x b = LCM (a, b) x HCF(a, b)

EXPONENTS
m0 = 1
mp x mq = mp+q
mp x mr x mq = mp+r+q and so on
mp / mq = mp-q
mq / mp = mq-p
(mp )q = mpq
m1/p = p√m = m-p
mq/p = p√mq = m-p/q
(m x n)p = mp x np
(m / n)p = mp / np

LOGS
If ax=N, then Log a N = x.
E.g. 63 = 216, then Log 6 216 = 3

## Log to base ‘e’ are called natural log.

Log to base 10 are called common log.
If the base of the log is not indicated it should be understood as 10. e.g. log 100 = 2.
Important Points
Log 1 = 0
Log a a = 1
Log m*n = Log m + Log n
Log (a*b*c...) = Log a + Log b + Log c .......
Log (a/b) = Log a – Log b
Log am = m Log a
Log a b × log b a = 1
a log a N = N.
logamn=n logam
logbn = loga n/loga b
logb a = log c a , where c is any number.
log c b

NON MATHS STUDENTS: While exponent and log would seem a whole different type of operation, they are not. As
multiplication is an extension of addition similarly exponent is an extension of the multiplication concept. Keep this in mind
while studying logs and exponents.

## MEAN AND PROGRESSION

MEAN
Mode: Most frequent number in a given set.
Median: In a series of ‘n’ numbers, arranged in ascending order, Median is the middle number if ‘n’ is odd Or
the average of the 2 middle numbers if ‘n’ is even.
Average: of ‘a’ and ‘b’ is (a+b)/2
Average: of ‘a’, ’b’ and ‘c’ is (a+b+c)/3

Arithmetic Mean:
AM of ‘a’ and ‘b’ is (a + b)/2
Weighted Arithmetic Mean: WM = (w1a1 +w2a2 +……wnan) / (w1+w2+….wn)
In a series of ‘n’ numbers AM = (a1 + a2+ …..an)/n

Geometric Mean:
GM of ‘a’ and ‘b’ is (a x b)1/2
GM of ‘a’ and ‘b’ and ‘c’ is (a x b x c)1/3
In a series of ‘n’ numbers GM = (a1 x a2 x …..an)1/n

Harmonic Mean:
HM of ‘a’ and ‘b’ is 2ab/(a+b)
HM of ‘a’ and ‘b’ and ‘c’ is 3abc/(ab + bc + ac)
In a series of ‘n’ numbers HM = n / (1/x1 + 1/x2 + ….. 1/xn )

## Relationship Between Means

AM x HM = (GM)2
HM < GM < AM

NON MATHS STUDENTS: Progressions are an extension of the concept of means where the consequent numbers are
related.

PROGRESSION
Arithmetic Progression (A. P)
a2 = a1 + d
⎛a +a ⎞
an = ⎜ n −1 n +1 ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠
an = a + (n – 1)d
Sn = a1 + (a1 + d) + (a1 + 2d) + ... + [a1 + (n-1)d]
Sn = n[2a1 + (n-1)d] /2
Sn = n[a1 + an]/2
sum of first n natural numbers = n(n+1)/2

Geometric Progressions
a2 = a1 x r
an = arn-1
Sn = a + ar + ar2 + ………… + arn-2 + arn-1
a (r − 1)
n ⎫
⇒ Sn = ; r >1⎪
(r − 1) ⎪

a (1 − r )
n
Sn = ; r < 1⎪
(1 − r ) ⎪⎭

a
If |r| is very small compared to 1 then rn tends to zero and S ∞ =
1− r

2 n ( n + 1)( 2n + 1)
∑n =
6

2
3 ⎡ n ( n + 1) ⎤
∑n =
⎢⎣ 2 ⎥⎦

If the nth term of any series is an3 + bn2 + cn + d , the sum to ‘n’ terms will be a∑n3 + b∑n2 + c∑n + dn.
Substituting above two formulas for ∑n2 and ∑n3 we can arrive at sum of such a term.

SIMPLE APPLICATIONS

## RATIOS, PROPORTIONS AND VARIATIONS

If q: r :: s: t then r: q :: t: s
If q: r:: s: t then q : s : : r : t
If q: r:: s : t then ( q + r ) : r : : ( s + t ) : t
If q: r:: s : t then ( q - r ) : r : : ( s - t ) : t
If q : r :: s: t then (q + r):(q – r )::(s+ t ):(s–t)
p r u p+ r+u
If = = ...... then = each of the individual ratios.
q s v q+s+v

Direct Variation
A ∝ B
A = k x B, where k is a constant

Inverse variation
A ∝ 1/B
A = k/B
Or A xB=k
PERCENTAGE, INTEREST, PROFIT AND LOSS
% Change = Absolute value change × 100
Original quantity

Interest

## If A = Total amount , P = Principal, t = time

is = simple Interest rate, ic = Compound Interest rate
A = P x ((is x t)+ 100))/100
or
A = P x ((ic +100)/100)t
Interest Charged = A - P

## Profit and Loss

If CP = Cost Price, SP = Selling Price
P = Profit, L = Loss

## SP – CP = if +ve is profit , if –ve is loss

P% = (SP – CP) x 100/ CP

## Confusing Terms in Profit and Loss

MP (Marked Price) - price displayed on the label

Discount - article is sold at a price less than the list price . Discount = MP – SP

## Margin is P % with respect to SP rather than CP

P × 100
Margin % =
SP
Mark up is the increment on the CP before being sold to the customer.
MP − CP
Markup % = × 100
CP
NON MATHS STUDENTS: Profit/Loss can be the easiest to score in CAT. What actually makes it tough is the inability to
understand various terms. The same is the case with speed/time and questions on work.

SPEED
Speed = distance / time
Average speed = total distance/total time
Velocity – only difference between speed and velocity is that the later takes relative distance into account.
Terms in a race
-Lead - A gives 5 meters/seconds lead to B in a 100 meters/seconds race. This means that A would start
running when B has already covered 5 meters OR 5 seconds after B has started.
-Win - A wins 100m race from B by 5 meters/seconds. This means that A has reached the winning post when B
was 5m away OR 5 seconds before B
- Dead Heat - when all the participants reach the winning post at the same time.
If a number of events of different duration start simultaneously then the duration after which they will again
be in a simultaneous position is the LCM of their individual duration
Clocks – The relative speed of minute hand to clock hand is 5.5˚/minute.

WORK
Amount of work = ‘number of people working’ x ‘their speed’ x ‘amount of time they work’
Speed can vary between men, women, and children or even between two dissimilar groups.
Time taken to fill a tank with water = ‘Volume of Empty portion of tank’ / ‘Net volume being pumped’

ALGEBRA
Polynomial: Any expression of the form
Coeff. ← axn + bxn-1 + cxn-2 + …………….. + z
n∈I ↓
Var.
Some Results
(a + b) ² = a² + 2ab + b²
(a - b) ² = a² - 2ab + b²
(a + b) ² = (a – b) ² + 4ab.
(a + b) (a – b) = a² - b²
(a+b)³ = a³+3ab(a+b)+b ³
(a – b) ³ = a³-3ab(a–b)–b³
a³ + b³ = (a+b)(a²-ab+b²)
a³ - b³ = (a–b)(a²+ab+b²)

(a + b + c) ² = a² + b² + c² + 2 (ab + bc + ca).

## (a+b+c+d) ² = a²+b²+c²+d²+2a(b+c+d )+2b(c+d)+2cd

(x+a)(x+b)(x+c)=x³+(a+b+c)x²+(ab+bc+ca)x+a b c

a³+b³+c³-3abc = (a+b+c)(a²+b²+c²-ab–bc–ca)

## If a+b+c = 0, then a³ + b³ + c³ = 3abc

NON MATHS STUDENTS: Many students try to cram the above formulas without actually knowing how they came
about. Work on them by expanding the Left hand side to get RHS. Same goes for Linear and quadratic equations.

Divisibility Rule
xn +an is exactly divisible by (x + a); if n is odd, but not if n is even

## (xn-an) is divisible by (x + a) if n is even but not if n is odd

Linear equations
The system of linear equations a1x + b1y + c1 = 0; a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 will have
a1 b1
Unique solution, if ≠
a2 b2
a1 b1 c
No solution, if = ≠ 1 .
a2 b2 c 2
a1 b1 c1
Infinite no. of solutions, if = =
a2 b2 c2

An equation of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 where a, b, c are real numbers and a ≠ 0
− b ± b 2 − 4ac
x=
2a
Discriminant D = b2 – 4ac
b
Sum of roots = α + β = −
a
c
Product of roots = αβ =
a
Difference of roots = α - β = (α + β) 2 − 4αβ
If D>0, then D = real, so roots are real and unequal
If D = 0, then roots are real and equal
If D<0, then D =imaginary, so roots are imaginary and conjugate

If D is Perfect Square, roots are rational and unequal, & if D is not a perfect square, roots are irrational and
conjugate

## The same equation can also be written as

x2 – ( α + β ) x + α β = 0

BASIC GEOMETRY

## AREA and VOLUMES

Polygon Formulas
N = number of sides
Sum of the interior angles = (N - 2) x 180°
Each interior angle = (N-2) x 180°/N
Sum of exterior angles = (N+2) 180°

You need at-least 3 lines to form a plane figure (triangle) and 4 lines to form a solid (tetrahedron).

Perimeter Formulae
Square = 4side
Rectangle = 2(sum of adjacent sides)
Triangle = a + b + c
Circle = 2Πr

## Length of a Circular Arc: (with central angle Ө)

If the angle is in degrees, then length = Ө/180 x Π r
If the angle is in radians, then length = r x Ө

## PLANE SURFACES - Area

square = (side)2
rectangle = (side 1) x (side 2)
parallelogram = length of a side x perpendicular distance between them
trapezoid = average of parallel sides x perpendicular distance between them
circle = Πr2
ellipse = Πr1r2

## triangle = ½(base x perpendicular)

equilateral triangle = √3 a2/4
triangle = (1/2)ab sine C
triangle = s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c) when s = (a+b+c)/2

## Area of Circle Sector: (with central angle Ө)

if the angle Ө is in degrees, then area=(Ө /360) x Πr2
if the angle Ө is in radians, then area = (Ө /2)Πr2
SOLIDS - Area
Surface Area of a Cube = 6a2
Surface Area of a Cuboid = 2ab + 2bc + 2ac
Surface Area of Any Prism = (perimeter of shape end surface) * L + Area of two ends
Surface Area of a Sphere = 4Πr2
Surface Area of a Cylinder = 2Πr2 + 2Πr h

SOLIDS -Volume
cube = a3
cuboid = a x b x c
Any irregular prism = (Area of Base) x perpendicular height between them
cylinder = Πr2h
pyramid = (1/3) Area of Base x perpendicular height
cone = 1/3Πr2h
sphere = (4/3) Πr3
ellipsoid = (4/3) Πr1r2r3
NON MATHS STUDENTS: Questions on area and volumes usually ask you to arrive at a dimension of a figure on the
basis of comparison with a different figure. E.g. if a cube completely resides in a sphere, what will be the relationship of the
sphere’s radii to the cube’s side.

## SET THEORY AND TRIGONOMETRY

SET THEORY
Union of two sets
n(A ∪ B) = n(A) + n(B) – n(A ∩ B)
Union of three sets
n(A ∪ B ∪ C) = n(A) + n(B) + n(C) – n(A ∩ B) – n(A ∩ C) – n(B ∩ C) + n(A ∩ B ∩ C).

With the help of Venn diagram one can understand these relationships also
(A ∩ B) ∩ C = A ∩ (B ∩ C ),
(A ∪ B) ∪ C= A ∪ (B ∪ C)
A ∩ B= B ∩ A,
A ∪ B= B ∪ A
A ∩ A= A, A ∪ A= A
A ∩ U= A, A∪ φ = A
A ∩ φ = φ , A ∪ U=U
A ∩ (B ∪ C)= (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C)
A ∪ (B ∩ C)= (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C)
(A’)’=A
(A ∩ B)’= A’ ∪ B’
(A ∪ B)’=A’ ∩ B’
A ∩ A’= φ , A ∪ A’=U
φ ’=U , U’= φ
(A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ B’)=A
A ∩ B’=A-B
NON MATHS STUDENTS: No need to remember all these formulas (except for union of 3 sets). The best way would be
to verify all the above formulas on a Venn diagram. Remember CAT does not want to test your memory but your ability to
think logically.

U
A B
8
1 5 2
7
4 6
3
C
A = {1, 4, 5, 7} A ∩ B= B ∩ A={5, 7}
A’ = {2, 3, 6, 8} B ∩ C= C ∩ B={6, 7}
B = {2, 5, 6, 7} C ∩ A= A ∩ C={4, 7}
B’ = {1, 4, 3, 8} A ∪ B= B ∪ A={1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7}
C = {3, 4, 6, 7} B ∪ C= C ∪ B={2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}
C’ = {1, 2, 5, 8} C ∪ A= A ∪ C={1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}
U = {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8}
U’ =
φ

## A ∩ (B ∪ C)={1, 4, 5, 7} ∩ ({2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7})={4, 5, 7}

(A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C)=({5, 7}) ∪ ({4, 7})={4, 5, 7}
A ∪ (B ∩ C) = {1, 4, 5, 7} ∪ ({6, 7}) = {1, 4, 5, 6, 7}
(A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C)=({1,2,4,5,6,7}) ∩ ({1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}) = {1, 4, 5, 6, 7}
(A ∩ B)’ = {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8}
A’ ∪ B’ = {2, 3, 6, 8} ∪ {1, 3, 4, 8}={1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8}

TRIGONOMETRY
Sin Ө = Opposite side/Hypotenuse
Tan Ө = Sin Ө / Cos Ө
Tan Ө = Opposite side / Adjacent side

## Angle ˚ Sin Ө Cos Ө Tan Ө

0 √(0/4) √ (4/4) √(0/4)
30 √ (1/4) √ (3/4) √(1/3)
45 √ (2/4) √ (2/4) √(2/2)
60 √ (3/4) √ (1/4) √(3/1)
90 √ (4/4) √ (0/4) ∞ =√(4/0)
120 √ (3/4) -√ (1/4) -√(3/1)
135 √ (2/4) -√ (2/4) -√(2/2)
150 √ (1/4) -√ (3/4) -√(1/3)
180 √ (0/4) -√ (4/4) -√(0/4)
210 -√ (1/4) -√ (3/4) √ (1/3)
225 -√ (2/4) -√ (2/4) √ (2/2)
240 -√ (3/4) -√ (1/4) √ (3/1)
270 -√ (4/4) √ (0/4) ∞ =√ (4/0)
300 -√ (3/4) √ (1/4) -√ (3/1)
315 -√ (2/4) √ (2/4) -√ (2/2)
330 -√ (1/4) √ (3/4) -√ (1/3)
360 √ (0/4) √ (4/4) √ (0/4)

NON MATHS STUDENTS: Note the pattern of trigonometry values. If you stumble in exam, you can easily recall with the
help of the pattern.