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NUMBER THEORY

TYPES OF NUMBERS

Natural Number: 1,2,3,4,5,6………

Even: 0,2,4,6,8……

Odd: 1,3,5,7……

Whole Number: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6……..

Integer:..…-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3……

Fraction: -3/8, 2/9 ………

All of above are Rational numbers

Irrational number: Π, √3, √(4/7) ………..

All of above are Real numbers.

Imaginary/complex number: i, √(-1), 3+i, …….

Prime number: 2,3,5,7,11,13,17,19……

Composite number: 4,6,8,9…..

Unique number: 1

Special numbers

-even prime: 2

-pair of relative primes: (4,9), (8,15) etc

-perfect number: 6, 28, 496 etc where sum of divisors is twice the number itself.

By NON MATHS STUDENTS is meant a student who has studied maths only till 10th standard. If a concept in CAT is out

of range of 10th standard maths then the concept is usually explained in the exam paper itself. For example - Fibonacci

Series. Hence you should be aware of such numbers but don’t need to cram them.

Important Points

If ‘n’ is even then (n -1) or (n +1) is odd and vice versa.

Sum or difference of two even or two odd numbers is always even. Sum or difference of one even and one

odd number is always odd.

Product of even numbers is even and of odd numbers is odd. Product of even and odd is even number. Similar

properties can be extrapolated for exponents as they are only repeated multiplication.

If n >1 and odd then (n-1)n(n+1) is always divisible by 24.

NON MATHS STUDENTS: There are hundreds of such relations possible and if it is hard to remember all of them, verify

by inserting a few values. Then cancel out the choices to arrive at the right answer.

- if ‘n’ is even then there are n/2 even and odd numbers. The 2 middle numbers are n/2, (n+2)/2

- if ‘n’ is odd then there are (n - 1)/2 even and (n +1)/2 odd numbers. The middle number is (n+1)/2

DIVISIBILITY

-2: number formed by last digit is divisible by 2

-4: number formed by last 2 digits is divisible by 4

-8: number formed by last 3 digits is divisible by 8

-9: sum of digits divisible by 9

-25: number formed by last 2 digits is divisible by 25

-125: number formed by last 3 digits is divisible by 125

-100:last two digits are 0

-1000: last three digits are 0

-6: number is divisible by both 2 & 3

-12: number is divisible by both 4 & 3

-15: number is divisible by both 5 & 3

-18: number is divisible by both 9 & 2

-11: subtract the sum of digits in odd places from sum of digits in even places. If result is divisible by 11 then

number is divisible by 11

NON MATHS STUDENTS: There are divisibility rules for 7,13,17, 19 etc. But rather than cramming them, one should

learn to extrapolate the rules of divisibility of basic numbers like 2,3,5 to larger numbers like 8,9,25.

To check if number is prime: check if the number is divisible by a prime number smaller than its square root.

SURDS

( a) = a

a

a

( a )( b ) =

n n n

ab

n

a a

= n

n

b b

m n

a = mn

a

-for surds (√a+√b) x (√a-√b) or

-for complex numbers (a+ib) x (a-ib)

HCF of fraction

= (HCF of Numerator)/(LCM of Denominator)

LCM of fraction

= (LCM of Numerator)/(HCF of Denominator)

For two positive numbers ‘a’& ‘b’

a x b = LCM (a, b) x HCF(a, b)

EXPONENTS

m0 = 1

mp x mq = mp+q

mp x mr x mq = mp+r+q and so on

mp / mq = mp-q

mq / mp = mq-p

(mp )q = mpq

m1/p = p√m = m-p

mq/p = p√mq = m-p/q

(m x n)p = mp x np

(m / n)p = mp / np

LOGS

If ax=N, then Log a N = x.

E.g. 63 = 216, then Log 6 216 = 3

Log to base 10 are called common log.

If the base of the log is not indicated it should be understood as 10. e.g. log 100 = 2.

Important Points

Log 1 = 0

Log a a = 1

Log m*n = Log m + Log n

Log (a*b*c...) = Log a + Log b + Log c .......

Log (a/b) = Log a – Log b

Log am = m Log a

Log a b × log b a = 1

a log a N = N.

logamn=n logam

logbn = loga n/loga b

logb a = log c a , where c is any number.

log c b

NON MATHS STUDENTS: While exponent and log would seem a whole different type of operation, they are not. As

multiplication is an extension of addition similarly exponent is an extension of the multiplication concept. Keep this in mind

while studying logs and exponents.

MEAN

Mode: Most frequent number in a given set.

Median: In a series of ‘n’ numbers, arranged in ascending order, Median is the middle number if ‘n’ is odd Or

the average of the 2 middle numbers if ‘n’ is even.

Average: of ‘a’ and ‘b’ is (a+b)/2

Average: of ‘a’, ’b’ and ‘c’ is (a+b+c)/3

Arithmetic Mean:

AM of ‘a’ and ‘b’ is (a + b)/2

Weighted Arithmetic Mean: WM = (w1a1 +w2a2 +……wnan) / (w1+w2+….wn)

In a series of ‘n’ numbers AM = (a1 + a2+ …..an)/n

Geometric Mean:

GM of ‘a’ and ‘b’ is (a x b)1/2

GM of ‘a’ and ‘b’ and ‘c’ is (a x b x c)1/3

In a series of ‘n’ numbers GM = (a1 x a2 x …..an)1/n

Harmonic Mean:

HM of ‘a’ and ‘b’ is 2ab/(a+b)

HM of ‘a’ and ‘b’ and ‘c’ is 3abc/(ab + bc + ac)

In a series of ‘n’ numbers HM = n / (1/x1 + 1/x2 + ….. 1/xn )

AM x HM = (GM)2

HM < GM < AM

NON MATHS STUDENTS: Progressions are an extension of the concept of means where the consequent numbers are

related.

PROGRESSION

Arithmetic Progression (A. P)

a2 = a1 + d

⎛a +a ⎞

an = ⎜ n −1 n +1 ⎟

⎝ 2 ⎠

an = a + (n – 1)d

Sn = a1 + (a1 + d) + (a1 + 2d) + ... + [a1 + (n-1)d]

Sn = n[2a1 + (n-1)d] /2

Sn = n[a1 + an]/2

sum of first n natural numbers = n(n+1)/2

Geometric Progressions

a2 = a1 x r

an = arn-1

Sn = a + ar + ar2 + ………… + arn-2 + arn-1

a (r − 1)

n ⎫

⇒ Sn = ; r >1⎪

(r − 1) ⎪

⎬

a (1 − r )

n

Sn = ; r < 1⎪

(1 − r ) ⎪⎭

a

If |r| is very small compared to 1 then rn tends to zero and S ∞ =

1− r

2 n ( n + 1)( 2n + 1)

∑n =

6

2

3 ⎡ n ( n + 1) ⎤

∑n =

⎢⎣ 2 ⎥⎦

If the nth term of any series is an3 + bn2 + cn + d , the sum to ‘n’ terms will be a∑n3 + b∑n2 + c∑n + dn.

Substituting above two formulas for ∑n2 and ∑n3 we can arrive at sum of such a term.

SIMPLE APPLICATIONS

If q: r :: s: t then r: q :: t: s

If q: r:: s: t then q : s : : r : t

If q: r:: s : t then ( q + r ) : r : : ( s + t ) : t

If q: r:: s : t then ( q - r ) : r : : ( s - t ) : t

If q : r :: s: t then (q + r):(q – r )::(s+ t ):(s–t)

p r u p+ r+u

If = = ...... then = each of the individual ratios.

q s v q+s+v

Direct Variation

A ∝ B

A = k x B, where k is a constant

Inverse variation

A ∝ 1/B

A = k/B

Or A xB=k

PERCENTAGE, INTEREST, PROFIT AND LOSS

% Change = Absolute value change × 100

Original quantity

Interest

is = simple Interest rate, ic = Compound Interest rate

A = P x ((is x t)+ 100))/100

or

A = P x ((ic +100)/100)t

Interest Charged = A - P

If CP = Cost Price, SP = Selling Price

P = Profit, L = Loss

P% = (SP – CP) x 100/ CP

MP (Marked Price) - price displayed on the label

Discount - article is sold at a price less than the list price . Discount = MP – SP

P × 100

Margin % =

SP

Mark up is the increment on the CP before being sold to the customer.

MP − CP

Markup % = × 100

CP

NON MATHS STUDENTS: Profit/Loss can be the easiest to score in CAT. What actually makes it tough is the inability to

understand various terms. The same is the case with speed/time and questions on work.

SPEED

Speed = distance / time

Average speed = total distance/total time

Velocity – only difference between speed and velocity is that the later takes relative distance into account.

Terms in a race

-Lead - A gives 5 meters/seconds lead to B in a 100 meters/seconds race. This means that A would start

running when B has already covered 5 meters OR 5 seconds after B has started.

-Win - A wins 100m race from B by 5 meters/seconds. This means that A has reached the winning post when B

was 5m away OR 5 seconds before B

- Dead Heat - when all the participants reach the winning post at the same time.

If a number of events of different duration start simultaneously then the duration after which they will again

be in a simultaneous position is the LCM of their individual duration

Clocks – The relative speed of minute hand to clock hand is 5.5˚/minute.

WORK

Amount of work = ‘number of people working’ x ‘their speed’ x ‘amount of time they work’

Speed can vary between men, women, and children or even between two dissimilar groups.

Time taken to fill a tank with water = ‘Volume of Empty portion of tank’ / ‘Net volume being pumped’

ALGEBRA

Polynomial: Any expression of the form

Coeff. ← axn + bxn-1 + cxn-2 + …………….. + z

n∈I ↓

Var.

Some Results

(a + b) ² = a² + 2ab + b²

(a - b) ² = a² - 2ab + b²

(a + b) ² = (a – b) ² + 4ab.

(a + b) (a – b) = a² - b²

(a+b)³ = a³+3ab(a+b)+b ³

(a – b) ³ = a³-3ab(a–b)–b³

a³ + b³ = (a+b)(a²-ab+b²)

a³ - b³ = (a–b)(a²+ab+b²)

(a + b + c) ² = a² + b² + c² + 2 (ab + bc + ca).

(x+a)(x+b)(x+c)=x³+(a+b+c)x²+(ab+bc+ca)x+a b c

a³+b³+c³-3abc = (a+b+c)(a²+b²+c²-ab–bc–ca)

NON MATHS STUDENTS: Many students try to cram the above formulas without actually knowing how they came

about. Work on them by expanding the Left hand side to get RHS. Same goes for Linear and quadratic equations.

Divisibility Rule

xn +an is exactly divisible by (x + a); if n is odd, but not if n is even

Linear equations

The system of linear equations a1x + b1y + c1 = 0; a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 will have

a1 b1

Unique solution, if ≠

a2 b2

a1 b1 c

No solution, if = ≠ 1 .

a2 b2 c 2

a1 b1 c1

Infinite no. of solutions, if = =

a2 b2 c2

Quadratic Equations

An equation of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 where a, b, c are real numbers and a ≠ 0

− b ± b 2 − 4ac

x=

2a

Discriminant D = b2 – 4ac

b

Sum of roots = α + β = −

a

c

Product of roots = αβ =

a

Difference of roots = α - β = (α + β) 2 − 4αβ

If D>0, then D = real, so roots are real and unequal

If D = 0, then roots are real and equal

If D<0, then D =imaginary, so roots are imaginary and conjugate

If D is Perfect Square, roots are rational and unequal, & if D is not a perfect square, roots are irrational and

conjugate

x2 – ( α + β ) x + α β = 0

BASIC GEOMETRY

Polygon Formulas

N = number of sides

Sum of the interior angles = (N - 2) x 180°

Each interior angle = (N-2) x 180°/N

Sum of exterior angles = (N+2) 180°

You need at-least 3 lines to form a plane figure (triangle) and 4 lines to form a solid (tetrahedron).

Perimeter Formulae

Square = 4side

Rectangle = 2(sum of adjacent sides)

Triangle = a + b + c

Circle = 2Πr

If the angle is in degrees, then length = Ө/180 x Π r

If the angle is in radians, then length = r x Ө

square = (side)2

rectangle = (side 1) x (side 2)

parallelogram = length of a side x perpendicular distance between them

trapezoid = average of parallel sides x perpendicular distance between them

circle = Πr2

ellipse = Πr1r2

equilateral triangle = √3 a2/4

triangle = (1/2)ab sine C

triangle = s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c) when s = (a+b+c)/2

if the angle Ө is in degrees, then area=(Ө /360) x Πr2

if the angle Ө is in radians, then area = (Ө /2)Πr2

360˚ = 2Π radians

SOLIDS - Area

Surface Area of a Cube = 6a2

Surface Area of a Cuboid = 2ab + 2bc + 2ac

Surface Area of Any Prism = (perimeter of shape end surface) * L + Area of two ends

Surface Area of a Sphere = 4Πr2

Surface Area of a Cylinder = 2Πr2 + 2Πr h

SOLIDS -Volume

cube = a3

cuboid = a x b x c

Any irregular prism = (Area of Base) x perpendicular height between them

cylinder = Πr2h

pyramid = (1/3) Area of Base x perpendicular height

cone = 1/3Πr2h

sphere = (4/3) Πr3

ellipsoid = (4/3) Πr1r2r3

NON MATHS STUDENTS: Questions on area and volumes usually ask you to arrive at a dimension of a figure on the

basis of comparison with a different figure. E.g. if a cube completely resides in a sphere, what will be the relationship of the

sphere’s radii to the cube’s side.

SET THEORY

Union of two sets

n(A ∪ B) = n(A) + n(B) – n(A ∩ B)

Union of three sets

n(A ∪ B ∪ C) = n(A) + n(B) + n(C) – n(A ∩ B) – n(A ∩ C) – n(B ∩ C) + n(A ∩ B ∩ C).

With the help of Venn diagram one can understand these relationships also

(A ∩ B) ∩ C = A ∩ (B ∩ C ),

(A ∪ B) ∪ C= A ∪ (B ∪ C)

A ∩ B= B ∩ A,

A ∪ B= B ∪ A

A ∩ A= A, A ∪ A= A

A ∩ U= A, A∪ φ = A

A ∩ φ = φ , A ∪ U=U

A ∩ (B ∪ C)= (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C)

A ∪ (B ∩ C)= (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C)

(A’)’=A

(A ∩ B)’= A’ ∪ B’

(A ∪ B)’=A’ ∩ B’

A ∩ A’= φ , A ∪ A’=U

φ ’=U , U’= φ

(A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ B’)=A

A ∩ B’=A-B

NON MATHS STUDENTS: No need to remember all these formulas (except for union of 3 sets). The best way would be

to verify all the above formulas on a Venn diagram. Remember CAT does not want to test your memory but your ability to

think logically.

U

A B

8

1 5 2

7

4 6

3

C

A = {1, 4, 5, 7} A ∩ B= B ∩ A={5, 7}

A’ = {2, 3, 6, 8} B ∩ C= C ∩ B={6, 7}

B = {2, 5, 6, 7} C ∩ A= A ∩ C={4, 7}

B’ = {1, 4, 3, 8} A ∪ B= B ∪ A={1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7}

C = {3, 4, 6, 7} B ∪ C= C ∪ B={2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}

C’ = {1, 2, 5, 8} C ∪ A= A ∪ C={1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}

U = {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8}

U’ =

φ

(A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C)=({5, 7}) ∪ ({4, 7})={4, 5, 7}

A ∪ (B ∩ C) = {1, 4, 5, 7} ∪ ({6, 7}) = {1, 4, 5, 6, 7}

(A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C)=({1,2,4,5,6,7}) ∩ ({1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}) = {1, 4, 5, 6, 7}

(A ∩ B)’ = {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8}

A’ ∪ B’ = {2, 3, 6, 8} ∪ {1, 3, 4, 8}={1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8}

TRIGONOMETRY

Sin Ө = Opposite side/Hypotenuse

Cos Ө = Adjacent side/Hypotenuse

Tan Ө = Sin Ө / Cos Ө

Tan Ө = Opposite side / Adjacent side

0 √(0/4) √ (4/4) √(0/4)

30 √ (1/4) √ (3/4) √(1/3)

45 √ (2/4) √ (2/4) √(2/2)

60 √ (3/4) √ (1/4) √(3/1)

90 √ (4/4) √ (0/4) ∞ =√(4/0)

120 √ (3/4) -√ (1/4) -√(3/1)

135 √ (2/4) -√ (2/4) -√(2/2)

150 √ (1/4) -√ (3/4) -√(1/3)

180 √ (0/4) -√ (4/4) -√(0/4)

210 -√ (1/4) -√ (3/4) √ (1/3)

225 -√ (2/4) -√ (2/4) √ (2/2)

240 -√ (3/4) -√ (1/4) √ (3/1)

270 -√ (4/4) √ (0/4) ∞ =√ (4/0)

300 -√ (3/4) √ (1/4) -√ (3/1)

315 -√ (2/4) √ (2/4) -√ (2/2)

330 -√ (1/4) √ (3/4) -√ (1/3)

360 √ (0/4) √ (4/4) √ (0/4)

NON MATHS STUDENTS: Note the pattern of trigonometry values. If you stumble in exam, you can easily recall with the

help of the pattern.

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