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FCPIT
Submitted To: - Submitted By: -
Mrs. Rupandeep Kaur Parul Saini

CSE-1st Semester

Roll No:

DWIET

FAMILIARISATION OF
COMPUTER
Computer stands for

Complicated office mechanism put under tremendous


exrediture to reduce Man-Power.

Definitions of Computer

• An electronic device for the storage and processing of


information. A programmable machine that inputs,
processes and outputs data. An electronic device that
stores retrieves and processes data and can be
programmed with instructions. A computer is composed
of hardware, software and can exist in a variety of sizes
and configurations.
• A program that performs one of the tasks for which a
computer a used such as word processing or numerical
computations. A device or system that is capable of
carrying out a sequence of operations in a defined
manner. The operations are frequently numeric
computations or data manipulations but also include data
input and output.

• An electronic unit that receives information data from


sensors processes the information and then performs the
function it was programmed to do. Generally this function
is in the form of an output or command.

• A multi-function electronic device that can execute


instruction to perform a task.

• A programmable machine comprising of hardware,


including electronic components for the storage and
manipulation of digital signals and devices for storing
inputting and displaying digital information.

• A functional unit that can perform substantial


computations including numerous arithmetic operations
and logic operations without human intervention during a
run in information processing. The term computer usually
describes a digital computer. A computer may consist or
standalone unit or may consist of several interconnected
units.
• A machine for performing calculation automatically e.g.
calculator; an expert at calculation (or at operating
calculating machines).

• A computer is device or machine for making calculations


or controlling operations that are expressible in numerical
or logical terms. Computers are made from components
that perform simple well defined functions.

All computer systems perform the following five basic


operations:

1. INPUTTING: - The process of entering data and


instructions into the computer system.

2. STORING: - Saving data and instructions so that they are


available for initial or for additional processing as and
when required.

3. PROCESSING: - Performing arithmetic or logical


operations (Comparisons like equal to, less than, greater
than etc.) on data in order to convert them into useful.

4. OUTPUTTING: - The process of producing useful


information or results for the user, such as a printed
report or visual display.

5. CONTROLLING: - Directing the manner and sequence in


which all of the above operations are performed.
INPUT UNIT
Data and instruction must enter the computer system before
any computations can be performed on the supplied data. This
task is performed by the input unit that links the external
environment with the computer system. The following
functions are performed by the input unit:

1. It accepts (or reads) the list of instructions and data from


the outside world.
2. It converts these instructions and data in computer
acceptable form.
3. It supplies the converted instructions and data to the
computer system for further processing.

OUTPUT UNIT
The job of an output unit is just the reverse of that of an input
unit. It supplies information and result of computation to the
outside world. Thus it links the computer with the external
environment as computer works with the binary form. Hence
before supplying the results to the outside world, it must be
converted into human acceptable form. This task is
accomplished by the output unit.

1. It accepts the result produced by the computer which are


in coded form and hence cannot be easily understood by
us.
2. It converts these coded results to human acceptable
form.
3. It supplies the converted results to the outside world.
STORAGE UNIT
The data and instructions that are entered into the computer
system through input units have to be stored inside the
computer before the actual processing starts. Similarly the
results produced by the computer after processing must also
be kept somewhere inside the computer system.

PROGRAM AND DATA


BASIC ORGANISATION OF A
COMPUTER SYSTEM
Computer system before being passed onto output units
moreover the intermediate results produced by the computer
must also be preserved for ongoing processing the storage unit
of a computer system is designed to cater to all these needs.
The specific functions of the storage unit are to hold:

1. All the data to be processed and the instructions required


for processing (received from input devices).
2. Intermediate results of processing.
3. Final results of processing before these results are
released to an output devices.

AIRTHMETIC LOGICAL UNIT


The arithmetic logical unit (ALU) of a computer system is the
place where actual execution of the instructions takes place
during the processing operation to be more to be more precise.
All calculations are performed and all comparisons are made in
the ALU. The data and the instruction stored in the primary
storage prior to processing are transferred as and when
needed to the ALU where processing takes place. No
processing is done in the primary storage unit.

Intermediate results generated in the ALU are temporarily


transferred back to the primary storage unit needed at a later
time. Data may thus move from primary storage to ALU and
back again to storage may time before the processing is over.
After the completion of processing the final results which are
stored in the storage unit are released to an output device.

ALU is designed to perform the four basic arithmetic


operations. Add, subtract, multiply, divide and logic operations
or comparisons. Such as less than equal to or greater than.

CONTROL UNIT

Control unit let us know the input device that it is time for it to
feed data into the storage unit. It lets the ALU know what
should be done with the data once they are received. And it is
the control unit which manages the final results by selecting
interpreting and seeing to the execution of the program
instructions the control unit is able to maintain order and direct
the operation of the entire system although it does not perform
any actual processing on the data. The control unit acts as the
central nervous system for the other components of the
computer. It manages and coordinates the entire computer
system. It obtains instructions from the program stored in the
main memory. Interprets the instructions and issues signals
that cause other units of the system to execute them.

CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT

The control unit and the arithmetic logical unit of a computer


system are jointly known as the central processing unit- the
CPU. It is the brain of any computer system. In a human body,
all major decisions are taken by the brain and the other parts
of the body function as directed by the brain. Similarly in a
computer system all major calculations and comparisons are
made inside the CPU and the CPU is also responsible for
activating and controlling the operations of other units of a
computer.
MEMORY
It is the medium which stores binary information. The function
of the memory is to store data instructions and the results.
There are two kinds of memories:

PRIMARY MEMORY: The primary memory of a


computer is a vast memory which stores programs, data during
the computer operations is of two types:-

a. RAM (Random Access Memory):- The read and write


memory of a computer is called RAM i.e. the information
can be read and written into RAM. It is a volatile memory.
The information can be retained in the RAM till the power
is on. And when the power is off the data is deleted from
the RAM. There are two kinds of RAM:

1. S-RAM (Static RAM): It does not require any


regenerator circuit to retain the stored data.

2. D-RAM (Dynamic RAM): It stores the information in


the form of electric charges that are applied to the
capacitors recharging the capacitor for the
information.

b. ROM (Read only Memory):- It can store information


permanently. It is not possible to write any information in
the ROM that is why it is called non-volatile memory. Its
types are:
1. P-ROM: It stands for programmed Read only
memory. It is programmable only once.

2. EP-ROM: It stands for erasable programmable read


only memory. The data it programs can be written
on to EP-ROM many times. Data can be erased by
exposing ultra violet rays.

3. EEP-ROM: It stands for electrically erasable


programmable read only memory.

SECONDARY MEMORY
It is very much larger than main memory or primary memory
but it is very much slower than main memory. It stores system
programs, large data files assembler, compilers etc. examples
Magnetic disks and hard disks.

MAGNETIC DISKS

It is an input-output device. The medium of storage is a


circular plate made of aluminium. The plate is known as disk
which rotates continuously with constant speed. In this the
track is divided into sectors. It is of two types:

1. Soft sectored disk


2. Hard sectored disk
WINDOWS
Window Operating System
Windows is a Graphical Operating System. It is a hybrid 16-
bit/32-bit monolithic product based on MS-DOS.

FEATURES

The Graphical User Interface (GUI) runs on a DOS-based layer.


This is the partially an advantage and disadvantage. DOS has
some limits (such as number of disk buffers or simultaneously
opened file) but through its environment memory managers,
drivers or other applications can be loaded which can improve
overall system performance and functionality.

Windows also offers full support for DOS applications in the


form of being able to boot in “DOS mode” (MS DOS can be
booted without booting windows or putting CPU in protected
mode). This differs from the emulation used in Windows NT-
based OS in that the letter. Cabot handle devices such as
modem and LAN cards, which are required for certain DOS
applications.

Since DOS programs provide their own device drivers, some


DOS programs, such as those that require a sound blaster
compatible sound card, can’t run or newer computers without
window (which provides sound blaster emulation in some
sound card drives).
LAN cards that are not NE2000 compatible generally can’t be
used at all by DOS programs with or without windows.

DOS mode also offers the ability to fix certain system errors
without entering the GUI. For example if a virus is active I a
GUI mode it can often be safely removed in DOS mode by
deleting its executable files which usually can’t run without
windows.

While in DOS mode, the 32 bit windows player can be started


with some dos programs that were used for older version of
windows going back to windows 1.0.

The biggest advantage of this OS is its compatibility of


windows and MS DOS. It can successfully run very old
applications that were written for windows 3.0, while also being
able to run new applications and applications written for
Windows NT.

DESKTOP OVERVIEW
The desktop, which is screen that you see after you log on to
Windows, is one of the most important features on your
computer. The desktop can contain shortcuts to your most
frequently used programs, documents and printers. The
desktop can also be the home of active contents such as news
or travel channel.

To adjust heading such as desktop colour and background,


right click any empty area on the desktop and then click
properties.

By default, desktop is the home of following features: -

TASKBAR
The taskbar appears at the bottom of the screen. The taskbar
contains the start button which you can use to quickly start a
program, find a file, access help.
When you open a program or document in windows a button
appears on the taskbar for each item. Use the buttons to
quickly switch from one open window to another.

Minimize all open windows and access the desktop with one
click on the show desktop button on the taskbar.

MY COMPUTER
Use this folder to quickly see the contents on your floppy disk,
hard disk, CD ROM drive and map network drives. From within
my computer you can also open control panel where you can
configure many settings on your computer.

MY DOCUMENTS
Use this folder as a default storage location for documents,
graphics and other files, including saved web pages. Each user
who logs on to the computer has a unique my documents
folder, so the documents you store in you’re my documents
folder are not really available to another person who uses the
same computer.

MY NETWORK PLACE
Use this folder to locate shared resources on the entire
network to which your computer is connected. Shortcuts to the
computer, web servers, and FTP server where you have
accessed documents or programs are automatically created in
my network places. You can also create shortcuts to network,
web and FTP servers by using the add network place wizard.

If your computer is a member of working group, you can


double click computers to near me to narrow your search to
computers that are in same background.

RECYCLE BIN
The recycle bin stores deleted files folders graphics and web
pages until you empty the bin. If you want to retrieve an item
that you have deleted, look in the recycle bin.

INTERNET EXPLORER
Using an internet connection and internet explorer you can
browse the World Wide Web and your local internet.

TITLE BAR
The place in the window where the information of the
application opened and in use by the user is known as the title
bar.

MENU BAR
The horizontal bar below the title bar that contains the names
of the menus. A menu bar can be the built in menu bar or as
custom menu bar.

DOCUMENT WINDOW
The area of the application window where the main document
is proceed by the user is kale the document window.
MS WORD
Purpose of Word Processing
A word processor is a program or set of programs that enables
you to write, edit format and print text.

Text area: This is where your text, graphics, charts or tables


will display as you enter them.

To start the MS Word the following list are performed

• Click on start button.


• Select the option program.
• Go to MS Word.

MS Word Window
It consists of various components like menu
bar, title bar, status bar, tool bar, scroll bar and
ruler line.
1. Menu Bar

You can use menu and tool bar to give Microsoft word
instructions about what you want to do. It displays the list
of commands.
1. File: Allows you to perform file related activities,
including opening, saving and printing.

2. Edit: Allows you to edit, search, replace and link


text.

3. View: Allows you to define options concerning how


you want WORD for Windows to appear for you.

4. Insert: Allows you to insert various types of


elements into your document.

5. Format: Allows you to define how you want your


text or other document elements to appear.

6. Tools: Provides various tools, which can be used to


refine your document.

7. Table: Allows creating, inserting, editing and


deleting table.

8. Help: Allows you to get either general or specific


help.

2. Scroll Bar
The scroll bar allows you to view or display different parts
of your document in the document window by scrolling up
or down, left or right.

Vertical scroll bar

Horizontal scroll bar

1. Title bar

Title bar displays the name of the current file and the
name of the current program.

2. Status Bar

The status bar provides you with information about the


status of your program.

3. Tool bar

Tool bars generally display right below the menu,


although they can be dragged and displayed along any of
the window borders. You use the icons on the toolbars to
send commands to the program.

3. Creating a Document

For a new document we have a blank screen where we


start to type a document. When we open a new
document, we can have the various options like font size,
margin, dimensioning, underline etc.
On entering the text of the word does not fit to the line,
automatically shifted to the beginning of the next line. To
create a new document the following steps are used.

o Type the text in document window.


o Select the file option from the main menu.
o Click on save as.
o Give file name to your document. Click on the same
button to save the file. To close the file option from
the main menu click option.

1. Opening a Word Window

We can open a consisting document for reading or


editing purpose. To open a document following steps
are followed:

 Select the file option


 Click on the open option
 Select the desire file
 And click on open window

2. Editing

Editing prefers to make changes to an existing


document. MS Word provides various features to
modify and changing the existing document. Thus
change can be done by using the feature like cut,
copy and paste (pull down the edit menu by
pressing the right arrow)

Cut- it removes the selected text from the


document. This selected text can be pasted to any
other part of the document. This can be done by
using the feature i.e. called copy.
1. Formatting text and paragraphs

Font refers to the type, style and size of the character


used in printing. MS Word provides us with a number of
font types, mainly- Roman, Arial etc. the different font
type is T.N-Roman.

To give more options we can do the font dialog box. We


can also change the text style, like bold, italics, underline
to enhance the look of our document or text.

2. Numbers and Bullets

We can numerate our words or paragraphs automatically


a numbers or by bullets. The procedures for that are as
follows:

o Select the text that you intent to bullet


o Click on format on the menu bar
o Choose bullets and numbering
o Choose the type of bullet that you need from the
window
o Click OK

Or

Select the text that you need to bullet, and then press to
choose numbering or bullets.
3. Header and Footer

While preparing a report you would found some


information to appear on the top or bottom of the page
like company’s name, report title etc. this is inserted by
using header and footer option.

Header are on the top margin of the page. To insert this


option we use the following steps:

o Select view option from the main menu


o Click on header and footer option
o From the ‘header/footer’, toolbar selected like insert
page number or data headings etc.
o Add the footer option.

4. Spelling Checks and Grammar Tool

While typing we may spell some words wrongly. When


you type the entire documents you can check the spelling
mistakes or grammar mistakes with the help of grammar
and spelling checking option.

The steps require for this are:

o Type the text in the window


o Select the tool option from the main menu
o Click spelling and grammar option
o We will be provided suggestions to correct or for
correcting your documents

5. Find and Replace text


To find the particular text in the document following steps
are followed

o Select edit option from menu


o Click on find option
o Type the text you want to find in ‘find what?’
o Click on find next button
o Cursor will be placed at the first occurrence of the
text
o Click on find next button to find next occurrence

6. Saving and protecting the documents

To protect our important document from an illegal,


existing document. We can use password protection
option which is as follows

o Select tool option from main menu


o Click on protection document option
o Click OK

7. Print Option

The end product of word processing sessions is always


printed document. Before you print we will need to check
your printer setup and all its elements are in place. Then
printing is usually a simple matter of clicking the print
button on the tool bar.

o On the file menu, click print


o Under page range, specifies the portion of the
document you want to print
o If you click pages, you must also enter the page
number or page ranges you want to include, or both.

1. Print more than one copy at a time

o On the file menu click print


o In the number of copies box, enter the number of
copies you want to print

2. Preview a document before printing

o To display each page as it will look when printed,


click print preview on the standard toolbar
o To exit print preview and return to the previous view
of the document, click close.

C++ PROGRAMS
Program to find greatest of
three numbers
#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main();
{
clrscr();
int a,b,c;
cout<<”enter three numbers”;
cin>>a>>b>>c;
If(a>>b&&a>>c)
cout<<”a is greatest”;
else if (b>>a&&b>>c);
cout<<”b is greatest”;
else
cout<<”c is greatest”;
getch();
}

Program to find whether


number is even or odd
#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main();
{
clrscr();
int a;
cout<<”enter a number”;
cin>>a;
if(a%2==0)
cout<<”given number is even”;
else
cout<<”given number is odd”;
getch();
}

Program to find the sum of two


numbers
#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main();
{
clrscr();
int a,b;
cout<<”enter two numbers”;
cin>>a>>b;
cout<<”sum is”<<a+b;
getch();
}

Program to print days of a


week using switch statement
#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main();
{
clrscr();
int n;
cout<<”enter the value of n”;
cin>>n;
switch(n)
{
case 1:
cout<<”Sunday”;
break;
case 2:
cout<<”Monday”;
break;
case 3:
cout<<”Tuesday”;
break;
case 4:
cout<<”Wednesday”;
break;
case 5:
cout<<”Thursday”;
break;
case 6:
cout<<”Friday”;
break;
case 7:
cout<<”Saturday”;
break;
}
getch()
}

Program to find factorial of a


number
#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main();
{
clrscr();
int n,i,s=1;
cout<<”enter the number”;
cin>>n;
for(i=1;i<=n;i++)
s=s*i;
cout<<”factorial of number is”<<s;
getch();
}

Program to find reverse and


check whether it is palindrome
or not
#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main();
{
clrscr();
int num,d,c,r;
r=0;
d=0;
cout<<”enter the number”;
cin>>num;
c=num;
while(num>0)
{
d=num%10;
r=(r*10)+d;
num=num/10;
}
cout<<”reverse of number is”<<r;
if(c==num)
cout<<”number is palindrome”;
else
cout<<”number is not a palindrome”;
getch();
}

Program to find whether a


given number is prime or not
#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main();
{
clrscr();
long int n;
cout<<”enter number”;
cin>>n;
int c=0;
for(i=2;i=n/2;i++)
if (n%2==0)
{
c=1;
break;
}
if(c==0)
cout<<”number is prime”;
else
cout<<”number is not prime”;
getch();
}
Program to print * left justified
by using ‘for’
#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main();
{
clrscr();
int i,j;
for(i=1;i<=5;i++)
{
cout<<endl;
for(j=1;j<=i;j++)
cout<<”*”;
}
getch();
}
Program to print series from 1
to 10
#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main();
{
clrscr();
int i=1;
int n;
cout<<”enter the limit of series”;
cin>>n;
while(i<=n)
{
cout<<i<<”\n”;
i++;
}
getch();
}
Program to find Fibonacci
series
#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main();
{
clrscr();
int a,b,c,n,i;
cout<<”enter the value of n”;
cin>>n;
a=0;
b=1;
cout<<”the series is”;
cout<<” “<<a<<” “<<b;
i=1;
while(i<=n)
{
c=a+b;
a=b;
b=c;
cout<<” “<<c;
i++;
}
getch();
}

Program to swap two numbers


with the help of third variables
#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main();
{
clrscr();
int a,b,c;
cout<<”enter the value of a and b”;
cin>>a>>b;
c=a;
a=b;
b=c;
cout<<”value of a is”<<a<<endl;
cout<<”the value of b is”<<b;
getch();
}

Program for the addition of two


matrices
#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main();
{
clrscr();
int a[2][2], b[2][2], c[2][2],I,j,k;
for (i=0;i<2;i++)
{
for (j=0;j<2;j++)
{
cin>>a[i][j];
}
}
for (i=0;i<2;i++)
{
for (j=0;j<2;j++)
{
cin>>b[i][j];
}
}
for(i=0;i<2;i++)
{
for(j=0;j<2;j++)
{
c[i][j]=0;
for(k=0;k<2;k++)
{
c[i][j]=c[i][j]+a[i][k]*b[k][j];
}
}
}
for(i=0;i<2;i++)
{
for(j=0;j<2;j++)
{
cout<<c[i][j]<<endl;
}
}
getch();
}