TwoTransistor Amplifiers (6/13/00)
Page 1
3.3  TWOTRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS
INTRODUCTION
Objective The objective of this presentation is:
1.) Show how two transistors are used to achieve amplifiers with improved performance 2.) Show the analysis of multiple transistor amplifiers using resistive loads
3.) Continue to build the amplifier concepts necessary to consider integrated circuit amplifiers Outline
• BJT CCCE, CCCC amplifiers
• Darlington transistor amplifer
• BJTMOS amplifiers
• Cascode amplifiers
• Summary
ECE 4430  Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems
P.E. Allen
TwoTransistor Amplifiers (6/13/00)
Page 2
BJT TWO TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS
The Common CollectorCommon Emitter Configuration Circuit:
Q2
B1
i
in
+
v in
Smallsignal performance:
R _{i}_{n} = r _{π}_{1} + (1+β _{o}_{1} )r _{π}_{2}
^{R} out ^{=} ^{r} o2
^{v} out
^{v}
in
= 
g _{m}_{2} (r _{o}_{2} R _{L} )(1+β _{o}_{1} )r _{π}_{2}
^{R}
in
^{i} out
^{i}
in
=
g _{m}_{2} (1+β _{o}_{1} )r _{π}_{2}
^{R}
in
=
= 
_{+} v 1
E1 = B2
i out
C1=E2
R L
2TA01
β _{o}_{2} (r _{o}_{2} R _{L} )(1+β _{o}_{1} )
r _{π}_{1} + (1+β _{o}_{1} )r _{π}_{2}
→
→
g _{m}_{2} (r _{o}_{2} R _{L} )
_{o}_{2} (1+β _{o}_{1} β 
) 
r _{π}_{1} + (1+β _{o}_{1} 
_{)}_{r} π2 
β _{o}_{2} (1+β _{o}_{1} )
Increased input resistance and current gain.
ECE 4430  Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems
P.E. Allen
TwoTransistor Amplifiers (6/13/00)
^{r} π1 ^{=}
^{r} π2 ^{=}
and
^{β} ο1 ^{V} t
100·26mV
^{I} C1
_{=} 11µA
^{β} ο2 ^{V} t
100·26mV
^{I} C2
_{=} 100µA
= 236kΩ,
= 26kΩ,
g _{m}_{2} = ^{I} ^{V} ^{C} t
_{=} 100µA
26mV
= 38.4mS
Page 3
Example 1  Calculation of SmallSignal Performance for the CCCC Configuration Find the smallsignal input resistance, output resistance, voltage gain, and
current gain for the composite transistor shown. Assume for both devices, that β _{o} = 100, r _{b} = 0, and r _{o} = ∞. Assume for Q2 that I _{C} = 100µA and that I _{b}_{i}_{a}_{s} = 10µA. Solution The smallsignal model is shown. The values of the parameters are found as,
v
Q2
CC
100µA
v out
2TA01A
v
∴ R _{i}_{n} = 236kΩ + (100)26kΩ = 2.84MΩ
R _{o}_{u}_{t} = 10kΩ (if R _{L} is included)
^{v} out
^{v}
in
^{i} out
^{i} in
= 
β _{o}_{2} (r _{o}_{2} R _{L} )(1+β _{o}_{1} )
^{R}
in
_{=} _{} 100·10kΩ·101
2.84MΩ
= 35.56V/V
= β _{o}_{2} (1+β _{o}_{1} ) = 100·101 = 10,100A/A
ECE 4430  Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems
P.E. Allen
TwoTransistor Amplifiers (6/13/00)
Page 4
Common 
CollectorCommon 
Collector 
Circuit: 
B1
i
in
Smallsignal performance (I _{B}_{i}_{a}_{s} <<I _{C}_{2} ):
v
1
i
out
2TA02
v
2
E2
+
v in
C1=C2
R _{i}_{n} = r _{π}_{1} + (1+β _{o}_{1} )[r _{π}_{2} +(1+β _{o}_{2}_{1} )(r _{o}_{2} R _{L} )] ≈ (1+β _{o}_{1} )(1+β _{o}_{2}_{1} )(r _{o}_{2} R _{L} )
^{R} out ^{=}
^{R} S ^{+}^{r} π1
1+β _{o}_{1} ^{+} ^{r} π2
1+β _{o}_{2}
^{v} out
^{v} in
^{i} out
^{i} in
≈ 1
= (1+β _{o}_{2} )(1+β _{o}_{1} )
R _{S} +r _{π}_{1} +r _{π}_{2} (1+β _{o}_{1} )
= (1+β _{o}_{1} ) (1+β _{o}_{2} )
≈
^{1}
^{g} m2
Very high input resistance and very low output resistance.
ECE 4430  Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems
P.E. Allen
TwoTransistor Amplifiers (6/13/00)
C
Q2
E
Page 5
C1=E2
2TA03
The Darlington configuration can be CE, CB, or CC. For commonemitter (β _{o} >>1) with a collector resistance of R _{L} :
R _{i}_{n} = r _{π}_{1} + (1+β _{o}_{1} )r _{π}_{2} ,
R _{o}_{u}_{t} ≈ r _{o}_{2} ,
^{v} ^{o}^{u}^{t} =
^{v} in
^{}^{β} o1 ^{β} o2 ^{R} L
^{r} π1 ^{+}^{β} o1 ^{r} π2
Replacing r _{π}_{1} and r _{π}_{2} by their largesignal equivalents (r _{π} = ^{β} ^{ο} ^{V} ^{t} _{I} C
^{v} out _{=}
^{v} in
^{}^{β} o1 ^{β} o2 ^{R} L
^{β} o1 ^{β} o2 ^{V} t _{+} ^{β} o1 ^{β} o2 ^{V} t
^{I}
C2
^{I}
C2
^{}^{g} m2 ^{R} L
_{=} 2
(Input “baseemitter” voltage is divided across the two transistors)
) gives,
ECE 4430  Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems
P.E. Allen
TwoTransistor Amplifiers (6/13/00)
Page 6
BiCMOS Darlington Configuration Circuit:
"C"
Q2
"E"
r ds1
D1=C2
+
v
ce

S1 =
B2
G1
_{+}
v
+
be
D1=E2
v gs1
r 2
2TA04
For the commonemitter configuration (β _{o} >>1 and r _{d}_{s}_{1} negligible) with R _{L} >>r _{o}_{2} :
^{R} in ^{=} ^{∞}
^{R} out ^{≈} ^{r} o2
^{v} out
^{v}
in
^{i} out
^{i} in
=
^{v} gs1 ^{v} in
out
v
gs1
v
= ∞
=
g
m1 ^{+}^{g} m1 ^{g} m2 ^{r} π2
1
^{g}
o2
^{1}^{+}^{g} m1 ^{r} π2
=
g _{m}_{1} (1+g _{m}_{2} r _{π}_{2} )
_{g} o2 _{(}_{1}_{+}_{g} m1 _{r} π2 _{)} ≈ g _{m}_{1} ro2
if g _{m}_{1} ≈ g _{m}_{2}
Note that the input dc voltage consists of V _{G}_{S} +V _{B}_{E} which is around 2V.
ECE 4430  Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems
P.E. Allen
TwoTransistor Amplifiers (6/13/00)
BJT Cascode Amplifer Circuit and smallsignal model:
^{r}
Page 7
CASCODE CONFIGURATION
If β _{1} ≈ β _{2} and r _{o} can be neglected, then:
^{R} in ^{=} ^{r} π1
^{R} out ^{≈} ^{β} 2 ^{r} o2
^{v}
^{v} in
out
^{v}
in
v
out
v
a
=
^{v}
a
^{i} out
^{i} in
= α _{2} β _{1}
=
(g _{m}_{2} R _{L} )
π2
R L
_{·} ^{}^{β} o1
^{r}
π1
≈ (g _{m}_{2} R _{L} ) (1) =  g _{m}_{2} R _{L}
1+β _{o}_{2}
The advantage of the cascode is that the gain of Q1 is 1 and therefore the Miller capacitor, C _{µ} , is not translated to the baseemitter as a large capacitor.
ECE 4430  Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems
P.E. Allen
TwoTransistor Amplifiers (6/13/00)
Page 8
BJT Cascode Amplifier Frequency Response SmallSignal Model with the Miller effect applied to C _{µ}_{1} assuming v _{a} /v _{i}_{n} = 1:
Find the 3dB frequency, f _{}_{3}_{d}_{B} using the following formula:
^{f} 3dB ^{≈}
1
2π·Σ(Opencircuit time constants)
^{τ} in ^{=} ^{r} π1 ^{(}^{C} π1 ^{+}^{2}^{C} µ1 ^{)}^{,}
^{∴} ^{f} 3dB ^{≈}
^{τ} interstage ^{=}
^{r} π2
_{1}_{+}_{β} o2 (C _{π}_{2} +2C _{µ}_{1} ),
1
and
τ _{o}_{u}_{t} = R _{L} C _{µ}_{2}
≈
1
2πR _{L} C _{µ}_{2}
2π· r _{π}_{1} (C _{π}_{1} +2C _{µ}_{1} ) +
^{r}
π2
_{1}_{+}_{β} o2 (C _{π}_{2} +2C _{µ}_{1} ) + R _{L} C _{µ}_{2}
ECE 4430  Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems
P.E. Allen
TwoTransistor Amplifiers (6/13/00)
MOS Cascode Amplifier Circuit and smallsignal model:
v in
M2
v out
Page 9
m2 v gs2 = g m2 v 1
D2=D3
D1=S2
+
v out
r _{d}_{s}_{1}
2TA07
Smallsignal performance (assuming a load resistance in the drain of R _{L} ):
^{R} in ^{=} ^{∞} Using nodal analysis, we can write,
^{[}^{g} ds1 ^{+} ^{g} ds2 ^{+} ^{g} m2 ^{]}^{v} 1 ^{−}
^{g} ds2 ^{v} out ^{=} ^{−}^{g} m1 ^{v} in
−[g _{d}_{s}_{2} + g _{m}_{2} ]v _{1} + (g _{d}_{s}_{2} + G _{L} )v _{o}_{u}_{t} = 0
Solving for v _{o}_{u}_{t} /v _{i}_{n} yields,
^{v} out
v in
^{=}
−g m1 (g ds2 + g m2 )
+ G L g m2 ^{≅} g m1
G
L
^{g} ds1 ^{g} ds2 ^{+} ^{g} ds1 ^{G} L ^{+} ^{g} ds2 ^{G} L
= g _{m}_{1} R _{L}
Note that unlike the BJT cascode, the voltage gain, v _{1} /v _{i}_{n} is greater than 1.
^{v} 1
_{v} in =  g _{m}_{2}
^{r} ds2 ^{}^{} _{}
r
ds2 ^{+}^{R} L
^{1}^{+}^{g} m2 ^{r} ds2
_{≈}
_{} ^{r} ds2 ^{+}^{R} L
^{r} ds2
= 
1+ ^{R} ^{L}
^{r}
ds2
The smallsignal output resistance is,
r out = [r ds1 + r ds2 + g m2 r ds1 r ds2 ]R L ≅ R L
(R _{L} must be less than r _{d}_{s}_{2} for the gain to be 1)
ECE 4430  Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems
P.E. Allen
TwoTransistor Amplifiers (6/13/00)
Page 10
MOS Cascode Amplifier Frequency Response Smallsignal model (g _{m}_{2} v _{1} has been rearranged and the substitution theorem applied):
v
^{C} 1 ^{=} ^{C} gd 1 ^{,} ^{C} 2 ^{=} ^{C} bd 1 ^{+} ^{C} bs 2 ^{+} ^{C} gs 2 ^{a}^{n}^{d} ^{C} 3 ^{=} ^{C} bd 2 ^{+} ^{C} bd 3 ^{+} ^{C} gd 2 ^{+} ^{C} gd 3 ^{+} ^{C} L
where
The nodal equations now become:
and
Solving for V _{o}_{u}_{t} (s)/V _{i}_{n} (s) gives,
where
out (s) V _{i}_{n} (s)
V
1
^{=} _{} 1 + as + bs ^{2}
(g _{m}_{2} + g _{d}_{s}_{1} + g _{d}_{s}_{2} + sC _{1} + sC _{2} )v _{1} − g _{d}_{s}_{2} v _{o}_{u}_{t} = −(g _{m}_{1} − sC _{1} )v _{i}_{n}
−(g _{d}_{s}_{2} + g _{m}_{2} )v _{1} + (g _{d}_{s}_{2} + g _{d}_{s}_{3} +G _{L} + sC _{3} )v _{o}_{u}_{t} = 0
^{}
−(g
_{m}_{1} − sC _{1} )(g _{d}_{s}_{2} + g _{m}_{2} )
^{g} ds1 ^{g} ds2 ^{+} ^{(}^{g} ds3 ^{+}^{G} _{L} ^{)}^{(}^{g} m2 ^{+} ^{g} ds1 ^{+} ^{g} ds2 ^{)}
+
_{a} _{=} C 3 (g ds1 + g ds2 + g m2 ) + C 2 (g ds2 + g ds3 + G _{L} )
C 1 (g ds2 + g ds3 )
^{g} ds1 ^{g} ds2 ^{+} ^{(}^{g} ds3 ^{+} ^{G} _{L} ^{)}^{(}^{g} m2 ^{+} ^{g} ds1 ^{+} ^{g} ds2 ^{)}
C _{3} (C _{1} + C _{2} )
and
b =
^{g} ds1 ^{g} ds2 ^{+} ^{(}^{g} ds3 ^{+}^{G} _{L} ^{)}^{(}^{g} m2 ^{+} ^{g} ds1 ^{+} ^{g} ds2 ^{)}
ECE 4430  Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems
P.E. Allen
TwoTransistor Amplifiers (6/13/00)
Page 11
A Simplified Method of Finding an Algebraic Expression for the Two Poles Assume that a general secondorder polynomial can be written as:
P(s) = 1 + as + bs 2 =
1
−
^{}
^{s}
p
1
1
−
^{s}
p
2
= 1 − s
Now if p _{2}  >> p _{1} , then P(s) can be simplified as s 2
P(s) ≈ 1 −
^{s}
p 1 ^{+} p 1 p 2
1
1 ^{+}
p
1
p
2
+
^{s} ^{2}
p 1 p 2
Therefore we may write p _{1} and p _{2} in terms of a and b as
_{p} 1 _{=} −1
a
and
p _{2} = ^{−}^{a}
b
Applying this to the previous problem gives,
p 1 =
^{−}^{[}^{g} ds1 ^{g} ds2 ^{+} ^{(}^{g} ds3 ^{+}^{G} _{L} ^{)}^{(}^{g} m2
)]
^{+} ^{g} ds1 ^{+} ^{g} ds2
ds2 + g ds3 +G _{L} ) ^{≈} −(g ds3 +G L )
C
3
−g m2
^{≈} C _{1} + C _{2}
C _{3} (g _{d}_{s}_{1} + g _{d}_{s}_{2} + g _{m}_{2} ) + C _{2} (g
_{d}_{s}_{2} + g _{d}_{s}_{3} +G _{L} ) + C _{1} (g
+ g _{d}_{s}_{3} +G _{L} )
The nondominant root p _{2} is given as
p
2 = −[C _{3} (g _{d}_{s}_{1}
+ g _{d}_{s}_{2} + g _{m}_{2} ) + C _{2} (g _{d}_{s}_{2}
+ C _{1} (g _{d}_{s}_{2} + g _{d}_{s}_{3} +G _{L} )]
C _{3} (C _{1} + C _{2} )
Assuming that C _{1} , C _{2} , and C _{3} are the same order of magnitude, and that g _{m}_{2} is greater than g _{d}_{s}_{3} , then p _{1}  is smaller than p _{2}  (closer to the origin). Therefore the approximation of p _{2}  >> p _{1}  is valid.
Note that there is a righthalf plane zero at z _{1} = ^{g} ^{m} ^{1} ^{C} 1
^{.}
ECE 4430  Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems
P.E. Allen
TwoTransistor Amplifiers (6/13/00)
BiCMOS Cascode Amplifier Circuits:
Comparison:
Page 12
Larger voltage gain Infinite input resistance
Smaller input resistance Q1 voltage gain greater than 1V/V
High output resistance High output resistance
Requires input current
Smaller voltage gain M1 voltage gain less than 1V/V
Does not require input current
ECE 4430  Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems
P.E. Allen
TwoTransistor Amplifiers (6/13/00)
Page 13
SUMMARY
Advantages of twotransistors:
• Higher input resistance (BJTs)
• Lower output resistance
• Higher current gain (BJTs)
Things that are important for future use:
• The upper 3dB frequency can be approximated by the reciprocal of the sum of the OTCs (p. 8)
• A quadratic can be solved algebraically by assuming the roots are widely spaced (p. 11)
ECE 4430  Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems
P.E. Allen
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