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MECHANICAL SCIENCES

(MEC-101)
TERM PAPER
DIFFERENT PROJECTIONS:-
 ORTHOGRAPHIC
PROJECTION
 ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
 PERSPECTIVE
PROJECTION

SUBMITTED TO :
SUBMITTED BY :
Mr. AMRITPREET SINGH
BOMMALI PAWAN

DEPT. OF MECHANICAL SCIENCES


ROLL NO. – A19

REG.No.–11008138

SECTION – H67H1

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I Feel very much obliged in expressing my thanks to my guide-


cum-teacher Mr. Amritpreet Singh, who was always with me
throughout the making of this TERM PAPER.

I also thank my friends, classmates and also them who passively


supported me, without them it was impossible for me to make
this.

BOMMALI PAWAN
CONTENTS

 INTRODUCTION

 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION

 ISOMETRIC PROJECTION

 PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION

 REFERENCE
INTRODUCTION

For the purpose of construction or manufacture of an


object, its description should be complete as regards
shape, size and internal details. Engineering drawing is
another method of describing an object. Ordinarily, the
idea convey by the word DRAWING is a pictorial view in
which an object is represented.

A pictorial view shows only the outside


appearance of an object. It does not always show all the
details necessary for its construction. It may not show
even the true shape of the object. For the purpose of
construction, a drawing should show the true shapes of all
the parts of an object together with their sizes. The
method of ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION is universally
adopted for this purpose.

Practically the drawing of an object is made up of


a set of different views of the object, taken by the
observer from different positions and arranged to each
other in a definite way. This is done to describe the shape
and exact size of the object.
ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION
Orthographic projection is a method of drawing two or more
views of an object on the RPs placed at right angle to each other.
The word ORTHO means perpendicular. In this projection, the
projectors are perpendicular to the POP and parallel to each
other. Different views of an object are obtained by viewing it
from different direction. Thought multiview projection is a type of
orthographic projection.
Methods of Projection:-
First-angle Projection

With first angle projection, the view you are looking at is


projected through to the other side of the object. So if we are
drawing the three visible sides of the object illustrated in first
angle projection, we are drawing the views projected on the
other side of the object and not three nearest views.

Third-angle Projection

In the third angle projection, an object is placed in the third


quadrant, i.e. below the HP and behind the VP. The observer
looks at the object through the POP to obtain its views. The RPs
are rotated as in 1st angle method i.e. the HP in clock wise
direction and the PP away from the object.

DIAGRAM OF ORTHOGRAPHIC
PROJECTION
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
Isometric projection is a type of an axonometric projection. Isometric means
‘equal measure’. As the name suggested in isometric projection, all mutually
perpendicular plane surface of an object and the edges formed by these surfaces
are equally inclined. Isometric projection is a method for visually representing
three-dimensional objects in two dimensions in technical and engineering
drawings. It is an axonometric projection in which the three coordinate axes
appear equally foreshortened and the angles between any two of them are 120
degrees. Isometric drawing is another way of presenting designs/drawings in
three dimensions. The example opposite has been drawn with a 30 degree set
square. Designs are always drawn at 30 degrees in isometric projection.
PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION

An object appears differently when viewed from different


directions such a view of an object which changes with respect
to the observer’s location is called perspective projection. It
provides realistic 3-D view of an object. The perspective views
are much similar to the images seen by human eye or
photograph by a camera. Hence, they are used in architectural
and civil engineering drawings to indicate exteriors and
interiors of the buildings. They are also used in advertisements
campaigns to make it easier for a layperson to understand the
features of the product. Perspective views are not used in
manufacturing drawings. Perspective projection is a slightly
more complicated method of projection, and more frequently
used because it creates the illusion of distance and thus
produces a more realistic image. Geometrically speaking, the
difference between this method and orthographic projection is
that in perspective projection, the view volume is a frustum—
that is, a truncated pyramid—rather than an axis-aligned box.
The perspective projection requires greater definition. A
conceptual aid to understanding the mechanics of this
projection involves treating the 2D projection as being viewed
through a camera viewfinder. The camera's position,
orientation, and field of view control the behaviour of the
projection transformation.
Reference

 ENGIEERING DRAWING (Dhananjay A Jolhe)

 WIKIPEDIA

 www.google.com

 GOOGLE IMAGES