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Submitted For Partial Fulfilment of Award Of
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
Degree In Electronics & Communication Engineering
Mr. AMIT BINDAL Assistant Professor ECE Department
ASHUTOSH KR. MAURYA ECE - 4th Year (0712831028)
BHARAT INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BY-PASS ROAD, PARTAPUR MEERUT ,U.P NOVEMBER, 2010
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INTRODUCTION: q / Industrial processes Infrastructure processes Facility processes 5 .
WHAT IS DATA ACQUISITION? q q q q q q WHY OR WHERE WE USE SCADA? 6 .
he ystem may have many such isplays. g . . irst used in the 1960s. and the perator can select rom the relevant ones at any time. systems ere ARCHITECTURE 7 . . 10 / q .g. graphically. .q q ' ¶ ' / z 10 / / 100K.
Process controllers. The data servers communicate with devices in the field through process controllers. are connected to the data servers either directly or via networks or fieldbuses that are proprietary (e. e.g.g. Profibus).g. Fig. shows typical hardware architecture. PLC¶s. Figure 1: Typical Hardware Architecture Communi tion 8 . Siemens H1). or non-proprietary (e. Data servers are connected to each other and to client stations via an Ethernet LAN.In t i secti n we are going to details which describe the common architect re required for the SCADA products Hardware Architecture The basic hardware of the SCADA system is distinguished into two basic layers: the "client layer" which caters for the man machine interaction and the "data server layer" which handles most of the process data control activities.1.
Interfacing 9 . f the controller and communication protocol used support unsolicited data transfer then the products will support this too. i.e. and a driver development tool kit is provided for this. Access to Devices: he data servers poll the controllers at a user defined polling rate. it can generally support as many such protocols as it has slots for interface cards. single data server can support multiple communications protocols. a client application su scri es to a parameter hich is owned y a particular server application and only changes to that parameter are then communicated to the client application.. he polling rate may e different for different parameters.Internal Communication: Server-client and server-server communication is in general on a pu lish su scri e and event-driven asis and uses a C / protocol. ime stamping of the process parameters is typically performed in the controllers and this time -stamp is taken over y the data server. he controllers pass the requested parameters to the data servers. he effort required to develop new drivers is typically in the range of 2-6 weeks depending on the complexity and similarity with existing drivers.
g. y y an SC import/export facility for configuration data. logs and archive. reporting. a li rary of data in the s supporting C. The isual asic to access often does not provide access to the product's internal features such as alarm handling. ut not to the configuration data ase. Dynamic Link Li rary DLL) and Em edding LE). to visualize data dynamically in an ject Linking and EXCEL spreadsheet. The products also provide y an pen ata ase Connectivity C interface to the data in the archive/logs. rapidly as most of the producers of controllers are actively involved in the development of this standard. devices/controllers. Database 10 . The C products provide support for the Data icrosoft standards such as Dynamic xchange DDE) which allows e. and TDB.Application Interfaces / Openness he provision of C client functionality for SC to access devices in an open and standard manner is deve loping. which provide here still seems to e a lack of ut this improves C server software. C++. trending. etc.
The configuration data are stored in a data ase that is logically c entralized ut physically distri uted and that is generally of a proprietary format. more specialized servers e. Each data server has its own configuration data ase and TDB and is responsi le for the handling of a su -set of the process varia les acquisition. or performance reasons. for alarm handling) or more clients. Scalability Scala ility is understood as the possi ility to extend the SC DA ased contr ol system y adding more process varia les. The archive and logging format is usually also proprietary for performance reasons. ut some products do support logging to a elational Data Base anagement System DBMS) at a slower rate either directly or via an DBC interface. The products achieve scala ility y having multiple data servers connected to multiple controllers.g. alarm handling. archiving). SCADA AS A SYSTEM 11 . the TDB resides in the memory of the servers and is also of proprietary format.
flexi le. versatile. 12 . process. converting sensor signals to digital data and sending digital data y Programmable Logic Controller than special-purpose TUs. y Plot the usage of chemicals vs time. calculated and store the volume used.A SCADA System usually consists of the following su systems: y A Human-Machine Interface or MI is the apparatus which presents process data to a human operator. LCs) used as field devices ecause they are more economical. the human operator monitors and controls the process. fill them when a certain level is reached. and through this. Alarm when a certain level is reached to notify purchasing or send an e mail). or any other parameter. monitor the level in the main feed tank. A supervisory computer) system. and configura le y Communication infrastructure system to the emote Terminal Units. connecting the supervisory A SCADA system could e programmed to: y y y y y monitor high and low levels in the day tanks . gathering acquiring) data on the process and sending commands control) to the process. y Remote Terminal Units to the supervisory system. TUs) connecting to sensors in the process.
TYPICAL SCADA SYSTEM Example of scada system 13 .
flow. and send out digital commands or analogue setpoints. an TU converts the electrical signals from the equipment to digital values such as the open/closed status from a switch or a valve. and through which the human operator controls the process. An important part of most SCADA implementation arealarms. MI's are an easy way to standardize the facilitation of monitoring multiple TU's or PLC's programma le logic controllers). 14 . MI's can also e linked to a data ase. Typically.HUMAN MACHINE INTERFACE A MI is the apparatus which presents process data to a human operator. such as opening or closing a switch or a valve. which can use data gathered from PLC's or TU's to provide graphs on trends. logistic info. or measurements such as pressure. By converting and sending these electrical signals out to equipment the TU can control equipment. the SCADA system communicates with PLC's throughout the system network and processes information that is easily disseminated y the MI. voltage or current. Because TU's and PLC's historically had no standardized method to display or present data to an operator. Usually TU's or PLC's will run a pre programmed process. usually ecause they are spread out over the system. REMOTE TERMINAL UNIT The TU connects to physical equipment. The TU can read digital status data or analogue measurement data. ut monitoring each of them individually can e difficult. schematics for a specific sensor or machine or even make trou leshooting guides accessi le. An alarm is a digital status point that has either the value MAL or ALARM. or setting the speed of a pump.
which represents the state of an actual traffic light in the field or as complex as a multi projector display representing the position of all the elevators in a skyscraper or all the trains on a railway. to e displayed and recorded. The SCADA will show the flow rate of the fluid in the pipe decrease in relay time. a PLC may control the flow of cooling water through part of an industrial process. or example. ut the SCADA system may allow operators to change the set points for the flow and ena le alarm conditions. such as loss of flow and high temperature. while the SCADA system monitors the overall performance of the loop. This means that a operator can see a representation of the plant eing controlled.CENTRAL CONTROL ROOM COMPUTER The SCADA usually presents the information in the form of mimic. or complexes of systems spread out over large areas anything etween an industrial plant and a country). These representation can e as simple as an on screen traffic light. The operator can then switch the pump off. The feed ack control loop passes through the RTU or PLC. 15 . SYSTEM CONCEPT The term SCADA usually refers to centralized systems which monitor and control entire sites. ost control functions are usually restricted to asic overriding or supervisory level intervention. or example a picture of a pump connected to a pipe can show the operato r that the pump is running and how much fluid it is pumping through the pipe at the moment. Most control actions are performed automatically y remote terminal units "RTUs") or y programma le logic controllers "PLCs"). The MI package for the SCADA system includes a drawing program that the operator or system personnel use to change the way these points are represented in the interface.
Data is then compiled and formatted in such a way that a control room operator using the MI can make supervisory decisions to adjust or override normal RTU PLC) controls. Most implementations conceptually remove the distinction y making every property a "soft" point expression. commonly referred to as a tag data ase. A hard point represents an actual input or output within the system. SCADA systems typically implement a distri uted data ase. in the simplest case.Data acquisition egins at the RTU or PLC level and includes meter readings and equipment status reports that are communicated to SCADA as required.) 16 . equal a single hard point. which may. which contains data elements called tags or points. A point represents a single input or output value monitored or controlled y the system. while a soft point results from logic and math operations applied to other points. Points can e either "hard" or "soft".
Dead and the value of dead and defines the range after which a high low alarm condition returns to normal. It is often equally important to have a record of alarms and whe ther an alarm was acknowledged. Generally you have alarm states for each inputs/outputs like your temperature should not cross 80 deg or lever should e less than 60. Alarms are the most important part of the plant control applications ecause the operator must know instantly when something goes wrong. nce the REAL TIME AND HISTORICAL TREND the trend play very important role in the process operation. Ex. 17 .HI and HIHI. Even when the plant trips there are more than 25 pro a le reasons for the sample ut if you go through the history trends. Again what will happen to the ricks of the reactor? So the production manger¶s first jo will e to go through the trends how the operators are operating the plant. You can have etter look of the parameters through the trend. it¶s very easy to identify th e pro lem. We commission a SCADA system for Acid Regeneration plant where the plant has to e operated on 850 deg temperature.FEATURES OF SCADA DYNAMIC PROCESS GRAPHIC mimics developed in SCADA software should resem le the process mimic. If your atch fails or the plant trips. If the operator operates the plant at 900 deg you can imagine how much additional LPG he is putting into the reactor. So if the parameters go in alarm state the operator should e intimated with alarm. Most of the SCADA software support four types of alarms like LOLO. SCADA should have good li rary of sym ols so that you can develop the mimic as per requirement. ALARMS have a very critical role in automation. you can simply go to the historical trend data and do the analysis. operator sees the screen he should know what is going on in the plant.LO.
The engineers should have access to changing the applicati on. ABB. When you have different products to manufacture. DEVICE CONNECTIVITY you will find there are hundreds of automation hardware manufacturer like Modicon. process people. some do not. Some SCADA software support it. It should not happen that for Modicon I am uying one software and for Siemens another one. DATABASE CONNECTIVITY now a days information plays very important role in any usiness. The software like Aspic or Wonderware has connectivity to almost all hardware used in automation. SECURITY is on facility people generally look for. engineering dept and maintenance dept. for example operators should only operate the system. Most manufacturing units go for Enterprise Resource Planning or Management Information System. Allen Bradly. The engineers should have access to changing the application developed. You can allocate certa in facilities or features to the operator. 18 . SCADA software should have connectivity to the different hardware used in automation. Every ody has there own way of communication or we can say they have there own communication protocol. he should not e a le change the application. Most of the plants are manufacturing multi products. Siemens. you just have to load the recipe of the particular product.RECIPE MANAGEMENT is an additional feature.
phones. Real time production status: manufacturing status is updated in real time in direct communication to operator and control device Production schedules: production schedules can directly Production information management: production specific information is distri uted to all e viewed and updated Quality Dept. e-mails and 19 .ugging: direct connection to wide variety of devices. Improved trou leshooting and de. Data integrity and quality control is improved y using a common interface It is an open platform for statistical analysis Consolidation of manufacturing and la data Maintenance Dept. Co-ordination etween maintenance and management reduces unscheduled downtime.USEFULNESS OF SCADA Production Dept. displays improves trou leshooting reduces diagnostic/de ugging time Plant can e viewed remotely. otification can include pagers.
Reduces start up time and system training with industry proven open interfaces Manufacturing Dept. Integrated automation solutions reduce design and configuration time Common configuration platform offers flexi ility for constant configuration in all areas Capa le of connecting to wide variety of systems. Unscheduled down time is reduced due to swift alarm detection and event driven information Makes operations easier and more repeata le with its real time functionality Secured real time operation are maintained with windows 20 .Enterprise Information Corporate information and real time production data can e gathered and viewed from anywhere within operations User specific information ensures etter informed decisions Data exchange with standard data ases and enterprise systems provides integrated information solutions Engineering Dept.
System tags- store information generated while the software is running including alarm info and system time and date. Touch links. Touch push buttons-are can used to create o ject link that immediately perform an operation when clicked with the mouse or touched. Operator may turn the value on or off. The max string length is 131 characters. flow.allow the operator to input data into the system. Analog Tags. EX. run a complex logic script etc. 21 .are used to store ASCII strings a series of characters or whole word. Tags that receive data internally from software are called memo ry tags.GENERAL TERMINOLOGY What is a Tag.store a range of values. action scr ipt executions and show or hide window commands. enter a new alarm set point. EX temp. Tags that receive data from some external devices such as programma le logic controllers or servers are refereed to as I/O tags.to store values such as 0 or 1. String tags. valves. These operations e discrete value changes. switches etc.a tag is a logical name for a varia le in a device or local memory RAM). EX on/off status of a pump. density etc Discrete tags.
Orientation. fill colour or text colour of an o ject. Value display links.is linked to specific window.Colour links.provides the a ility to use text o ject to display the value of a discrete.used to control visi tag name or expression. calculate varia les and so on: three types of application scripts are on start up.are linked to entire applications and are used to start other applications. Percent fill links. 22 . create process simulation. while showing. ject rotate ased on the value of a tagna me Disable. Often used as a part of a security strategy. on shut down. ility to vary the fill level of a filled shape according to the value of an analog tagname or an expression that Application script. while running. Visibility. ility of an o ject ased on the value of discrete Blink- used to make an o ject link ased on the value of the discrete tagname or expression.used to disa le the touch functionality of o jects ased on the value of a tagname of expression.used to provide a computes to an analog value.are used to animate the line colour. Each of these colour attri utes can e made dynamic y defining a colour link for the attri ute. analog or string tagname. Window script. on hide. 3 types of window scripts are on show.used to make an o /expression.
23 . 4 types of scripts that you can apply to a condition are on true. except they are associated with an o ject that you link to a touch link action push utton. on false. while false. 3 types are on key down. while down. It provides the application developer with the a ility to control whether or not specific operators are allowed to perform specific functions within an application Security is ased on the concept of operator logging on to the application and entering his user name and password and access level.is linked to discrete tagname or expression that equates to true or false. Application security- to an application is optional. while true. You can also use discrete expressions that contain analog tagnames. or each operator access to any protected function is granted upon verification of his password and access level . Condition script.Key script. Data change script. on key up.are linked to a tagname and/or tagname field changes y a value greater than a dead and that you defined for the tagname in the tagname dictionary.touch push utton action scripts are similar to key scripts.
or example. traffic lights. the security of SCADA. and other systems used as the asis of modern society.Consequently. examples of which are transmission of electricity. The security of these SCADA systems is important ecause compromise or destruction of these systems would impact multiple areas of society far removed from the original compr omise. deployment and operation of existing SCADA networks y the mistaken elief that SCADA systems have the enefit of security through o scurity through the use of specialized protocols and proprietary interfaces y the mistaken elief that SCADA networks are secure ecause they are purportedly physically secured y the mistaken elief that SCADA networks are secure ecause they are supposedly disconnected from the Internet SCADA systems are used to control and monitor physical processes. water distri ution. security researchers are concerned a out: y the lack of concern a out security and authentication in the design. How security will affect legacy SCADA and new deployments remains to e seen .ased systems has come into question as they are increasingly seen as extremely vulnera le to cy erwarfare/cy erterrorism attacks. a lackout caused y a compromised electrical SCADA system would cause financial losses to all the customers that received electricity from that source.SECURITY ISSUES The move from proprietary technologies to more standardized and open solutions together with the increased num er of connections etween SCADA systems and office networks and the Internet has made them more vulnera le to attacks. 24 . In particular. transportation of gas and oil in pipelines.
WHAT IS INTOUCH Wonderware InTouch provides a single integrated view of all your controls and information resources. 25 . where o ject oriented graphics are used to create animated. WindowViewer executes InTouch QuickScript. Intouch ena les engineers. to configure Dynamic Resource Conversions and/or distri uted alarms. These display windows can e connected to industrial I/O systems and other Microsoft Windows application. touch sensitive display windows. to configure etwork Application Development for client ased and server ased architectures. WindowViewer is the runtime environment used to display graphic windows created in WindowMaker. The InTouch Application Manager organizes the application to create. It is also used to configure Windowviewer as an T service. performs historical data logging and reporting. The InTouch Application Manager. THE INTOUCH ENVIOREMENT InTouch consist of three major programs. supervisors. operators and managers to view to view and interact with the working of entire operation through graphical representations of their p roduction processes. processes alarm logging and reporting and can function as a client and a server for oth DDE and Suite link communication protocol. Windowmaker and Windowviewer. WindowMaker is the development environment. InTouch also includes the diagnostics program Window Logger.
easy to implement Easy configuration.Key Benefits y y y y Easy-to-use. simplified maintenance High security and availa ility Virtually unlimited scala ility Key Capabilities y y y y y y y y HMI visualization and geographically distri uted SCADA Template ased development and maintenance Remote application development and change management Data level security uilt into the system Easy and flexi le alarm definition Data collection and analysis for new and existing systems Easy-to-use report generation Open access to historical data 26 .
SCADA AS AN ASSET TYPICAL DETERIORATION CURVE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ASSET 27 .
SCADA SYSTEM MANAGEMENT SCADA Systems Management SSM) helps its customers to transform the operational performance of their usinesses through the use of Manufacturing Enterprise Solutions MES). anuc Proficy products to ena le us to 28 . Our in-depth practical experience of a range of industries com ines with our expertise in the award-winning GE deliver insights that ring enefits.
A device a mechanism to prevent conflicting controls ehavior. eg alarms instructions on how to control eg. electricity generation. The need for proper engineering can not e sufficiently emph asized to reduce development effort and to reach a system that complies with the requirements.SCADA A BOOM IN ENGINEERING While one should rightly anticipate significant development and maintenance savings y adopting SCADA product for the implementation of a control system. templates for different types of ³panels´. electric power transmission. that is economical in development and maintenance and that is relia le and ro ust. telescopes and other large experiments. Control mechanisms are descri ed in Process Control. graphical PRACTICAL USES OF SCADA SCADA used as a control mechanism for chemical plants. district heating. 29 . it does not mean a ³no effort´ operation. electricity distri ution. Examples of engineering activities specific to the use of a SCADA system are t he definition of: a li rary of o jects complete with standard o ject interface and associated scripts for animation. EPICS is an example of an open source software environment used to develop and implement SCADA system to operate devices such as particle accelerators.
maintenance and customer service and provides rapid response to emergencies. 6. SCADA system improves operation. SCADA systems were designed to e used on large scale remote assets over a very large geographical area. A SCADA system is "normally" significantly cheaper than a DCS. SCADA can continue operating even when telecommunication are temporarily lost. 3. 5.ADVANTAGES OF SCADA SYSTEM 1. systems with 30 . SCADA systems allow a smaller num er of operators to control a large num er of individual assets. 2. It provides a high level of system relia ility and availa ility. 4.
S View Wincc Moriecon Cimplicity I ix Ashtra 31 .SCADA MANUFACTURERS AND NAME OF THE SOFTWARE WONDERWARE ALLEN BRADLEY SIEMENS MODICON G E ANUC INTELLUSION KPIT Intouch R.
ut offer different functionality than DCS And finally various applications 32 .CONCLUSION SCADA is a control system with More interfaces and efficient storage More record or device oriented configuration But system wide configuration tools are needed Are less expensive than DCS.
html www.cern.princeton-indiana.com/scada.com www.html www.we .com 33 .ch/ref/CERN/CNL/2002/003/scada/ www.ref.scada.com/wastewater/pages/scada/scada -overview.scadanews.sss-mag.REFERENCES www.