THEFOLLOWINGNOTESHAVEB'EEN'RECEIVED

FROM AN
:OFFICER W"ITHmE AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE; .
IN FRANCE, AND ARE OFFERED AS SUGGESTIONS FOR
EQUIPMENT BEFORE GOING ABROAD.

Study French as much as possible.
Settle all business before you leave as it is a long time b~tween mails here. It is hard to get to Paris or London, even If
there is nothing to do.
, ..
....
Make arrangements for a checking account with some bank;
The Guaranty Trust Company or Farmers' Loan and Trust Company, New. York. City, suggested.
Get Western Union Code .. Register code addre~s with the
Western Union Company and the Naval Censor.
Payma~ters at home demand. date of sailing before they
pay foreign service increase on home vouchers. This is impossible
to give until months later, so keep that pittance here for pocket
money.
At present, One Dollar equals f5.70 or 4 Shillings, 2 Pence.

will

Bring American money for 2 months' supply.
Have supply of American stamps.
Wardrobe trunks and wardrope steamer trunks
for Artillery Staff Officers are very handy.

get by, and

Mark all equipment, all over.
Officers carry two foot lockers, one bedding roll and a small
hand bag-the
first always comes into camp late and the toilet
~rticles, etc., are convenient and can be carried by buglers.
Keep your gold medal cot in your own bedding roll.
Caps are good on transports, but are not worn in France.
Supply yourself with the following articles:
Flint-wheel and
tinder cigar lighter; knee laced water proof boots; canned solidified
alcohol; American tobacco for two months; gasolenevapor lantern
(Montgomery & Ward); a good fountain pen; s~me chocolate; concentrated soup tablets, or small cans of soup for an emergency;
fleece lined gray leather gloves are good.
Sam Brown belts are handled by U. S. Ordnance Department,
Paris, at $6.00 to $7.00.
Trench coats in England and France cost $35.00 for the best.
Whip cord breeches with doe skin knees cost $6.00 a pair in
. England or France, and are almost weatherproof.

Have all men fully .equippedbefore you leave.
Have extra' hats for those blown overboard 'and also extra
mess outfits.
Box up ph;;tols until you reach finai destination.
Make the men allot and deposit money.
Everyone is paid in French money at f5.70 for one Dollar.
Have stationery and blank forms of all kinds.
Take plenti ful supply of shoe and leggin laces;
Have each man load up with handkerchiefs, tobacco, face and
laundry soap, and one novel each. If he hasn't money, use Company fund.
Have sweaters,

mits, woolen helmets,

etc.,

for officers and

men.
The Americans in France have same rations as at horne.
Keep two to five days' canned rations with organization at all
times, even if"carried in spare barrack bags.
Bring supply of coffee-there
is plenty of tea in England but
'
they do not like coffee as we do.
.
Have about 20 wash basins for men to wash face and hands.
Men must bathe in: creek.
Have collapsible table and camp stools for office.

NOTES ON BALLISTICS
DIRECT FIRE
By Captain

George A. Wildrick,

C. A. C.

HIGH ANGLE FIRE
By Lieut.-Colonel

Alston Hamilton,

C.A. C.

Corrected reprints from the Journal of the United States Artillery
January-February,
1915, and September-October, 1913

Price, $0.50 postpaid

Third Edition
Journal

U. S. Artillery

Fort Monroe,

1917

Virginia

for

COPYRIGHT
BY
JOURNAL U. S. ARTILLERY

Direct Fire
(Reprint

from JOURNALU. S. ARTILLERYfor
January-February,
1915.)

By 1ST LIEUTENANT GEORGE

A. 'WILDRICK,

COAST ARTILLERY CORPS

For two or three years past there has seemed to be a
need for an article on direct fire, both because of new methods
of application of ballistic data and because of works hitherto
in use being out of print.
This article treats only of the problems most likely to be encountered at the battery:
for a
thorough study of the subject, there are suggested the following standard works, from which the present writer has freely
borrowed:
Artillery Circulars N, Exterior Ballistics, and M, Ballistic
Tables, by Co!. James M. Ingalls, U. S. A., retired.
Ballistics~
Part I, by Major Alston Hamilton, Coast
Artillery Corps.
Notes on. Ballistics, by Major Alston Hamilton,. Coast
Artillery Corps, JOURNAL OF THE U. S. ARTILLERY, Nov.Dec., 1909.
Manual for Coast Artillery, Part I, Gunnery, D. R. C. A.,
1905.
For high angle fire, see Notes on Ballistics, by Major
Alston Hamilton, C. A. C., published in the JOURNALOF THE
U. S. ARTILLERY,Sept.-Oct., 1913.
The writer desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to
Major J. M. Williams, C. A. C., Major George A. Nugent,
C. A. C., and Capt. A. L. Rhoades, C. A. C., for encouragement and advice.
(1)

DIRECT

2

FIRE

The following notations

are used herein:
Expressed in
Symbol
Expression for
Degrees, minutes, and tenths
j
Jump.
of a minute.
Feet per second.
Muzzle velocity
Feet per second.
Remaining velocity.
V
Feet per second.
Velocity at point of
Vw
fall.
Degrees, minutes, and tenths
Range table angle of
of a mInute,
departure.
Degrees, minutes, and tenths
Quadrant angle of deof a minute.
parture.
Degrees, minutes~ and tenths
lp corrected
for E
of a minute.
Degrees, minutes, and tenths
Quadrant angle of eleof a minute.
vation.
Thus, if we know cp for a
Denoting a non tabular
2250-f.s. gun and a range of
value.
7000 yds., we denote by
lp'
the angle of .departure
when the M.V. IS reduced
to, say, 2200 f.s.
Degrees, minutes, and tenths
Inclination of trajecto()
of a minute.
ry to horizontal at
any point.
Degrees, minutes, and tenths
Angle of fall. (Someof a minute.
times expressed in
terms of slope, as 1
on n.)
pounds.
Weight.
w
Pounds; m = ~.
g
Mass.
m
Feet per sec. ; 32.16 is assumed
Acceleration due to
as the standard.
g
gravity.
Feet per second per second.
Retardation.
r
Pounds.
Resistance.
p
Elapsed time after gun Seconds.

v

t

T
W

Wll

is fired.
Seconds.
Time of flight.
Miles per hour.
""ind velocity.
l\liles per hour.
(In some
Range component
of
computations,
as' in dewind velocity; plus
duction
of wind. factor,
for rear and minus
wind is expressed in feet
for head wind.
per second as
W

=

~6

\Vx.)

. DIRECT

Symbol
Expression for
d
Diameter
of bore or
caliber of projectile.
n
Radius of ogive. Also
twist of rifling.
E
Depression angle due
to height of site and
curvature.
R
Horizontal range.
X
Horizontal range.
C
Ballistic coefficient under range-table conditions.
.
C1 Ballistic' coefficient under non-range-table
conditions.
c
Coefficient of form.
c')1
Standard
atmospheric
density .
. ~

Act u a I atmospheric
density.
fa
Altitude factor.
. fw

Wind factor.

r

Reducing factor.

Yo

Maximum ordinate of
trajectory.
Characteristic index.
THE

The followingis

FIRE

Expressed
Inches.

in

Calibers.
Degrees, minutes,
of a minute.

and tenths

Yards.
Feet.

Takes into account decrease
in density of air as proj ectil e rises,
Takes into account increased
wind effect on projectile as
it rises.
Takes into. account oblique
presentation of projectile to
the resistance of the air.
Feet.

GUN

quoted from Gunnery, of D.R.C.A.,

1905:

A Gun is a machine by means of which the force of expanding powder
gas is utilized for the purpose of propelling a projectile in a definite direction.
It consists essentially of a metal tube, closed at one end, of sufficient strength
to resist the pressure of the gases, in which is placed a projectile designed to
move through the tube. The force of the expanding gases propels the projectile through this tube causing it to start in its trajectory in a definite
direction.
The explosion of the powder gives rise. by its decomposition, to a large
amount of gas. which tends to expand in all directions and to occupy a space
much greater than that in which the powder was contained, and consequently exerts pressure in every direction.
.
The energy utilized in developing the force which propels the projectile
IS heat and the heat carrier is gaseous, therefore a gun is the simplest form

4

DIRECT

FIRE

of gas engine. The expam;ion of gases which develops the force that drives
the projectile is entirely due to heat, for a gas at absolute zero temperature
would have no tendency to expand.
The direction in which the projectile leaves the muzzle, is determined by
the pointing of the gun. For any particular gun the initial velocity with
which the projectile starts in its path through the air is determined by the
kind, weight, and condition of the powder used, the shape and dimensions of
the powder grains, the density of loading, and the weight of the projectile.
The force of the powder gas acts upon the projectile while it is in the
bore and for a short distance after it leaves the muzzle, that is while it is in
the powder blast. It is therefore manifest that a large amount of this force
is wasted, in consequence of the practical limitation in the length which can
be given to a gun. Experiments have shown that only about 1/8 of the
total energy of the expanding gases is ever utilized in a gun of ordinary
dimensions; this portion is termed the total work in the gun.
.
A portion of this work is lost in heating the gun, and this loss of heat
reduces the amount available to prC?duceexpansion.
The total work in the gun is expended as follows:
In heating the gun.
In expanding the walls of
In driving the products
driving out the column
In deforming the rotating

the gun.
of combustion through the bore, and in
"
of air in front of the projectile.
band and in overcoming friction in the bore.

In giving rotation to the projectile.
In accelerating the projectile, that is gradually increasing its velocity.
As the prime object is to give acceleration to the projectile, it is important to know how much of "the total work in the gun" can be utilized for
this purpose. Experiments have shown that between 80% and 90% of
"the total work in the gun" is employed in accelerating the projectile.
If a charge of powder is burning in a rigid space, that is one that has a
fixed capacity, the expansive force of the gas will at any instant depend
upon the amount of gas which has been formed and its mean temperature.
As the amount of gas or its temperature increases, the expansive force will
increase. If now at any instant the space in which the powder is burning
be increased, the other conditions remaining the same, the expansive force
will decrease. In a gun the space in which the powder is burning has a
fixed capacity until the shot starts, after which the space increases.
The pressure on the walls of the gun and on the base of the projectile
at any instant depends upon the expansive force of the gas at that instant.
As long as the increase of expansive force, due to an increase of the amount
of powder burned or to temperature, is greater than the decrease of expansive force due to an increase in the space it occupies, the pressure on the walls
of the gun and base of the projectile is incrensing. 'Vhen the decrease due
to the increase in the space,is greater than the increase due to the nmounl of
powder burned or to temperature, the pressure falls off.
This is what happens in a gun; the pressure increases up to a certain
amount and then begins to fall off. The greatest pressure is cnlled the
"maximu"m pressure" and this is the pressure indicated by the pressure
gauge. This pressure musl not exceed that which it is considered safe to
use in the gun.
The form and size of the grain should be so regulated as to produce the

DIRECT

FIRE

greatest possible muzzle velocity with a maximum pressure not exceeding
that which is allowed for the gun.
It is sufficient to say here that within certain limits the larger the grain
the less will be the initial burning surface per pound of powder, and the less
will be the maximum pressure produced for a given charge of po~der.
This
will admit of using a larger charge of powder which will, as a rule, give a
greater muzzle velocity.
As the size of grain is increased the percentage
of the grain which will be consumed while the projectile is in the bore is
decreased, leaving a certain portion of each grain unburned when the projectile leaves the muzzle. \Ve will finally reach a point at which the weight
of the unburned powder will equal the additional amount of powder which.
has been put in the chamber and of course no further increase of velocity
can be obtained and if we continue to increase the size of grain without increasing the charge, the velocity will fall off. From which it is manifest
that for each class of gun there is a limit to the size of grain which must not
be exceeded. There is also a limit in the opposite direction and it is possible to produce dangerous pressures in a gun by even a small charge of
powder the grain of which is too small for the gun.
For this reason a powder should not be used in a gun for whtch it is pot
designed.
If circumstances make it absolutely necessary to do so, use a
powder having a grain which is larger than the normal for the gun.
The maximum pressure and the muzzle velocity are also affected by
the density of loading; it is important therefore that the projectile should
always be seated so that its base will be at the same distance from the face
of the breech, in order to insure obtaining uniform muzzle velocities.
The uniformity of action of the powder is also greatly dependent upon
the ignition and inflamation of the charge. By ignition is meant setting fire
to the charge, and by inflamation the spread of the flame frum grain to grain,
over the surface and into the perforations of the several grains. It is desirable to produce as nearly a simultaneous ignition of the entire charge as
possible, in order to eliminate the variation in the rate of emission of gas,
due to an irregular spread of the inflamation from grain to grain.
Black powder ignites very readily, but smokeless powder requires a
larger amount of flame to insure instantaneous ignition; for this reason an
igniting charge of black powder is attached to each section of a cartridge
of smokeless powder.
An extremely hard or very smooth grain is difficult to ignite. A charge
composed of large grains inflames more readily than one composed of small
grains, in. consequence of the size of the interstices.
A grain with large
perforations inflames more readily than one with small perforations.
With
multiperforated grains, the longer the grain the slower will be the inflamation with the same sized perforations.
It has been ascertained by experiment that, if a cartridge is much
shorter than the powder chamber, there is a liability to produce a motion of
or in the gas formed in the chamber, which materially increases the maximum pressure on the breech. This motion has been generally considered to
be a "Wave Motion."
.An e~tremely long chamber renders simultaneous igniti~n and inflam~atIon dIfficult and tends to produce so-called "wave motions."
Hence,
m order to contain the required amount of powder without giving it undue
length, the chamber is given a greater diameter than the main bore.
The rate of emission of gas from a burning grain is dependent
upon
j

DIRECT FIRE

6

its rate of burning and the area of the burning surface. The rate of burning
increases with the pressure, and also probably with the temperature of the
inflamed gases.
As a rule the larger the grain the less will be the area of burning surface
per pound of powder, and the slower will be the rate of emission of gas for
the same rate of burning, for any given charge.
Whatever may be the form of a grain there is always one dimension
that when burned through, the entire grain is consumed. Thus with two
tubular grains of the same length, one of the 72 inch in diameter and the
other 1 inch in diameter, both having the same thickness of wall, say 1/8
of an inch, it is manifest that as soon as the wall is burned through both
grains are consumed. The larger of these grains would weigh about twice
as much as the other, and twice the amount of gas would be evolved. This
dimension is called "the least dimension" of the grain, and som~times the
"critical dimension" of the grain. In a multi-perforated grain the critical
dimension is the thickness of the web between the perforations.
For similar guns the "critical dimension" of the grain must be proportional to the caliber of the gun.
When grain is said to be too large or too small for a gun, too quick or
too slow for a gun, it is the "critical demension" which is spoken of.
Uniformity in the size, shape, density, surface smoothness, and toughness of the grain is essential in order to obtain uniform results.

a

* .*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

In making up cartridges care should be taken that the bags are of the
same dimensions, especially as to length.
The length of the cartridge
should not be less than nine-tenths of the length of the chamber.
THE

TRAJECTORY

In order to reduce confusion of ideas to ~
minimum, in
this article the several elements of the trajectory are stated to
he as follows:
Trajectory.- The curve described by the center of gravity
of the projectile in passing from the .muzzle of the gun to the
point of impact.
Angle of departure.- The indination
of the line of departure to the line of shot.
.
Line of shot.- The line from the trunnions to the point of
impact.
(See Fig. 1.) ]' is the point of impact when the point of .
impact is in the horizontal plane containing the axis of the
trunnions,
sometimes called the initial plane.
The value.
described as the angle of departure in the range tables, and
referred to herein as cp, is represented by the angle A G'I'.
As the gun is raised above the water level (the reference surface in coast artillery work) the point of impact lies in a plane
below the initial plane, at a point I. The line of shot noW
has a depression represented by the angle l'G'l, and, in order
to compensate for the change in the height of site, the piece

DIRECT

7

FIRE

should be depressed by the same angular amount, I'G'I =
A G' B.
In other words the angle of departure
is kept
sensibly constant, or A G'1' = BG'I, if the principle of the
rigidity of the trajectory be accepted.
The principle of the rigidity of the trajectory assumes
that the trajectory
preserves the same form, whether' the
chord be horizontal, as G'I', or inclined like G'I. This is
slightly erroneous, and its acceptance would cause the projectile to range beyond 1', if the latter point were projected
vertically to the plane GI and designated I", notwithstanding
the fact that the measured .range GI" for which the piece
. would be laid, is slightly less than G'I". '*
In order that the projectile may not range too far, the
quadrant angle of departure CPx must be slightly less than CPE;
that is, the correction to be applied to the range table angle

F~

/.

1552

. of departure cP, in order to secure the quadrant angle of departure CPx, must be slightly greater than E. This constitutes
the essential difference between the values CPx and CPE.
If l' be projected vertically to the plane GI, the angle
IG'I' so formed would represe~t the value E.
Quadrant angle of departure.- The angle BG'I', or the inclination of the line of departure to the horizontal.
Line of departure.- The tangent to the trajectory at the
muzzle, or the prolongation of the axis of the bore at the
instant the projectile leaves the muzzle ..
Angle of position (or depression)~- The inclination of the
line of shot to the horizontal plane through the axis of the
trunnions.
It is designated by
Pintle center.- The vertical axis about which the carriage
revolves.
Range.- The horizontal distance from the pintle center to
~he point of impact; in Fig. 1, the distance GI. When the range
IS expressed in feet, it is designated
by X; when in yards, by R.
E.

• See page 14, Ballistics,

~

Part II, Major Alston Hamilton.

DIRECT

FIRE

Muzzle velocity.-The velocity in feet per second with
which the projectile leaves the muzzle in the direction represented by the line of departure.
Due to the action of gravity,
the projectile falls away from the line of departure.
Angle oj jall.-The
inclination of the tangent to the trajectory (at the point of impact) to the horizontal.
The angle
C'I'G' (w) represents the -value given in the range table in
degrees and minutes, or as a slope of fall. Under the service
condition, the angle of fall is represented by the angle eIG =
w + E, and is represented herein as WE.
Ballistic coejJicient.~ The ballistic efficiency of the projectile. or its power to overcome the resistance of the atmosIt
phere and retain. its horizontal component of velocity.
depends for its value on:
(1) The ratio of the weight to the cross-sectional area;
w

that is, the "sectional

density"

represented

by the ratio

d2'

.
\

I

In other words, the heavier the projectile per unit of area exposed to resistance, the more efficient will it be in retaining its
velocity.
(2) The shape of the point. It is obvious that sharpening
the point will reduce the resistance encountered, will reduce
the retardation, and will permit the projectile to retain its
velocity the - better.
The value of sharpening the point
varies with velocities, for a sharp point will obviously confer
more advantage at 2000 feet per second than at 2 feet per

second.
(3) The oblique presentation of the projectile to the
atmosphere.
The gyroscopic action of the rotating projectile
causes the point to precess so as to describe a small circle about
the tangent to the trajectory.
The projectile is therefore
never exactly head-on to the resistance of the air; but, due
to the small curvature of direct fire trajectories, the precession probably never describes. more than the first quarter
of the circle referred to above, so that the point is slightly
above and to the right of the tangent to the trajectory.
This
causes the projectile to be obliquely presented to the air and
consequently to drift to the right. It can also be observed
that the projectile will tend to "kite."
The factor i is called the characteristic index of the projectile; it is determined experimentally;
it embraces the
variation in retardation along the trajectory noted under (2)
and (3); and it is placed in the equation to credit a projectile

...

_

DIRECT

9

FIRE

(having a. given sectional density) with. a ballistic coefficient
equivalent to the ballistic coefficient of the projectiles used
in the firings on which Tables I and II are based, and takes
the place of the expression ~: 10I}.gused in our service.
The leading thought at present is to place the equation
. for the ballistic coefficient in the following form:
C = i~2

(See Americana,

1912 edition.)

(See range tables for long pointed projectiles.)
For the above expression, the wind is assumed to be zero
along the range, and the atmosphere normal with 78 % satur.
ation with moisture, the average saturation along the Gulf
and Atlantic coasts.
It is obvious that the ballistic efficiency of the projectile
will vary accordingly as there is a head or rear wind component, and with variations of atmospheric density.
Therefore, while
w

C = id2
represents the equation for the ballistic coefficient
range table conditions, the general expression is
01

under

W

T . id2

C = fw •

The values of i for the purposes indicated above have
been determined for the computation of range tables for long
pointed projectiles, as follows:
For 5-inch and 6-inch guns
i = .61
For 8-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch, and 14-inch
i = .63
For projectiles having a general design similar to those
used in making the firings on which our ballistic tables are
based (shot and shell for seacoast guns), i is a constant; for
other types of projectiles (shot and shell for land. guns, and
shrapnel) i is usually not constant, and is determined as a
function of the range by experimental firing.
Existing range tables for capped projectiles were. constructed on the value of the ballistic coefficient expressed as
follows: .
C =fa.

w

-d
2
"'(c

The general expression became
C

.....

= fa

w

• "'(cd2

-+a .

fw

iiiiiiiiiiiiii=:=====.:t:1

==::::::::::::~~Ei:1

DIRECT FIRE

10

The following dis.cussion of what the ballistic coefficient
really is, is taken from Exterior Ballistics (O'Hern).
the
air
has
the
the

4. Determination of the resistance of the air.-The
relation between
velocity of a projectile and the resistance opposed to its motion by the
has been the subject of numerous experiments.
The usual method
been to determine the loss of velocity over a known path.
By equating
corresponding loss of, energy with the product of the resistance times
path the value of the resistance has been determined.
Thus let
w = weight of projectile in lbs.
m = mass of projectile = wig.
d. = diameter of projectile in inches.
Vi = velocity of projectile at beginning of measured p'ath.
V2 = velocity of projectile at end of measured path.
s = distance in feet between points of measurement of Vi and V2.

=

p

resistance of air in Ibs.

=.!!!!....

R*

=

retardation

due to air resistance.

w
Then

mv 12

__

__

mv 2_
2

2
Whence

(I)

2

R* = (V12-V22)/2s

(2)

In order that the computed values of R* may be accurate the distance s
must be so short that p may be considered as uniform over that path.
Early investigators, such as Robins in 1742 and Hutton in 1790, determined the values of VI and V2 by means of a ballistic pendulum placed
at varying distances from the gun. Later investigators have used electroballistic instruments, the improvements in which have steadily increased
the accuracy of the determinations.
The latest forms of instruments
and methods of measuring velocities are described on pages 32-40, Lissak's
Ordnance and 'Gunnery,
Much data has been secured concerning various
projectiles under various atmospheric and other conditions.
How these
results have been standardized and made applicable to other projectiles
and other atmospheric conditions will be explained in the discussion of
the so-called Ballistic Coefficient.
5. Mayevski's formulas for the resistance of the air.-The
values used
in our present ballistic tables were derived by General Mayevski from
Krupp firings made at Meppen about 1881. In expressing the relation
between the resistanee of the air and the velocity of the projectile, General
Mayev,ski assumed that the resistance encountered by a given projectile
under given atmospheric conditions varied as some power of the velocity,
the law of retardation being expressed by the equation
R*
In which

R = retardation

equation (2).
• Represented

=

(3)

Anv"
C

to be determined

experimentally

by r by Ingalls and elsewhere in this artic1e.-G.

as per
A. W.

DIRECT

11

FIRE

C = ballistic coefficient varying inversely as the retardation.
An
equation from which C can be calculated will be given later.
n = some power of the velocity.
An = a corresponding constant, n and An to be determined from equation (3) after substituting the values of v, R, and C.
The following values of An and n were thus determined by Mayevski
and by Zaboudski.
Velocities, Ls.

n

Below 790
790 to 970
970 to 1230
1230 to 1370

2
3
5
3

log A

Velocities, Ls.

n

log A

5.66989-10
2.77344-10
6.80187-20
2.98090-10

1370 to 1800
1800 to 2600
above 2600

2
1.7
1.55

6.11926-10
7.09620-10
7.60905-10

It will be notE>dthat the values of the log An taken in connection with
the corresponding values of vn are such as to make the values of R plotted
as a function of v form practically a smooth curve.
More recent firings by the Gavre Commission in France have shown
that the above values of An and n are not strictly accurate but no ballistic
tables of greater accuracy have yet been computed.
It now appears that
the law of the air resistance is intimately connected with the velocity of
sound and that'Newton's
Law of the Square, is in the main true.
6. The Ballistic CoeiJicient.-In
Mayevski's expression for R*, equation
(3), he assumed
C

(4)

In which
(~l = standard
density of air, that is with barometer 760 mm., thermometer 15°C, relative humidity ~.
a = density of atmosphere at time of experiment.
c = coefficient of form. A general expression for its value will be
deduced later.
w = weight of projectile in lhs.
d = diameter of projectile in inches.
The value of (~da for any weather conditions may be obtamed from
Table A, of this pamphlet, or from Table VI of Artillery Circular M, with
the barometer and the thermometer readings "as arguments.
It is evident from equation (3) that An vn IS directly equal to R only
When. C = 1. That is, the tabulated values of An vn and their derived
functIOns are based on the retardation encountered by a projectile of one
pound weight, since w = 1; of one inch diampter, since d = 1; of standard
form, since c = 1; moving in an atmosphere of standard density, since
aI/a ~ 1. It then becomes evident that C is the factor by means of which
. the :V~lues of Anvn are made applicable to projectiles and atmospheric
condI~IOns which differ from these standards.
A thorough understanding
of C IS of such fundamental importance that the meaning and use of the
factors already appearing and certain others to be introduced later will
now be fully consIdered.
It will be noted that C varies inversely as the

*

Represented

by r by Ingalls and elsewhere in this articlf'.-G.

A. W.

12

DIRECT FIRE

retardation and hence measures the ability of the projectile to maintain
its velocity.
Since the weight of air to be dIsplaced by a projectile per
unit of travel will vary directly as the density of the air and as the area
of cross-section of the projectile, the retardation will vary directly as these
factors.
We accordingly find a/OJ and d2 as inverse factors in the expression'
for C. Every factor but d2 has disappeared from the ratio of the areas,
rd12/ rd2, because the diameter of the standard projectile dI, was assumed
as one inch.
Since the retardation of a projectile acted upon by a given force will
vary inversely as the weight of the projectile, w will enter as a direct factor
in the expression for C.
The factor c, called the coefficient of form, is habitually determined
by experiment.
The following formula gives its value for an ogival head
c

= 2k !4n -1
n

'\f

(5 )

7

In which
n = radius of ogive in c3libers.
k = a constant which is ordinarily unity, but which is determined
experimentally
and thus compensates for peculiarities of conformation
not attributable
to the radius of the ogive. For k = 1 and n = 2, the
value in general use in the U. S. Service, c = 1.

So when we say that under a given set of atmospheric
conditions a certain projectile has a ballistic coefficient of 11,
we mean that it will suffer loss of velocity at only one-eleventh
the rate suffered by a projectile of standard form, one pound
weight. and one inch caliber, under normal atmospheric conditions.
The ballistic coefficient of the standard projectile under
normal conditions is represented by the equation
w

C = cd'!.
in which c is called the coefficient of form and is unity for an
ogive struck with a radius of two calibers.
It relates merely
to the shape of the head of the projectile.
The values of c for ogives struck with dIfferent radii,
expressed in calibers, are taken as follows from page 39,
Ballistics, Part II, and page 295, Notes on Ballistics, JOURNAL
U. S. ARTILLERY November-December,
1909, by ~lajor
Alston Hamilton:
n = 2
3
4
5.
6
7
c = 1.00 0.82 0.71 0 . 64 O. 58 O. 51
These agree with the most recent experiments at Indian Head and at
Sandy Hook.
.

Our long-pointed caps are struck with a radius of ogive
of n = 7 calibers; yet for the 12-inch projectile i = 0.63. But.
the hourrelet is separated from the base of the wind shield ogive

13

DIRECTFIRE

by an axial distance of about half a caliber.
This and the
oblique presentation,
etc., so reduces the value expected from
the point that the gain is limited to a projectile of standard
form having a radius of ogive of about five calibers, flying exactly
head-on, and conforming to the laws on which Table II is based.
See Chap. II, Ballistics, Part I; pages 187-189, and 223225, Artillery Circular N; and Introduction,
Artillery Circular
M.
It will be noticed that in some of the range tables computed by the Ordnance

Department

the expression

j~ is used

instead of the factor i.
Striking velocity.- The velocity of the projectile in feet
per second in the direction of the line of impact, and at the
point of impact.
Jump.-Either the difference between the sight elevation
and the sight angle of departure, or the difference between the
quadrant angle of elevation and the quadrant angle of departure.
In Case I the piece is given an angle of elevation
with reference to the line of sight; in Case II and Case III
the piece is given an angle of elevation with reference to the
horizontal; in either case the shock of discharge may change
the inclinatio"n of the axis of the bore at the instant of departure from the inclination at which the piece was laid.
~his change in inclination is called jUlllp. The jump may be
~Ither positive (increasing the inclination) or negative (decreasmg the inclination), or may be zero (in which case the inclination is unchanged), "depending upon" the kind of carriage and
platform employed, the length of the bore, * * * and the angle
of elevation."
(For a study of jump, see JOURNAL U. S.
ARTILLERY,Vol. 36, Sept.-Oct., 1911, page 176; Vol. 35, Jan.Feb., 1911, pages 63-75.)
Angle of elevation.- The .inclination of the axis of the bore
t~ the line of sight, measured in a vertical plane, when the
pIece is laid. Often called sight elevation.
. Quadrant angle of elevation.- The inclination of the axis
of the bore to the horizontal, when the piece is laid.
Sight angle of departure.- The inclination of the line of
departure to the line of sight, measured in a vertical plane.
Jump
= AG'B
Angle of departure
= IG'B
Angle of elevation, or sight elevation
= TG' A
= TG'B
Sight angle of departure

________________

S!l!!lJlllJl!l!lllJll!llllll---.-II!IlIII!I.-lIIiiIiiiiiiiiiiij;j

14

DIRECT FIRE

angle of departure
= CG' B
angle of elevation
= CG' A
Line of impact.- The tangent to the trajectory at the
point of impact; or, the direction of motion of the projectile
at the instant of impact.
Angle of impact.- The inclination of the line of impact to
the surface hit at the point of impact.
Angle of incidence.- The inclination of the line of impact
to Ule normal to the surface hit at the point of impact.
These last two angles are of interest chiefly in the study I
of armor attack and the computations
of perforations to be
.expected.
Quadrant
Quadrant

AKis

or

7;-(/1111/0110$

G'
:
I
I
I

~
I

1663

Table II.-For
a thorough understanding
of its signifi~
cance, consult Artillery Circulars, M and N. It consists of a
number of tables, each table being for a certain muzzle ve~
locity, and designed to display certain computed secondary
functions in such a manner as to be most convenient for
ballistic computations.
Having given a horizontal distance X
(in feet), and a given C, and a given V, for the ratio ~
there can be found, of chief interest,

the value A (

=

(= Z)

sinC

2lfJ
)

for the given muzzle velocity.
Hence from A we c~n determine cp, the required angle of departure.
Other elements of
the trajectory
can likewise be computed from the formulre
given later on, which show the relation of the element that'
we desire to compute to the proper function to be found
opposite

the ratio

Z ~= ~.

For

convenience,

an abridged

Table II is appended hereto, including the values of A for
V = 2150, V = 2250, and V = 2350 as determined by double
interpolation
frem the 21CO, 22CO, 2300, and 2400 f.s. tables.

DIRECT

15

FIRE

There are also appended the tables for muzzle velocities from
2000 to 3000 inclusive for values of Z from 100 to 7000.
In the range tables for capped projectiles it is seen that
the values of C vary with the range. These values are based
on assumptions which are no longer considered to represent
the best practice; but it is sufficiently exact to take the nearest
tabular value from the range table for any range considered.
Then the value of Cl (for the day) == ~

. fw' C (range table

value).
Problem 1
Thus for the 12-inch gun and capped projectile, range
8000, barometer 29", thermometer
40°F., and a range' component of wind 20 miles per hour against the projectile, we
have:
From Table A,
Atmosphere factor = .98
2lV T5/4
Wind factor, fw = 1:f::

X

(The positive sign is used when the wind is ac'celerating,
the negative si~n when the wind is retarding.)
log 2 Wx = log 40 = 1.60206
5/4 log T = 5/4 log 13.06 = 1.39493
colog X = colog 24000 = 5.61979 -10

and

log .04138 = 8.61678
fw' = 1 - .04= .96
(Range table) log C = 0.90i)71
()l

Iog ~

= log .98 = 9.99122 -10

log fw = log .96 ,;, 9.98227 -10
log C1 (for the day) = 0.88320 = log 7.642
For the range tables for the long pointed projectiles it is
seen that the value of C is taken as constant throughout the
range. The expression for C under range table conditions is
C

=

i~2'
Problem 2

. Ass~ming the same range, atmosphere, and wind as in
the preVIOUS problem, we have for the 12-inch gun and long
pointed projectile:

16.

DIRECT

FIRE

log 2 Wx = log 40 = 1.60206
5/4 log T = 5/4 log 12.22 = 1.35884
colog X = colog 24000 = 5.61979 -10
log .038
fw = 1 - .038 = .962
By Table A,
~

.98
(Range table) log C = 1.07168
log fw = log .962 = 9.98317 -10

-t-b = log

.98 = 9.99122 -10

log C1 (for the day)
FORMULlE

C

=

8.58069

=

log

C1 =

=

~l

~2'

=

1.04607,

=

log 11.12

ApPLYING
TO THE RANGE AND DEFLECTION
FOR USE IN BALLISTICS

fw • i~2' under actual conditions

~nder ra~ge table conditions.

~ will be found in Artillery

of firing.

(Hamilton)

Note No. 25, Table VI, of

which Table A herewith is a copy.
2W T5/4
f = 1::f:: .
(Hamilton)

X .

w

fw is 1 minus

the fraction for
component' along the line
fw is 1 plus the fraction for a
component along the line
FORMULlE

a head (retarding)
of fire.
rear (accelerating)
of fire.

FOR US,E WITH

ARTILLERY

CIRCULAR

sin 2cp

=

TABLE

N, 1893

AC

Z=X

C
Yo = 4.05 T2
,tan w = B' tan cp
u cos cp
v,..
cos w.
CT'
T=-cos cp
C' _ sin 2cp
::z

-

--

X

II,

wind
wind

17

DIRECT FIRE
HAMILTON'S

FORMULlE

which reduces to,

t =Pv~

~

in which t is the thickness of K.C. armor that a capped A.P
shot is to be expected to perforate at normal impact.
Pv is a
function of v to be taken from Table P which gives values of P
with v as an argument; wand d are, respectively, the weight
of the A.P. shot in pounds and its diameter in inches.
v

Wind deflection (degrees) =

~z

Dw 0

in which Wy is the cross-component
of the wind In miles per
hour, and D is the wind deflection function to be taken fron:
Table D.
0

w

d3

(fP + w) sec fP
wn
in which K is the drift constant, Ii the number of calibers
which the projectile would have to move along the bore in
order to make one turn at the final rate of twist.
n is ordinarily 25 for direct fire guns of high power in our service,
and the twist is to the right.
For long pointed projectiles
!{ = .75.
.

Drift (degrees)

= (1 -

K) -

4s regards the precision to be attempted in the comPutations, t~e following is quoted from page 3, Artillery CirCUlar N~ Senes of 1893, by Colonel James M. Ingalls, U. S. A.:
. Logarithms are habitually employed in making the numerical computa.
hons, as it is believed that by their use a considerable saving of time and
labor is effected and the liability of error reduced to a minimum.
In the
absence of a table of logarithms, however, most of 'the examples can be
w~rked out by the four fundamental rules of arithmetic.
Five place loganthms are sufficient for the accurate solution of all gunnery problems, and
four place logarithms can often be used to advantage.
ApPLICATIONS
TARGET

OF THE

IN THE

FORMUL.lE

INITIAL

PLANE

Problem 3
Given R, C, and V, to determine fP.
R = 8000; C = (1.07168); V = 2250.
See Table II, appended.

Z=X

C

iiiMiii... m

aLa

DIRECT

18

FIRE

log X = 24000 = 4.38021
colog C = 8.92832 -10
log Z = 3.30853
Z= 2035
For V = 2250 and Z = 2035, A = .01513

+

35

100 X 91

.01545
Sin 2rp

=

AC

log A
log C

=
=

8.18893 -10
1.07168

log sin 2rp = 9.26061
2rp = 10° 30'
rp = 5° 15'
which checks closely enough with the range table for the 12inch gun and long pointed projectile.
Problem 4
Given R, C, and V, to determine rp.
R = 8000; C = (1.07168); V = 2230.
Rand C being the same as in problem13, we get
Z = 2035.
(V. = 2200) A = .01585
(V

=

2250) A

=

=

AC

+

~g

X (-73)

=

=
rp' =

V

=

Av

= - 73

= .01574

log A = 8.19700 -10
log C = 1.07168
log sin 2rp'
2rp'

We see that

= .01618

(see Prob. 3) .01545;

(V = 2230) A = .01618
Sin 2rp'

+ 1~50X 95

6' greater

9.26868 -10
10° 41'.9
5° 21'

elevation

is required

2250 f.s.
Problem 5
Given C, V, and rp, to determine R.
C = (1.07168); V = 2250; rp = 6° 4'
Sin 2rp = AC

than when

19

DIRECT FIRE

log sin 2~ = log sin 12° 8' = 9.32260 -10
colog C = 8.92832 -10
log A = 8.25092 -10
A = .01782
'.

For (V = 2250) and A = .01782,
= 2291.5
X
Z=c

.z =

2200

86'

+ 94

X 1?0

log Z = log 2291.5 = 3.36011
log C = 1.07168
log X = 4.43179
X = 27027
R = 9009 yds.
Problem 6
Given V, ~, and R, to determine C.
V = 2250; ~ = 5° 49'; R = 8400.
C' = sin 2 ~
X

log sin 2~ = log sin 11° 38' = 9.30459 -10
colog X = colog 25200 = 5.59860 -10
log C'
(V =2200) log C' =4.9032 -10

=

4.90319 -10

+~

Z=2100

X 100= 2105
A =959

(V =2300) log C' =4.9032 -10

Z =3000

+ ~~X

(V=2250) log C'=4.9032-10

Z = 2105

+ 1~~ X 959 = 2585

Z

100 =3064

X

=-

C

log X = 4.40140
colog Z = colog 2585 = 6.58923 -10
which is practically
projectile.

log C = .99063
the log C for the lO-inch, long-pointed
Problem 7

Given ~, R, an~ C, to determineV.

DIRECT

20

FIRE

= 6° 8', R = 9000, C = (1.07168)

q;

Z=~
log X = log 27000 = 4.43136
colog C = 8.92832 - 10
log Z = 3.35968
Z = 2289
Sin 2q; = AC
log sin 2'P = log sin 12° 16' = 9.32728 -10
colog C = 8.92832

log A = 8.25560 -10
A = .01801
\Vith Z as an argument, we look through Table II to find
the two successive velocities whose A's for Z == 2289 bracket
the value A = .01801. Then we interpolate for the velocity.

89

(V=2200)

Z=2289

A =.01776+100

X99=.01864
A = -.00084

(V=2250)

Z=2289

A =.01696+1~90 X94=.01780

V = 2200 + .01801 - .01864 X 50 = 2200 + - 63 X 50 =
-84
- .00084
2238 f.s.
Problem 8
The following is quoted, with a few alterations, from
lVotes on Ballistics, by Major Alston Hamilton (pages 259 and
260, JOURNAL U. S. ARTILLERY, Nov .. Dec., 1909).
In dealing with the jump of the piece it is necessary to find how far
the trajectory should naturally fall away from the line of departure, due to
the action of gravity and to the vertical component of the air resistance.
This is done as follows:

y

(ac

)

-'- = tan cp' 1 - -.-x

or

,
y

=

x tan cp

That IS
x tan cp' and since for this purpose,

cos2

cp'

.
y
..

sm 2cp'

aCx tan cp'
. 2 cp '
sm
aCx

= -2 cos cp'
2

may be taken

3S

unity for direct fire, we

have

~

S

21

DIRECT FIRE

Natural

=

drop

ft.

a~x

= M aC2

Z ft.
6aC2 z inches.

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

The manner of solving this problem in general will be evident from the
illustrntion given below:
'.'
Given V ;, 2234; barometer, 30.31; thermometer, 37°; wind velocity,
12 miles per hour; azimuth of wind, 128°; azimuth of fire, 316°; quadrant
elevation, Q = 10° 27'; drop ofprojectile from line of bore sights, measured
on jump screen, 23 in. Deviation on screen, 0.0 in. Measured range~
14,091 yards; measured deflection, 0°.44 right; time of flight (observed)
23.13 seconds; height of tide, h, 2.5 feet; * * * distance, D, from muzzle
to screen, 366.2 feet; distance, b, from axis of trunnions to muzzle of piece,
24.1 feet; D
b, 390.3 feet; range in feet, 42,273; 12-inch B.L.R.; weight of
projectile, 1046 lbs.; shot [long pointed]; radius of ogive, 7 calibers'; twist;
1 turn in 25 calibers. *
'
,
.

+

i and K.

Determine

From Table C, assume
c

.54

From Table A,

= .933

~l

o

For the short distance to the screen assume fw
C

a

= -}

w
. C

d2

=

1046
.9330.54 X 144

=

1.

12.55

N ow for the screen'
X = D = 366.2
Hence
X
C
To find

a

=

z

=

366.2
12.55

=

29

we have, with z = 29 and V = 2234

z = 29

=

2200)
= 2250)

a

(V = 2234)

a

(V
(V

.000194
a = .000186

- .000008

= ..000194 - }~- X .000008

Hence from natural
1

~

.000188

drop = 6'aC2z inches,

• >II While f~om this ,Point on, the general method employed in this probeI!lIs that Major HamIlton employed in the reference cited yet it is not
Pbrmted in the smaller type because the agreement is not s~ close as has
een the case up to this point.

DIRECT FIRE

22

log 6 =
log a =
2 log C =
log z =

0.77815
6.27416 - 10
2.19728
1.46240

log natural drop = 0.71199
Natural drop = 5.15 inches.
.
The measured drop is 23 inches; hence the' drop due to
negative jump is 23 - 5.2 = 17.7 inches.
N ow this distance is measured on a screen at a distance
from the axis of the. trunnions which equals D
b, or 390.3
feet, or 4684 inches. Then, since a radian is 34i38', we have

+

Jump

= -

~~8~X 3438'

= -

13'

Hence the quadrant angle of departure, cp,., is the quadrant elevation 10° 27' - 13' = 10° 14'.
To find E (see Fig. 2):
The height of. the trunnions above mean low water was
24.7 feet; the height of the tide was 2.5 'feet; the curvature
of the earth at this range (see Table K) is 42.8 feet.
. _ 3438' 42.8 + 24.7 - 2.5
H ence E .'
42,273
=

3438 . 42~;73 = 5' .3

+

+

Hence cp' = cpx
E = 10° 14'
5' .3 = 10° 19' .3
2cp' = 20°'38' .6
We now know Y, cp', and X, and can calculate
' _ sin 2cp'
C X
with which to enter Table II, Artillery Circular M, or Table
B, appended, and find thence, by interpolation. the value of CJ
(for the day), as follows:
log sin 2cp' = log 20° 38'.6 = 9.54722 -10
colog X = colog 42,273 = 5.37394 -10
log C'
Log C' to four places
With this value fA log C' we get
yZ
2200
2540
2300
3482
A (100)
942
A 34
320
2234
2860

=

4.92116 -10

= 4.9212 -10
A
.02120
.02905
785
267
.02387

j

J

J

DIRECT

z

23

FIRE

= -x

sin 2 cp. = A C

. C
log X = 4.62606
colog Z = 6.54364 -10

log sin 2cp = 9.54722 -10
colog A = 1.62215

log C1 = 1.16970

log C1 = 1.16937

Hence it is seen that the values of log C1 agree very
Closely as secured through different methods of interpolation.
The corresponding values of C1 are 14.781 and 14.77.
Take the mean value, C1 = 14.776 (for the day).
But
t~is C1 "= the range table C multiplied by the atmosphere and
WInd factors.
Designating the C for the day as Ct,
C1
To find

!w'

= ~

xfw X C

note that
fw = I::!:

2 Wx T5/4
X

The negative sign is used for a head wind and the positive
sign:for a wind from the rear.
"
In''-this case the azimuth of fue is 316° and the azimuth
from which the wind is blowing is 128°. Hence the wind is
blowing from the right rear and makes an angle of 360° 316°
128° = 172° with the plane of fire, or an acute angle
of 8°. The range component is therefore \V cos 8°, and the
~ross..component from the right is W sin 8° and tends to diminIsh the drift.

+

Wind 12 miles per hour;
log W = 1.0792
log W = 1.0792
log cas 8° = 9.9958
log sin 8° = 9.1436
log W = 0.2228
"
Wy = -1.670

log Wx = 1.0750
Wx = 11.885

y

To find fw' since T = 23.13
log Wx =
5/4 log T =
log 2 =
colog X =

1.0750
1.7052
0.3010
5.3739

log .029 = 8.4551 - 10
fw

(Table A)

= 1 + .029 = 1.029

a;

=

.933

24

DIRECT FIRE

c=

Cl
01

T

.fw

log C1 = log 14.776 = 1.16955
CO Iog

0'1

"

o

= colog .933 = 0.03012

colog fw = colog 1.029 = 9.98759 -10
log C under range table
C = iwd2 or l. = Cwd2
log W = log 1046
colog C
colog d2 = colog 144

conditions

= 1.18726

= 3.01953
= 8.81274 -10
= 7.84164 -10

log i = 9.67391 -10
l =
.47

Phn~

(fun

or /Jirecfion

Pbneor

Shof-

470rget
POlnt-OT /mppcf

FIG. 3.

Lateral

Deviations

1554

or Deflections

The line of direction is the line from the pintle center to
the aiming point, or to the center of the target, at the instant
the shot strikes.
The plane of direction is the vertical plane containing the
line of direction.
The plane of departure is the vertical plane containing the
line of departure.
The plane of sight is the vertical plane containing the line
of sight at the instant of departure.
. Range firings are ordinarily conducted at a fixed target, or at an aiming point.
In this case the plane of departure coincides with the plane
of sight. That is, the piece is laid on the target without
lateral corrections.
Then the fall of the shot to the right or
left of the plane of direction is observed, and is expressed in
angular measure.
The observed angular horizontal divergence
of the point of im'pact is' modified by the divergence caused
by the lateral component of the wind. This gives the drift,
and ultimately the constant for the projectile.
To find the drift constant, K, the observed direction
must be corrected for the cross wind component.

.

DIRECT

25

FIRE

W~. = - 1.67 = ~ 5/3
The value of the wind deflection is,
Wind deflection

= WVZ X D o

(degrees)

w

N ow for V = 2234, from Table. D we .have for Z = 2860
Dwo = 0°.0061

I-Ience,
Wind deflection

= - 5/3 X ;~~~ X .0061 = - .013

The observed deflection was 0°.44 right. This increased by .013
becomes 0.45. \Ve have, then, from the formula for drift
DO = (1 -

K) .!!- (cp' +
wn

0.45 = (1-J\")10lZ~25
It is necessary

w')s~c

cp' (*)

(cp'+w')sec

cp'

to find w'. We have
V = 2234
Z = 2860
cp' = 10° 14'

Hence for Z = 2860 from Table B,
V
2200
2300

log B'
.1073
.1063
34

2234
tan

log tan

.1073 -100

= B' tan

w'

cp'

X 10 = .1070

cp'

= log tan 10° 14' = 9.25654-10
log B' = 0.10700
log tan

cp'

~
-10

+

log sec

cp'
w'
cp'

w'
w'

= 9.36354 -10
= 13° 0'.3 = 13°

= 10°.23
= 23°.23
= .00697

Hence
(I-I\")

*

0.45
23.23 sec

1046 X25
cp"

From Hamilton's Ballistics,

1728
Part I, page 33.

26

DIRECT

log 0.45
colog 23.23
colog see cp'
log 1046.0
log 25.0
colog 1728.0

=

=
=
=
=
=

FIRE

9.65321
8.63395
9.99303
3.01953
1.39794
6.76246

-10
-10
-10

-10

log (I-K)
= 9.46012-10
1 - !{ = .2385
K
.712
To summarize:

i

.47
.712
-'13'

K
j*
THE

RANGE

TABLE

The range table for a direct fire. gun and its type pro-_
jectile exhibits. principally the angle of departure as a function
of the range under an assumed set of conditions called "range-"
table conditions"; these are:
(u) That the gun and target are on the same level.
(b) A constant value for the ballistic coefficient.
.
.
(c) Law of retardation
as assumed in Table II.
.

.1

(d)

Normal

atmosphere;

i.e.,~l

= 1, atmosphere

saturated with moisture.
No wind.
(f) Normal muzzle velocity.
The elements of the trajectory shown as functions of the
range are:
1. Time of flight.
2. Angle (and slope) 0 fall.
3. Maximum ordinate.
4. Striking velocity.
5. Perforation of Krupp armor.
6, Deviation from the plane of fire due to: (1) drift; and
(2) component of wind of 10 miles per hour perpendicular to
the plane of fire.
(e)

COMPUTATION

OF A RANGE

I

78% ;

TABLE

(NOTE.-The range table value of C here given does not
correspond with that to be found in the range table for the .
*

Jump.

j

;

DIRECT

27

FIRE

12-inch gun and long-pointed projectile.
One who desires to
gain facility in the use of Table II may assume certain values in
the range table and solve for others, thus framing his own problems and checking his results with values in the range table.)
Assume the values determined in Problem 8. We have
found that log C (range-table conditions) = 1.18726. Com~
pute the line of the range table for 10,000 yards:
log X = log 30,000 = 4.47712
colog C = 8.81274 -10
log Z
Z
(See Tables B and II.)
(V = 2250) Z = 1949, A
Z
V
log B'
2200
.0725
2300
.0716

= 3.28986
= 1949
= .01468
= 1949
u
1712
1796

.1441
3508
2250
.0721
1754
(See Table D.) V =2250, Z = 1949, Dwo =.0059
To find cp, sin 2cp = AC
log A = log .01468 = 8.16672 -10
.
log C = 1.18726
log sin 2cp = 9.35398 -10
2cp = 13° 3'.5
cp = 6° 31'.8
To find T, T = CT'
cos cp
log C = 1.18726
log T' = log .983 = 9.99255 -10
colog cos cp = colog cos 6° 31'.8 = 0.00283
log T
. T
To find Yo, Yo = 4.05T2
2 log T'
log 4.05

= 1.18264
= 15.23 seconds
= 2.36528
= 0.60746

log Yo = 2.97274
Yo =.939 feet

T'
1.005
.960
1.965
.983

28

DIRECT FIRE

To find
log tan

cp

w,

tan

w

= B" tan

cp

10gB' = 0.07210
= log tan 6° 31'.'8 = 9.05868 -10
log tan

w
w

= 9.13078 -10
= 7° 41'.9

To find sJope-. of fall,
. x1 = tan

w

log 1 = 0.00000
colog tan'w = 0.86922

= 0.86922
x = 7.4

log x

To fin d vw,

Vw

u cos
= ---

cp

cos wlog u = log 1754 = 3.24403
log cos cp = log cos 6° 31'.8 = 9.99717 -10
colog cos w = colog cos 7° 41'.8 = 0.00394
log

To find the perforation

t = Py~~-

Vw

= 3.24514

Vw = 1758 f.s.
(see Table P),

= 1.395 X

~~4~~=

13.0 inches.

For perforation at 30° with the normal, subtract
the above.
(See Table Q.)
t30 = 13 X .92 = 11.96 inches

8 % from

To find the deflection for a 10-mile wind we have,
Deflection

(degrees) = I~Z . "DvrO
. 1~~;~9

X .0059 = .0511
1

To find the drift,

I

d
= (1 -!{) -(
wn
3

Drift (degrees)

= .289 X. 10~~~25 X (6°.5

cp

+ 7°.7) X

+

w) see cp

.9~35

I;

= 0°.273

Problem 9
Drift of Capped Projectiles; i.e., those not fitted with long
points. *
* See Hamilton's Ballistics, Part I, Page 33.

I

1

J

~

DIRECT

29

FIRE

"Take K for shot and steel shell as 0.75; for C. 1. shell as
0.80."
.
C. I. shell are being fired as trial shots from a

Capped

lO-inch B.L.R.

w = 604; -~1

= 1; lV = 0; range to center

of impact,. 8000 yards; assume jump as ::f:: O. Assume the
piece to be laid accurately at the aiming point.
(a)
If the gun pointer has his sight set at 3.00 and
rnoves the vertical wire to each splash, what should the sight
setting be?
(b)
What deflection should be computed by the deflection board fitted with a leaf range scale for steel projectiles?
(c) What is the error at this range to be expected from
the deflection board?
(See range table for 10-inch gun, and capped projectile.)
a
b
C. 1. Shell
Steel
log (l-K) = log .20 = 9.3010
log .25 = 9.3979
log d = log 1000 = 3.0000
3.0000
log (<p+w)
= log 14.4 = 1.1584.
1.1584
log sec <p = log sec 6°=
.0025
.0025
colog w = colog 604 = 7.2190
7.2190
colog n = colog 25 = 8.6021
8.6021
3

log drift = 9.2829
9.3799
drift = 0°.190
0°.240
(a) The reading of the sight will be 3.00 - 0.19 = 2.81.
This is the correct setting of the sight.
(b) The deflection computed will be 3.00 - .24 = 2.76.
(c) This would cause the projectile to fall 2.81 - 2.76 =
0°.05 to the left, and would necessitate a flat correction of +
0°.05.
THE

GRADUATION

OF THE RANGE

SCALE

At the present* writing the decision has been reached on
the proposition of correcting for jump.
It is finally deemed
practicable, and the correction therefor will be incorporated in
the graduation of the range scale.
A method here outlined
permits a battery commander to COlllpute a table expressing
the Range-Quadrant-angle-of-departure
relation.
Any material discrepancy between his table and the elevation table
* November, 1914.

30

DIRECT

FIRE

furnished the battery for graduating the range scale by the
clinometer,may
be attributed to the correction for jump.
It
is of interest to know that such a correction is to be applied.
\\Then solving for range corrections for abnormal conditions of atmosphere, wind, velocity, and tide, the jump Correction is only incidental.
We are no longer concerned
directly with the quadrant angle of elevation (<t'I), but only
with the quadrant m ~-f,le
of departure (<t'x). Therefore, whether
jump be considered or not, we are in a position to compute
range corrections by the table expressing the Range-<t'x relation.
To obtain th~ quadrant angle of departure for service
conditions, it is necessary to correct for such errors as are
introduced by the following assumption:
Gun and target on the same level.
To obtain the quadrant elevation it is also necessary to
correct the quadrant angle of departure for the jump of the
carriag~.
The elevation table will exhibit the angles of quadrant
elevation as a function of the range at suitable intervals, and
is computed from the range table angles of departure by the
following formulre:
<t'i= <t'x+ Ll <t'J
<t'x= <t'+ Ll<t'K + Ll<t'h
In which
<t'l = quadrant elevation.
<t'x= quadrant angle of departure.
<t' = range-table angle of departure.
AcpJ = the correction for jump taken as a function of <t'x.
Ll<t'K= the correction for curvature.
Ll<t'h= the correction for height of site.
Angle of depression due to height of site, h in feet, assum_
ing the principle of rigidity of the trajectory:
1146)
.
6.<t'h= h ( ~
mInutes
Correction for curvature

(1)

of the earth:

R

.

6. <t'K= 4000 mInutes
Correction for height of site without
the principle of rigidity of the trajectory:

(2)
the assumption

of

DIRECT

Ah
=
L.1«'h

1134

This last formula is
tion tables for batteries
computed.
The values
have been computed and
Ll«'J

is determined

FIRE

+
.005R .. t
R
mlnu es

31
(3)

convenient where a number 'of elevaon different heights of site are to be
of the fraction for successive ranges
tabulated.

separately

for each type gun and mount.

The procedure for computing the Range-«'l relation for.
a gun will be possible as follows:
Select 9000 yards for an example for the 12-inch gun and
long-pointed projectile; height of site, 200 feet; M. V.,.2250f.s.
1. From the range table (Form 1014), «' = 6° 4'.
2. The correction for curvature of the earth = - 2'.25.
3. The correction for height of site = - 26'.2. [Equation (3).]
.
Hence the quadrant angle of departure for the gun is,
= 6°4' - 2'.3 - 26'.2 = 5°35'.5.
i(Jx
If the line of departure makes an angle of 5°35'.5 with the
horizontal plane through the trunnions, we can expect the
shot to fall at a horizontal distance of 9000 yards on the surface of the water, under range-table conditions.
5. Assume the verity of the jump curve appended to
this article.
At an angle of 5°35'.5 the jump is seen to be about
+ 1'.3. That is, the gun increases in elevation that amount
at the instant of dis harge
.
Therefore, the correction at that elevation is - 1'.3.
6. 5°35'.5 - 1'.3 = 5°34'.2.

If now the gun is fired with an elevation, «'1 of 5°34'.2,
we can expect the quadrant angle of departure to be 5°35'.5.
To graduate the range scale, the gun is given an elevation
«'1 = 5°34~.2 and opposite the index is cut and numbered the
9000-yard range graduation.
At present, and until the range drums require regraduation for the long pointed projectiles, the graduation of the range
scales is as follows:
1. Take «' from the range table for the capped projectile.
2. Determine Efrom Artillery Note No. 29.
.
3. «' - E = «'E.
4. Set the gun by the clinometer to «'E, and opposite
the index graduate the range drum.

32

DIRECT

A

METHOD

FIRE

FOR THE DETERMINATION
FOR AN ELEVATION
TABLE
CPI

=

CPx

<PK = cP

OF DATA

+ .:1 CPJ
+ .:1<PK + .:1<Ph

Arps for illustration, will be taken from the appended jump
curve for disappearing carriages.
Jump varies with the quad-

rant elel'ation.
The following table has been computed.
F = 1134 + .005R
.:1<PK = ~
R
4000
Range
F
.:1<PK
Range
F
minutes
1000
1.1390
200
.9500
400
.8150
600
.7138
800
.6350
2000
.5720
200
.5205
400
.4775
600
.4412
800
.4100
3000
.3830
200 .
.3594
400
.3385
600
.3200
800
.3034
4000
.2885
200
.2750
400
.2627
600
.2515
800
.2413
5000
.2318
200
.2231
400
.2150
600
.2075
800
.2005
6000
.1940
200
.1879
400
.1822
600
.1768
800
.1718
7000
.1670
.1625
200
.1582
400 •
.1542
600
.1504
800

I

.25
.30
.35
.40
.45
.50
.55
.60
.65
.70
.75
.80
.85
.90
.95
1.00
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
.1.35
1.40
1.45
1.50
1.55
1.60
1.65
1.70
1.75
1.80
1.85
1.90
1.95

10000
200
400
600
800
11000
200
400
600
800
12000
200
400
600
800
13000
200
400
600
800
14000
200
400
600
800
15000
200
400
600
800
16000
200
400
600
800

.1184
.1162
.1140
.1120
.1100
.1081
.1063
.1045
.1028
.1011
.0995
.0980
.0965
.0950
.0936
.0922
.0909
.0896
.0884
.0872
.0860
.0849
.0838
.0827
.0816
.0806
.0796
.0786
.0777
.0768
.0759
.0750
.0741
.0733
.0725

.:1 <PK

minutes.
2.50
2.55
2.60
2.65
2.70
2.75
2.80
2.85
2.90
2.95
3.00
3.05
3.10
3.15
3.20
3.25
3.30
3.35
3.40
3.45
3.50
3.55
3.60
3.65
3.70
3.75
3.80
3.85
3.90
3.95
4.00
4.05
4.10
4.15
4.20

.

Range

F

DIRECT

AcpK

minutes
.1468
.1433
.1400
.1369
.1339
.1310
.1283
.1256
.1231
.1207
.1184

8000
200
400
600
800
9000
200
400
600
800
10000

33

FIRE

:

Range
17000
200
400
-600
800
18000
200
400
600
800
19000

2.00
2.05
2.10
2.15
2.20
2.25
2.30
2.35
2.40
2.45
2.50

F

AcpK

minutes
.0717
.0709
.0701
.0694
.0687
.0680
.0673
.0666
.0659
.0653
.0647

4.25
4.30
4.35
4.40
4.45
4.50
4.55
4.60
4.65
4.70
4.75

Problem 10
Assume a 12-inch gun, 200 ft. above mean low water, and
firing long pointed projectiles.
Compute an_ elevation table
for ranges of 8000 to 10,000 yards inclusive.
(See page 34.)
Due to the difficulty of reading the jump curve, it is well
It is seen that the
to check the column CPt by differences.
second differences in column 3 are inconsistent and should
probably be' all equal to +0'.1.
Working conversely from
column 4, we get the adjusted first differences in column 5.
and adjusted values of CPI in column 6 for further use.

. _.a

Representmg

l

m

a

2

by A, and -2 2 by B, we have, generally, whatever
m

the

value of m,

~3

= A - (m -1) B
= A - (m-3) B =
= A - (m-5)B
=

~4

= A -

(m -7) B = ~3

~6

= A -

(m -q) B =

~l

~2

+ 2B

~l

+2B
2B
2B

~2

+
+

~4

etc., etc., etc., ad libitum, according to the values of m.
For m = 3; A
m = 4; A
m = 5; A
m = 10; A

= oI/3, and B = 02/18
= 01/4, and B = 02/32
= oI/5, and B

=

02/50

= oI/10, and B = 02/200

For our present
for every 20 yards.

work we wish to interpolate values of
200
Therefore we tnke m = 20 = 10.

CPI

:34

DIRECT. FIRE

Range

({J

yds.

ti.({JK

deg. min.

8000
200
400
600
800
9000
200
400
600
800
10000

5 15.2
524.7
534.2
544.1
554.0
604.0
6 14.1
6 24.4
634.7
645.1
655.6

Column
Range
yds ..

minutes

-2.00
-2.05
-2.10
-2.15
-2.20
-2.25
-2.30
-2.35
-2.40
-2.45
-2.50

-29.36
-28.66
-28.00
-27.38
-26.78
-26.20
-25.66
-25.12
-24.62
-24.14
-23.68

J

({Jx

deg. min.

({Jl

minutes

deg. min.

443.8
454.0
504.2
5 14.6
525.0
535.5
546.1
556.9
607.7
6 18.5
6 29.4

-2.0
-1.8
-1.7
-1.6
-1.5
-1.3
-1.2
-1.0
-0.9
-0.7
-0.5

441.8
452.2
502.5
5 13.0
523.5
534.2
544.9
555.9
606.8
6 17.8
f) 28.9

4

.5

1

2

({Jl

(h

02

(02)

min.

(01)

min.

min.

min.

deg. min.

10.4
10.3
10.5
10.5
10.8
10.6
11.0
10.9
11.0
11.1

-0.1
+0.2
+0.0
+0.3
-0.2
+0.4
-0.1
+0.1
+0.1

+0.1
+0.1
+0.1
+0.1
+0.1
+0.1
+0.1
+0.1
+0.1

---

- --

10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
109
11.0
11.1
11.2

441 <3
4 52.1
502.5
513.0
323.6
534.3
545.1
5 55.8
606.9
6 17.9
629.0

deg. min.

8000
200
400
600
800
9000
200
400
600
800
10000

ti. ({Jh

minutes

441.8
452.2
502.5
5 13.0
523.5
534.3
544.9
555.9
606.8
6 17.8
628.9

3

-- -

---

-- -

6
({Jl

- --

From 8000 to 8200,

A -.!!.- = 10.3 - 1 03'
. - m

ti.1
ti.2

=

10 -

"

B

=

Hence.

=

0.1
200

=

.0005

A -(m-1) B ~ 1.03 - 9 X .0005 = 1.0255

= ti.1+2B ~ 1.0255+.001 =
a
ti. = 1.0265+.001
= 1.0275
ti.. = 1.0275+.001 = 1.0285
ti. = 1.0285+.001 = 1.0295
ti.6 = 1.0295+.001 = 1.0305, etc ..
1i

ch

2m2

1.0265

ti.

7

ti.

s

ti.

9

ti.

10

=
=
=
=

1.0315
1.0325
1.0335
1.0345

DIRECT

R
deg.

8000
20
40
60
80
8100
20
40
60
80
8200

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

35-

FIRE

. ~l

~1

min.

deg. min.

41.8
41.8+Al =4° 42'.8255
42.8255+A2=4° 43'.8520
43.8520'+Aa =4° 44'.8795
44.8795+A4=4° 45'.9070
45.9070+As=4° 46'.9365
46.9365+A6 =4° 47'.9670
47.-9670+A7=4° 48'.9985
48.9985+As=4° 50'.0320
50.0320+A9=4° 51'.0655
51.0655+AIO=4° 52'.1000

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

41.8
42.8
43.9
44.9
45~9
46.9
48.0
49.0
50.0
51.1
52.1

Determine a new A. and a new B for 8200 to 8400, and
determine ~l for every 20 yards, etc.
For a further discussion see Appendix III, Hamilton's
Ballistics, Part I.
Following such a system of interpolation, the following
portion of an elevation table has been computed:

ELEVATION TABLE
(Columns 1 and 5)

R-~x

TABLE

(Columns 1, 2, 3, and 4)
12-inch Gun and Long Pointed Projectile
Height of Site, 200 feet
'
I

Range
yds.

8000
20
40
60
80
8100
20
40
60
80
8200
20
40
60
'80
8300

~
deg.

min.

5

15.2
16.2
17.1
18.1
19.0
19.9
20.9
21.8
22.8
23.8
24.7
25.7
26.6
27.6
28.5
29.5

~l
31.4
31.3
31.2
31.2
31.1
31.0
31.0
30.9
30.8
30.8
30.7
30.7
30.6
30.5
30.5
30.4

43.8
44.9
45.9
46.9
47.9
48.9
49.9
50.9
52.0
53.0
54.0.
55.0
56.0
57.1
58.1
59.1

deg.

min.

4

41.8
42.8
43.9
44.9
45.9
46.9
48.0
49.0
50.0
51.1 52.1
53.1
54.2
55.2
56.2
57.3

36

DIRECT

Range
yds.

20
40
60
80
8400
20
40
60
80
8500
20
40
60
80
8600
20
40
60
80
8700
20
40
,60
80
8800
20
40
60
80
8900
20
40
60
80
9000

I()
deg.

5

min.

30.5
31.4
32.4
33.3
34.3
35.3
36.3
37.2
38.2
39.2
40.2
41.2
42.1
43.1
44.1
45.1
46.1
47.1
48.1
49.1
50.0
51.0
52.0
53.0
54.0
55.0
56.0
57.0
58.0
59.0
6 00.0
01.0
02.0
03.0 •
04.0

FIRE

-I:i.SOhK
min.

deg.

3004
30.3
30.2
30.2
30.1
30.1
30.0
29.9
29.9
29.8
29.8
29.7
29.6
29.6
29.5
29.5
29.4
29.4
29.3
29.3
29.2
29.2
29.1
29.0
29.0
28.9
28.9
28.8
28.8
28.7
28.7
28.6
28.6
28.5
28.5

5

-

SOx
min.

00.101.1
02.2
03.2
04.2
05.2
06.3
07.3
08.4
09.4
lOA
11.5
12.5
13.5
14.6
.15.6
16.7
17.7
18.8
19.8
20.8
21.9
22.9
24.0
25.0
26.1
27.1
28.2
29.2
30.3
31.3
32.4
33.4
34.5
35.5

deg.

4

5

SOl
min.

58.3
59.4
00.4
01.5
02.5
03.5
04.6
05.6
06.7
07.7
08.8
09.9
10.9
11.9
13.0
14.1
15.1
16.2
17.2
18.3
19.3
20.4
21.5
22.5
23.6
24.7
25.7
26.8
27.9
28.9
30.0
31.1
32.2
33.3
34.3

Assume the following:
Range to target, 8500 yards;
tide, 0; wind, none; atmosphere, normal; muzzle velocity,
2250 f.s.; projectile, long pointed; gun, 12-inch.
. The piece should be given a quadrant elevation of SOl =
5° 7'.7. (The range setting will be 8500 yards.)
When the
piece is fired, the average jump will give a quadrant angle of
departure of SOx = 5° 9'.4.
Fig. 6 shows diagrammatically
the relations between "the
range table angle of departure, so, and the quadrant angle of

DIRECT

37

FIRE

~--~
f/J =

~' =

li'ang'e hole J-blue.
Non-Rantye bble /-b/ve

FIG. 4.

~

or

9? = f/el/al/on

h.6lf? J/alue.

rfJ/ or ~'=Non.EleJ/of/o/1

lable

I/o/vB.

FIG. 5.

6'

I5n;)

1668

T'

_..J:K

--- ---- ----+ A sPh

T
1667

FIG. 6.

FIG. 7.

I61i8

38

DIRECTFIRE

departure,
CPx.
A sharp distin~tion must be drawn between
the quadrant angle of elevation, ((;I, and CPx. It is illustrated
As shown, the
in Fig. 7. AcpJ may be either plus or minus.
jump is positive, wherefore the correction for jump is -Al(/j,
in order that when the piece is fired the elevation shall increase from CPt to the proper quadrant angle of departure CPx,
in the direction of jump.
RANGE CORRECTIONS
vVe are in a position to calculate CPx with sufficient accuracy.
for any gun, for any range, and for any conditions.
See Figs. 4, 5, and 8.
If the target is
changes from range
by altering cp by the
7, inclusive (see Fig.

in the initial plane and either V or C
table values, we can still hit the target
proper Acp, as illustrated in Problem 1 to
4).

It is assumed that by applying the same Acp (= Acpx) to
we can cause the shot to range to the same horizontal distance under the same variations in V and C, no matter how
great the height of site of the gun within service limits (see
Figs. 5 and 8).
cpz

The order of procedure can be stated to be as follows:
1. For any non-range-table Condition of V and C, assume
the
, target to be in the initial plane, and solve for the required
.p •

2. Take cp for the range from the range table by interpolation where necessary.
(NOTE: It is preferable for this
purpose not to use the value in .the column headed "Change
in elevation for 10 yards in range.")

3.

cp' -

cp = Acp.

4. Determine
CPx for the range
from your computed
table for long-pointed projectiles (or CPE from the quadrant elevation table for capped projectiles).
R-cpz

39

DIRECT FIRE

5. To 'Px (or 'PE) algebraically add D..'P to get cp'x (or CP'E)'
6. In your computed R-cpx table for long pointed projectiles (or 'PE table for capped projectiles), determine by
interpolation the range corresponding to your 'P'x (or CP'E)'
When the gun is set for this range you will have the proper
quadrant angle of departure, or angle of departure.
7. From the range setting determined in 6, subtract the .
actual range to the target.
This will give the AR (range c,orrection reference number) which, when applied to the range
scale, will cause the proper change in the ~ngle of departure .
. Problem 11
Given: 12-inch gun and long pointed projectile; range to
target~ T', 8500 yards; C=I1.7945;
V=2215 f.s.; height of
site, 200 feet.
1. Solve for target as if in the initial plane ..

Z=X

C

log X = log 25500 = 4.40654
colog C = 8.92832 -10
log Z = 3.33486
Z = 2162
Sin 2'P' = AC
. For Z = 2162.
(V = 2200)
(V = 2250)

A
.01739
.01661

A
-78

15
A = .01739 -78 X50 =.01716.
log A = log .01716 = 8.23451 -10
log C = 1.07168

(V = 2215)

log sin 2'P' = 9.30619-10
2cp' = 11° 40'.6
cp' = 5° 50'.3
2. Referring to the range table (Form 1014), we see that
cp = 5° 39'.2 for 8500 yards.
3. Therefore, to compensate for' the 35 f.s. reduction in
velocity, we must increase our angle of departure by 'P' - 'P =
5° 50'.3-5° 39'.2= +11'.1 =AIp.
4. Referring to our elevation table, we see that the
quadrant angle of departure,lpf,
for 8500 yards is 5°09'.4.
The angle of departure must be increased by AIp, wherefore,
5. 'P'x = (Px + Alp ~ 5°09'.4 + 11'.1 = 5°20'.5.

40

DIRECT

FIRE

6.. What range setting will give us this angle of departure~
5°20'.5?
Referring again to the R-Ax table we see by. interpolation that the range setting will be
8700

+20 X

;g:~=~~:~=

8700

+20 X 1:0 = 8714

yards.

7. Therefore the change in the angle of departure is
obtained by a change in the range setting of
8714 - 8500 = +214 =
AR on the range scale.
This is the range correction reference number to .be
applied at the. range scale.
In the operation of a range board fitted with a range correction chart for the 12-inch gun and long pointed projectile,
it will be found that the correction to be applied on the range
scale will be very close to + 207 for a gun on a height of
site of 200 feet.
The latest range correction charts for capped projectiles
are computed in a like manner, excepting that the A«J is applied to «JEto determine the range setting.
For a given variation from range table conditions, the
~R to be applied on the range scale will vary with the height
of site, because the relation between Rand «Jx,or «JE,varies as
the height of site varies.
In other words, the same elevation or R-«Jx tables will
not do for 12-inch guns and long pointed projectiles for all
heights of site; nor for 12-inch guns and capped projectiles for
all heights of site; not for long pointed projectiles and capped
projectiles for any height of site. And, because we apply
~«J to «Jxor «JEto interpolate
for the new range setting, the
change in range setting, ~R, will vary with variations in height
of site.
Finally, this AR .at the range scale is a reference number
which secures a proper change in «Jx or «JEby changing the
range setting.
Adding 200 yards to the range setting may
be expected to increase the range of the shot by 200 yards only
under normal conditions.
Where the V or C varies fronl
normal, the range correction on the range board will give for
any range the range correction reference number which, when
applied at the range scale, will produce the proper change in
the angle of departure.
Problem 12
Given:

12-inch gun and long-pointed

projectile;

range to

41

DIRECT FIRE

target 8500 yards; V, 2250; C, 11.7945; height of site, 200 feet;
atmosphere reference number, 20.
What is the required range correction reference number?
An atmosphere
reference number of 16 represents a
normal atmosphere.
Under the conditions, there is an in
crease of 20 -16 =4% in the ballistic coefficient due to atmos- .
pheric conditions as determined by the barometer, thermometer,and atmospheric slide rule.
4

log C = 1.07168
log 104% = 0.01703
log C1 = 1.08871, for the day,
actual value we have to work with under the conditions.
Z=X

the

C1
log X = 4.10654
colog C1 = 8.91129 -10
log Z = 3.31783
Z = 2079

Sin 2q,' = AC
(V =2250; Z =2079)

A =.01513+

91 X

Z~O=.01585

log A = 8.20003 -10
log C] = 1.08871
log sin 2q/ = 9.28874 -10
2cp' = 11° 12'.7
cp' = 5° 36'.3
2.
3.
4.
angle of
5.
6.
angle of

From the range table, for 8500 yards, cp =5°
Acp=cp'-cp=5°
36'.3-5° 39'.2= -2'.9.
Referring to our R-cpx table, we see that the
departure, CPx,for 8500 yards is 5° 09'.1.
cp'x= CPx+Acp=5° 09'.1+( -2'.9) =5° 06'.5.
Referring to our R-cpx table, we see that a
departure of 5° 06'.5 corresponds to a range

39'.2.
quadrant

quadrant
setting of

8440 _ 06.5 -06.3 X20 =8444
07.3 - 06.3
...
7. Therefore the range correction
reference
which will secure the proper change in the ql1adrant
departure is
AR =8444 -8500 = -56

number
angle of

42

DIRECT FIRE

Problem 13

Given: 12-inch gun and long pointed projectile; range to
target, 8500 yards; C, 11.7945; V, 2250; wind range component
reference number, 20; height of site, 200 feet.
What is the required range correction reference .number?
A range component reference number of 50 denotes that
either the direction of the wind with reference to the line of
fire is 90°, or that the wind has 0 velocity; in either case there
is little or no movement of the atmosphere parallel to the line
joining gun and target.
Therefore 20 - 50 = 30 miles per hour velocity of wind
against the motion of the projectile.
The effect of the wind is to decrease the value of the
ballistic coefficient.
= 1::l:: 2WxT5/4
/...
X

(log T = log 13.11 = 1.11760)
5/4 log T = 1.39700
log 2Wx = log 60 = 1.77815
colog X = 5.59346 -10
log 0.0587 = 8.76861 -10
Since it is a head wind,
f.. = 1 - .059 = .9413 = .94
log C = 1;07168
log 0.94 = 9.97313 -10
log C1 = 1.04481

log X = 4.40654
colog C1 = 8.95519 -10

Sin 2lp' = AC
(V =

log Z = 3.36173
Z = 2300

2250; Z = 2300)
A = .01790
log A = 8.25285 -10
log C1 = 1.04481
log sin 2lp'

=

9.29766 -10

2lp'
q/

=

11° 26'.8
5° 43'.4

=

43

DIRECT FIRE

=50 43'.4 _50 39'.2 =4'.2
I()'x = I()"+dl() = 50 09'.4 +4'.2 = 50 13'.6
The range setting corresponding to an angle of departure
of 5° 13',6 is, from our R-lpx table, 8580.
Therefore the dR to be applied to the range scale to produce the proper change in the angle of departure is
AR = 8580 - 8500 = + 80
1:11()

= I()' -I()

Problem 14
Given: a 12-inch gun and long pointed projectile; range
to target, 8500 yards; C~ 11.7945; V, 2250'; tide, + 10 feet;
height of site, 200 feet.
What is the required range correction reference number?
Since the basic condition is mean low water, we must
determine ho~ much to increase the angle of departure so as
to raise the point struck 10 feet.
10
Tan AI()=y
log 10 = 1.00000
colog X = 5.59346 -10
o

log tan AI() = 6.59346 -10
AI() = 1'.4
0 09'.4+1'.4 =50 10'.8
lp'x = lpx+AI() =5
The range setting giving an angle of departure of 50 10'.8
is
8520 +20

X

i~

= 8527

The range correction reference number is, therefore,
8527 - 8500 =+ 27
Problems 11 to 14 inclusive illustrate how range correction
refe,rence numbers are computed for a particular height of .
site. For a range correction chart the computations are made
for every 1000 yards within the limits of quadrant elevation
permitted by the carriage, and for each of the following variations from range table conditions:
(a) Denote the normal velocity by NV:
NV-200
NV-100
NV
NV+100
(b) For atmosphere:
24
16
o
8
(c) For wind:
50
70
10
30
(d) For tide:
+20 '
o
-10
+10

NV+200
32

90
+30

+40

44

DIRECT FIRE

The straight vertical. lines representing the ~ormal C9nditions are drawn at convenient distances apart, so that the
curves shall not cross. The horizontal range lines are drawn
for every 1000 yards, and are spaced to a vertical scale of
1 inch = 600 yards. The horizontal scale of the latest charts
is 1 inch = 200 yards.
The reference number for any abnormal condition is
plotted on the horizontal range line to a scale of 1-inch = 200,
from the proper normal line as zero. The reference numbers
having a + value to the left of the normal; those having value to the right of the normal: Curves are then drawn
through all points representing the corrections' at every 1000
yards.' For example, having plotted in each range line the
corrections for a 70 wind, all such points are connected by a
smooth curve. The curve for the 60 wind is plotted and
drawn half way between the 50 (normal) and the 70 curve.
For issue to the service it has been determined that one
chart for a given gun, projectile, and normal muzzle velocity
is sufficiently accurate between each of the following limits of
height of site: 0 to 40 feet; 40 to 60 feet; 60 to 100 'feet; 100
to 160 feet; 160 to 240 feet; 240 to 320 feet; 320 to 400 feet;
400 to 500 feet; 500 to 600 feet. For each gun, projectile,
and normal muzzle velocity .there are nine charts. The particular chart for the battery depends on the limits of height
of site between which it lies. The chart for batteries (having
a given caliber, projectile, and normal muzzle velocity) on
heights of site between 40 and 60 feet are computed for a
height of site of 50 feet, or the meari height. Similarly for
the others.
I t will be seen that the range correction reference number
does not correspond to the horizontal range correction at the
.target, when either V, C, or tide is abnormal.
To illustrate:
From Problem 11, we see that an increase in the angle of
departure of A lfJ =
11'.1 is required for a muzzle velocity
of 2215 f.s., or a decrease from normal of 35 f.s. We have
determined that the range correction. to .be applied to the
range scale to produce an increase of 11'.1 in the angle of
departure is
214.
We see from the range table that for 8500 yards, lfJ = 5°
39'.2.
lfJ' ,.;, 5° 39'.2
11'.1 = 5° 50'.3
The range in the range table corresponding to 5° 50'.3 is
8725.

+

+

+

DIRECT

45

FIRE

8725 - 8500 = + 225
Or a change in the range setting of +214 will change the
horizontal range of the shot by +225 yards.
.
SOLUTIONS

FOR

MUZZLE

VELOCITY

Given: a 12-inch gun and long pointed projectile; range
to the aiming point, 8500 yards; range table value of C,
11.7945; atmosphere
reference number, 20; wind reference
number,' 20; tide, +10; range to the center of impact, 8200
yards; height of site, 200 feet.
What was the muzzie velocity?
SOLUTION

I

Find the angle of departure.
The angle of departure is resolved into two parts: (1) the
quadrant angle of departure, 'P' x, or that part above thehorizontal plane through the trunnions; and (2) the angle of depression corresponding to the range to the center of impact,
or that portion below the horizontal plane.
Referring to problems 11 to 14, we see that the net range
correction reference number given by the range board is
214--56 +80+27 + (2000) = +265 (2265)
_To suit our condition to mean low tide, for which our
elevation and R-'Px tables are computed, we can consider our
range correction reference number to be 265 - 27 (the tide correction) = -238, and can consider that the range to the center
of impact would have been 8200 at mean low water, had the
range correction reference number been 2238 instead of 2265.
The corrected range becomes 8500 +238 =8738.
. 'P'x corresponding
to a range setting of 8738 is 50 21 '.8.
Also, from the R-'Px table, we see that the depression
angle for the range to the center of impact is 30'.7.
Therefore,
'P' =50 21 '.8 +30'.7 = 50 52'.5 .
. From problems
Ct = fw X~X

o

12 and 13,
C = 1.04 X 0.94 X C
log C = 1.07168
log 1.04 = 0.01703
log 0.94 = 9.97313 -10
log C1 = 1.06184

--,.,
46

DIRECT FIRE

Z

.X
C1

=

log X = log (3 X 8200) = 4.39093
colog Ct = 8.93816 -10
log Z = 3.32909
Z = 2133
_
A -

sin 2

tp'

C1

log sin 2 tp' = log sin 11 45'.0 = 9.30886 -10
colog C1 = 8.93816 -10
0

log A

=

A

=

8.24702 -10
0.01766

We now enter Table II and determine the consecutive
velocities for which, for our value of Z = 2133, the values of
A bracket our value of A. Then we interpolate
for the
velocity by means of A.
Z

=

2133

(V
(V

=
=

2200)
2150)

A
A

=
=

0.01712
0.01782

=

V = 2200 - 50 X .01706-.01712
.
.00070

2200-39

A =

=

70
2161 f.s.

NOTE:
If a range correction chart is at hand, the -percentage change in C effected by the wind can be determined
quickly, as follows, without use of the wind formula:
Hold
the straight edge of a piece of paper parallel to the range lines
and at the range of the aiming point.
Graduate the edge
where it is intersected by the normal (50) and letter the mark
O. Gradp.ate the edge where the wind curve (or interpolated
imaginary curve) cuts the edge. Letter the graduation K.
Transfer the paper parallel to the range lines until the 0
graduation is over the normal atmosphere curve (16). The
K graduation n'ow indkates the equivalent change in C in
terms of an atmosphere reference number, whence the percentage change is determined by remembering
that 16 is
1.00, 18 is 1.02, 14 is .98, etc .
.If the chart is mounted on a range board, the operation
may be performed with the ruler.
SOLUTION

II

In this case, consider that the change in the ballistic
coefficient due to atmosphere and wind is compensated for
by their portions of the total range correction reference num-

DIRECT

47

FIRE

ber. Then 'assume C as normal, and consider only the range
correction reference number due to veloci y.
From problem 11, we see that in the oPeration of the
range board we should have secured a range correction reference number of + 214 (2214) for an assumed velocity of 2215
for the trial shots.
Consulting our R-cpx table, we see that the quadrant angle
of departure for a range setting of (8500 +214 =) 8714 is
cp' x

. The depression angle
impact is 30'.7.
Therefore,
cp' =5°20'.5

x
=c

= 5° 20'.5
corresponding

+ 30'.7

to the

center

of

= 5° 51'.2

Z
log X = log (3 X 8200) = 4.39093
colog C = 8.92832 - 10
log Z = 3.31925
Z = 2086
. sin 2cp'

A =-C~
log sin 2cp' = log sin 11° 42'.4 = 9.30728-10
colog C = 8.92832 -10
log A = 8.23560 -10
A = 0.01720
We now enter Table II and determine the consecutive
velocities for which, for our value of Z = 2086, the values of A
bracket our value of A. Then we interpolate for V by means
of A.
.
Z = 2086
(V = 2200) A = 0.01667
Ll = 68
(V = 2150) A = 0.01735
V = 2200 - 50 X ~0172~O~6~1667=

2200 - 39 = 2161 f.s.

For capped projectiles the solutions are analogous, excepting that cp' = CP'E (for the corrected range)
E_~ (corresponding
to the range to the center of impact).
Velocity graphic charts are issued for the same limits of
height as the range correction charts, for a given caliber of
gun, projectile, and normal muzzle velocity.
In case the proper velocity graphic chart is not at hand,
one can be readily constructed as fol ows:

+

DIRECT FIRE

48
1.

Select the aiming point for the trial shots and deter-

mine its range.
.
2. Determine the muzzle velocity to be assumed for trial
shots.
3. Assume centers of impact at 100 yard intervals over
and short, within limits of about ::l= 500 yards.
4. Compute and tabulate the velocities corresponding to
such rangings.
5. On cross-section paper, with the X axis for range and
the Y axis for velocities, plot these points and connect them
by a smooth curve.

Deflections

The deflection problem is briefly as follows (see Fig. 9):
Assume a target at T moving at such a rate in the direction
shown by the arrow that it will be at T 1 at the end of the time
of flight for the range GT. It is obvious that we must incline
the plane of departure to the plane of sight by the angle 1 to
correct for the angular movement of the target during tl:e
time of flight.
Assume that, due to drift alone, at this range, the point
of impact would fall in the direction of T2 instead of T. It
is obvious that we must increase the angle 1 by the angle 2
to correct for drift also.
Assume that the wind would blow the projectile so as to
cause the point of impact to be in the direction of Tg instead
of T. It is obvious that we must increase angle 1 by the
angle 3 to correct for the effect of the wind as well.
Therefore, the net angular correction for travel during
time of flight, drift, and the lateral wind component is the
angle 4 (= 1
2
3).
.
Then, if the plane of departure is inclined to the plane of
sight by the angle 4 as set off on the sight, the projectile will
depart from the plane GT 4 under the action of wind and drift
and will strike in the direction of the point T h the direction
of the target at the end of the time .of flight.
.
For simplicity, the figure is drawn showing the conditions
to require cumulative corrections.
In Cases I and II the required divergence of the plane of
departure from the plane of sight is secured by means of the
deflection set off on the sight.
. In Case III, the angle 4 is applied to the uncorrecte?
azimuth of the line GT in order to obtain the corrected aZImuth GT4 at which to lay the piece. This applies to both

+ +

DIRECT

49

FIRE

guns and mortars.
A study of the deflection board will
illustrate how these corrections are automatically added.
On a gun deflection board note that:
(a) The drift leaf is only for certain projectiles, caliber,
and muzzle velocity.
(b) The scale on the T-square is not equicrescent and the
ranges are graduated in proportion to their time of flight, and
therefore the'T-square is only for certain projectiles, caliber,
and muzzle velocity.
Rules for deflection corrections:
R-R. Right-Raise.
To shoot more to the Right, Raise
the value of the deflection or corrected azimuth by the desired
amount.
If the shots are falling 0°.10 to the left of the target,
Raise the value of the deflection or corrected azimuth 0°.10
in order' to shoot 0°.10 more to the Right.

FIG. 9.

1560

L-L. Left-Lower.
To shoot more to the Left, Lower
the value of the deflection or corrected azi,muth by the desired
amount.
If the shots are falling 0°.15 to the right of the target,
Lower the value of the deflection or corrected .azimuth 0°.15
in order to shoot 0°.15 more to the Left.
To avoid confusion and errors in applying corrections, the
corrected deflection, not the correction, should be transmitted.
The smallest division on the sight is 0.°05. The natural
tangent of 0°.05 (=3') is approximately 1/1000, but the true
value to sufficient accuracy is .00087.
The latter value should be used for cOIp.puting deviations
in yards from observed angular deviations.
The approximate value of .001 is of interest in making
quick computations.
1 division = 1 yard per thousand of
range.

DIRECT FIRE

50

Example
A battleship is head-on at 8000 yards.
The shots seem
to fall consistently about half the width of the target to the
right.

Deflection: 2.80.
Solution:
One width from the center of the target equals about 90

feet = 30 yards.
One division on sight at 8000 yards
yds.

.20

30 +8 = 4 aivisions.
Correction = 4 X ..05
To shoot Left-Lower.

=

0°.20
Corrected

= 8000 X .001 = 8

deflection

=

2.80 -

= 2.60
DIFFERENTIAL

FORMULlE

Occasionally it is desirable to know how much of a range
error is to be expected from a variation from normal, either
in the weight of the projectile, or of the charge, or both.
The
following formulre are fairly accurate for small variations from
standard conditions.
.

Variation in muzzle velocity due to a variation
project; Ie:
(1)

AV = -

1Aw V
16 w

AV =

_.l4

in weight of

Aw V
w

I

Problem 16
An officer is to fire long pointed projectiles from his 12inch battery for the first time. Previous firings with the
same weight of powder and capped (1046-lb.) projectiles
indicate that for the temperature of 70° F., the M.V. assumed
should be 2220 f.s. . About what M.V. will be given to the
long pointed projectiles weighing 1070 lbs.?
A

V

= -

7

24

16 X 1046 X 2220

= -

22 f.s.

The result indicates that he should assume about 2200 f.s.
Problem 17
A battery commander is to fire long pointed .projectiles
from his 12-inch battery for the first time. Previous firings
with the weights of powder as made up into charges, and using
eapped (1046-lb.). projectiles, indicate that at a temperature
of 70°F. the M.V. to be assumed is 2220 f.s. Each charge as
made up weighs 276.5 Ibs. About what weight of nitro-cellulose powder should be added to each charge to give the nor-

mal M.V.?

DIRECT

51

FIRE

From Problem 16 the M.V. will probably be approximately 2200 f.s.at 70° F.
The velocity to be expected due to changes in the weight
of powder charges may be computed from the formula,

(2)

V=

V

1

(WW )Y

(See C.A.D.R.,

1909, par 796.)

1

The average value of y is: for nitro-cellulose
for nitro-glycerin powder, 0.8.
Therefore,
220q = (276.5) 1.2
2250
WI
2250
X 276.51•2
12
Wt • =
2200

powder, 1.~;

log 2250 = 3.35218
. 1.2 log 276~5 = 2.93003
colog 2200 = 6.65758 -10
1.2 log
log
should weigh.
281.7 - 276.5

=

WI

= 2.93979

WI =
WI =

2.44982
281.7Ibs.

= what each charge

5.2 pounds to be added to each charge.

Variation in muzzle velocity due to a variation in the travel
of the shot while in the bore:
1
(3)
tl V =.l- tluV
~ V= 4 tlUUV
In which u
of shot.

=

16 u
travel of shot.

~u

=

variation

in travel

Variation
chamber:

in muzzle velocity due to variation in size oj

(4)~

v= ~tlv

~ V=J..- tlVV
3 v
volume of chamber.
~v = variation
4

In which v =
volume of chamber.

v

V

in

Variation in muzzle velocity due to a variation in caliber:
l5)

~V

=

.l
~d V
8 d

In which d = caliber.
tld = variation in caliber.
In American guns the weight of projectile and charge
should be taken in pounds, the length of travel and caliber in
inches, and the volume of chamber in cubic inches. Equation 5 is not very reliable.
The coefficients used in these formul::e, were obtained for

52

DIRECT FIRE

nitrocellulose powder, and for small variations may be considered as approximately true for smokeless powders.
Equations
AV=_l-AWV

(1)

4

w

(3)

A

V= ~ AuU V

(4)

A

V=lAU V
3 U
Alston Hamilton.

are furnished

by Major

CHANGE OF HEIGHT

OF SITE DUE

OF THE MUZZLE

C. A. C.
TO SWEEP
.

Theoretically, the trajectory starts at the muzzle.
As we
change the inclination of the bore, it will be observed that
theoretically we may consider the height of site to be changed.
Practically, this has no bearing.
It will be observed from the"
method of solving for a range table C, as illustrated by Problem
8, that such sweep of the muzzle is neglected.
Thus, any
error introduced is compensated in the. determination
of i.
This conception is further strengthened by the fact that the
batteries at the proving ground are on comparatively low sites.
To be consistent with the methods involved in securing data
for our range tables, we are therefore correct in considering the
height of site of a piece as that of the axis of the trunnions.
This point is mentioned because of the speculation which
the idea has aroused in the past.
The following is quoted from Coast Artillery School
.
Information Series No.1, Sept. 1, 1914:I.

CORRECTION FOR GUN DISPLACEMENT

AND CARRIAGE OUT OF LEVEL

The following method of making thi's correction was devised by the
battery commanders at Fort Monroe, and some of the members of the class.
1. Select a point in the field of fire of the gun at about mid-range
and for which the correction for gun displacement is zero.
2. Set the gun to the azimuth of this point, using the nearest full
degree. This may be called the reference azimuth.
3. By the clinometer bring the gun to level and set the index properly.
4. Traverse the gun right. and left, between the stops, halting at
every 10 degrees, and determine the amount, plus or minus, that the carriage is out of level. Tabulate the above readings for each azimuth.
5. On a piece of cross-section paper layoff along the X-axis a scale
of degrees 01" ==10degrees), and layoff on the Y.axis a scale of yards
(1" =20 yards) from minus 100 to plus 100.
'. ~ I'm
6. Opposite each 10-degree division plot the correction in yards
necessary to compensate for the amount that the carriage is out of level,
assuming a target at the range of the selected point. Connect these points
by a smooth curve. Letter this curve "Level Correction."

DIRECT

53

FIRE

7.• Opposite each 10-degree division plot the correction in yards nec. essary to compensate for gun displacement.
Connect these points by a
smooth curve. Letter this curve "Displacement Correction."
8. Now draw the net correction curve by combining the level and.
displacement corrections.
It was found that at Battery Eustis the net correction curve is sensibly parallel to the X-axis, which permitted a flat correction to be applied
by shifting the elevation pointer.

I t will be noted that where a flat correction cannot be
applied with sufficient accuracy, the pointer can be shifted to
compensate for the corrections obtaining in the most important
part of the field of fire. On the basis of this shift, the resultant
corrections for other azimuths can be determined and lettered
as heretofore, thus reducing the amount of the correction to
be applied at the range scale. In some rases it may be deemed
advisable so to shift the pointer that all corrections shall be of
a positive value, thus eliminating the necessity of applying now
a positive correction, and at another time a negative correction.
II.

CORRECTION TO ADJUST THE CENTER OF IMPACT TO THE

CENTER OF THE RECORD TARGET FOR MAJOR CALIBER GUNS

13 cot (w+e)

1.

The danger space in yards

2.

The number of yards to be added = -2--5

=

D.S.

(Note: These formulae have been changed from previous
targets prescribed for Coast Artillery target practice.)

editions

to apply to the present

Plot these values as determined for every 2000 yards from 3000 to
10,000 yards; scale: X-axis, 1" = 1000 yards; Y-axis, 1" = 20 yards.
Connect these points by a smooth curve. This chart was found convenient
in plotting the target for the determination of hits.
These corrections vary with the range. They are incorrect for application as a range correction until the !lip corresponding thereto is determined
from the range table. With this !lip as an argument, the !lR to be applied
at the range scale is determined from the R-<px, or R-IpE, table for the battery.
3. The correction expressed in feet of tide is,
!lRt = 3 X correction in yards X tan(w +e)
4. To adjust the center of impact to the center of the record target, a
chart was made showing the above corrections expressed in feet of tide, by
plotting the corrections for every 3000 yards from zero to 11,000 yards and
connecting the points by a smooth curve.
It was seen that a flat correction could be made by~the tide curve for
target practice ranges without material error. For Battery Eustis the
correction was about 13 feet of tide.

I t will be observed that the greater tide curves on the
latest range correction charts were plotted up to
40 feet of
tide for this purpose, and to meet the service condition in
placing the center of impact at the desired point on a hostile
target.

+

54

DIRECT FIRE

The 1914 record target is described in the Regulations
for the Instruction and Target Practice of Coast Artillery Troops, .
1914 as follows:
123. Record Target for Alajor and Intermediate Caliber Guns.-Using
a piece of cross-section paper at a scale of 50 yards to the inch, consider
one of the heavy lines as the track of the target and the intersection
of the two heavy lines as the location of the towed target.
On the
track of the target layoff the length of the towline and plot the position
of the tug.
Draw a line of direction through the center of the target and
the directing point of the battery.
Draw two lines parallel to and 15 yards
from the track of the target.
Similarly, draw two lines parallel to and 15
yards from the line of direction.
The parallelogram
so formed is the horizontal projection of a section of a battleship,
and is part of the record
target.
To complete the record target extend the sides of this parallelogram 10 yards toward the battery and the length of the danger space
away from the battery, assuming the freeboard of a battleship as 30 feet.
Thi~ completed parallelogram
is the record target.
TABLE

A

Values of aI/a for temperature and pressure of atmosphere
78% saturated with moisture. (From Artillery Note No. 25.)
Ther.

F.
-20°
-19°
-18°
-17°

-16 °
-15°
-14 °
-13°
-12 °
-11°
-10 °
-9°
-8°
-7 °
-6 °
-5 °
-4 °
-3 °
-2
0

-1 °
°



o

28"

Barometer
29"
30"

0.890
0.892
0.894
0.896
0.898
0.901
0.903
0.905
0.907
0.910
0.912
0.914
0.916
0.918
0.920
0.922
0.924
0.926
0.928
0.930
0.932
0.934
0.936
0.938
0.940

0.861
0.863
0.864
0.866
0.868
0.870
0.872
0.874
0.876
0.878
0.880
0.881
0.883
0.885
0.887
0.889
0.891
0.893
0.895
0.897
0.899
0.901
0.903
0.905
0.907

T her.
31"

0.831
0.806
0.833
0.808
0.835
0.809
0.837
0.811
0.839
0.813
0.841
0.815
0.843
0.816
0.845
0.818
0.847
0.820
0.848
0.822
0.850
0.824
0.852 . 0.826
0.854
0.827
0.856
0.829
0.858
0.831
0.860
0.833
0.862
0.835
0.864
0.836
0.866
0.838
0.868
0.840
0.870
0.842
0.871
0.844
0.873
0.845
0.876
0.847
0.878
0.849

F.

2811

Barometer
30"
29"

31"






10°
11°
12°
13°
14°
15°
16°
17°
18°
19°
20°
21°
22°
23°
24°
25°
26°
27°
28°
29°

0.942
0.944
0.946
0.948
0.950
0.952
0.954
0.956
0.958
0.960
0.962
0.964
0.966
0.968
0.971
0.973
0.975
0.977
0.979
0.981
0.983
0.985
0.987
0.990
0.992

0.880
0.909
0.881
0.911
0.883
0.913
0.885
0.915
0.887
0.917
0.889
0.919
0.890
0.921
0.892
0.923
0.894
0.925
0.927
0.897
0.929
0.899
0.901
0.931
0.903
0.933
0.905
0.935
0.907
0.937
0.909
0.939
0.941 .0.911
0.912
0.943
0.914
0.945
0.916
0.947
0.918
0.949
0.920
0.951
0.953 .0.922
0.924
0.955
0.926
0.958

0.851
0.853
0.855
0.856
0.858
0.860
0.862
0.864
0.866
0.867
0.869
0.871
0.873
0.875
0.877
0.879
0.881
0.883
0.885
0.887
0.888
0.890
0.892
0.894
0.896

DIRECT
TABLE

Ther.
28"

30°
31°
32°
33°
34°
.35°
36°

0.994
0.996
0.998
1.000
1.003
1.005
1.007
1.009
1.011
1.013
1.015
1.017
1.019
1.021
1.023
1.026
1.028
1.030
1.033
1.035
1.037
1.040
1.042
1.044
1.046
1.048
1.050
1.053
1.055
1.057
1.059
1.062
1.064
1.066
1.068
1.071

37°

38°
39°
40°

41°
42°
43°
44°
45°
46°
47°
48°
49°
50°

51°
'52°
53°
54°
55°

56°
57°
58°
59°
60°
61°
62°

63°
64°
65°

A-Continued.

29"
0.960
0.962
0.964
0.966
0.968
0.970
0.972
0.974
0.976
0.978
0.980
0.982
0.984
0.987
0.989
0.991
0.993
0.995
0.997
0.999
1.002
1.004
1.006
1.008
1.010
1.012
1.014
1.016
1.018
1.020
1.022
1.025
1.027
1.029
1.031
1.033 .

Barometer

Ther.

Barometer

F.

55

FIRE

30"

31"

F.

28"

29"

30"

31"

0.928
0.930
0.932
0.934
0.936
0.938
0.940
0.943
0.945
0.947
0.949
0.951
0.953
0.955
0.957
0.959
0.961
0.963
0.964
0.966
0.968
0.970
0.972
0.974
0.976
0.978
0.980
0.982
0.984
0.986
0.988
0.990
0.992
0.994
0.996
0.998

0.898
0.899
0.902
0.903
0.906
0.907
0.909
0.911
0.913
0.915
0.917
0.919
0.921
0.923
0.925
0.927
0.929
0.931
0.933
0.935
0.937
0.939
0.941
0.943
0.945
0.947
0.949
0.951
0.952
0.954
0.956
0.958
0.960
0.962
0.964
0.966

66°
67°
68°
69°

1.073
1.075
1.078
1".080
1.082
1.085
1.087
1.089
1.092
1.094
1.096
1.099
1.101
1.104
1.106
1.109
1.111
1.114
1.116
1.119
1.121
1.124
1.126
1.129
1.131
1.134
1.136
1.139
1.142
1.144
1.147
1.149
1.152
1.155
1.157

1.035
1.037
1.040
1.042
1.044
1.046
1.048
1.050
1.053
1.055
1.057
1.059
1.062
1.064
1.066
1.068
1.071
1.074
1.076
1.079
1.081
1083
1.086
1.089
1.092
1.094
1.096
1.099
1.102
1.105
1.107
1.110
1.112
1.115
1.117

1.001
1.003
1.005
1.007
1.009
1.011
1.013
1.015
1.017
1.019
1.022
1.025
1.027
1.029
1.031
1.033
1.035
1.038
1.041
1.043
1.045
1.047
1.049
1.053
1.055
1.057
1.059
1.062
1.064
1.066
1.068
1.071
1.074
1.076
1.079

0.968
0.970
'0.973
0.975
0.977
0.979
0.981
0.983
0.985
0.987
0.989
0.992
0.994
0.996
0.998
1.000
1.002
1.005
1.007
1.009
1.011
1.013
1.016
1.018
1.020
1.022
1.025
1.027
1.029
1.031
1.033
1.035
1.037
1.040
1.042

70°
71°

72°
73°
74°
75°
76°
77°
78°
79°
80°
81°

82°
83°
84°
85°
86°

87°
88°
89°
90°

91°
92°
93°
94°
95°
96°
97°
98°
99°
100°

56

DIRECT FIRE

TABLE

B

(Taken from Ingalls' Table II, Artillery Circular M)

V = 2000 f.s.
X
z=C

10gB'

A.

u

100
200
300

0.0037
0.0074
0.0111

37
37
37

1975
.1949
1924

400
500
600

0.0148
0.0186
0.0223

38
37
38

700
800
900

0.0261
0.0299
0.0337

1000
1100
1200

Az

1"

Az

log C'

A1.

26
25
25

0.051
0.103
0.156

52
53
53

-10
4.9092
4.9129
4.9167

37
38
37

1899
1874
1850

25
24
24

0.209
0.262
0.316

53
54
55

4.9204
4.9242
4.9280

38
38
39

38
38
38

1826
1802
1779

24
23
23

0.371
0.426
0.482

55
56
56

4.9319
4.9357
4.9396

38
39
39

0.0375
0.0413
0.0451

38
38
38

1756
1733
1711

23
22
22

0.538
0.595
0.652

57
57
58

4.9435
4.9474
4.9514

39
40
40

1300
1400
1500

0.0489
0.0527
0.0566

38
39
38

1689
1667
1645

22
22
21

0.710
0.769
0.829

59
60
61

4.9554
4.9594
4.9634

40
40
40.-

1600
1700
1800

0.0604
0.0643
0.0681

39
38
38

1624
1603
1582

21
21
21

0.890
0.952
1.014

62
62
63

4.9674
4.9715
4.9756

41 .
41
41

1900
2000
2100

0.0719
0.0758
0.0796

39
38
38

1561
1540
1520

21
20
20

1.077
1.142
1.207

65
65
66

4.9797
4.9838
4.9880

41
42
41

2200
2300
2400

0.0834
0.0873
0.0911

39
38
38

1500
1480
1461

20
19
19

1.273
1.,340
1.408

67
' 68
69

4.9921
4.9963
5.0005

42
42
42

2500
2600
2700

0.0949
0.0987
0.1024

38
37
37

1442
1423
1404

19
19
18

1.477
1.547
1.618

70
71
71

5.0047
5.0090
5.0132

43
42
43

2800
2900
3000

0.1061
0.1099
0.1136

38
37
37

1386
1368
1350

18
18
18

1.689
1.762
1.836

. 73
74
75

5.0175
5.0218
5.0261

43
43
44

3100
3200
3300

0.1173
0.1219
0.1246

36
37
36

1332
1315
1298

17
17
16

1.911
1.986
2.063

75
77
77

5.0305
5.0349
5.0393

44
44
44

3400
3500
3600

0.1282
0.1318
0.1353

36
35
36

1282
1266
1251

16
15
15

2.140
2.219
2.298

79
79
80

5.0437
5.0481
5.0525

44
44
44

.

57

DIRECT FIRE

TABLE

B

(Taken from Ingalls' Table II, Artillery

Circular M)

V = 2000 r.s.
X

z=-C

log B'

L\z

u

L\z

T'

L\z

log C'

L\z

--3700
3800
3900

0.1389
0.1423
0.1458

34
35
34

1236
1222
1209

14
13
13

2.378
2.459
2.542

81
83
83

-10
5.0569
5.0613
5.0657

4000
4100
4200

0.1492
0.1525
0.1557

33
32
30

1196
1184
1172

12
12
12

2.625
2.709
2.794

84
85
86

5.0701
5.0746
5.0791

45
45
' 45

4300
4400
4500

0.1587
0.1617
0.1645

30
28
28

1160
1149
1138

11
11
11

2.880
2.967
3.054

87
87
88

5.0836
5.0881
5.0925

45
44
45

4600
4700
4800

0.1673
0.1699
0.1724

' 26
25
25

1127
1117
1107

10
10
9

3.142
3.231
3.321

89
90
91

5.0970
5.1014
5.lOfl8

44
44
43

4900
5000
5100

0.1749
0.1772
0.1795

23
23
22

1098
1089
1080

9
9
8

3.412
3.503
3.595

91
92
93

5.1101
5.1145
5.1189

44
44
43

5200
5300
5400

0.1817
0.1838
0.1858

21
20
19

1072
1064
1056

8
8
8

3.688
3.782
3.876

94
94
95

5.1232
5.1276
5.1319

44
43
42

5500
5600
5700

0.1877
0.1895
0.1913

18
18
17

1048
1040
1033

8
7
7

3.971
4.067
4.164

96
97
97

5.1361
5.1404
5.1446

43
42
42

5800
5900
6000

0.1930
0.1946
0.1962

16
16
15

1026
1019
i012

7
7
6

4.261
4.359
. 4.457

98
98
99

5.1488
5.1530
5.1571

42
41
41

6100
6200
6300

0.1977
0.1991
0.2005

14
14
13

1006
999
993

7
6
6

4.556
4.656
4.756

100
100
101

5.1612
5.1653
5.1693

41
40
40

6400
6500
6600

0.2018
0.2031
0.2043

13
12
12

987
981
976

6
5
6

4.857
4.959
5.061

102
102
103

5.1733
5.1773
5.1813

40
40
40

6700
6800
6900

0.2055
0.2066
0.2077

11
11
11

970
964
958

6
6
5

5.164
5.267
5.371

103
104
105

5.1853
5.1892
5.1931

39
39
38

7000

0.2088

10

953

5

5.476

105

5.1969

38

44"
44
44

58

DIRECT

FIRE

TABLE B
(Taken from Ingalls' Table II, Artillery
V

X
z=C

log B'

.1z

u

100
200
300

0.0037
0.0074
0.0111

37
37
37

2073
2047
2021

400
500
600

0.0148'
0.0185
0.0222

37
37
37

700
800
900

0.0259
0.0296
0.0333

1000
1100
1200

=

Circular M)

2100 f.s.

T'

.1z

log C'

.1z

26
26
26

0.048
0.097
0.146

49
49
50

-10
4.8663
' 4.8700
4.8737

37
37
37

1995
1970
1945

25
25
25

0.196
0.246
0.297

50
' 51
52

4.8774
4.8812
4.8850

38
38
38

37
37
38

1920
1895
1871

25
24
24

0.349
0.401 '
0.454

52
53
54

4.8888
4.8926
4.8965

38
39
39

0.0371
0.0409
0.0447

38
38
38

1847
1823
1800

24
23
24

0.508
0.562
0.617

54
55
56

4.9004
4.9043
4.9082

39
39
, 40

1300
1400
1500

0.0485
0.0523
0.0561

38
38
3~

1776
1753
1730

23
23
22

0.673
0.730
0.787

57
57
58

4.9122
4.9161
4.9201

39
40
40

1600
1700
1800

0.0600
0.0638
0.0676

38
38
38

1708
1686
1664

22
22
22

0.845
0.904
0.964

59
60
61

4.9241
4.9282
4.9322

41
40
41

1900
2000

0.0714
0.0752
0.0790

38
38
39

1642
1620
1599

22
21
21

1.025
1.086
1.148

61
62
63

4.9363
4.9404
4.9445

41
41
41

2200
2300
2400

0.0829
0.0867
0.0905

38
38
38

1578
.1557
1537

21
20
20

1.211
1.275
1'.339

64
64
65

4.9486
4.9528
4.9570

42
42
42

2500
2600
2700

0.0943
0.0981
0.1019

38
38
38

1517
1497
1477

20
20
19

1.404
1.471
1.538

67
67
69

4.9612
4.9654
4.9696

42
42
43

2800
2900
3000

0.1057
0.1094
0.1132

37
38
39

1458
1439
1420

19
19
19

1.607
1.676
1.746

69
70
71

4.9739
4.9782
4.9825

43
43
43

3100
3200
3300

0.1171
0.1210
0.1249

39
39
38

1401
1383
1365

18
18
18

1.817
1.889
1.962

72
73
73

4.9868
4.9912
4.9955

44
43
44

3400
3500
3600

0.1287
0.1324
0.1361

37
37
36

1347
1330
1313

17
17
16

2.035
2.110
2.186

75
76
76

4.9999
5.0043
5.0087

44

2100
.

.1z

..

44
45

59

DIRECT FIRE

TABLE B
(Taken from Ingalls' Table II, Artillery Circular M)

V
X
z=-C

log B'

u

Az
--

---

= 21D0

Az

f.s.

T'

Az

Jog C'

Az

---

--

3700
3800
3900

0.1397
0.1432
0.1467

35
35
35

1297
1281
1266

16
15
15

2.262
2.340
2.418

78
78
80

-10
5.0132
5.0176
5.0221

44
45
45

4000
4100
4200

0.1502
0.1536
0.1570

34
34
34

1251
1236
1222

15
14
13

2.498
2.579
2.660

81
81
82

5.0266
5.0311
5.0356

45
45
45

4300
4400
4500

0.1604
0.1638
0.1671

34
33
32

1209
1196
1183

13
13
12

2.742
2.825
2.909

83
84
85

5.0401
5.0446
5.0491

45
45
45

4600
4700
4800

0.1703
0.1733
0.1762

30
29
28

1171
1159
1147

.12
12
11

2.994
3.080
3.167

86
87
87

5.0536 .
5.0581
5.0626

45
45
46

4900
5000
5100

0.1790
0.1818
0.1844

28
26
24

1136
1126
1116

10
10
10

3.254
3.343
3.432

89
89
91

5.0672
5.0717
5.0763

45
46
45

5200
5300
5400

0.1868
0.1892
0.1916

24
24
23

1106
1097
1088

9
9
9

3.523
3.614
3.706

91
92
92

5.0808
5.0853
5.0898

45
45
45

5500
5600
5700

0.1939
0.1961
0.1982

22
21
20

1079
1071
1062

8
9
8

3.798
3.891
3.985

93
94
94

5.0943
5.0987
5.1031

44
44
44

5800
5900
6000

0.2002
0.2022
0.2041

20
19
17

1054
1046
1039

8
7
7

4.079
4.174
4.270

95
96
97

5.1075
5.1119
5.1162

44
43
43

6100
6200
6300

0.2058
0.2074
0.2090

16
16
15

1032
1025
1018

7
7
6

4.367
4.464
4.562

97
98
99

5.1205
5.1248
5.1291

43
43
42

6400
6500
6600

0.2105
0.2120
0.2134

15
14
14

1012
1005
999

7
6
7

4.661
4.760
4.860

99 ~
100
100

5.1333
5.1375
5.1417

42
42
42

6700
6800
6900

0.2148
0.2162
0.2175

14
13
12

992
986
980

6
6
6

4.960
5.061
5.163

101
102
102

5.1459
5.1500
5.1541

41
41
41

7000

0.2187

11

974

6

5.265

103

5.1582

40

I

60

DIRECT FIRE

TABLE B

(Taken fromlngalls' Table II, Artillery Circular M)

X

V

=
2200

u

.1z

T'

z=-C

log B'

.1z

100
200
300

0.0036
0.0072
0.0108

36
36
37

2173
2146
. 2120

27
26
27

400 .
500
600

0.0145
0.0181
0.0218

36
37
37

2093
2067
2041

700
800
900

0.0255
0.0292
0.0329

37
37
37

1000
1100
1200

0.0366
0.0404.
0.0441

1300
1400
1500

f.s.

.1z

log C'

.1z

0.046
0.092
0.139

46
47
47

-10
4.8266
4.8301
4.8337

35
36
36

26
26
26

0.186
0.234
0.283

48
49
49

4.8373
4.8409
4.8446

36
37
37

2015
1990
1964

. 25
26
25

0.332
0.382
0.433

50
51
51

4.8483
4.8520
4.8557

37
37
38

38
37
38

. 1939
1914
1889

25
25
24

0.484
0.536
0.588

52
52
54

4.8595
4.8633
4.8672

38
39
39

0.0479
0.0516
0.0554

37
38
38

1865
1840
1816

25.
24
23

0.642
0.696
0.750

54
54
56

4.8711
4.8750
4.8789

39
39
39

1600
1700
1800

0.0592
0.0630
0.0668

38
38
38

.1793
1769
1746

24
23
23

0.806
0.862
0.919

56
57
58

4.8828
4.8868
4.8908

40
40
40

. 1900
2000
2100

. 0.0706
0.0745
0.0783 .

39
38
38

1723
1701
1679

22
22
22

0.977
1.035
1.094

58
59
60

4.8948
4.8989
4.9030

41
41
41

2200
2300
2400

0.0821
0.0860
0.0898

39
38
38

1657
1636
1614

21
22
21

1.154
1.215
1.277

61
62
62

4.9071
4.9112
4.9154

41
42
41

2500
2600
2700

0.0936
0.0974
0.1012

38
38
38

1593
1572
1552

21
20
21

1.339
1.403
1.467

64
64
65

4.9195
4.9237
4.9279

42
42
43

2800
2900
3000

0.1050
0.1088
0.1l26

38
38
38

1531
151l
1491

20
20
20

1.532
1.597
1.664

65
67
67

4.9322
4.9364
4.9407

42
43
43

3100
3200
3300

0.1l64
0.1202
0.1240

38
38
37

1471
1452
1433

19
19
19

1.731
1.799
1.868

68
69
70

4.9450
4.9493
4.9536

43
43
43

3400
3500 _.
3600

0.1277
0.1315
0.1353

38
38
37

1414
1395
1377

19
18
17

1.938
2.009
2.0R2

71
73
73

4.9579
4.9623
4.9667

44
44
44

I

61

DIRECT FIRE

TABLE B
(Taken from Ingalls' Table II. Artillery

Circular M)

V = 2200 f.s.

X

Z=C

10gB'

Az

u

Az

T'

Az

log C'

Az

-3700
3800
3900

0.1390
0.1428
0.1465

38
37
38

1360
1342
1325

18
17
16

2.155
2.229
2.304

74
75
76

-10
4.9711
4.9755
4.9800

44
45
45

4000
4100
4200

0.1503
0.1540
0.1577

37
37
36

1309
1293
1277

16
16
16

2.380
2.457
2.535

77
78
78

4.9845
4.9890
4.9935

45
45
46

4300
4400
4500

0.1613
0.1648
0.1682

35
34
34

1261
.1246
1232

15
14
14

2.613
2.693
2.774

80
81
81

4.9981
5.0026
5.0072

45
46
46

4600
4700
4800

0.1716
0.1749
0.1782

33
33
32

1218
1204
1191

14
13
12

2.855
2.938
3.021

83
83
85

5.0118
5.0163
5.0209

45
46
46

4900
5000
5100

0.1814
. 0.1845
0.1876

31
31
29

1179
1167
1155

12
12
11

3.106
3.191
3.277

85
86
87

5.0255
5.0301
5.0347

46
46
46

5200
5300
5400

0.1905
0.1934.
0.1961

29
27
26

1144
1134
1123

10
11
10

3.364
3.452
3.541

88
89
89

5.0393
5.0439
5.0485

46
46
46

5500
5600
5700

0.1987
0.2013
0.2037

26
24
23

1113
1103
1094

10
9
9

3.630
3.720 .
3.811

90
91
92

5.0531
5.0577
5.0622

46
45
45

5800
5900
6000

0.2060
0.2083
0.2104

23
21
21

1085
1076
1068

9
8
8

3.903
3.996
4.089

93
93
94

5.0667
5.0713
5.0758

46
45
45

6100
6200
6300

0.2125
0.2145
0.2164

20
19
18

1060
1052
1045

8
7
8

4.183
4.278
4.374

95
96
96

5.0803
5.0848
5.0893

45
45
44

6400
6500
6600

0.2182
0.2199
0.2216

17
17
16

1037
1030
1023

7
7
7

4.470
4.567
4.664

97
97
98

_ 5.0937
50981
5.1025

44
44
44

6700
6800
6900

0.2232
0.2248
0.2262

16
14
14

1016
1010
1003

6
7
6

4.762
4.861
4.960

99
99
100

5.1069
5.1112
5.1155

43
43
43

7000

0.2276

13

997

6

5.060

101

5.1198

43

I

62

DIRECT FIRE

TABLE B
(Taken from Ingalls' Table II, Artillery Circular M)
V

~_=~I

10gB'

.1.

=

u

2300 f.s.
.1•

T'

---------

.1•

log C'

.1.

--

-----

35
35
36

--.-

100
200
300

0.0036
0.0071
0.0107

35
36
36

2272
2244
2216

28
28
27

0.044
0.088
0.133

44
45
45

-10
4.7878
4.7913
4.7948

400
500
600

0.0143
0.0179
0.0215

36
36
36

2189
2162
2135

27
27
27

0178
0.224
0.271

46
47
47

4.7984
4.8020
4.8056

36
36
37

700
800
900

0.0251
0.0287
0.0324

36
37
37

2108
2082
2056

26
26
26

0.318
0.366
0.414

48
48
49

4.8093
4.8130
4.8167

37
37
'37

1000
1100
1200

0.0361
0.0398
0.0435

37
37
37

2030
2004
1979

26
25
25

0.463
0.513
0.563

50
50
51

4.8204
4.8242
4.8280

38
38
38

1300
~400
1500

0.0472
0.0509
0.0546

37
37
38

1954
1929
1904

25
25
25

0.614
0.665
0.717

51
52
53

4.8318
4.8356
4.8395

38
39
39

1600
1700
1800

0.0584
0.0621
0.0659

37
38
38

1879
1855
1831

24
24
24

0.770
0.824
0.878

54
54
55

4.8434
4.8473
4.8512

39
39
40

1900
2000
2100

0.0697
0.0735
0.0773

38
38
38

1807
1784
1761

23
23
23

0.933
0.989
1.045

56
56
57

4.8552
4.8592
4.8632

40
40
41

2200
2300
2400

0.0811
0.0849
0.0887

38
38
38

1738
1715
1693

23
22
22

1.102
1.160
1.219

58
59
60

4.8673
4.8713
4.8754

40
41
42

2500
2600
2700

0.0925
0.0963
0.1002

38
39
38

1671
1649
1627

22
22
21

1.279
1.339
1.400

60
61
62

4.8796
4.8837
4.8879

41
42
42

2800
2900
3000

0.1040
0.1078
0.1117

38
39
38

1606
1585
1564

21
21
21

1.462
1.525
1.588

63
63
64

4.8921
4.8963
4.9005

42
42
42

3100
3200
3300

0.1155
0.1192
0.1230

37
38
38

1543
1523
1503

20
20
20

1.652
1.717
1.783

65
66
67

4.9047
49090
4.9133

43
43
43

3400
3500
3600

0.1268
0.1306
0.1344

38
38
38

1483
1464
1445

19
19
19

1.850
1.918
1.987

68
69
70

4.9176
4.9220
4.926.'1

44
44
44

63

DIRECT FIRE

TABLE

B

(Taken from Ingalls' Table II, Artillery

CircUlar M)

V = 2300 f.s.
X
z=C

log B'

3700
3800
3900

0.1382
0.1420
0.1458

38
38
38

1426
1407
1389

19
18
18

2.057
2.127
2.198

70
71
73

-10
4.9308
4.9352
4.9396

44
44
45

4000
4100
4200

0.1496
0.1534
0.1572

38
38
38

1371
1353
1335

18
18
17

2.271
2.344
2.418

73
74
76

4.9441
4.9486
4.9531

45
45
45

4300
, 4400
4500

0.1610
0.1647
0.1683

37
36
36

1318
1301
1285

17
16
16

2.494
2.570
2647

76
77
78

4.9576
4.9621
4.9667

45
46
46

4600
4700
4800

0.1719
0.1754
0.1789

35
35
34

1269
1254
1239

15
15
14

2.725
2.804
2.885

79
81
81

4.9713
4.9759
4.9805

46
46
46

4900
5000
5100

0.1823
0.1857
0.1891

34
34
33

1225
1212
1199

13
13
12

2.966
3.048
3.131

82
83
84

4.9851
4.9897
4.9943

46
46
47

5200
5300
5400

0.1924
0.1956
0.1987

32
31
30

1187
1175
1163

12
12
12

3.215
3.300
3.386

85
86
87

4.9990
5.0036
5.0083

46
47
46

5500 '
5600
5700

0.2017
0.2046
0.2074

29
28
26

1151
1140
1130

11
10
11

3.473
3.560
3.648

87
88
89

5.0129
5.0176
5.0222

47
46
47

5800
5900
6000

0.2100
. 0.2126
0.2151

26
25
24

1119
1109
1100

10
9
9

3.737
3.827
3.917

90
90
91

5.0269
5.0315
5.0362

46
47
47

6100
6200
6300

0.2175
0.2198
0.2220

23
22
22

1091
1082
1073

9
9
8

4.008
4.100
4.193

92
93
94

5.0409
5.0456
5.0502

47
46
46

6400
6500
6600

0.2242
0.2262
0.2282

QO
20
19

1065
1057
1049

8
8
8

4.287
4.381
4.476

94
95
95

5.0548
5.0594
5.0639

'46
45
46

6700
6800
6900

0.2301
0.2319
0.2336

18
17
16

1041
1034
1027

7
7
7

4.571
4.667
4.764

96
97
98

5.0685
5.0730
5.0774

45
44
45

7000

0.2352

15

1020

6

4.862

99

5.0819

45

~z

U

~z

T'

~z

log C'

~z

~4

DIRECT FIRE

j

j
TABLE

(Taken from Ingalls' Table II, Artillery
V
Z

X

=--,-

C

=

I

B
Circular M)

2400 f.s.

J
log B'

~z

U

~z

T'

~z

log C'

~z

100
200
.300

0.0035
. 0.0070
0.0105

35
35
35

2371
2342
2314

29
28
28

0.082
0.044
0.127

42
43
43

-10
.. 4.7506
4.'7541
4.7576

35
35
36

400
500
600

0.0140
0.0176
.0.0212

36
.36
36

2286
2258
2231

28
27
28

0.170
0.214
0.259

44
45
45

4.7612
4.7647
4.7683

35
36
36

700
800
900

0.0248
0.0284
0.0320

36
36
36

2203
2176
2149

27
27
27

0.304
. 0.350
0.396

46
46
47

4.7719
4.7755
4.7792

36
37
37

1000
1100
1200

0.0356
0.0392
0.0429

36
37
36

2122
2095
2069

27
26
26

0.443
0.491
0.539

48
48
49

4.7829
. 4.7866
4.7903

37
37
38

1300
1400
1500

0.0465
0.0502
0.0539

37
37
37

2043
2017
1992

26
25
26

49
50
51

4.7941
4.7979
4.8017

38
38
39

1600
1700
1800

0.0576
0.0613
0.0651

37
38
37

1966
1941
1916

25
25
25

0.588.
0.637
0.687
,
0.738
0.789
0.841

51
52
52

4.8056
4.8094
4.8133

38
39
39

.1900
2000
2100

0.0688
0.0726
0.0764

38
38
38

1891
1867
1843

24
24
24

0.893
0.946
1.000

53
54
54

4.8172
4.8212
48252

40
40
40

2200
2300 .
2400

0.0802
0.0840
0.0878

38
38
38

1819.
1795
1772

24
23
23

1.054
1.110
1.166

56
56
57

4.8292
4.8332
4.8372

40
40
41

2500
2600
2700

0.0916
0.0954
0.0992

38
38
39

1749
1726
1703

23
23
22

1.223
1.280
1.338

57
58
59

4.8413
4.8454
4.8495

41
41
41

2800
2900
3000

0.1031
0.1069
0.1107

38
38
38

.1681
1659
1637

22
22
21

1.397
1.457
1.518

60
61
61.

4.8536
4.8578
4.8620

42
42
42

3100
3200
3300

0.1145
. 0.1182
0.1220

37
38
38

1616
1595
1574

21
21
20

1.579
1.641
1.704

62
63
64

4.8662
4.8704
4.8747

42
43
43

38
38
38

1554
1534
1514

20
20
20

1.768
1.833
1.899

65
66
67

4.8790
4.8833
4.8876

43
43 .
44

3400
350Q
3600

0.1258
0.1296 .
0.1334

1

DIRECT FIRE

TABLE

65

B

(Taken froIn .Ingalls' Table II, Artillery Circular M)
V = 2400 f.s.
X

z=-C

log B'

u

..1.

..1.

T'

..1•

log C'

..1.

--3700
3800
3900

0.1372
0.1410
0.1449

38
39
38

1494
1475
1455

19
20
19

1.966
2.033
2.102

67
69
69

-10
4.8920
4.8964
4.9008

44
44
44

4000
4100
4200

0.1487
0.1525
0.1563

38
38
38

1436
1417
1398

19
19
19

2.171
2.241
2.311

70
70
72

4.9052
4.9096
4.9141

44
45
45

4300
4400
4500

0.1601
0.1638
0.1675

37
37
37

1379
1361
1344

18
17
17

2.383

2A56
2.530

73
74
75

4.9186
4.9231
4.9276

45 '
45
45

4600
4700
4800

0.1712
0.1749
0.1786

37
37
36

1327
1310
1294

17
16
16

2.605
2.680
2.757

75
77
78

- 4.9321
4.9367
4.9413

46
46
46

4900
5000
5100

0.1822
0.1858
0.1894

36
36
36

1278
1263
1248

15
15
15

2.835
2.914
2.994

7f)
80
81

- 4.9459
4.9506
4.9553

47
47
46

5200
5300
5400

0.1930
0.1965
0.1999

35
34
33

1233
1219
1206

14
13
13

3.07.5
3;156
3.239

-81
83
83

4.9599
4.9646
4.9693

47
47
47

5500
5600
5700

0.2032
0.2064
0.2095

32
31
30

1193
1180
1168

13
12
12

3.322
3.406
3.491

84
85
86

4.9740
4.9787
4.9834

47
47
.47

5800
5900
6000

0.2125
0.2154
0.2182

29
28
27

1156
1145
1134

11
11
10

3.577
3.664
3.752

87
88
89

4.9881
4.9929
4.9976

48
47
47

6100 .
- 6200
6300

0.2209
0.2235
0.2261

26
26
25

1124
1114
1104

10
-10
9

3.841
3.930
4.020

89
90
91

5.0023
5.0071
5.0118

48
47
47

6400
6500
6600

0.2286
0.2310
0.2333

24
23
22

1095
1086
1077

9
9
8

4.111
4.203
4.295

92
92
93

~5.0165
5,0212
5.0258

47
46
47

6700
6800
6900

0.2355
0.2376
0.2396

21
20
19

1069
1061
1053

8
8
8

4.388
4.482
4.577

94
95
95

5.0305
5.0352
5.0398

47
46
46

7000

0.2415

18

1045

7

4.672

96

5.0444

46

66

DIRECT FIRE

TABLE B

(Taken from Ingalls' Table II, Artillery Czrcular M)

r.s.

V = 2500

X
z=C

log B'

t.z

u

100 .
200
300

0.0035
0.0070
0.0105

35
35
35

2470
2441
2412

29
29
29

400
500
600

0.0140
0.0175
0.0210

35
35
35

2383
2354
2326

700
800
900

0.0245
0.0281
0.0316

36
35
36

1000
1100
1200

0.0352
0.0388
0.0424

1300
1400
1500

T'

t.z

~z

log C'

liz

0.040
0.081
0.122

41
41
42

-10
4.7150
4.7185
4.7220

35
35
35

29
28
28

0.164
0.206
0.249

42
43
43

4.7255
4.7290
4.7325

35
35
36

2298
2270
2242

28
28
28

0.292
0.336
0.380

44
44
45

4.7361
. 4.7397
4.7433 .

36
36
37

36
36
36

2214
21&7
2160

27
27
27

0.425
0.470
0.516

45
46
47

4.7470
4.7507
4.7544

37
37
37

0.0460
0.0496
0.0532

36
36
36

2133
2106
2080

27
26
26

0.563
0.610
0.658

47
48
48

4.7581
4.7618
4.7656

37
38
38

1600
1700
1800

0.0568
0.0605
0.0642

37
37
37

2054
2028
2002

26
26
26

0.706
0.755
0.805

49
50
50

4.7694
4.7732
4.7770

38
38
39

1900
2000
2100

0.0679
0.0716
0.0753

37
37
38

1976
1951
1926

25
25
25

0.855
0.906
0.958

51
52
52

4.7809
4.7848
4.7887

39
39
39

2200
2300
2400

0.0791
0.0828
0.0866

37
38
38

1901
1876
1852

25
24
24

1.010
1.063
1.117

53
54
54

4.7926
4.7966
4.8006

40
40
40

2500
2600
2700

0.0904
0.0942
0.0980

38
38
38

1828
1804
1781

24
23
23

1.171
1.226 .
1.282

55
56
57

4.8046
4.8086 .
4.8127

40
41
41

2800
2900
3000

0.1018
0.1056
0.1094

38
38
38

1758
1735
1712

23
23
22

1.339
1.396
1.454

57
58
59

4.8168
4.8209
4.8250

41
41
41

3100
3200
3300

0.1132
0.1170
0.1208

38
38
38

1690
1668
1646

22
22
21

1.513
1.572
1.632

59
60
61

4.8291
4.8333
4.8375

42
42
42

3400
3500
3600

0.1246
0.1284
0.1322

38
38
39

1625
1604
1583

21
21
21

1.693
1.755
1.818

62
63
64

4.8417
4.8460
4.8503

4
43
43

67

DIRECT FIRE

TABLE

B

(Taken from Ingalls' Table II, Artillery Circular M)
V - 2500 f.s.
X
z=C

log B'

~I

3700
3800
3900

0.1361
0.1399
0.1437

38
38
38

1562
1541
1521

21
20
20

1.882
1.946
2.012

64
66
66

-10
4.8546
4.8589
4.8633

43
.44
44

4000
4100
4200

0.1475
0.1513
0.1551

38
38
38

1501
1481
1461

20
20
19

2.078
2.145
2.213

67
68
68

4.8677
4.8721
4.8765

44
44
44

4300
4400
4500

0.1589
0.1626
0.1663

37
37
38

1442
1423
1404

19
19
18

2.281
2.351
2.422

70
71
72

4.8809
. 4.8854
4.8899

45
45
45

4600
4700
4800

0.1701
0.1739
0.1776

38.
37
38

1386
1368
1351

18
17
17

2.494
2.567
2.640

73
73
74

4.8944
4.8990
4.9036

46
46
46

4900
5000
5100

0.1814
0.1852
0.1890

. 38
38
37

1334
1317
1300

17
.17
16

2.714
2.790
2.866

76
76
78

4.9082
4.9128
4.9174

46
46
47

5200
5300
5400

0.1927
0.1964
0.2000

37
36
35

1284
1268
1253

16.
15
15

2.944
3.022 .
3.101

78
79
80

4.9221
4.9268
4.9315

47
47
47

5500
5600
5700

0.2035
0.2069
0.2103

34
34
33

1238
1224
1211

14
13
13

3.181
3.262
3.344

81
82
83

4.9362
4.9409
4.9456

47
47
47

5800
5900
6000

0.2136
0.2168
.0.2199

32
31
31

1198
1185
1173

13
12
11

3.427
3.511
3.596

84
85
86

4.9503
4.9551
4.9599

48
48
48

6100
6200
6300

0.2230
0.2260
0.2289

30
29
.27

1162
1151
1140

11
11
11

3.682
3.769
3.856

87
87
88

4.9647
4.9695
4.9743

48
48
47

6400
6500
6600

0.2318
0.2345
0.2371

27
26
25

1129
1119
11'09

10
10
9

3.944
4.033
4.123

89
90
91

4.9790.
4.9838
4.9886

48
48
47

6700
6800
6900

0.2396
0.2420
0.2443

24
23
22

1100 .
1091
1082

9
9
9

4.214
4.305
4.397

91
92
93

4.9933
4.9981
5.0028

48
47
48

7000

0.2465

21

1073

8

4.490

94

5.0076

48

U

T'

~I

~I

log C'

.

~I

.

68

DIRECT FIRE
TABLEB
(Taken from Ingalls' Table II, Artillery

Circular M)

V = 2600 f.s.

x

Z=c C-

!

log B'

u

T',

log C'

--'100
200,
.300

0.0034
0.0069
0.0103

35
34
35

2569
2539
2509

30
30
30

0.039
0.078
0.118

39
40

-10
4.6809
4.6843
4.6878

400,
500
600

0.0138
0.0173
0.0208

35
35
35

2479
2450
2421

29
29
29

0.158
0.199
0.240

41
41
41

4.6912
4.6947
4.6982

35
35

700
800
900

0.0243
0.0278
0.0313

35
35
35

2392
2363
2334

29
29
. 28

0.281
0.323
0.366

42
43

43

4.7017
4.7053
4.7089

36
36
36

1000
1100
1200

0.0348
. 0.0383
0.0419

35
36
36

2306
2278
2250

28
28
27

0.409.
0.453
0.497

44
44
44

4.7125
4.7161
4.7198

37

1300
1400
1500

0.0455
0.0490
0.0526

35
36
36

2223
2195
2168

28
.27
27

0.541
0.586
0.632

45
46
47

4.7234,
4.7271
4.7308

1600
'1700
1800

0.0562
0.0599
0.0635

37
36
36

2141,
2115
2088

26
27
26

0.679
0.726
0.773

47

47
48

4.7346
4.7~84
4.7422

1900
2000
2100

0.0671
0.0708
0.0745

37
37
37

2062
2036
2010

26
26
26

0.821
0.870
0.919

49

4.7460
4.7498
4.7537

38

49
50

2200
2300
2400

0.0782
0.0819
0.0856

37
37
38

1984
1959
1934

25
25
25

0.969
1.020
1.071 .

51
51
52

4.7576
4.7615
4.7654

39
39
39

2500
2600,
2700

0.0894
0.0931
0.0968

37
37
38

1909
1885
1860

24
25
24

1.123
1.176
1.230

53
54

4.7693
4.7733
4.7773

40

,5 4

2800
2900
3000

0.1006
0.1043
0.1081

37
38
38

1836
1812
1789

24
23
23

,1.284
1.339
.1.394

55
55
56

4.7813
4.7854
4.7895

, 41
41
41

3100
3200
3300

0.1119
0.1157
0.1195

38
38
38

1766
1743
1720

23
23
23

1.450
1.507
1.565

57
58
59

' 4.7936
4.7977
4.8019

41

3400
3500,
3600

0.1233
0.1271
0.1309

38
38
39

1697
1675
1653

22
22
21

1.624
1.683
1.743

59

4.8061
4.8103
4.8145

42
42

40

60
61'

-

34

35
34

35

36
36
37
37
38

38
38
38

39
39

40

40

42

42

43

.

'69

))IRECT FIRE

TABLE B
(Taken from Ingalls' Table II,AriilleryCircu[ar

M)

V == 2600 f.~.
X.

z==-

C

log B'

.1z

u

.1z

,T'

.1z

"

log C'

---

.1,

--

3700
3800
3900

0.1348
0.1386
0.1425

38
39
38

1632
1610
1589

22
21
21

1.804
1.866
1.929

62
63
63

-10
4.8188
4.8231
4.8274

4000
4100
4200

0.1463
0.1501
0.1540

38
39
38

1568
1547
1527

21
20
20

1.992
2.056
2.121

64
65
66

4.8317
4.8360
4.8404

43
44
44

4300
4400
4500

0.1578
0.1616
0.1654

38
38
38

1507
1488
1468

19
20
19

2.187
2.254
2.321

67
67
69

4.8448
4.8492
4.8537

44
45
45

4600
4700
4800

0.1692
0.1730
0.1767

38
37
38

J449
1430
1411

19
19
18

2.390
2.460
2.530

70
70
72

4.8582
4.8627
4.8672

45
45
46

4900
5000
5100

0.1805
0.1842
0.1879

37
37
36

1393
1375
1357

18
18
18

2.602
2.674
2.747

72
73
74

4.8718
4.8764
4.8810

46
46
46

5200
5300
5400

0.1915
0.1952
0.1989

37
37
36

1339
1322
1305

17
17
17

2.821
2.896
2.972

75
76
77

4.8856
4.8902
4.8949

46
47
47

5500
5600
5700

0.2025
0.2061
. 0.2097

36
36
36

1288
1272
1257

16
15
14

3.049
3.127
3.206

78
79
80

4.8996
4.9043
4.9090

47
47
47

5800
5900
6000

0.2133
0.2168
0.2203

35
35
34

1243
1229
1215

14
14
13

3.286
3.367.
3.449

81
82
83

4.9137
4.9185
. 4.9233

48
48
48

6100
6200
6300

0.2237
0.2270
0.2302

33
32
31

1202
1189
1177

13
12
12

3.532
3.616
3.700

84
84
86

4.9281
4.9330
4.9378

49
48
48

6400
6500
6600

0.2333
0.2363
0.2393

30
30
28

1165
1153
1142

12
11
10

3.78e
3.872
3.959

-86
87
88

4.9426
4.9474
4.9523

48
49
48

. 6700
6800
6900

0.2421
0.2448
0.2474

27
26
26

1132
1121
1111

11
10
9

4.047
4.136
4.226

89
90
90'

4.9571
4.9619
4.9668

48
49
48

7000

0.2500

25

1102

9

4.316

91

4.9716

48

-

43
43
43

70

DIRECT FIRE

TABLE

B

(Taken from Ingalls' Table II, AJ tillery Circular M)
V

x
z=C

log B'

=

2700 f.s.

u

Az

A

T'

Az

log C'

Az

100
200
300

0.0034
0.0068
0.0102

34
34
34

2669
2638
2607

31
31
31

0.037
0.075
0.113

38
38
39

-10
4.6480
4.6514
4.6548

34
34
34

400
500
600

0.0136
'0.0170
0.0205

34

2576
254~
2516

30
30
30

0.152
0.191
0.231

39
40
40

4.658.
4.6617
4.6652

35
35
35

700
800
900

0.0239
0.0274
0.0309

35

30
29
29

0.271
0.311
0.352

40
41
41

4.6687 '
4.6722
4.6757

35

35

2486
2456
2427

1000
1100
1200

0.0344
0.0379
0.0414

35
35
35

2398
2369
2340

29
29
28

0.393
0.435
0.477

42
42
43

4.6793
4.6829
4.6865

36
36
37

1300
1400
1500

0.0449
0.0484
0.0520

35
36
36

2312
2284
2256

28
28
28

0.520
0.564
0.608

44
44
45

4.6902
4.6938
4.6975

36
37
37

1600
1700
1800

0.0556
0.0592
0.0628

36
36
36

2228
2201 .
2174

27
27
27

0.653
0.~98
0.744

45
46
46

4.7012
4.7049
4.7086

37
37
37

1900
2000
2100

0.0664
0.0700
0.0736

36
36
36

2147
2120
2094

27
26
26

0.790
0.837
0.885

47
48
48

4.7123
4.7161
4.7198

38
. 37
38

2200
2300
2400

0.0772
0.0809
0.0845

37
36
37

2068
2042
2016

26
26
26

0.933
0.982 .
1.031

49
49
50

4.7236
4.7274
4.7312

38
38
39

2500
2600
2700

0.0882
0.0919
0.0956

37
37
37

1990
1965
1940

25
25
25

1.081
1.132
1.183

51
51
52

4.7351
4.7390
4.7429

39
39
40

2800
2900
3000

0.0993
0.1030
0.1068

. 37
38
38

1915
1890
1866

25
24
24

1.235
1.287
1.340

52
53
54

4.7469
4.7509
4.7549

40
40
41

3100
3200
3300

0.1106
0.1144
0.1183

38
39
38

1842
1818
1794

24
24
24

1.394.
1.448
1.503

54
55
56

4.7590
4.7631
4.7672

41
41
42

3400
3500
3600

0.1221
0.1259
0.1297

38
38
38

1770
1747
1724

23
23
22

1.559
1.616
1.674

57
58
58

4.7714
4.7756
4.7798

42
42
43

35
34

35

-

35
36

71

DIRECT FIRE

TABLE

B

(Taken from Ingalls' Table II, Artillery

V
X
z=C

log B'

ilz

Circular M)

= 2700 f.s.

u

T'

~z

ilz

log C'

ilz

--3700
3800
3900

0.1335
0.1373
0.1411

38
38
38

1702
1680
1658

22
22
22

1.732
1.791
1.851

59
60
61

-10
4.7841
4.7883
4.7926

. 42
.43
43

4000
4100
4200

0.1449
0.1487
0.1524

38
37
38

1636
1615
1595

21
20
21

1.912
1.974
2.036

62
62
63

4.7969
.4.8012
4.8056

43
44
43

4300
4400
4500

0.1562
0.1600
0.1638

38
38
38

1574
1554
1534

20
20
20

2.099
2.163
2.228

64
65
66

4.8099
4.8143
4.8187

44
44
45

4600
4700
4800

0.1676
0.1714
0.1753

38
39
38

1514
1494
1474

20
20
20

2.294
2.361
2.428

67
67
69

4.8232
4.8277
4.8322

45
45
45

4900
5000
5100

0.1791
.. 0.1829
0.1867

38
38
37

1454
1434
1415

20
19
19

2.497
2.566
.2.636

69
70
71

4:8367
4.8412
4.8457

45
45
46

5200
5300
5400

0.1904
0.1941
0.1978

37
37
37

1396
1378
1360

18
. 18
17

2.707
2.779
2.852

72
73
74

4.8503
4.8549
4.8595

46
46
47

5500
5600
5700

0.2015
0.2052
0.2089

. 37
37
37

1343
1326
1309

17
17
16

2.926
3.001
3.077

75
76
77

4.8642
4.8689
4.8736

47
47
47

5800
5900
6000

0.2126
0.2162
0.2198

36
36
36

1293
1277
1262

16
15
15

3.154
3.231
3.310

77
79
80

4.8783
4.8830
4.8878

47
48
48

6100
6200
6300

0.2234
0.2270
0.2305

36
35
35

1247
1233
1219

14
14
14

3.390
3.471
3.543

81
82
83

4.8926
4.8974
4.9022

48
48
49

6400
6500
6600

0.2340
0.2373
0.2405

33
32
31

1205
1192
1180

13
12
12

3.636
3.719
3.803

83
84
"85

4.9071
4.9119
4.9168

48
49
48

6700
6800
6900

0.2436
0.2466
0.2495

30
29
28

1168
1156
1145

12
11
11

3.888
3.974
4.061

86
87
88

4.9216
4.9265
4.9314

49
49
49

7000

0.2523

28

1134

10

4.149

89

4.9363

49

72

DIRECT FIRE

TABLE B
(Taken from Ingalls' Table II,Artillery
V

=

Circular M)

2800 f.s.

x
z=C

log B'

~z

100
200
300

0.0033
0.0067
0.0101

34
34
33

2768
2736
2705

32
31
31

400
500
600

0.0134
0.0168
0.0202

34
34
34

2674
2643
2612

700
800
900

0.0236
0.0270
0.0305

34
35
34

1000
1100.
1200

0.0339
0.0374
0.0409

35

1300
1400
1500

0.0443
0.0478
0.0514

35

1600
1700
1800

0.0549
0.0584
0.0620

35

1900
2000
2100

~

u

T'

Liz

log C'

0.036
.0.072
0.109

36
37
37

-10
4.6163
4.6197
4.6231

34
34
34

31
31
31

0.146
0.184
0.222

38
38
39

4.6265
4.6299
4.6333

34
34
34

2581
2551
2521

30
30
30

0.261
0.300
0.339

39
39
40

4.6367
4.6402
4.6437

35
35
3~

2491
2461
2432

30

29
29

0.379
0.419
0.460

40
41
42

4.6472
. 4.6507
4.6543

35
36
35

2403
2374
2345

29
29
29

0~502
0.544
0.586

42
42
43

4.6578
4.6614
4.6650

36
36
37

28

35

2316
2288
2260

28

0.629
0.672
0.716

43
44
45

4.6687
4.6724
4.6761

37
37
37

0.0655
0.0691
. 0.0727

36
36
36

2232
2205 .
2178

27
27
27

0.761
0.806
0.852

45
46
46

4.6798
4.6835
4.6873

37
38
38

2200
2300
2400

0.0763
0.0799
0.0835

36
36

26
27

36

2151
2125
2098

26

0.898
0.945
0.992

47
47
48

4.6911
4.6949
4.6987

38
38
38

2500
2600
2700

0.0871
0.0908
0.0945

37
37
37

2072
2046
2020

26
26
25

1.040
1.089
1.138

49
49
50

4.7025
4.7064
4.7103

39
39
40

2800
2900
3000

0.0982
0.1019
0.1056

37
37
37

1995
1969
1944

26
25
25

1.188
1.238
1.289

50
51
52

4.7143
4.7182
4.7222

39
40
40

3100
3200
3300

0.1093
0.1131
0.1168

38

1919
1894;
1869

25

37
38

25
24

1.341
1.393
1.446

52
53
54

4.7262
4.7302
4.7343

40
41
40

3400
3500
3500

0.1206
0.1243
0.1281

37
38
38

1845
1821
179 7

24
24
23

1.500
1.555
1.610

55
55
56

4.7383
4.7424
4.7465

41
41
42

35
34

36
35

36

28

I

~z

73

DIRECT FIRE

TABLEB
(Taken frotnJngalls'

Table II, Artillery

Circularl"!)

V. = 2800 f.s.

z=-.XC

log B'.

Az

3700
3800
3900

0.1319
0.1357
0.1395

38
38
38

4000
4100 .
4200

0.1433
0.1471
0.1509

4300
4400
4500

Az

T'

1774
1751
1728

23
23
23

1.666
1.723
1.780

57
57
58

-10
4.7507
.4.7549
4.7591

38
. 38
38

1705
1683
1661

22
22
21

1.838
1.897
1.957

59
60
60

4.7633
4.7675
4.7718

0.1547
0.1585
0.1623

38
38
38

1640
1619
1598

21
21
21

2.017
2.078
2.141

61
63
63

4.7761
4.7804
4.7848

4600
4700
4800

0.1661
0.1699
01737

38
38
39

1577
1556
1535

21
. 21
20

2.204
2.268
2.333

64
65
66

4.7892
4.7936
4.7980

44
44

4900
5000
5100

0.1776 .
0.1814
0.1852

38
38
37

1515
1495
1475

20
20
20

2.399
2.465
2.532

66
67

45

68

4.8025
4.8070
4.8115

5200
5300
'5400

0.1889
0.1927
0.1964

38
37
38

1455
1436
1417

19
19
18

2.600
2.669
2.739

69
70
'71

4.8160
4.8206
4.8252

46.

46
46

5500
5600
5700

0.2002
0.2039
0.2077

37
38
37

1399
1381
1363

1S"
18
18

2.810
2.882
2.955

72
73
74

48298
4.8344
4.8391

46
47
47

5800.
5900:
6000

0.2114
0.2152
0.2189

38
37
38

1345
1328
1312

17
16
17

3.029
3.104
3.180

75
76
77

4.8438
4.8485
4.8533

47
47

6100
6200
6300,

0.2227
0.2264
0.2300

37
36
36

. 1295
1279
1264

16
15
15

3.257
3.335
3.414

78
79
79

4.8580
4.8628
4.8676

48
48
48 .

6400:
6500
6"600'

0.2336
0.2371
0.2405

35
34
33

124~
1234
1220

15
14
14

3.493
3.573
3.654

80
81
83

4.8724
4.8772
4.8821

48

6700~
6800.
6900:

0.2438
0.2471
0.2503

33
32
31

1206
1193
1181

13
12
12

3.737
3.820
3.904 .

83
84
85

4.8870
4.8919
4.8968

49
49
49

7000

0.2534

31

1169

11

3.989

86

4.9017

50

u:

~z

log C'

42

42
42

42
43.
43
43

44
44

45

45
45

48

49
49

74

DIRECT FIRE

TABLE B
(Taken from Ingalls' Table II, Artillery Circular M)
V

X

=

2900 f.s.

Z=c

log B'

Az

u

Az

T'

Az

log C'

Az

100
200
300

0.0032
0.0065
0.0098

33
33
33

2867
2835
2803

32
32
32

0.035
0.070
0.105

35
35
36

-10
4.5857
4.5890
4.5923

33
33
33

400
500
600 .

0.0131
0.0164
0.0198

33
34
34

2771
2739
2708

32
31
32

0.141
0.177
0.214

36
37
37

4.5956
4.5990
4.6024

34
34
34

700
800
900

0.0232
0.0266
0.0300

34
34
34

2676
2645
2615

31
30
31

0.251
0.289
0.327

38
38
38

4.6058
4.6092
4.6126

34
34
35

1000
1100
1200

0.0334
0.0368
0.0403

34
35
35

2584
2554
.2524

30
30
30

0.365
0.404
0.443

39
39
. 40

4.6161
4.6196
4.6231

35
35
36

1300
1400
1500

0.0438
0.0473
0.0508

35
35
35

2494
2464
2435

30
2\)
30

0.483
0.524
0.565

41
41
41

4.6267
4.6302
4.6338

35
36
36

- 1600
1700
1800

0.0543
0.0578
0.0613

35.
35
. 35

2405
&2376
2348

29
28
29

0.606
0.648
0.690

42
42
43

4.6374
4.6410
4.6447

36
37
36'

1900
2000
2100

0.0648
0.0683
0.0718

35
35
36

2319 .
2291
2263

28
28
28

0.733
0.776
0.820

43
44
44

4.6483
4.6520
4.6557

37
37
37

2200
2300 .
2400

0.0754
0.0789
0.0825

35
36
36

2235
2208
2181

27
27
27

0.864
0.909
0.955

45
46
46

4.6594
4.663'2
4.6670

.38
38
38

2500
2600
. 2700

0.0861
0.0897
0.0933

36
36
37

2154
2127
2100

27
27
26

1.001
1.048
1.095

47
47
48

4.6708
4.6746
4.6784

38
38
39

2800
2900
3000

0.0970
0.1006
0.1043

36
37
37

2074
2048
2022

26
26
,.26

1.143
1.192
1.241

49
49
50

4.1>823
4.6862
4.6901

39
39
39

3100
3200
3300

0.1080
0.1117
0.1154

37
37
37

1996
1971
1946

25
25
25

1.291
1.341
1.392

50
51
52

4.6940
4.6980
4.7020

40
40
40

3400
3500
3600

0.1191
0.1228
0.1266

37
38
38

1921
1896
1871

25
25
24

1.444
1.496
1.549

52
53
54

4.7060
4.7101
4.7142

41
41
41

75

DIRECT FIRE

TABLE

B

(Taken from Ingalls' Table II, Artillery

•V

X

Circular M)

= 2900 f.s.

z=-C

log B'

.1z

u

.1z

T'

.1z

Jog C'

.1z

3700
3800
3900

0.1304
0.1341
0.1379

37
~8
38

1847
1823
1799

24
24
23

1.603
1.658
1.713

55
55
56

-10
4.7183
4.7224
4.7265

41
41
42

4000
4100
4200

0.1417
0.1455
0.1494

38
39
38

1776
1753
1730

23
23
22

1.769
1.826
1.883

57
57
' 58

4.7307
4.7349
4.7391

42
42
43

4300
4400
4500

0.1532
0.1570
0.1608

38
38
38

1708
1686
1664

22
22
22

1.941
2.000
2.060

59
60
61

4.7434
4.7477
4.7520

43
43
43

4600
4700
4800

0.1646
0.1684
0.1722

38
38
38

1642
1620
1599

22
21
21

2.121
2182
2.244

61
62
63

4.7;)63
4.7607
4.7651

44
44
44

4900
5000
5100

0.1760
0.1798
0.1835

38
37
37

1578
1557
1536

21
21
20

2.307
2.371
2.435

64
64
65

4.7695
4.7739
4.7784

44
45
45

5200
5300
5400

0.1872
0.1910
0.1947

38
37
38

1516
1496
1477

20
19
19

2.500
2.567
2.634

67
67
68

4.7829
4.7874
4.7919

45
45
46

5500
5600
5700

0.1985
0;2023
0.2061

38
38
38

1458
1439
1420

19
19
19

2.702
2.771
2.841'

69
70
71

4.7965
4.8011
4.8057

46
46
46

5800
5900
6000

0.2099
0.2137
0.2175

38
38
38

1401
1383
1365

18
18
18

2.912
2.984
3.057

72
73
74

4.8103
48150
4.8197

47
47
47

6100
6200
6300

0.2213
0.2250
0.2287

37
37
36

1347
1329
1312

18
17
16

3.131
3.205
3.281

74
76
77

4.8244
4.8292
4.8339

48
47
48

6400
6500
6600

0.2323
0.2359
0.2395

36
36
35

1296
1280
1265

16
15
15

3.358
3.435
3.514

77
" 79
79

4.8387
4.8435
4.8484

48
49
48

6700
6800
6900

0.2430
0.2465
0.2500

35
35
34

1250
1235
1221

15
14
13

3.5~3
3.673
3.755

80
82
82

4.8;)32
4.8581
4.8630

49
49
49

7000

0.2534

33

1208

13

3.837

83

4.8679

49

76

DIRECT FIRE

TABLE B
(Taken from lngalls~ Table II, Artillery Circular M)
V
X
z=C

10gB'

.1.

u

=

3000 f.s.

T'

.1

log C'

.1.

----

---

100
200
300

0.0031
0.0063
0.0095

32
32
32

2967
2934
2901

33
33
33

0.033
0.067
0.101

34
34
35

-10
4.5564
4.5596
4.5629

32
33
33

400
500
600

0.0127
0.0160
0.0193

33
33
33

2868
2836
2804

32
32
32

0.136
0.171
0.207

35
36
36

4.5662
4.5695
4.5728

33
33
34

700
800
900

0.0226
0.0260
0.0294

34
34
34

2772
2741
2709

31
32
31

0.243
0.279
0.316

36
37
37

4.5762
4.5795
4.5828

33
33
' 34

1000
1100
1200

0.0328
0.0363
0.0399

35
36
36

2678
2647
2616

31
31

0.353
0.390
0.428

37

31

39

4.5862
4.5895
4.5929

33
34
34

1300
1400
1500

0.0435
0.0471
0.0507

36
36
36

2585
2554
2524

31
30
30

0.467
0.506
0.545

39
39
40

4.5963
4.5997
4.6032

34
35
35

1600
1700
1800

0.0543
0.0579
0.0615

36
36
35

2494
2464
2435

30
29
29

0.585
0.625
0.666

40
41
41

4.6067
'4.6102
4,6137

35
35
36

1900
2000
2100

0.0650
0.0686
0.0721

36
35
36

2406
2377
2348

29
29
28

0.707
0.749
0.791

42
42
43

4.6173
4.6209
4.6245

36
36
37

2200
2300
2400

0.0757
0.0792
0.0828

35
36
36

2320
2292
2264

28
28
28

0.834
0.877
0.921

43
44
45

4.6282
4.6319
4.6356

,37
37
38

2500
2600
2700

0.0864
0.0899
0.0935

35
36
36

2236
2208
2181

28

46

27

0.966
1.011
1.057

45

27

46

4.6394
4.6432.
4.6470

38
38
38

2800
2900
3000

0.0971
0.1007
0.1043

36
36
35

2154
2127
2101

27
26
26

1.103
1.150
1.197 .

47
47
48

4.6508
4.6547
4.6586

39
39
39

3100
3200
3300

0.1078
0.1114
0.1149

36
35
37

2075
2049
2023

26
26
26

1.245
1.293
1.342

48
49
50

4.6625
4.6665
4.6705

40
40
40

37
37
38

1997
1972
1947

25
25\
25

1.392
1.442
1.493

50

4.6745
4.6785
4.6825

40
40
40

3400
3500
3600

38

51

I .52

77

DIRECT FIRE

TABLE B '
(Taken from Ingalls' Table II, Artillery

Circular M)

V == 3000 f.s.
X
z=C

log B'

.1z

u

T'

.1,

---

--

.1,

log C'

.1,

--

3700
3800
3900

0.1298
0.1336
' 0.1373

38
37
38

1922
1898
1873

24
25
24

1.545
1.597
1.650

52
53
54

-10
4.6865
4.6905
4.6946

40
41
41

4000
4100
4200

0.1411
0.1448
0.1485

37
37
38

1849
1825
1801

24
24
24

1.704
1.759
1.814

55
55
56

4.6987
4.7029
4.7071

42
42
42

4300
4400
4500

0.1523
0.1560
0.1597

37
37
38

1777
1754
1731

23
23
23

1.870
1.927
1.984

57
57
58

4.7113
4.7155 .
4.7198

42
43
43

4600 '
4700
4800

0.1635
0.1673
0.1711 .

38
38
37

1708
1686
1664

22
22
22

2.042
2.101
2.161

59
60
60

4.7241
4.7284
4.7327

43
43
44

4900
5000
5100

0.1748
0.1786
0.1824

38
38
31'

: 1642
1621
1600

21
21
21

2.221
2.282
2.344

61
62
63

4.7371
4.7415
4.7460

44
45
45

5200
5300
5400

0.1861
0.18990.1937

38
38
37

1579
1558
1538

21
20
20

2.407
2.471
2.535

64
64
66

4.7505
4.7550
4.7595

45
45
45

5500
5600
5700

0.1974 '
0.20il
0.2049

37
38
37

1518
1498
1478

20
20
19

2.601
2.668
2.735

67
67
68

4.7640
4.7686
4.7732

46
46
46

5800
5900
6000

0.2086
0.2124
0.2162

38
38
38

1459
1440
1421

19
19
19

2.803
2.872
2.942'

69
70
70

4.7778
4.7823
4.7868

45
45
45

6100
6200
6300

0.2200
0.2239
0.2278

39
39
39

1402
1384
1366

18
18
17

3.012
3.083
3.155

71
72
73

4.7913
4.7958 .
4.8003

45
45
46

6400
65(0
6600

0.2317
0.2355
0.2392

38
37
37

1349
1332
1315

17
17
16

3.228
3.302
3.377

74
' 75
77

4.8049
4.8096
4.8143

47
47
48

6700
6800
6900

0.2429
0.2465
0.2500

36.
35
34

1299
1283
1267

16
16
15

.3.454
3.532
3.610

78
78
80

4.8191
4.8240
4.8290

49
50
50

7000

0.2534

34

1252

15

3.690

81

4.8340

51

78

DIRECT FInE
TABLE.

C

(From Ballistics, Part I, Hamilton)

Values of the coefficient of form, for projectiles
of which are of ogival radius n calibers.
n

the heads

c
1.00
0.82
0.71
0.64
0.58
0.54

2
3
4
5
6
7

TABLE

D

(From Ballistics, Part I, Hamilton)

Values of D..in degrees, for use with the formula,
Deflection for W mile wind
V
Z
0000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
11000
12000
13000
14000
15000
16000
17000

18COO
19000
20000
21000

1600
0

.0055
.0059
.0061
.0061
.0060
.0059
.0057
.0055
.0054
.0053
.0052
.0051
.0051
.00nO
.0050
.0049
.0049
.0049
.0049
.0048
.0048
.0048

1700
0

.0055
.0058
.0060
.0062
.0062
.0061
.0061
.0060
.0059
.0057
.0056
.0055
.0054
.0054
.0053
.0053
.0053
.0052
.0052
.0052
.0051
.0051

1800
0

.0055
.0058
.0061
.0063
.0063
.0064
.0065
.0064
.0062
.0060
.0059
.0058
.0058
.0057
.0057
.0056
.0056
.0055
.0055
.0055
.0054
.0054

=

~z ."D

1900

0

w

2000

2100

.0054
.0057
.0060
.0063
.0065
.0067
.0068
.0068
.0067
.0066
.00f;6
.0065
.0064
.0063
.0062
.0062
.0062
.0061
.0061
.0060
.0060
.0060

.0053
.0056
.0059
.0062
.0065
.0067
.0069
.0070
.0070
.0069
.0069
.0068
.0067
.0067
.0066
.0065
.0065
.0064
.0064
.0063
.0063
.0062

0

.0054
.0057
.0060
.0063
.0065
.0066
.0066
.0065
.0064
.0063
.0062
.0061
.0061
.0061
.0060
.0059
.0059
.0058
.0058
.0057
.0057
.0057

0

DIRECT
TABLE

V

2100

Z

0

0000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
11000
12000
13000
14000
15000
16000
17000
18000
19000
20000
21000

.0053
.0056
.0059
.0062
.0065
.0067
.0069
.0070
.0070
.0069
.0069
.0068
.0067
.0067
.0066
.0065
.0065
.0064
.0064
.. 0063
.0063.
.0062

V

z.
0000'
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
11000
12000
13000
14000
15000
16000
17000
18000
19000
20000
21000

2200

79

FIRE

D-Continued.
2300

2400

2500

2600

0

0

0

0

0

.00.52
.0056
;0059
.0062
.0065
.0068
.0070
.0071
.0071
;0071
.0072
.0070
.0069
.0069
.0068
.0068
.0067
.0067
.0067
.0066
.0066
.0065

.0051
.0055
.0058
.0061
.0064
.0067
.0070
.0072
.0072
.0072
.0072
.0071
.0071
.0071
.0070
.0070
.0069
.0069
.0069
.0069
.0068
.0068

.0050
.0054
.0057
.0060
.0063
.0067
.0070
.0072
.0073
.0074
.0074
.0073
.0073
.0073
.0072
.0072
.0072
.0071
.0071
.0071
.0071
.0071

.0049
.0053
.0056
.0059
.0063
.0067
.0070
.0072
.0074
.0075
.0075
.0075
.0075
.0074
;0074
.0074
.0073
.0073
.0073
.0073
.0073
.0073

.0048
.0052
.0055
.0059
.0063
.0067
.0070
.0072
.0074
.0076
.0076
.0076
.0076
.0076
.0076
.0076
.0075
.0075
.0075
.0075
.0075
.0075

2600

2700

2800

2900

3000

3100

0

0

0

0

.0048
.0052
.0055
.0059
.0063
.0067
.0070
.0072
.0074
.0076
.0076
.0076
.0076
.0076
.0076
.0076
.0075
.0075
.0075
.0075
.0075
.0075

.0048
.. 0051
.0054
.0058
.0062
.0066
.0069
.0072
.0075
.0077
.0077
.0078
.0078
.0078
.0078
.0078
.0077
.0077
.0077
.0077
.0077
.0077

.0047
.0050
.0054 .
.0057
.0060
.0064
.0068
.0072
.0075
.0077
.0078
.0079
.0079
.0079
.0079
.0079
.0079
.0079
.0079
.0079
.0079
-.0079

.0047
.0050
.0053
.0056
.0060
.0063
.0067
.0071
.0074
.0077
.0078
.0079
.0080
.0080
.0081
.0081 .
.0081
.0081
.0081
.0081
.0081
.0081

0

.0046
.0049
.0052
.0055
.0059
.0063
.0066
.0070
.0074
.0077
.0079
.0080
.0081
.. 0081
.0082
.0082
.0082
.0082
.0082
.0083
.0083
.0083

0

.0046
.0048
.0051
.0054
.0058
.0062
.0065
.0069
.0073
.0077
.0079
.0081
.0082
.0082
.0083
.0083
.00~3
.0084
.0084
.0084
.0084
.0084

80

DIRECT FIRE

TABLE D-Continued
V

3100

3200

3300

3400

3500

3600

Z
0000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
11000
12000
13000
14000
15000
16000
17000
. 18000
19000
20000
21000

°
.0046
.0048
.0051
.0054
.0058
.0062
.0065
.0069
.0073
.0077
.. 0079
.0081
.0082
.0082
.0083
.0083
.0084
.0084
.0084
.0084
.0084
.0084

°
.0045
.0047
.0050
•0053
.0057
.0061
.0064
.0068
.0072
.0076
.0079
.0081
.0082
.0083
.0084
.0084
.0085
.0085
.0085
.0086
.0086
.0086

°
.0045
.0047
.0050
.0053 .
.0057
.0060
.0063
.0067
.0071
.0075
.0078
.0081
.0083
.0084
.0085
.0085
.0086
.0086
.0087
.0087
.0087
.0087

°
.0044
.0046
.0049
.0052
..0056
.0059
.0062
.0066
.0070
.0075
.0078
.0081
.0083
.0084
.0085
.0086
.0086
.0087
.0088
.0088
.0089
.0089

0

.0044
.0046
.0048
.0051
.0055
.0058
.0061
.0065
.0069
.0073
.0077
.0080
.0083
.0085
.0086
.0087
.0087
.0088
.0089
.0089
.0090
.0090

°
.0043
.0045
.0047
.0050
.0053
.0056
.0060
.0064
.0068
.0073
.. 0077
.0080
.0083
.0085
.0086
.0088
.0088
.0089
.0090
.0090
.0091
.0091

TABLE E
(From Ballistics, Part I, Hmhilton)

Table of Values of percentage changes in muzzle velocity
of powders tested at 70° F. and fired with a magazine temperature to F.
t

~ V/V


10
20°
30°
40°
50°
60°
70°
80°
90°
100°
0

-.0323
-.0302
-.0275
. -.0241
-.0199
-.0147
-.0082
-.0000
.0101
.0228
.0387

~ V for V =
2000

2250

2500

-65
-60
-55'
-48
-40
-29
-16
0
20
46
77

-73
-67
-62
-54
-45
-33
-18

-81
-75
-69.
-60
-50
-36
-20
0
25
58
96

0
23
52
87

DIRECT

81

FIRE

(Computed from the formula
A~

=

.00867 { 2.032t_ 2.032X 70}

= .00867 { 2.032t_ 4.73 }.)
K

TABLE

(From Ballistics, Part I, Hamilton)

.

R

2

K = [3.3333 - 10] R2 = .2154 (1000)

in which K is the curvature in feet and R the range in yards.
The curvature in feet for ranges at 1000 yards interval are
given in the following table.
Cur:vature inFee~ .

-

Range

Curvature

A

feet

feet .

yds.
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
11000

0.22
0.86
1.94
3.45
5.39
7.75
10.55
13.79
17.45
21.54.
26.06

TABLE

v

Pv

100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500

.018
.044
.077
.118
.166
.221
.283
.353
.430
.515
.607
.706
.813
.927
1.048

0.64
1.08
1.51
1.94
2.36
2.80
3.24
3.66
4.09
4.52
4.96

Range

Curvature

yds.
12000
13000
14000
15000
16000
17000
18000
19000
20000
21000
22000

feet

feet

31.02
36.40
42.22
48.47
55.14
62.25
69.79
77.76
86.16
- 94.99
104.25

5.38
5.82
6.25
6.67
7.11
7.54
7.97
8.40
8.83
9.26

A

P (From Ballistics, Part I, Hamilton)
Table of Values of Pv

.

A

lJ

26
33
41
48
55
62
70
77
85
92
99
107
114
121
129

1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400
2500
2600
2700
2800
2900
3000

Pv
1.177
1.313
1.457
1.585
1.714
1.842
1.971
2.100
2.228
2.357
2.485
2.614
2.742
2.871
3.000

A.

136
144
128
129
128
129
129
128
129
128
129
128
129
129

82

DIRECT

FIRE

FOT oblique
impact, a being the angle of incidence
(measured from the normal to the plate) the following table
of percentages to be subtracted from perforations at normal
. impact for each value of a, is given:
TABLE

Q.

(From Ballistics, Part I, Hamilton)
a

%

a

%

0
5
10
15
20

0
0
1
2
4

25
30
35
40
45

6
8
11
15
19

TABLE

R.

(From Ordnance Pamphlet

~

....
0

Normal

Os:

Muzzle

No. 1872)

Velocities .

'Cl)

0."0

S~

~& 833
980 1056 1148 1220 2000 2100 2150 2200
2250 2400 2600
-10 -27 -917
-32 --- -- -- - -- --38 _.30
34
40
65
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

26
25
23
20
17
13
7
0
9
19
32

29
28
26
23
19
14
8
0
9
21
35

31
29
27
24
20
15
8
0
10
22
37

33
31
29
25
21
16
9
0
11
24
41

37
35
32
29
24
18
10
0
12
26
44

39
37
34
30
25
19
10
0
13
28
47

63
60
55
49
41
30
17
0
21
46
77

67
69
66
67
62
64
58
59
51
53
43
44
32
33
18
18
0
0
22 22
48
50
81
82
1

71
69
66
61
54
46
34
19
0
23
50
84

72

70
67
62
55
46
34
19
0
24
52
87

77
84
75
81
71
77
b'dedoot,d
66
71
from normal
59
64
muzzle velo49
53
city.
36
39
20
22
0
0
26
28 }To.be added to
56
60
normal muz92 100
zle velocity.

fTO

00
90

90
91

o

,81
,74
69

93
95
97

0.01222
0.01310
0.01400

166
.64
'64

98
100
101

0.01492
0.01585
0.01680

:65
168
)73

103
105
107

0.01776
0.01875
0.01976

l80
~89
100

109
111
113

0.02078
0.02182
0.02288

:>13 115
328 117
745 120
865
987
111

122
124
127

238
367
499

129
132
134

633
769
908

136
139
142

050
0194
,341

141
147
150

l491
1644
1800

153
156
158

L958
)119
)283

161
164
167

UIV~V

0:01135

o

02396
0'02505
0:02617

o

02731
0:02847
0.02965

o

03086
0'03209
0:03335
0.03463
o 03593
0:03725

o 03860
0'03998
0:04138
0.04281
o 04427
0:04575

o 04726
0:04880
0.05037

:>450 170
5620 173
~793 176

0.05197
0.05359
0.05524

5969
5148
5330

179
182
185

0.05692
0.05863
0.06037

6515
6703
6894

188
191
194

0.06214
0.06394
0.06577

7088 196
17284 199
17483 202

0.06763
0.06952
0.07144

17685
)7890
)8098

205
208
211

0.07339
0.07536
0.07737

)8309
)8523
)8740

214
217
220

0.07941
0.08147
0.08357

)8960
)9183
09409

223
226
230

0.08569
0.08784
0.09003

09639

234

0.09224

87

U.UI003
0.01084

81
83

0.00958 \ 78
79
0.01036

0.00917\
0.00992

88 0.01167.
84 0.01115
81 0.01068
90 0.01251
86 0.01196
82 0.01145
92 0.01337
87 0.01278
83 0.01223
93 0.01424
89 0.01361
85 0.01302
95 0.01513
91 0.01446
86 0.01383
96 0.01604
92 0.01532
88 0.01466
99 0.01696
94 0.01620
90 0.01550
101 0.01790
96 0.01710
92 0.01636
102 0.01886
97 0.01802
93 0.01724
104 0.01983
99 0.01895
95 0.01813
106
101 0.01990
96 0.01903
108 0.02082
0.02183 103 0.02086
98 0.01995
109 0.02286
100 0.02088
112 0.02390 .104 0.02184
102 0.02183
114 0.02497 107 0.02284
109 0.02386
104 0.02280
116 0.02606
106 0.02379
118 0.02717 111 0.02490
107 0.02480
121 0.02830 113 0.02596
115 0.02703
110 '0.02583
123 0.02945
126 0.03062 117 0.02813
112 0.02688
128 0.03182 120 0.02925
115 0.02795
122 0.03040
116 0.02904
130 0.03304
132 0.03428 124 0.03156
118 0.03015
135 0.03554 126 0.03274
120 0.03128
129 0.03394
123 0.03243
138
0.03683
131 0.03517, 125 0.03360
140
143 0.03814 134 0.03642 128 0.03480
0.03948 136
0.03770
130 0.03602
146
0.04084
139 0.03900 133 0.03726
148
151 0.04223 142 0.04033 135 0.03853'
0.04365 144
0.04168 138 0.03982
154 0.04509
147
157
0.04656 150 0.04306 140 0.04114
160 0.04806
0.04446 143 0.04248
152 0.04589 146 0.04385
162 0.04958
165 0.05113 155 0.04735 148 0.04525
168 0:05271 158 0.04883 151 0.04667
1()0 0.05034
153 0.04811
171 0.05431 164
174 0.05595 167 0.05187 157 0.04958
177 0.05762 169 0.05344 160 0.05107
0.05504 162 0.05259
180 0.05931 173
0.06104
183
176 0.05666 165 0.05414
186 0.06280 178 0.05831
0.05572
0.06000 169
171 0.05733
0.06458
181
'189
184 0.06171
174 0.05897
192 0.06639
0.06823
187 0.06345
195
0.06064
0.06522 177
180 0.06234
0.07010 191
197 0.07201
0.06702 183
0.06407
201 0.07394 193
196 0.06885
0.06583
0.07070 185
204
189 0.06762
199 0.07259
0.07590
206 0.07789 202
191
210 0.07991 205 0.07450 195 0.06944
0.07645
212
197 0.07129
0.07317
0.08196 208 0.07842
215 0.08404 211 0.08043 201 0.07508
219 0.08615 214 0.08246 203 0.07701
206 0.07896
221
0.08829 217 0.08452 209
221--!:::=="'
0.08094

.

~

,'"

75
76

U.UU~'~

0.00951

72

77
78
79

0.01023
0.01097
0.01172

74
75
76

81
83
84

0.01248
0.01325
0.01404

77
79
80

86
88
89

0.01484
0.01566
0.01650

82
84
85

90
92
93

0.01'735
0.01821
0.01909

86
88
90

95
97
99

0.01999
0.02090
0.02183

91
93
95

101
103
105

0.02278
0.02374
0.02472

96
98
101

107
109
111

0.02573
0.02675
0.02779

102
104
106

113
115
117

0.02885
0 ..
02993
0.03103

108
110
112

120
122
124

0.03215
0.03329
0.03445

114
116
11 8

127
129
132

0.03563
0.03684
0.03808

121
124
12 6

134
137
140

0.03934
0.04062
0:04193

12 8
13 1
13 3

142
144
147

0.04326
0.04462
0.04600

13E
13~
14(

149
152
155

0.04740
0.04884
0.05030

14L
14(
14~

158
161
164

0.05179
0.05331
0.05485

15:
15'
15:

167
170
173

0.05643
0.05803
0.05966

161
16:
161

176
179
182

0.06132
0.06300
0.06472

16
17
17

185
188
191

0.06646
0.06824
0.07004

17
18
18

193
195
198

0.07187
0.07373
0.07562

18
18
HJ

201

0.07754

H

F

Ballistics.

To face page 82.

(2-1)

-H

JUMP AS FUNCTION
From

JOURNAL

OF ELEVATION

U. S.

OF GUN FOR DISAPE:AflING CARRIAGES

ARTILLERY,

Volumn

36, oppOSI'te Page 186.

880

High Angle Fire
(Reprint

from JOURNAL U. S. ARTILLERYfor
September-October,
1913.)

By LIEUT.-COLONEL ALSTON

HAMILTON,

COAST ARTILLERY CORPS

Recent firings by the Coast Artillery Board and by the
Ordnance Department
have thrown additional light on the
flight of mortar projectiles; and as.new range-tables have been
prepared upon the basis of the results of these firings, it follows
that the formulas and methods employed will be of interest to
officers of Coast Artillery.
The notes here given will be limited to the presentation of
formulas and methods and to the application of these to ordinary ballistic computations.
I. FUNDAMENTAL.QUANTITIES
1. It is usual in mortar fire to assume various muzzle
velocities, each of which when taken with elevations ranging
from 45° to about 65° will determine a zone covered by the
fire of the mortar.
A number of these: zones, overlapping
each other somewhat, will cover a total field of fire limited by
conditions as to mortar and carriage.
The basis, then, of a
mortar range-table will be:
The muzzle velocity.
The angle of departure.
The projectile.
The muzzle velocity is represented by V, the angle of
departure by cp and the projectile by its ballistic coefficient, C,
analytically defined as follows: .

a

1

.W

C=T'i(J2
in which,
~
is the ratio

of the standard

density

to the. actual

density of the atmosphere.
Its values are given in Table I,.
with barometer and thermometer readings as arguments.
(83)

84

HIGH

ANGLE

FIRE

w is the weight of the projectile in pounds.
d is the caliber of the projectile in inches.

i is the index of the projectile and refers to its form.
For the ordinary or Johnson cap, its value is unity fOf the
purposes of this article, where the head has a two caliber
radius of ogive; for the long pointed projectile, having an
ogival head struck with a radius of 7 calibers, and no cap, the
value of i is for mortar fire 0.75.
The first value of i (that for the cap) was assumed at the
outset and the second was deduced from actual firings on
the basis of laws established with the capped projectile.
2. With the ordinarily assumed law of resistance for the
velocities usual in mortar fire, the retardation is represented
by,
r=F~)

=

.00004676~

= [5.6699 -10]

V2

C

This refers to a two-caliber radius of ogive, without cap.
The actual firings with the capped projectile gave,
r

F(Y)
=----c-

V2

=KC

in which
I

K =.00005 { 1-4

100( V -800)

. 1002+ (V -800)2

1100
= [5.6990 -10] { 1 -4

. 1002+

}

(V - 800) }
(V _ 800)2

The values of log K, are given in Table II, page 98, for
the zone velocities.
Its computation for any velocity presents
no difficulty.
3. At the point of fall the relation between the range X
(feet) and the fundamental quantities was found to be,
V2 sin 2 cp 1 + 4
F ( V)
gX
=
3. gc

.

, .
1\

SIn cp

in which
g is the accelleration due to gravity (= 32.16 f.s. per sec.)
and
, .
1\

2.4

sIn~

Values of log A sin

=

cp =

(1 +sin 2 cp)i
log E are given in Table III.

HIGH

4.

Representing

ANGLE

FIRE

85

by M the ratio,
gX
V2 sin 2SO

and by N the ratio,
gT
2 V sin SO
-in which T is the time of flight, in seconds, to the point of
fall, for which the range is X,-we have ~rom the firings,
M=l

1
+B

In which,.

B = i . F:%) . A sin ~, for all projectiles
and

N ==M( 1 + i~3~t),for

1046-lb.

N = 16.884 ( Si~t ) t for 824- and 700-lb.
5. The expressions for the remaining range-table
ments as deduced from the firings are given below:
R

ele-

MV2 sin 2SO MV2 sin 2SO
=
3g
96.48

ange (d)
yar s = R

'. of FlIght (secon~s) = T = 2 N Vg..sin SO= N 16.08
V sin SO
TIme
Drift

,
d3
(degrees) =2(1-K)-.

SOO
sec SO

wn

D (Tables
tan SO

=p

tanw=~
Velocity of Fall =

VW

IV and V.)

=M~ V cos SOsec w

Thickness of Deck} =e=[5.4175-10j
Steel perforated

IWV

3
W

~. d

{1_

(90-W)2}
100

In these formulas M, N, w, d are as already defined.
K is a drift constant having a value (for projectiles with
Johnson caps) t, and a value 0.837 for projectiles with 7-caliber
radius of ogive.
n is a drift constant,
defining the twist of rifling, and
as the mortar, model 1890 (and subsequent models), has a
twist of one turn in 20 calibers, n = 20 for these.
For the C.L
mortar, model 1886, and for the steel mortar, 1886-90, n = 25.

86

.

HIGH

ANGLE

FIRE

e is the thickness of deck steel perforated, and is in inches.
and ware the velocity of fall and the angle of fall, respectively. 'In the value of e the factor,
Vw

1_(9~~ow)2 .
takes cognizance of oblique impact on the horizontal deck, due.
to the angle of fall. Thus its value for a 60° angle of fall is,
1- (9~~60)

2

= 1-.09

=0.91

The drift is given in degrees: .The values of D.= cp sec
are tabulated
and shown in Table IV, and those of p
.
d3
2 (1 - K) - are shown in Table V.

cp
=

wn

In Table II we shall give,
log F~~) =log K
log F(V) =log KV2
.

log

4

F(V)

3. -g- =log H

and in Table I
log A sin

cp

= log E

so that
B=HE
C
1

M=l+B
II.

CORRECTIONS

FOR ABNORMAL

CONDITIONS

The range-tables
as calculated above apply when normal
conditions exist; that. is, .when the muzzle velocities and air
density are those presumed in the range-table, and when there
is no motion of the atmosphere.
As these conditions are ideal, it is necessary to provide
means of adapting the elevations to actual conditions.
Formulas for this purpose are readily found as follows:

+

1 _ V2 sin 2SO 1 4
M gX
. 3'
=1

4

F ( V)

..gc
V2K

1
.1\

sIn SO
.

+3" C" g "A SIn SO

HIGH

ANGLE

87

FIRE

Simple differentiation gives,
.~ (2dV + d sin 2cp _ dX)
M
V
sin 2cp
X
=
2 d V _ d C + dK + dA s.in cp}
M
V
C
K
A SIn cp.
Now

(-l_ 1) {
.

2.4

. A SIn cp = (l + sin 2 cp) ~

and hence
d A sin
A sin

5

cp
cp

= -

d sin 2 cp

3 . 1 + sin 2 cp

So that
dX -2MdV
_(l_M)dK
X V

K

.+ (l_M)dC
C

+. { 1 +~(1

.

sin.2cp } d .sin 2cp .
3
1 + SIn 2 cp
sm 2 cp
This formula affords the .means of making slight changes,
but it is better to ascertain the effects by recalculating, using a
modified V or C to accord with the facts.
Specifically, the abnormalities which, in practice, cause
corrections to be necessary are:
1.
2.
3.

_ M)

Change in ballistic. condition of powder due to
storage.
Change in atmospheric density.
Motion of the atmosphere.
1.

POWDER

CHANGES

These are rather complex; but the matter is. finally
summarized by saying that a change in powder condition
producing a 1 per cent range effect, either with the 1046-lb.
pr.ojectile at 1050 f.s., or with the 824-lb. projectile at 1300
f.s., will produce changes in other zones as shown in Table A
on page 88.
It is to be noted that the percentage range correction
having been determined for one zone, that for each of the
others may be found by proportion.
This applies to the first
7 zones and the zone with the 824-lb. projectile and muzzle
velocity 1300 f.s., when the same powder is employed throughout. As a different (coarser) powder. is employed with the
700-lb. projectile, the zones using this projectile are not so
related to the others.

:/

88

HIGIi

ANGLE

FIRE

Table A

1
2
3

%

550
600

1.93
1.84 .
1.80
1.80
1.70
1.40
1.00
1.00

660

4
.5

6
7
8

.

I
2.

.725
810
915
1050
1300

ATMOSPHERE

dR
de
Ii
= (l-M)c=(l-M)
3.

!lR/R

v

Zone

MOTION

(aT-1
l)

.

OF THE ATMOSPHERE

. Due to the great altitudes reached by mortar projectiles
in their flight, the mean direction and rate of motion of the
atmosphere as a whole can only be inferred from the fall of the
shots.
At the same time, it has been practicable to demonstrate by analytical methods that the deflection produced by
a 10-mile-per-hour
lateral movement of the atmosphere will,
in the case of each of the three mortar projectiles, produce a
lateral motion on the part of the projectile, equivalent in effect
to 8.7 per cent of the drift for that projectile.
This is important in that it permits the cross wind-component
to be readily
inferred, and corrected by making a percentage correction in the
drift.
In regard to the effect, on the range,
atmosphere in the plane of fire, exhaustive
subject shows
a.
b.

of motion
discussion

of the
of the
.

That the range effect of wind is sensibly constant in
any zone, between 45° and 650.
That in the case of the 12-inch mortar this effect in
yards is given by,
JR=5Wx{

106~r

in which Wx is the velocity in miles per hour of the atmosphere in the direction of fire.
Hence, for a 10-mile
component,

HIGH

ANGLE

89

FIRE

JR =50{ 1060}
for all three projectiles.
III.

ILLUSTRATIVE

EXERCISES

Ex. 1. Calculate the ranges for 45° and 65° for the 1046lb. projectile, service, capped, for its range-table muzzle
velocities.
1046
Here C = 144 =7.2639
log C = 0.8612
From Table II (page 98) obtain log H, and .from Table
III (page 99) log E.
.
Then,

For 45°
V

og H
a.c.~g

600

660

725

810

915

1050

9.83329.9143 0.00420.08650.122.70.18200.3198
9.1388 9.1388 9.138819.1388 9.1388 9.1388 9.1388
1

C

loge

1
8.97209.0531,9.1430,9.22539.26159.32089.4586

log E"
log B45
B45

1+B45
a.c.log(l
2lo~ V

+B45)

2SO

SIll

log-3Jog R45

550

9.8785 9.878519.8785/9.878519.8785 9.8785 9.8785
8.85058.93169.02159.10389.14009.19939.3371
.0709 .08541.10511.1270
.1380 .1582 .2173
1.07091.08541.1051
1.12701.13801.15821.2173
9.97039.96449.95669.94819.94399.93629.9146
5.48075.5563/5.6391
5.72075.81705.9228/6.0424
1

1

8.01568.01568.01568.01568.01568.0156'8.0156
g

R45

---1---------

/3.46663.536313.611313.684413.7.7653.87463.9726
2928 3438 4086 4835 5977 7492 9389

For 65°

log-

H

C
log E65
log B65
B65
1+B65
a.cJog(l +B65)
2 log V

j

8.97J9.0531
9.9685
8.9405
.0872
1.0872
9.9637
5.4807

9.1430 9.2253 9.2615 9.3208 9.4526

9.9685/9.9685
9.02169.1115
.1051 .1293
1.1051 1.1293
9.95669.9472
5.55635.6391

9.9685 9.9685 9.9685 9.9685
9.1938 9.2300 1.2893 9.4271
.1562 .1698 .1947 .2674
1.15621.16981.19471.2674
9.93709.93199.92279.8971
5.7207/5.8170,5.922816.0424
1

90

HIGH

V

550

----

-

sin 2~
I og--

-- --

FIRE

660

725

810

915

1050

-- -- -- ----

7.89987.89987.89987.89987.89987.89987.8998

3g

log

600

ANGLE

1--

R65

--------

3.34423.41273.4861 3.55753.64873.74533.8393
2209 2586 3063 3610 4453, 5563 6907

R65

Ex. 2. The thermometer reads 79°, and the barometer
29.40 inches; what effect will this have on the ranges?
Table I gives
~=1.050
(J
Now,

dJ:

and, in this case,

dCC =

= (l - ~Jl;I)~

~l

-1 =.050

The values of M are the reciprocals of 1 +B, and a.c. log
(1 + B) is log M. Consequently we have,

v

5501
45

M

.9339
.0661
.9198
.0802,

(l-M)45

M65
(1 -M)65

Hence the percentage
At 45 °
At 65
0

600
.9213
.0787
.9049/
.0951

6601 725
.9049
.0951
.8855
.1145

.8874
.1126
.8650
.1350

810 915 1050
.8788 .8634 .8215
.1212
.1366 .1785
.8549 .8370 .7890
.1151
.1630 .2110

range changes are,

/.003311.003941.004761.005631.006061.006831.00893
.00401.00476.00573.00675.00726.09815.01055

And the actual range changes ate,

. Ex. 3. Calculate the values of log H, and of log C for the
following zones for the 12 inch mortar, model 1890.
(a) V = 1300
projectile 824-lb., Johnson cap
(b) V = 1250}
(c) V = 1500
projectile

700-lb., long pointed,

7 cal. rad. ogive

HIGH

ANGLE

.(a)
V-800
(V -800)2
1002
100 (V -800)
1002
(V -800)2

+

ratio

-

26
5
104
99
104
9.9786
6.2279
5.6990
8.6176

~ ratio
1 -

500
250000
10000
50000
260000
5

~ ratio

log
log V2
a .c. log 20000
logUg
log H
log w
a.c. log d2
a.c. log i
log C

0.5231
2.9159
7.8416
0.0000
0.7575

(b)

450
202500
10000
45000
212500
18
. 85
9
170
161
170
9.9764
6.1938
5.6990
8.6176
0.4868
2.8451
7.8416
0.1249
0.8116

Ex. 4. Given,
V = 1500
cp = 56°
R = 13875 yards
700 lb. long pointed projectile
Calculate,
a. Time of flight.
b. Drift.
c. Angle of fall.
d. Maximum ordinate.
e. Velocity of fall.
f. Thickness of deck armor perforated.
Here,
a.

N

=

16.884

(Si~t) t

T=2NVsin~
g

1.05 VO.6 (sin~)1.2
.0212
= 1.9057
= 9.9023
=

log 1.05
0.6 log V
1.2 log sin cp

91

FIRE

(c)

700
490000
10000
70000
500000
7
50
7
200
193
200
9.9845
6.3522
5.6990
8.6176
-

0.6533
2.8451
7.8416
0.1249
0.8116

92

HIGH

log T
T

ANGLE

FIRE

1.8292
67.48 sec.

b.
(1)

(2)

2 ,(1 - K) = 2 X .163 = .326
log .326
= 9.5132-10
log d3
= 3.2375
a.c. log w
= 7.1549 -10
a.c. log n
= 8.6990 -10
log rp see rp = ~
log Drift
Drift

log p
=
=
log D
log Drift =
Drift =

8.6046 -10 Table Y
2.0006
Table IV
0.6052
4°.029

= 0.6052
4°.029

=

C.

tan w
1
y2 sin 2rp
tan rp = M =
3gR

Hence
(1)
2
tanw=---_

sin2

y2

(2)
rp

96.48 R

2 log
2 log
a.c. log
a.c. log

V
sin rp
R
48.24

log tan

w

y2

48.24 R
= 6.3522
= 9.8372
= 5.8578
= 8.3166

=
=

w

sin2

0.3638
66°36'

rp

tanw=

-u
tan

log 3g
log R
a.C. 2 log V
a.C. log sin 2rp
logM
a.C. log M
log tan
log tan

rp

w

w
d.

Yo

from (a) 2 log T
log 4.02

e.

=
=

tg

T2
4.02 T2
= 3.6584
= .6042

log Yo= 4.2626
Yo = 18306 feet

v'" = M3/2 Y cos
3/2 log M = 9.7108-10
log Y = 3.1761
logcos rp = 9.7476
a.C. log cos w = 0.4010
log v'"
1'",

=

3.0355

= 1085 f.s.

rp

rp

see w

=
=

1.9844

=

9.8072
0.1928
0.1710
0.3638
66°36'

4.1422
= 3.6478
= 0.0328

f.

=
=
=
=

HIGH

e =[5.4175-10l

f.

ANGLE

,

WVw3

93

FIRE

f

"-d-l1-

(9~~OlJJ)

}

{jJ = 66.6
90 -lJJ = 23.4

=

90 -lJJ).2
100

(

1 _ (90 -lJJ )
100
log W
3 log Vw
a.c. log d

2

.055

=

.945

=2.8451
= 9.1065
= 8.9208 -10

con~t log = 5.4175-10
log .945 = 9.9754
log e = 0.8291
e = 6.747 inches

2)10.8724
5.4362.

Ex. 5. Firing of trial shots in zone 5 (1046-lb., 810 f.s.)
with barometer 29.4 and thermometer
79°, showed a range
6100 yards at 45°. Atmosphere still and clouds motionless.
(a) What part of this was due to powder?
(b) What percentage correction should be made for powder in each zone?
(a) Ex. 2 shows that 36 yards of this was due to air density; so that the range, all conditions normal except powder,
was 6100 - 36 = 6064.
Ex. 1 shows that the range-table range is 5977 yards.
Hence the shot ranged too far by
6064 - 5977 = 87 yards = 1.45 %

Table A (page 88) shows 1.70 per cent as corresponding
for this zone to one per cent in the 7th and 8th zones. Hence
the percentage figures should be multiplied by
1.45 29
1.70 = 34

giving:
Zone

I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

I

Effect

Correction

--1.65 %
1.56 %
1.53 %
1.53 %
1.45 %
1.19 %
0.85 %
0.85 %

-1.65
-1.56
-1.53
-1.53
-1.45
-1.19
-0.85
-0.85

%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%

94

HIGH

ANGLE

FIRE

Ex. 6. Shots were fired in the 6th zone (1046-lb. projectile, V = 915 f.s.) at an elevation 590.
Four shots were fired at azimuth 230° and four at azimuth
290°.
The mean ranges and deflections observed were:
At az. 230°
Range 6628 yards
Deflectio:p. 4°.70

At az. 2900
6670 yards
30.58

The barometer stood "at 28.50 and the thermometer
The range table shows for this zone and elevation,
Range-6532
yards
Drift3°.79

at 700.

(a) Find mean direction and rate of motion of the atmosphere.
(b) Find the percentage
in this and other zones.

range correction

due to powder

Let A be the azimuth of the direction towards which the
atmosphere is moving.
Then A -180° will be the azimuth
from which it comes, or its "azimuth."
Then if Wbe the rate of motion of the atmosphere in miles
per hour, and JR be the effect in yards on the range of the
change in condition of the powder, we shall have,
v

Az. 230°
Deflecting componen t of W, W sin (A - 230°)
Range component of W,
W cos (A - 230°)
or, representing A -290° by ex,

Az. 2900
W sin (A _ 2900)
W cos (A _ 2900)

Deflecting componentw
sin (a+600) W sin ex
Range component
W cos (a+600)W cos a
To reduce these components to effects in yards, it is
necessary to note that:
The deflection due to a 10-mile wind is 8.7% of the drift.
The range effect due to a 10-mile wind is given by
JR

= 50 (

1060 )

2

= 50 (1~~~)2
=. 42 yards in this case
The deflection for 10-miles per hour is,
.087 X3.79
0°.33

HIGH

ANGLE

FIRE

95

The actual deflections not due to drift are:
Az. 230°
Az. 290°
4°.70 -3.79 =0.91
3°.58 -3.79 = -0°.21
The actual ,range effects due to all causes were:
Az. 230°
Az. 290°
6628 -6532 =96 yards
6670 -6532 = 138 yards
The deflection components should produce effects:
W sin aX.033
W sin (a+60) X.033
=0°.91
= -0°.21
That is,
W (sin

'P

cos 60° +cos a sin 60°) =

g:~i~

=

-0.210
.0.033

W sin a
Now,
cos 60° =
Consequen tly,

72 and sin 60°

~ { si~ a + Y T cO;

a} = 25.78 .
= -6.36

W sin a
. .
B Y d.IVlslOn,

lL

72

+

lL,/-3

72

v

lL,/-3
72v

t

CO

t

co

a=

-25.78.
.6.36

_ -(25.78+3.18)
6.36.

a-

-"28.96
= 6.36
.
- 6.36
tan a= 28.96

So that,
log-6.36
a.C. log 28.96
logl/3
a.c. log 2
log tan a

72y3

v/3

-2-

= 0.8035n

=

B.5382-10

= 0.2386

= 9.6990-10
== 9.2793n -10
a= ...:..
10°46'

The effect of
~d~ = 1.063
on the range is given by Ex. 2 for thjs zone ~s follows:
For 5% JR = 48.5.
.
lor6.3 JR = 61 yards
llence the real range effects of powder and motion of the
atmosphere are,

96-61 =35. yards, and13S-::-61-

77 yards~

96

HIGH

ANGLE

FIRE

These effects, in view of the fact that 1 mi. per hr. produces a range effect 4.2 yards, may be used as follows:
JRv + 4.2 W cos (a + 60°) = 35
JRv
4.2 Wcos a
= 77

+

or

By subtraction,
4.2 W {cos (a + 60°) -cos

a}

W{cos (a+600) -('os a}
Now, a
a + 60°

=
=

-'-42 yards
-10

.

-10046'.
49° 14'

cos (a + 60°)
cos a
cos (a+600) - cos a
Hence,

=
=

0.6529
0.9824
-0.3295

-10
W= -0.3295
= 30.4 mi. per hour.
JRv = 77 - 4.2 Wcos a
= 77 - 4.2 X 30.4 X 0.9824
= 77 - 125
= - 53 yards
Hence the percentage change due to powder is,

-53
6532
Hence, (a) Azimuth
A-180°

W

= -0.81 %
=
= 290°+ a-180°
= 30 mi. hr.

= 990

(b) Percentage change in range in this zone -0.81 %.
Percentage change in other zones, from Table A:
Zone
I
II
III
IV
.V
VI
VII
VIII

Effect
1.93 X;'" 1~~

=

1.84 X
1.80 X
1.80 X
1.70'X
1.40 X
1.00 X
1.00 X

= - .04;
= -1.04;
= ;"'0.98;
= -0.81;
= -0.58;

-1.12~

= -1.07;

= -0.58;

Correction
+1.12%
+1.07%
+1.04%
+1.04%
+0.98%
+0.81%
+0.58%
+0.58%

(REMARK: Had no allowance been made for wind it would
have been presumed that the average effect due to powder was,

HIG~

ANGLE

35+77
-2-.-

=

97

FIRE

+56 yards

and a percentage

correction in the various zones in exactly the
and almost equal in amount would have
been made, and in firing on a different day a large error would
have been made in powder correction with no assurance of .a
compensating wind. Even on the same day, large errors would
have been made in other zones; and some error even in this
zone.)

opposite direction,

TABLE
Values of

Ther.
F.

I

aI/a

for temperature and pressure of atmosphere 78% saturated
with moisture.
(From Artillery Note No. 25.).

28"

Barometer
29"
30"

31"

0

20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

I

Ther.
F.

28"

Barometer
29"
30"

31"

0

0.890
0.8~2
0.894
0.896
0.898
0.901
0.903
0.905
0.907
0.910
0.912
0.914
0.916
0.918
0.920
0.922
0.924
0.926
0.928
0.930
0.932
0.934
0.936
0.938
0.940
0.942
0.944
0.946
0.948

0.861
0.863
0.864
0.866
0.868
0.870
0.872
0.874
0.876
0.878
0.880
0.881
0.883
0.885
0.887
0.889
0.891
0.893
0.895
0.897
0.899
0.901
0.903
0.905
0.907
0.909
0.911
0.913
0.915

0.831
0.833
0.835
0.837
0.839
0.841
0.843
0.845
0.847
0.848
0.850
0.852
0.854
0.856
0.858
0.860
0.862
0.864
0.866
0.868
0.870
0.871
0.873
0.876
0.878
0.880
0.881
0.883
0.885

0.806
0.808
0.809
0.811
0.813
0.815
0.816
0.818
0.820
0.822
0.824
0.826
0.827
0.829
0.831
0.833
0.835
0.836
0.838
0.840
0.842
0.844
0.845
0.847
0.849
0.851
0.853
0.855
0.856

9
0.950
10
0.952
11
0.954
12
0.956
13
0.958
14
0.960
15
0.962
16
0.964
17
0.966
18
0.968
19
0.971
20
0.973
21
0.975
22
0.977
23
0.979
24
0.981
25
0.983
26
0.985
27
0.987
0.990
28
0.992
29
30
0.994
31
0.996
32
0.998
33
1.000
34
1.003
35
36
1.007
37
1.009

11.005

0.887
. 0.919
0.921
0.923
0.925
0.927
0.929
0.931
0.933
0.935
0.937
0.939
0.941
0.943
0.945
0.947
0.949
0.951
0.953
0.955
0.958
0.960
0.962
0.964
0.966
0.968
0.970
0.972
0.974

0.887
0.889
0.890
0.892
0.894
0.897
0.899
0.901
0.903
0.905
0.907
0.909
0.911
0.912
0.914
0.916
0.918
0.920
0~922
0.924
0.926
0.928
0.930
0.932
0.934
0.936
0.938
0.940
0.943

0.858
0.860
0.862
0.864
0.866
0.867
0.869
0.871
0.873
0.875
0.877
0.879
0.881
0.883
0.885
0.887
0.888
0.890
0.892
0.894
0.896
0.898
0.899
0.902
0.903
0.906
0.907.
0.909
0.911

98

HIGH

Ther.

F.

28"

Barometer
29"
30"

ANGLE ,FIRE

Ther.
31"

F.

28"

Barometer
29"
30"

31"

0
0

38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69

. 1.011 0.976
1.013 0.978
1.015 0.980
1.017 0.982
1.019 0.984
1.021 0.987
1.023 0.989
1.026 0.991
1.028 0.993
1.030 0.995
1.033 0.997
1.035 0.999
1.037 1.002
1.040 1.004
1.042 1.006
1.044 1.008
1.046 1.010
1.048 1.012
1.050 1.014
1.0.53 1.016
1.055 1.018
1.057 1.020
'1.059 1.022
1.062 1.025
1.064 1.027
1.066 1.029
1.068 1.031
1.071 1.033
1.073 1.035 .
1.075 1.037
1.078 1.040
1.080 1.042

0.945 0.913
0.947 0.915
0.949 0.917
0.951 0.919
0.953 0.921
0.955 0.923
0.957 0.925
0.959 0.927
0.961 0.929
0.963 0.931
0.964 0.933
0.966 0.935
0.968 0.937
0.970 0.939
0.972 0.941
0.974 0.943
0.976 0.945
0.978 0.947
0.980 0.949
0.982 0.951
0.984 0.952
0.986 0.954
0.988 0.956
0.990 0.958
0.992 0.960
0.994 0.962
0.996 0.964
0.998 0.966
1.001 0.968
1.003 0.970
1.005 0.973
1.007 0.975
TABLE

V
550
600
660
725
810
915
1050
1250
1300
1500

log K
5.7349-10
5.7404-'10
5.7475-10
5.7482-10
5.6881-10
5.6416 -10
5.6598-10
5.6754-10
5.6776-10
5.6835-10

70
1.082
71
1.085
72
1.087
73
1.089
74
1.092
75
1.094
76
1.096
77
1.099
78
1.101
79
1.104
80
1.106
81
1.109
82
1.111
83
1.114
84
1.116
85
1.119
86
1.121
87
1.124
88
1.126
89
1.129
90
1.131
91
1.134
92
1.136
93
1.139
94
1.142
95
1.144
96
1.147
97
1.149
98
1,152
99
1.155
100
1.157

--

---

1.044
1.046
1.048
1.050
1.053
1.055
1.057
1.059
1.062
1.064
1.066
1.068
1.071
1.074
1.076
1.079
1.081
1.083
1.086
1.089
1.092
1.094
1.096
1.099
1.102
1.105
1.107
~.11O
1.112
1.115
1.117

1.009
1.011
1.013
1.015
1.017
1.019
1.022
1.025
1.027
1.029
1.031
1.033
1.035
1.038
1.041
1.043
1.045
1.047
1.049
1.053
1.055
1.057
1.059
1.062
1.064
1.066
1.068
1.071
1.074
1.076
1.079

0.977
0.979
0.981
0.983
0.985
0.987
0.989
0.992
0.994
0.996
0.998
1.000
1.002
1.005
1.007
1.009
1.011
1.013
1.016
1.018
1.020
1.022
1.025
1.027
1.029
1.031
1.033
1.035
1.037
1.040
1.042

---

---

---

II
log F (V)
1.2156
1.2967
1.3866
1.4689
1.5051
1.5644
1.7022
1.8692
1.9055
2.0357

log H
9.8332 -10
9.9143 -10
0.0042
0.0865
0.1227
0.1820
0.3198
0.4868
0.5231
0.6533

I

99

HIGH ANGLE FIRE

---

TABLE III

---

Values of log E = log~ (A sin rp).

I{J

45

46

47

48

49
50
51

52
53

54
55

56

~

logE
9.8785 -10
9.8787
9.8794
9.8805
9.8820
9.8840
9.8865
9.8894
9.8927
9.8964
9.9006
9.9053
9.9105

Ll

I{J

2
7
11
15
20
25
29
33
37
42
47
52
56

58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70

logE

Ll

9.9161 -10
9.9222
9.9287
9.9357
9.9432
9.9512
9.9596
9.9685
9.9779
9.9878
9.9982
0.0092
0.020~

61
65 '
70
75
80
84
89
94
99
104
110
116
- --

TABLE IV

---I{J

45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
7

Values of log (I{J sec
= log D
log

rp

sec

I

I{J

i

I

1.8037
1.8210
1.8383
1.8558
1.8733
1.8909
1.9087
1.9267
1.9448
1.9632
1.9818
2.0006
2.0198

I{J)

log

q;

58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70

I
I

I
I

I

I

I
i

I

II
I

I

I{J

sec

I{J

2.0392
2.0590
2.0792
2.1000
2.1209
2.1423
2.1644
2.1870
2.2102
2.2342
2.2589
2.2846
2.3110

TABLE V
. Values of log p
Projectiles

_____

~

n

1046-1b., capped !_82_4__1_b_.,_c_a_pp_e_d_ _7_0_0-_lb_._,
_lO_ll_g_P_Ol_'
ll_te_d
I

1890
~

20

8.5191-10
8.4222-10

8.6257-10
8.5288-10
d3

p=2(l-K)-

wn
Drift

=

pD

8.6046-10
8.5077-10

Greel{ Letters
A
B

a

Alpha
Beta
Gamma
~ Delta
e Epsilon
C Zeta
T) Eta
{}
Theta
t
Iota
Kappa
A Lamda
p. Mu
1)
Nu
~ Xi
0
Omicron

fl

r r

J
E

Z
H
f)

I

K
A
M
N
""'"

t:f,

0
II
p
X

T

r

rP
X
1Jf

!J

"

7T:

p
a
r

u
cp

I
cjJ

w

Pt

Rho
Sigma
Tau
Upsilon
Phi
Chi
Psi
Omega

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