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THEFOLLOWINGNOTESHAVEB'EEN'RECEIVED
FROM AN
:OFFICER W"ITHmE AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE; .
IN FRANCE, AND ARE OFFERED AS SUGGESTIONS FOR
EQUIPMENT BEFORE GOING ABROAD.
Study French as much as possible.
Settle all business before you leave as it is a long time b~tween mails here. It is hard to get to Paris or London, even If
there is nothing to do.
, ..
....
Make arrangements for a checking account with some bank;
The Guaranty Trust Company or Farmers' Loan and Trust Company, New. York. City, suggested.
Get Western Union Code .. Register code addre~s with the
Western Union Company and the Naval Censor.
Payma~ters at home demand. date of sailing before they
pay foreign service increase on home vouchers. This is impossible
to give until months later, so keep that pittance here for pocket
money.
At present, One Dollar equals f5.70 or 4 Shillings, 2 Pence.
will
Bring American money for 2 months' supply.
Have supply of American stamps.
Wardrobe trunks and wardrope steamer trunks
for Artillery Staff Officers are very handy.
get by, and
Mark all equipment, all over.
Officers carry two foot lockers, one bedding roll and a small
hand bagthe
first always comes into camp late and the toilet
~rticles, etc., are convenient and can be carried by buglers.
Keep your gold medal cot in your own bedding roll.
Caps are good on transports, but are not worn in France.
Supply yourself with the following articles:
Flintwheel and
tinder cigar lighter; knee laced water proof boots; canned solidified
alcohol; American tobacco for two months; gasolenevapor lantern
(Montgomery & Ward); a good fountain pen; s~me chocolate; concentrated soup tablets, or small cans of soup for an emergency;
fleece lined gray leather gloves are good.
Sam Brown belts are handled by U. S. Ordnance Department,
Paris, at $6.00 to $7.00.
Trench coats in England and France cost $35.00 for the best.
Whip cord breeches with doe skin knees cost $6.00 a pair in
. England or France, and are almost weatherproof.
Have all men fully .equippedbefore you leave.
Have extra' hats for those blown overboard 'and also extra
mess outfits.
Box up ph;;tols until you reach finai destination.
Make the men allot and deposit money.
Everyone is paid in French money at f5.70 for one Dollar.
Have stationery and blank forms of all kinds.
Take plenti ful supply of shoe and leggin laces;
Have each man load up with handkerchiefs, tobacco, face and
laundry soap, and one novel each. If he hasn't money, use Company fund.
Have sweaters,
mits, woolen helmets,
etc.,
for officers and
men.
The Americans in France have same rations as at horne.
Keep two to five days' canned rations with organization at all
times, even if"carried in spare barrack bags.
Bring supply of coffeethere
is plenty of tea in England but
'
they do not like coffee as we do.
.
Have about 20 wash basins for men to wash face and hands.
Men must bathe in: creek.
Have collapsible table and camp stools for office.
NOTES ON BALLISTICS
DIRECT FIRE
By Captain
George A. Wildrick,
C. A. C.
HIGH ANGLE FIRE
By Lieut.Colonel
Alston Hamilton,
C.A. C.
Corrected reprints from the Journal of the United States Artillery
JanuaryFebruary,
1915, and SeptemberOctober, 1913
Price, $0.50 postpaid
Third Edition
Journal
U. S. Artillery
Fort Monroe,
1917
Virginia
for
COPYRIGHT
BY
JOURNAL U. S. ARTILLERY
Direct Fire
(Reprint
from JOURNALU. S. ARTILLERYfor
JanuaryFebruary,
1915.)
By 1ST LIEUTENANT GEORGE
A. 'WILDRICK,
COAST ARTILLERY CORPS
For two or three years past there has seemed to be a
need for an article on direct fire, both because of new methods
of application of ballistic data and because of works hitherto
in use being out of print.
This article treats only of the problems most likely to be encountered at the battery:
for a
thorough study of the subject, there are suggested the following standard works, from which the present writer has freely
borrowed:
Artillery Circulars N, Exterior Ballistics, and M, Ballistic
Tables, by Co!. James M. Ingalls, U. S. A., retired.
Ballistics~
Part I, by Major Alston Hamilton, Coast
Artillery Corps.
Notes on. Ballistics, by Major Alston Hamilton,. Coast
Artillery Corps, JOURNAL OF THE U. S. ARTILLERY, Nov.Dec., 1909.
Manual for Coast Artillery, Part I, Gunnery, D. R. C. A.,
1905.
For high angle fire, see Notes on Ballistics, by Major
Alston Hamilton, C. A. C., published in the JOURNALOF THE
U. S. ARTILLERY,Sept.Oct., 1913.
The writer desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to
Major J. M. Williams, C. A. C., Major George A. Nugent,
C. A. C., and Capt. A. L. Rhoades, C. A. C., for encouragement and advice.
(1)
DIRECT
2
FIRE
The following notations
are used herein:
Expressed in
Symbol
Expression for
Degrees, minutes, and tenths
j
Jump.
of a minute.
Feet per second.
Muzzle velocity
Feet per second.
Remaining velocity.
V
Feet per second.
Velocity at point of
Vw
fall.
Degrees, minutes, and tenths
Range table angle of
of a mInute,
departure.
Degrees, minutes, and tenths
Quadrant angle of deof a minute.
parture.
Degrees, minutes~ and tenths
lp corrected
for E
of a minute.
Degrees, minutes, and tenths
Quadrant angle of eleof a minute.
vation.
Thus, if we know cp for a
Denoting a non tabular
2250f.s. gun and a range of
value.
7000 yds., we denote by
lp'
the angle of .departure
when the M.V. IS reduced
to, say, 2200 f.s.
Degrees, minutes, and tenths
Inclination of trajecto()
of a minute.
ry to horizontal at
any point.
Degrees, minutes, and tenths
Angle of fall. (Someof a minute.
times expressed in
terms of slope, as 1
on n.)
pounds.
Weight.
w
Pounds; m = ~.
g
Mass.
m
Feet per sec. ; 32.16 is assumed
Acceleration due to
as the standard.
g
gravity.
Feet per second per second.
Retardation.
r
Pounds.
Resistance.
p
Elapsed time after gun Seconds.
v
t
T
W
Wll
is fired.
Seconds.
Time of flight.
Miles per hour.
""ind velocity.
l\liles per hour.
(In some
Range component
of
computations,
as' in dewind velocity; plus
duction
of wind. factor,
for rear and minus
wind is expressed in feet
for head wind.
per second as
W
=
~6
\Vx.)
. DIRECT
Symbol
Expression for
d
Diameter
of bore or
caliber of projectile.
n
Radius of ogive. Also
twist of rifling.
E
Depression angle due
to height of site and
curvature.
R
Horizontal range.
X
Horizontal range.
C
Ballistic coefficient under rangetable conditions.
.
C1 Ballistic' coefficient under nonrangetable
conditions.
c
Coefficient of form.
c')1
Standard
atmospheric
density .
. ~
Act u a I atmospheric
density.
fa
Altitude factor.
. fw
Wind factor.
r
Reducing factor.
Yo
Maximum ordinate of
trajectory.
Characteristic index.
THE
The followingis
FIRE
Expressed
Inches.
in
Calibers.
Degrees, minutes,
of a minute.
and tenths
Yards.
Feet.
Takes into account decrease
in density of air as proj ectil e rises,
Takes into account increased
wind effect on projectile as
it rises.
Takes into. account oblique
presentation of projectile to
the resistance of the air.
Feet.
GUN
quoted from Gunnery, of D.R.C.A.,
1905:
A Gun is a machine by means of which the force of expanding powder
gas is utilized for the purpose of propelling a projectile in a definite direction.
It consists essentially of a metal tube, closed at one end, of sufficient strength
to resist the pressure of the gases, in which is placed a projectile designed to
move through the tube. The force of the expanding gases propels the projectile through this tube causing it to start in its trajectory in a definite
direction.
The explosion of the powder gives rise. by its decomposition, to a large
amount of gas. which tends to expand in all directions and to occupy a space
much greater than that in which the powder was contained, and consequently exerts pressure in every direction.
.
The energy utilized in developing the force which propels the projectile
IS heat and the heat carrier is gaseous, therefore a gun is the simplest form
4
DIRECT
FIRE
of gas engine. The expam;ion of gases which develops the force that drives
the projectile is entirely due to heat, for a gas at absolute zero temperature
would have no tendency to expand.
The direction in which the projectile leaves the muzzle, is determined by
the pointing of the gun. For any particular gun the initial velocity with
which the projectile starts in its path through the air is determined by the
kind, weight, and condition of the powder used, the shape and dimensions of
the powder grains, the density of loading, and the weight of the projectile.
The force of the powder gas acts upon the projectile while it is in the
bore and for a short distance after it leaves the muzzle, that is while it is in
the powder blast. It is therefore manifest that a large amount of this force
is wasted, in consequence of the practical limitation in the length which can
be given to a gun. Experiments have shown that only about 1/8 of the
total energy of the expanding gases is ever utilized in a gun of ordinary
dimensions; this portion is termed the total work in the gun.
.
A portion of this work is lost in heating the gun, and this loss of heat
reduces the amount available to prC?duceexpansion.
The total work in the gun is expended as follows:
In heating the gun.
In expanding the walls of
In driving the products
driving out the column
In deforming the rotating
the gun.
of combustion through the bore, and in
"
of air in front of the projectile.
band and in overcoming friction in the bore.
In giving rotation to the projectile.
In accelerating the projectile, that is gradually increasing its velocity.
As the prime object is to give acceleration to the projectile, it is important to know how much of "the total work in the gun" can be utilized for
this purpose. Experiments have shown that between 80% and 90% of
"the total work in the gun" is employed in accelerating the projectile.
If a charge of powder is burning in a rigid space, that is one that has a
fixed capacity, the expansive force of the gas will at any instant depend
upon the amount of gas which has been formed and its mean temperature.
As the amount of gas or its temperature increases, the expansive force will
increase. If now at any instant the space in which the powder is burning
be increased, the other conditions remaining the same, the expansive force
will decrease. In a gun the space in which the powder is burning has a
fixed capacity until the shot starts, after which the space increases.
The pressure on the walls of the gun and on the base of the projectile
at any instant depends upon the expansive force of the gas at that instant.
As long as the increase of expansive force, due to an increase of the amount
of powder burned or to temperature, is greater than the decrease of expansive force due to an increase in the space it occupies, the pressure on the walls
of the gun and base of the projectile is incrensing. 'Vhen the decrease due
to the increase in the space,is greater than the increase due to the nmounl of
powder burned or to temperature, the pressure falls off.
This is what happens in a gun; the pressure increases up to a certain
amount and then begins to fall off. The greatest pressure is cnlled the
"maximu"m pressure" and this is the pressure indicated by the pressure
gauge. This pressure musl not exceed that which it is considered safe to
use in the gun.
The form and size of the grain should be so regulated as to produce the
DIRECT
FIRE
greatest possible muzzle velocity with a maximum pressure not exceeding
that which is allowed for the gun.
It is sufficient to say here that within certain limits the larger the grain
the less will be the initial burning surface per pound of powder, and the less
will be the maximum pressure produced for a given charge of po~der.
This
will admit of using a larger charge of powder which will, as a rule, give a
greater muzzle velocity.
As the size of grain is increased the percentage
of the grain which will be consumed while the projectile is in the bore is
decreased, leaving a certain portion of each grain unburned when the projectile leaves the muzzle. \Ve will finally reach a point at which the weight
of the unburned powder will equal the additional amount of powder which.
has been put in the chamber and of course no further increase of velocity
can be obtained and if we continue to increase the size of grain without increasing the charge, the velocity will fall off. From which it is manifest
that for each class of gun there is a limit to the size of grain which must not
be exceeded. There is also a limit in the opposite direction and it is possible to produce dangerous pressures in a gun by even a small charge of
powder the grain of which is too small for the gun.
For this reason a powder should not be used in a gun for whtch it is pot
designed.
If circumstances make it absolutely necessary to do so, use a
powder having a grain which is larger than the normal for the gun.
The maximum pressure and the muzzle velocity are also affected by
the density of loading; it is important therefore that the projectile should
always be seated so that its base will be at the same distance from the face
of the breech, in order to insure obtaining uniform muzzle velocities.
The uniformity of action of the powder is also greatly dependent upon
the ignition and inflamation of the charge. By ignition is meant setting fire
to the charge, and by inflamation the spread of the flame frum grain to grain,
over the surface and into the perforations of the several grains. It is desirable to produce as nearly a simultaneous ignition of the entire charge as
possible, in order to eliminate the variation in the rate of emission of gas,
due to an irregular spread of the inflamation from grain to grain.
Black powder ignites very readily, but smokeless powder requires a
larger amount of flame to insure instantaneous ignition; for this reason an
igniting charge of black powder is attached to each section of a cartridge
of smokeless powder.
An extremely hard or very smooth grain is difficult to ignite. A charge
composed of large grains inflames more readily than one composed of small
grains, in. consequence of the size of the interstices.
A grain with large
perforations inflames more readily than one with small perforations.
With
multiperforated grains, the longer the grain the slower will be the inflamation with the same sized perforations.
It has been ascertained by experiment that, if a cartridge is much
shorter than the powder chamber, there is a liability to produce a motion of
or in the gas formed in the chamber, which materially increases the maximum pressure on the breech. This motion has been generally considered to
be a "Wave Motion."
.An e~tremely long chamber renders simultaneous igniti~n and inflam~atIon dIfficult and tends to produce socalled "wave motions."
Hence,
m order to contain the required amount of powder without giving it undue
length, the chamber is given a greater diameter than the main bore.
The rate of emission of gas from a burning grain is dependent
upon
j
DIRECT FIRE
6
its rate of burning and the area of the burning surface. The rate of burning
increases with the pressure, and also probably with the temperature of the
inflamed gases.
As a rule the larger the grain the less will be the area of burning surface
per pound of powder, and the slower will be the rate of emission of gas for
the same rate of burning, for any given charge.
Whatever may be the form of a grain there is always one dimension
that when burned through, the entire grain is consumed. Thus with two
tubular grains of the same length, one of the 72 inch in diameter and the
other 1 inch in diameter, both having the same thickness of wall, say 1/8
of an inch, it is manifest that as soon as the wall is burned through both
grains are consumed. The larger of these grains would weigh about twice
as much as the other, and twice the amount of gas would be evolved. This
dimension is called "the least dimension" of the grain, and som~times the
"critical dimension" of the grain. In a multiperforated grain the critical
dimension is the thickness of the web between the perforations.
For similar guns the "critical dimension" of the grain must be proportional to the caliber of the gun.
When grain is said to be too large or too small for a gun, too quick or
too slow for a gun, it is the "critical demension" which is spoken of.
Uniformity in the size, shape, density, surface smoothness, and toughness of the grain is essential in order to obtain uniform results.
a
* .*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
In making up cartridges care should be taken that the bags are of the
same dimensions, especially as to length.
The length of the cartridge
should not be less than ninetenths of the length of the chamber.
THE
TRAJECTORY
In order to reduce confusion of ideas to ~
minimum, in
this article the several elements of the trajectory are stated to
he as follows:
Trajectory. The curve described by the center of gravity
of the projectile in passing from the .muzzle of the gun to the
point of impact.
Angle of departure. The indination
of the line of departure to the line of shot.
.
Line of shot. The line from the trunnions to the point of
impact.
(See Fig. 1.) ]' is the point of impact when the point of .
impact is in the horizontal plane containing the axis of the
trunnions,
sometimes called the initial plane.
The value.
described as the angle of departure in the range tables, and
referred to herein as cp, is represented by the angle A G'I'.
As the gun is raised above the water level (the reference surface in coast artillery work) the point of impact lies in a plane
below the initial plane, at a point I. The line of shot noW
has a depression represented by the angle l'G'l, and, in order
to compensate for the change in the height of site, the piece
DIRECT
7
FIRE
should be depressed by the same angular amount, I'G'I =
A G' B.
In other words the angle of departure
is kept
sensibly constant, or A G'1' = BG'I, if the principle of the
rigidity of the trajectory be accepted.
The principle of the rigidity of the trajectory assumes
that the trajectory
preserves the same form, whether' the
chord be horizontal, as G'I', or inclined like G'I. This is
slightly erroneous, and its acceptance would cause the projectile to range beyond 1', if the latter point were projected
vertically to the plane GI and designated I", notwithstanding
the fact that the measured .range GI" for which the piece
. would be laid, is slightly less than G'I". '*
In order that the projectile may not range too far, the
quadrant angle of departure CPx must be slightly less than CPE;
that is, the correction to be applied to the range table angle
F~
/.
1552
. of departure cP, in order to secure the quadrant angle of departure CPx, must be slightly greater than E. This constitutes
the essential difference between the values CPx and CPE.
If l' be projected vertically to the plane GI, the angle
IG'I' so formed would represe~t the value E.
Quadrant angle of departure. The angle BG'I', or the inclination of the line of departure to the horizontal.
Line of departure. The tangent to the trajectory at the
muzzle, or the prolongation of the axis of the bore at the
instant the projectile leaves the muzzle ..
Angle of position (or depression)~ The inclination of the
line of shot to the horizontal plane through the axis of the
trunnions.
It is designated by
Pintle center. The vertical axis about which the carriage
revolves.
Range. The horizontal distance from the pintle center to
~he point of impact; in Fig. 1, the distance GI. When the range
IS expressed in feet, it is designated
by X; when in yards, by R.
E.
• See page 14, Ballistics,
~
Part II, Major Alston Hamilton.
DIRECT
FIRE
Muzzle velocity.The velocity in feet per second with
which the projectile leaves the muzzle in the direction represented by the line of departure.
Due to the action of gravity,
the projectile falls away from the line of departure.
Angle oj jall.The
inclination of the tangent to the trajectory (at the point of impact) to the horizontal.
The angle
C'I'G' (w) represents the value given in the range table in
degrees and minutes, or as a slope of fall. Under the service
condition, the angle of fall is represented by the angle eIG =
w + E, and is represented herein as WE.
Ballistic coejJicient.~ The ballistic efficiency of the projectile. or its power to overcome the resistance of the atmosIt
phere and retain. its horizontal component of velocity.
depends for its value on:
(1) The ratio of the weight to the crosssectional area;
w
that is, the "sectional
density"
represented
by the ratio
d2'
.
\
I
In other words, the heavier the projectile per unit of area exposed to resistance, the more efficient will it be in retaining its
velocity.
(2) The shape of the point. It is obvious that sharpening
the point will reduce the resistance encountered, will reduce
the retardation, and will permit the projectile to retain its
velocity the  better.
The value of sharpening the point
varies with velocities, for a sharp point will obviously confer
more advantage at 2000 feet per second than at 2 feet per
second.
(3) The oblique presentation of the projectile to the
atmosphere.
The gyroscopic action of the rotating projectile
causes the point to precess so as to describe a small circle about
the tangent to the trajectory.
The projectile is therefore
never exactly headon to the resistance of the air; but, due
to the small curvature of direct fire trajectories, the precession probably never describes. more than the first quarter
of the circle referred to above, so that the point is slightly
above and to the right of the tangent to the trajectory.
This
causes the projectile to be obliquely presented to the air and
consequently to drift to the right. It can also be observed
that the projectile will tend to "kite."
The factor i is called the characteristic index of the projectile; it is determined experimentally;
it embraces the
variation in retardation along the trajectory noted under (2)
and (3); and it is placed in the equation to credit a projectile
...
_
DIRECT
9
FIRE
(having a. given sectional density) with. a ballistic coefficient
equivalent to the ballistic coefficient of the projectiles used
in the firings on which Tables I and II are based, and takes
the place of the expression ~: 10I}.gused in our service.
The leading thought at present is to place the equation
. for the ballistic coefficient in the following form:
C = i~2
(See Americana,
1912 edition.)
(See range tables for long pointed projectiles.)
For the above expression, the wind is assumed to be zero
along the range, and the atmosphere normal with 78 % satur.
ation with moisture, the average saturation along the Gulf
and Atlantic coasts.
It is obvious that the ballistic efficiency of the projectile
will vary accordingly as there is a head or rear wind component, and with variations of atmospheric density.
Therefore, while
w
C = id2
represents the equation for the ballistic coefficient
range table conditions, the general expression is
01
under
W
T . id2
C = fw •
The values of i for the purposes indicated above have
been determined for the computation of range tables for long
pointed projectiles, as follows:
For 5inch and 6inch guns
i = .61
For 8inch, 10inch, 12inch, and 14inch
i = .63
For projectiles having a general design similar to those
used in making the firings on which our ballistic tables are
based (shot and shell for seacoast guns), i is a constant; for
other types of projectiles (shot and shell for land. guns, and
shrapnel) i is usually not constant, and is determined as a
function of the range by experimental firing.
Existing range tables for capped projectiles were. constructed on the value of the ballistic coefficient expressed as
follows: .
C =fa.
w
d
2
"'(c
The general expression became
C
.....
= fa
w
• "'(cd2
•
+a .
fw
iiiiiiiiiiiiii=:=====.:t:1
==::::::::::::~~Ei:1
DIRECT FIRE
10
The following dis.cussion of what the ballistic coefficient
really is, is taken from Exterior Ballistics (O'Hern).
the
air
has
the
the
4. Determination of the resistance of the air.The
relation between
velocity of a projectile and the resistance opposed to its motion by the
has been the subject of numerous experiments.
The usual method
been to determine the loss of velocity over a known path.
By equating
corresponding loss of, energy with the product of the resistance times
path the value of the resistance has been determined.
Thus let
w = weight of projectile in lbs.
m = mass of projectile = wig.
d. = diameter of projectile in inches.
Vi = velocity of projectile at beginning of measured p'ath.
V2 = velocity of projectile at end of measured path.
s = distance in feet between points of measurement of Vi and V2.
=
p
resistance of air in Ibs.
=.!!!!....
R*
=
retardation
due to air resistance.
w
Then
mv 12
__
__
mv 2_
2
2
Whence
(I)
2
R* = (V12V22)/2s
(2)
In order that the computed values of R* may be accurate the distance s
must be so short that p may be considered as uniform over that path.
Early investigators, such as Robins in 1742 and Hutton in 1790, determined the values of VI and V2 by means of a ballistic pendulum placed
at varying distances from the gun. Later investigators have used electroballistic instruments, the improvements in which have steadily increased
the accuracy of the determinations.
The latest forms of instruments
and methods of measuring velocities are described on pages 3240, Lissak's
Ordnance and 'Gunnery,
Much data has been secured concerning various
projectiles under various atmospheric and other conditions.
How these
results have been standardized and made applicable to other projectiles
and other atmospheric conditions will be explained in the discussion of
the socalled Ballistic Coefficient.
5. Mayevski's formulas for the resistance of the air.The
values used
in our present ballistic tables were derived by General Mayevski from
Krupp firings made at Meppen about 1881. In expressing the relation
between the resistanee of the air and the velocity of the projectile, General
Mayev,ski assumed that the resistance encountered by a given projectile
under given atmospheric conditions varied as some power of the velocity,
the law of retardation being expressed by the equation
R*
In which
R = retardation
equation (2).
• Represented
=
(3)
Anv"
C
to be determined
experimentally
by r by Ingalls and elsewhere in this artic1e.G.
as per
A. W.
DIRECT
11
FIRE
C = ballistic coefficient varying inversely as the retardation.
An
equation from which C can be calculated will be given later.
n = some power of the velocity.
An = a corresponding constant, n and An to be determined from equation (3) after substituting the values of v, R, and C.
The following values of An and n were thus determined by Mayevski
and by Zaboudski.
Velocities, Ls.
n
Below 790
790 to 970
970 to 1230
1230 to 1370
2
3
5
3
log A
Velocities, Ls.
n
log A
5.6698910
2.7734410
6.8018720
2.9809010
1370 to 1800
1800 to 2600
above 2600
2
1.7
1.55
6.1192610
7.0962010
7.6090510
It will be notE>dthat the values of the log An taken in connection with
the corresponding values of vn are such as to make the values of R plotted
as a function of v form practically a smooth curve.
More recent firings by the Gavre Commission in France have shown
that the above values of An and n are not strictly accurate but no ballistic
tables of greater accuracy have yet been computed.
It now appears that
the law of the air resistance is intimately connected with the velocity of
sound and that'Newton's
Law of the Square, is in the main true.
6. The Ballistic CoeiJicient.In
Mayevski's expression for R*, equation
(3), he assumed
C
(4)
In which
(~l = standard
density of air, that is with barometer 760 mm., thermometer 15°C, relative humidity ~.
a = density of atmosphere at time of experiment.
c = coefficient of form. A general expression for its value will be
deduced later.
w = weight of projectile in lhs.
d = diameter of projectile in inches.
The value of (~da for any weather conditions may be obtamed from
Table A, of this pamphlet, or from Table VI of Artillery Circular M, with
the barometer and the thermometer readings "as arguments.
It is evident from equation (3) that An vn IS directly equal to R only
When. C = 1. That is, the tabulated values of An vn and their derived
functIOns are based on the retardation encountered by a projectile of one
pound weight, since w = 1; of one inch diampter, since d = 1; of standard
form, since c = 1; moving in an atmosphere of standard density, since
aI/a ~ 1. It then becomes evident that C is the factor by means of which
. the :V~lues of Anvn are made applicable to projectiles and atmospheric
condI~IOns which differ from these standards.
A thorough understanding
of C IS of such fundamental importance that the meaning and use of the
factors already appearing and certain others to be introduced later will
now be fully consIdered.
It will be noted that C varies inversely as the
*
Represented
by r by Ingalls and elsewhere in this articlf'.G.
A. W.
12
DIRECT FIRE
retardation and hence measures the ability of the projectile to maintain
its velocity.
Since the weight of air to be dIsplaced by a projectile per
unit of travel will vary directly as the density of the air and as the area
of crosssection of the projectile, the retardation will vary directly as these
factors.
We accordingly find a/OJ and d2 as inverse factors in the expression'
for C. Every factor but d2 has disappeared from the ratio of the areas,
rd12/ rd2, because the diameter of the standard projectile dI, was assumed
as one inch.
Since the retardation of a projectile acted upon by a given force will
vary inversely as the weight of the projectile, w will enter as a direct factor
in the expression for C.
The factor c, called the coefficient of form, is habitually determined
by experiment.
The following formula gives its value for an ogival head
c
= 2k !4n 1
n
'\f
(5 )
7
In which
n = radius of ogive in c3libers.
k = a constant which is ordinarily unity, but which is determined
experimentally
and thus compensates for peculiarities of conformation
not attributable
to the radius of the ogive. For k = 1 and n = 2, the
value in general use in the U. S. Service, c = 1.
So when we say that under a given set of atmospheric
conditions a certain projectile has a ballistic coefficient of 11,
we mean that it will suffer loss of velocity at only oneeleventh
the rate suffered by a projectile of standard form, one pound
weight. and one inch caliber, under normal atmospheric conditions.
The ballistic coefficient of the standard projectile under
normal conditions is represented by the equation
w
C = cd'!.
in which c is called the coefficient of form and is unity for an
ogive struck with a radius of two calibers.
It relates merely
to the shape of the head of the projectile.
The values of c for ogives struck with dIfferent radii,
expressed in calibers, are taken as follows from page 39,
Ballistics, Part II, and page 295, Notes on Ballistics, JOURNAL
U. S. ARTILLERY NovemberDecember,
1909, by ~lajor
Alston Hamilton:
n = 2
3
4
5.
6
7
c = 1.00 0.82 0.71 0 . 64 O. 58 O. 51
These agree with the most recent experiments at Indian Head and at
Sandy Hook.
.
Our longpointed caps are struck with a radius of ogive
of n = 7 calibers; yet for the 12inch projectile i = 0.63. But.
the hourrelet is separated from the base of the wind shield ogive
13
DIRECTFIRE
by an axial distance of about half a caliber.
This and the
oblique presentation,
etc., so reduces the value expected from
the point that the gain is limited to a projectile of standard
form having a radius of ogive of about five calibers, flying exactly
headon, and conforming to the laws on which Table II is based.
See Chap. II, Ballistics, Part I; pages 187189, and 223225, Artillery Circular N; and Introduction,
Artillery Circular
M.
It will be noticed that in some of the range tables computed by the Ordnance
Department
the expression
j~ is used
instead of the factor i.
Striking velocity. The velocity of the projectile in feet
per second in the direction of the line of impact, and at the
point of impact.
Jump.Either the difference between the sight elevation
and the sight angle of departure, or the difference between the
quadrant angle of elevation and the quadrant angle of departure.
In Case I the piece is given an angle of elevation
with reference to the line of sight; in Case II and Case III
the piece is given an angle of elevation with reference to the
horizontal; in either case the shock of discharge may change
the inclinatio"n of the axis of the bore at the instant of departure from the inclination at which the piece was laid.
~his change in inclination is called jUlllp. The jump may be
~Ither positive (increasing the inclination) or negative (decreasmg the inclination), or may be zero (in which case the inclination is unchanged), "depending upon" the kind of carriage and
platform employed, the length of the bore, * * * and the angle
of elevation."
(For a study of jump, see JOURNAL U. S.
ARTILLERY,Vol. 36, Sept.Oct., 1911, page 176; Vol. 35, Jan.Feb., 1911, pages 6375.)
Angle of elevation. The .inclination of the axis of the bore
t~ the line of sight, measured in a vertical plane, when the
pIece is laid. Often called sight elevation.
. Quadrant angle of elevation. The inclination of the axis
of the bore to the horizontal, when the piece is laid.
Sight angle of departure. The inclination of the line of
departure to the line of sight, measured in a vertical plane.
Jump
= AG'B
Angle of departure
= IG'B
Angle of elevation, or sight elevation
= TG' A
= TG'B
Sight angle of departure
________________
S!l!!lJlllJl!l!lllJll!llllll.II!IlIII!I.lIIiiIiiiiiiiiiiij;j
14
DIRECT FIRE
angle of departure
= CG' B
angle of elevation
= CG' A
Line of impact. The tangent to the trajectory at the
point of impact; or, the direction of motion of the projectile
at the instant of impact.
Angle of impact. The inclination of the line of impact to
the surface hit at the point of impact.
Angle of incidence. The inclination of the line of impact
to Ule normal to the surface hit at the point of impact.
These last two angles are of interest chiefly in the study I
of armor attack and the computations
of perforations to be
.expected.
Quadrant
Quadrant
AKis
or
7;(/1111/0110$
G'
:
I
I
I
~
I
1663
Table II.For
a thorough understanding
of its signifi~
cance, consult Artillery Circulars, M and N. It consists of a
number of tables, each table being for a certain muzzle ve~
locity, and designed to display certain computed secondary
functions in such a manner as to be most convenient for
ballistic computations.
Having given a horizontal distance X
(in feet), and a given C, and a given V, for the ratio ~
there can be found, of chief interest,
the value A (
=
(= Z)
sinC
2lfJ
)
for the given muzzle velocity.
Hence from A we c~n determine cp, the required angle of departure.
Other elements of
the trajectory
can likewise be computed from the formulre
given later on, which show the relation of the element that'
we desire to compute to the proper function to be found
opposite
the ratio
Z ~= ~.
For
convenience,
an abridged
Table II is appended hereto, including the values of A for
V = 2150, V = 2250, and V = 2350 as determined by double
interpolation
frem the 21CO, 22CO, 2300, and 2400 f.s. tables.
DIRECT
15
FIRE
There are also appended the tables for muzzle velocities from
2000 to 3000 inclusive for values of Z from 100 to 7000.
In the range tables for capped projectiles it is seen that
the values of C vary with the range. These values are based
on assumptions which are no longer considered to represent
the best practice; but it is sufficiently exact to take the nearest
tabular value from the range table for any range considered.
Then the value of Cl (for the day) == ~
. fw' C (range table
value).
Problem 1
Thus for the 12inch gun and capped projectile, range
8000, barometer 29", thermometer
40°F., and a range' component of wind 20 miles per hour against the projectile, we
have:
From Table A,
Atmosphere factor = .98
2lV T5/4
Wind factor, fw = 1:f::
X
(The positive sign is used when the wind is ac'celerating,
the negative si~n when the wind is retarding.)
log 2 Wx = log 40 = 1.60206
5/4 log T = 5/4 log 13.06 = 1.39493
colog X = colog 24000 = 5.61979 10
and
log .04138 = 8.61678
fw' = 1  .04= .96
(Range table) log C = 0.90i)71
()l
Iog ~
= log .98 = 9.99122 10
log fw = log .96 ,;, 9.98227 10
log C1 (for the day) = 0.88320 = log 7.642
For the range tables for the long pointed projectiles it is
seen that the value of C is taken as constant throughout the
range. The expression for C under range table conditions is
C
=
i~2'
Problem 2
. Ass~ming the same range, atmosphere, and wind as in
the preVIOUS problem, we have for the 12inch gun and long
pointed projectile:
16.
DIRECT
FIRE
log 2 Wx = log 40 = 1.60206
5/4 log T = 5/4 log 12.22 = 1.35884
colog X = colog 24000 = 5.61979 10
log .038
fw = 1  .038 = .962
By Table A,
~
.98
(Range table) log C = 1.07168
log fw = log .962 = 9.98317 10
tb = log
.98 = 9.99122 10
log C1 (for the day)
FORMULlE
C
=
8.58069
=
log
C1 =
=
~l
~2'
=
1.04607,
=
log 11.12
ApPLYING
TO THE RANGE AND DEFLECTION
FOR USE IN BALLISTICS
•
fw • i~2' under actual conditions
~nder ra~ge table conditions.
~ will be found in Artillery
of firing.
(Hamilton)
Note No. 25, Table VI, of
which Table A herewith is a copy.
2W T5/4
f = 1::f:: .
(Hamilton)
X .
w
fw is 1 minus
the fraction for
component' along the line
fw is 1 plus the fraction for a
component along the line
FORMULlE
a head (retarding)
of fire.
rear (accelerating)
of fire.
FOR US,E WITH
ARTILLERY
CIRCULAR
sin 2cp
=
TABLE
N, 1893
AC
Z=X
C
Yo = 4.05 T2
,tan w = B' tan cp
u cos cp
v,..
cos w.
CT'
T=cos cp
C' _ sin 2cp
::z


X
II,
wind
wind
17
DIRECT FIRE
HAMILTON'S
FORMULlE
which reduces to,
t =Pv~
~
in which t is the thickness of K.C. armor that a capped A.P
shot is to be expected to perforate at normal impact.
Pv is a
function of v to be taken from Table P which gives values of P
with v as an argument; wand d are, respectively, the weight
of the A.P. shot in pounds and its diameter in inches.
v
Wind deflection (degrees) =
~z
Dw 0
in which Wy is the crosscomponent
of the wind In miles per
hour, and D is the wind deflection function to be taken fron:
Table D.
0
w
d3
(fP + w) sec fP
wn
in which K is the drift constant, Ii the number of calibers
which the projectile would have to move along the bore in
order to make one turn at the final rate of twist.
n is ordinarily 25 for direct fire guns of high power in our service,
and the twist is to the right.
For long pointed projectiles
!{ = .75.
.
Drift (degrees)
= (1 
K) 
4s regards the precision to be attempted in the comPutations, t~e following is quoted from page 3, Artillery CirCUlar N~ Senes of 1893, by Colonel James M. Ingalls, U. S. A.:
. Logarithms are habitually employed in making the numerical computa.
hons, as it is believed that by their use a considerable saving of time and
labor is effected and the liability of error reduced to a minimum.
In the
absence of a table of logarithms, however, most of 'the examples can be
w~rked out by the four fundamental rules of arithmetic.
Five place loganthms are sufficient for the accurate solution of all gunnery problems, and
four place logarithms can often be used to advantage.
ApPLICATIONS
TARGET
OF THE
IN THE
FORMUL.lE
INITIAL
PLANE
Problem 3
Given R, C, and V, to determine fP.
R = 8000; C = (1.07168); V = 2250.
See Table II, appended.
Z=X
C
iiiMiii... m
aLa
DIRECT
18
FIRE
log X = 24000 = 4.38021
colog C = 8.92832 10
log Z = 3.30853
Z= 2035
For V = 2250 and Z = 2035, A = .01513
+
35
100 X 91
.01545
Sin 2rp
=
AC
log A
log C
=
=
8.18893 10
1.07168
log sin 2rp = 9.26061
2rp = 10° 30'
rp = 5° 15'
which checks closely enough with the range table for the 12inch gun and long pointed projectile.
Problem 4
Given R, C, and V, to determine rp.
R = 8000; C = (1.07168); V = 2230.
Rand C being the same as in problem13, we get
Z = 2035.
(V. = 2200) A = .01585
(V
=
2250) A
=
=
AC
+
~g
X (73)
=
=
rp' =
V
=
Av
=  73
= .01574
log A = 8.19700 10
log C = 1.07168
log sin 2rp'
2rp'
We see that
= .01618
(see Prob. 3) .01545;
(V = 2230) A = .01618
Sin 2rp'
+ 1~50X 95
6' greater
9.26868 10
10° 41'.9
5° 21'
elevation
is required
2250 f.s.
Problem 5
Given C, V, and rp, to determine R.
C = (1.07168); V = 2250; rp = 6° 4'
Sin 2rp = AC
than when
19
DIRECT FIRE
log sin 2~ = log sin 12° 8' = 9.32260 10
colog C = 8.92832 10
log A = 8.25092 10
A = .01782
'.
For (V = 2250) and A = .01782,
= 2291.5
X
Z=c
.z =
2200
86'
+ 94
X 1?0
log Z = log 2291.5 = 3.36011
log C = 1.07168
log X = 4.43179
X = 27027
R = 9009 yds.
Problem 6
Given V, ~, and R, to determine C.
V = 2250; ~ = 5° 49'; R = 8400.
C' = sin 2 ~
X
log sin 2~ = log sin 11° 38' = 9.30459 10
colog X = colog 25200 = 5.59860 10
log C'
(V =2200) log C' =4.9032 10
=
4.90319 10
+~
Z=2100
X 100= 2105
A =959
(V =2300) log C' =4.9032 10
Z =3000
+ ~~X
(V=2250) log C'=4.903210
Z = 2105
+ 1~~ X 959 = 2585
Z
100 =3064
X
=
C
log X = 4.40140
colog Z = colog 2585 = 6.58923 10
which is practically
projectile.
log C = .99063
the log C for the lOinch, longpointed
Problem 7
Given ~, R, an~ C, to determineV.
DIRECT
20
FIRE
= 6° 8', R = 9000, C = (1.07168)
q;
Z=~
log X = log 27000 = 4.43136
colog C = 8.92832  10
log Z = 3.35968
Z = 2289
Sin 2q; = AC
log sin 2'P = log sin 12° 16' = 9.32728 10
colog C = 8.92832
log A = 8.25560 10
A = .01801
\Vith Z as an argument, we look through Table II to find
the two successive velocities whose A's for Z == 2289 bracket
the value A = .01801. Then we interpolate for the velocity.
89
(V=2200)
Z=2289
A =.01776+100
X99=.01864
A = .00084
(V=2250)
Z=2289
A =.01696+1~90 X94=.01780
V = 2200 + .01801  .01864 X 50 = 2200 +  63 X 50 =
84
 .00084
2238 f.s.
Problem 8
The following is quoted, with a few alterations, from
lVotes on Ballistics, by Major Alston Hamilton (pages 259 and
260, JOURNAL U. S. ARTILLERY, Nov .. Dec., 1909).
In dealing with the jump of the piece it is necessary to find how far
the trajectory should naturally fall away from the line of departure, due to
the action of gravity and to the vertical component of the air resistance.
This is done as follows:
y
(ac
)
' = tan cp' 1  .x
or
,
y
=
x tan cp
That IS
x tan cp' and since for this purpose,
cos2
cp'
.
y
..
sm 2cp'
aCx tan cp'
. 2 cp '
sm
aCx
= 2 cos cp'
2
may be taken
3S
unity for direct fire, we
have
~
S
21
DIRECT FIRE
Natural
=
drop
ft.
a~x
= M aC2
Z ft.
6aC2 z inches.
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
The manner of solving this problem in general will be evident from the
illustrntion given below:
'.'
Given V ;, 2234; barometer, 30.31; thermometer, 37°; wind velocity,
12 miles per hour; azimuth of wind, 128°; azimuth of fire, 316°; quadrant
elevation, Q = 10° 27'; drop ofprojectile from line of bore sights, measured
on jump screen, 23 in. Deviation on screen, 0.0 in. Measured range~
14,091 yards; measured deflection, 0°.44 right; time of flight (observed)
23.13 seconds; height of tide, h, 2.5 feet; * * * distance, D, from muzzle
to screen, 366.2 feet; distance, b, from axis of trunnions to muzzle of piece,
24.1 feet; D
b, 390.3 feet; range in feet, 42,273; 12inch B.L.R.; weight of
projectile, 1046 lbs.; shot [long pointed]; radius of ogive, 7 calibers'; twist;
1 turn in 25 calibers. *
'
,
.
+
i and K.
Determine
From Table C, assume
c
.54
From Table A,
= .933
~l
o
For the short distance to the screen assume fw
C
a
= }
w
. C
d2
=
1046
.9330.54 X 144
=
1.
12.55
N ow for the screen'
X = D = 366.2
Hence
X
C
To find
a
=
z
=
366.2
12.55
=
29
we have, with z = 29 and V = 2234
z = 29
=
2200)
= 2250)
a
(V = 2234)
a
(V
(V
.000194
a = .000186
 .000008
= ..000194  }~ X .000008
Hence from natural
1
~
.000188
drop = 6'aC2z inches,
• >II While f~om this ,Point on, the general method employed in this probeI!lIs that Major HamIlton employed in the reference cited yet it is not
Pbrmted in the smaller type because the agreement is not s~ close as has
een the case up to this point.
DIRECT FIRE
22
log 6 =
log a =
2 log C =
log z =
0.77815
6.27416  10
2.19728
1.46240
log natural drop = 0.71199
Natural drop = 5.15 inches.
.
The measured drop is 23 inches; hence the' drop due to
negative jump is 23  5.2 = 17.7 inches.
N ow this distance is measured on a screen at a distance
from the axis of the. trunnions which equals D
b, or 390.3
feet, or 4684 inches. Then, since a radian is 34i38', we have
+
Jump
= 
~~8~X 3438'
= 
13'
Hence the quadrant angle of departure, cp,., is the quadrant elevation 10° 27'  13' = 10° 14'.
To find E (see Fig. 2):
The height of. the trunnions above mean low water was
24.7 feet; the height of the tide was 2.5 'feet; the curvature
of the earth at this range (see Table K) is 42.8 feet.
. _ 3438' 42.8 + 24.7  2.5
H ence E .'
42,273
=
3438 . 42~;73 = 5' .3
+
+
Hence cp' = cpx
E = 10° 14'
5' .3 = 10° 19' .3
2cp' = 20°'38' .6
We now know Y, cp', and X, and can calculate
' _ sin 2cp'
C X
with which to enter Table II, Artillery Circular M, or Table
B, appended, and find thence, by interpolation. the value of CJ
(for the day), as follows:
log sin 2cp' = log 20° 38'.6 = 9.54722 10
colog X = colog 42,273 = 5.37394 10
log C'
Log C' to four places
With this value fA log C' we get
yZ
2200
2540
2300
3482
A (100)
942
A 34
320
2234
2860
=
4.92116 10
= 4.9212 10
A
.02120
.02905
785
267
.02387
j
J
J
DIRECT
z
23
FIRE
= x
sin 2 cp. = A C
. C
log X = 4.62606
colog Z = 6.54364 10
log sin 2cp = 9.54722 10
colog A = 1.62215
log C1 = 1.16970
log C1 = 1.16937
Hence it is seen that the values of log C1 agree very
Closely as secured through different methods of interpolation.
The corresponding values of C1 are 14.781 and 14.77.
Take the mean value, C1 = 14.776 (for the day).
But
t~is C1 "= the range table C multiplied by the atmosphere and
WInd factors.
Designating the C for the day as Ct,
C1
To find
!w'
= ~
xfw X C
note that
fw = I::!:
2 Wx T5/4
X
The negative sign is used for a head wind and the positive
sign:for a wind from the rear.
"
In''this case the azimuth of fue is 316° and the azimuth
from which the wind is blowing is 128°. Hence the wind is
blowing from the right rear and makes an angle of 360° 316°
128° = 172° with the plane of fire, or an acute angle
of 8°. The range component is therefore \V cos 8°, and the
~ross..component from the right is W sin 8° and tends to diminIsh the drift.
+
Wind 12 miles per hour;
log W = 1.0792
log W = 1.0792
log cas 8° = 9.9958
log sin 8° = 9.1436
log W = 0.2228
"
Wy = 1.670
log Wx = 1.0750
Wx = 11.885
y
To find fw' since T = 23.13
log Wx =
5/4 log T =
log 2 =
colog X =
1.0750
1.7052
0.3010
5.3739
log .029 = 8.4551  10
fw
(Table A)
= 1 + .029 = 1.029
a;
=
.933
24
DIRECT FIRE
c=
Cl
01
T
.fw
log C1 = log 14.776 = 1.16955
CO Iog
0'1
"
o
= colog .933 = 0.03012
colog fw = colog 1.029 = 9.98759 10
log C under range table
C = iwd2 or l. = Cwd2
log W = log 1046
colog C
colog d2 = colog 144
conditions
= 1.18726
= 3.01953
= 8.81274 10
= 7.84164 10
log i = 9.67391 10
l =
.47
Phn~
(fun
or /Jirecfion
Pbneor
Shof
470rget
POlntOT /mppcf
FIG. 3.
Lateral
Deviations
1554
or Deflections
The line of direction is the line from the pintle center to
the aiming point, or to the center of the target, at the instant
the shot strikes.
The plane of direction is the vertical plane containing the
line of direction.
The plane of departure is the vertical plane containing the
line of departure.
The plane of sight is the vertical plane containing the line
of sight at the instant of departure.
. Range firings are ordinarily conducted at a fixed target, or at an aiming point.
In this case the plane of departure coincides with the plane
of sight. That is, the piece is laid on the target without
lateral corrections.
Then the fall of the shot to the right or
left of the plane of direction is observed, and is expressed in
angular measure.
The observed angular horizontal divergence
of the point of im'pact is' modified by the divergence caused
by the lateral component of the wind. This gives the drift,
and ultimately the constant for the projectile.
To find the drift constant, K, the observed direction
must be corrected for the cross wind component.
.
DIRECT
25
FIRE
W~. =  1.67 = ~ 5/3
The value of the wind deflection is,
Wind deflection
= WVZ X D o
(degrees)
w
N ow for V = 2234, from Table. D we .have for Z = 2860
Dwo = 0°.0061
IIence,
Wind deflection
=  5/3 X ;~~~ X .0061 =  .013
The observed deflection was 0°.44 right. This increased by .013
becomes 0.45. \Ve have, then, from the formula for drift
DO = (1 
K) .!! (cp' +
wn
0.45 = (1J\")10lZ~25
It is necessary
w')s~c
cp' (*)
(cp'+w')sec
cp'
to find w'. We have
V = 2234
Z = 2860
cp' = 10° 14'
Hence for Z = 2860 from Table B,
V
2200
2300
log B'
.1073
.1063
34
2234
tan
log tan
.1073 100
= B' tan
w'
cp'
X 10 = .1070
cp'
= log tan 10° 14' = 9.2565410
log B' = 0.10700
log tan
cp'
~
10
+
log sec
cp'
w'
cp'
w'
w'
= 9.36354 10
= 13° 0'.3 = 13°
= 10°.23
= 23°.23
= .00697
Hence
(II\")
*
0.45
23.23 sec
1046 X25
cp"
From Hamilton's Ballistics,
1728
Part I, page 33.
26
DIRECT
log 0.45
colog 23.23
colog see cp'
log 1046.0
log 25.0
colog 1728.0
=
=
=
=
=
=
FIRE
9.65321
8.63395
9.99303
3.01953
1.39794
6.76246
10
10
10
10
log (IK)
= 9.4601210
1  !{ = .2385
K
.712
To summarize:
i
.47
.712
'13'
K
j*
THE
RANGE
TABLE
The range table for a direct fire. gun and its type pro_
jectile exhibits. principally the angle of departure as a function
of the range under an assumed set of conditions called "range"
table conditions"; these are:
(u) That the gun and target are on the same level.
(b) A constant value for the ballistic coefficient.
.
.
(c) Law of retardation
as assumed in Table II.
.
.1
(d)
Normal
atmosphere;
i.e.,~l
= 1, atmosphere
saturated with moisture.
No wind.
(f) Normal muzzle velocity.
The elements of the trajectory shown as functions of the
range are:
1. Time of flight.
2. Angle (and slope) 0 fall.
3. Maximum ordinate.
4. Striking velocity.
5. Perforation of Krupp armor.
6, Deviation from the plane of fire due to: (1) drift; and
(2) component of wind of 10 miles per hour perpendicular to
the plane of fire.
(e)
COMPUTATION
OF A RANGE
I
78% ;
TABLE
(NOTE.The range table value of C here given does not
correspond with that to be found in the range table for the .
*
Jump.
j
;
DIRECT
27
FIRE
12inch gun and longpointed projectile.
One who desires to
gain facility in the use of Table II may assume certain values in
the range table and solve for others, thus framing his own problems and checking his results with values in the range table.)
Assume the values determined in Problem 8. We have
found that log C (rangetable conditions) = 1.18726. Com~
pute the line of the range table for 10,000 yards:
log X = log 30,000 = 4.47712
colog C = 8.81274 10
log Z
Z
(See Tables B and II.)
(V = 2250) Z = 1949, A
Z
V
log B'
2200
.0725
2300
.0716
= 3.28986
= 1949
= .01468
= 1949
u
1712
1796
.1441
3508
2250
.0721
1754
(See Table D.) V =2250, Z = 1949, Dwo =.0059
To find cp, sin 2cp = AC
log A = log .01468 = 8.16672 10
.
log C = 1.18726
log sin 2cp = 9.35398 10
2cp = 13° 3'.5
cp = 6° 31'.8
To find T, T = CT'
cos cp
log C = 1.18726
log T' = log .983 = 9.99255 10
colog cos cp = colog cos 6° 31'.8 = 0.00283
log T
. T
To find Yo, Yo = 4.05T2
2 log T'
log 4.05
= 1.18264
= 15.23 seconds
= 2.36528
= 0.60746
log Yo = 2.97274
Yo =.939 feet
T'
1.005
.960
1.965
.983
28
DIRECT FIRE
To find
log tan
cp
w,
tan
w
= B" tan
cp
10gB' = 0.07210
= log tan 6° 31'.'8 = 9.05868 10
log tan
w
w
= 9.13078 10
= 7° 41'.9
To find sJope. of fall,
. x1 = tan
w
log 1 = 0.00000
colog tan'w = 0.86922
= 0.86922
x = 7.4
log x
To fin d vw,
Vw
u cos
= 
cp
cos wlog u = log 1754 = 3.24403
log cos cp = log cos 6° 31'.8 = 9.99717 10
colog cos w = colog cos 7° 41'.8 = 0.00394
log
To find the perforation
t = Py~~
Vw
= 3.24514
Vw = 1758 f.s.
(see Table P),
= 1.395 X
~~4~~=
13.0 inches.
For perforation at 30° with the normal, subtract
the above.
(See Table Q.)
t30 = 13 X .92 = 11.96 inches
8 % from
To find the deflection for a 10mile wind we have,
Deflection
(degrees) = I~Z . "DvrO
. 1~~;~9
X .0059 = .0511
1
To find the drift,
I
d
= (1 !{) (
wn
3
Drift (degrees)
= .289 X. 10~~~25 X (6°.5
cp
+ 7°.7) X
+
w) see cp
.9~35
I;
= 0°.273
Problem 9
Drift of Capped Projectiles; i.e., those not fitted with long
points. *
* See Hamilton's Ballistics, Part I, Page 33.
I
1
J
~
DIRECT
29
FIRE
"Take K for shot and steel shell as 0.75; for C. 1. shell as
0.80."
.
C. I. shell are being fired as trial shots from a
Capped
lOinch B.L.R.
w = 604; ~1
= 1; lV = 0; range to center
of impact,. 8000 yards; assume jump as ::f:: O. Assume the
piece to be laid accurately at the aiming point.
(a)
If the gun pointer has his sight set at 3.00 and
rnoves the vertical wire to each splash, what should the sight
setting be?
(b)
What deflection should be computed by the deflection board fitted with a leaf range scale for steel projectiles?
(c) What is the error at this range to be expected from
the deflection board?
(See range table for 10inch gun, and capped projectile.)
a
b
C. 1. Shell
Steel
log (lK) = log .20 = 9.3010
log .25 = 9.3979
log d = log 1000 = 3.0000
3.0000
log (<p+w)
= log 14.4 = 1.1584.
1.1584
log sec <p = log sec 6°=
.0025
.0025
colog w = colog 604 = 7.2190
7.2190
colog n = colog 25 = 8.6021
8.6021
3
log drift = 9.2829
9.3799
drift = 0°.190
0°.240
(a) The reading of the sight will be 3.00  0.19 = 2.81.
This is the correct setting of the sight.
(b) The deflection computed will be 3.00  .24 = 2.76.
(c) This would cause the projectile to fall 2.81  2.76 =
0°.05 to the left, and would necessitate a flat correction of +
0°.05.
THE
GRADUATION
OF THE RANGE
SCALE
At the present* writing the decision has been reached on
the proposition of correcting for jump.
It is finally deemed
practicable, and the correction therefor will be incorporated in
the graduation of the range scale.
A method here outlined
permits a battery commander to COlllpute a table expressing
the RangeQuadrantangleofdeparture
relation.
Any material discrepancy between his table and the elevation table
* November, 1914.
30
DIRECT
FIRE
furnished the battery for graduating the range scale by the
clinometer,may
be attributed to the correction for jump.
It
is of interest to know that such a correction is to be applied.
\\Then solving for range corrections for abnormal conditions of atmosphere, wind, velocity, and tide, the jump Correction is only incidental.
We are no longer concerned
directly with the quadrant angle of elevation (<t'I), but only
with the quadrant m ~f,le
of departure (<t'x). Therefore, whether
jump be considered or not, we are in a position to compute
range corrections by the table expressing the Range<t'x relation.
To obtain th~ quadrant angle of departure for service
conditions, it is necessary to correct for such errors as are
introduced by the following assumption:
Gun and target on the same level.
To obtain the quadrant elevation it is also necessary to
correct the quadrant angle of departure for the jump of the
carriag~.
The elevation table will exhibit the angles of quadrant
elevation as a function of the range at suitable intervals, and
is computed from the range table angles of departure by the
following formulre:
<t'i= <t'x+ Ll <t'J
<t'x= <t'+ Ll<t'K + Ll<t'h
In which
<t'l = quadrant elevation.
<t'x= quadrant angle of departure.
<t' = rangetable angle of departure.
AcpJ = the correction for jump taken as a function of <t'x.
Ll<t'K= the correction for curvature.
Ll<t'h= the correction for height of site.
Angle of depression due to height of site, h in feet, assum_
ing the principle of rigidity of the trajectory:
1146)
.
6.<t'h= h ( ~
mInutes
Correction for curvature
(1)
of the earth:
R
.
6. <t'K= 4000 mInutes
Correction for height of site without
the principle of rigidity of the trajectory:
(2)
the assumption
of
DIRECT
Ah
=
L.1«'h
1134
This last formula is
tion tables for batteries
computed.
The values
have been computed and
Ll«'J
is determined
FIRE
+
.005R .. t
R
mlnu es
31
(3)
convenient where a number 'of elevaon different heights of site are to be
of the fraction for successive ranges
tabulated.
separately
for each type gun and mount.
The procedure for computing the Range«'l relation for.
a gun will be possible as follows:
Select 9000 yards for an example for the 12inch gun and
longpointed projectile; height of site, 200 feet; M. V.,.2250f.s.
1. From the range table (Form 1014), «' = 6° 4'.
2. The correction for curvature of the earth =  2'.25.
3. The correction for height of site =  26'.2. [Equation (3).]
.
Hence the quadrant angle of departure for the gun is,
= 6°4'  2'.3  26'.2 = 5°35'.5.
i(Jx
If the line of departure makes an angle of 5°35'.5 with the
horizontal plane through the trunnions, we can expect the
shot to fall at a horizontal distance of 9000 yards on the surface of the water, under rangetable conditions.
5. Assume the verity of the jump curve appended to
this article.
At an angle of 5°35'.5 the jump is seen to be about
+ 1'.3. That is, the gun increases in elevation that amount
at the instant of dis harge
.
Therefore, the correction at that elevation is  1'.3.
6. 5°35'.5  1'.3 = 5°34'.2.
If now the gun is fired with an elevation, «'1 of 5°34'.2,
we can expect the quadrant angle of departure to be 5°35'.5.
To graduate the range scale, the gun is given an elevation
«'1 = 5°34~.2 and opposite the index is cut and numbered the
9000yard range graduation.
At present, and until the range drums require regraduation for the long pointed projectiles, the graduation of the range
scales is as follows:
1. Take «' from the range table for the capped projectile.
2. Determine Efrom Artillery Note No. 29.
.
3. «'  E = «'E.
4. Set the gun by the clinometer to «'E, and opposite
the index graduate the range drum.
32
DIRECT
A
METHOD
FIRE
FOR THE DETERMINATION
FOR AN ELEVATION
TABLE
CPI
=
CPx
<PK = cP
OF DATA
+ .:1 CPJ
+ .:1<PK + .:1<Ph
Arps for illustration, will be taken from the appended jump
curve for disappearing carriages.
Jump varies with the quad
rant elel'ation.
The following table has been computed.
F = 1134 + .005R
.:1<PK = ~
R
4000
Range
F
.:1<PK
Range
F
minutes
1000
1.1390
200
.9500
400
.8150
600
.7138
800
.6350
2000
.5720
200
.5205
400
.4775
600
.4412
800
.4100
3000
.3830
200 .
.3594
400
.3385
600
.3200
800
.3034
4000
.2885
200
.2750
400
.2627
600
.2515
800
.2413
5000
.2318
200
.2231
400
.2150
600
.2075
800
.2005
6000
.1940
200
.1879
400
.1822
600
.1768
800
.1718
7000
.1670
.1625
200
.1582
400 •
.1542
600
.1504
800
I
.25
.30
.35
.40
.45
.50
.55
.60
.65
.70
.75
.80
.85
.90
.95
1.00
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
.1.35
1.40
1.45
1.50
1.55
1.60
1.65
1.70
1.75
1.80
1.85
1.90
1.95
10000
200
400
600
800
11000
200
400
600
800
12000
200
400
600
800
13000
200
400
600
800
14000
200
400
600
800
15000
200
400
600
800
16000
200
400
600
800
.1184
.1162
.1140
.1120
.1100
.1081
.1063
.1045
.1028
.1011
.0995
.0980
.0965
.0950
.0936
.0922
.0909
.0896
.0884
.0872
.0860
.0849
.0838
.0827
.0816
.0806
.0796
.0786
.0777
.0768
.0759
.0750
.0741
.0733
.0725
.:1 <PK
minutes.
2.50
2.55
2.60
2.65
2.70
2.75
2.80
2.85
2.90
2.95
3.00
3.05
3.10
3.15
3.20
3.25
3.30
3.35
3.40
3.45
3.50
3.55
3.60
3.65
3.70
3.75
3.80
3.85
3.90
3.95
4.00
4.05
4.10
4.15
4.20
.
Range
F
DIRECT
AcpK
minutes
.1468
.1433
.1400
.1369
.1339
.1310
.1283
.1256
.1231
.1207
.1184
8000
200
400
600
800
9000
200
400
600
800
10000
33
FIRE
:
Range
17000
200
400
600
800
18000
200
400
600
800
19000
2.00
2.05
2.10
2.15
2.20
2.25
2.30
2.35
2.40
2.45
2.50
F
AcpK
minutes
.0717
.0709
.0701
.0694
.0687
.0680
.0673
.0666
.0659
.0653
.0647
4.25
4.30
4.35
4.40
4.45
4.50
4.55
4.60
4.65
4.70
4.75
Problem 10
Assume a 12inch gun, 200 ft. above mean low water, and
firing long pointed projectiles.
Compute an_ elevation table
for ranges of 8000 to 10,000 yards inclusive.
(See page 34.)
Due to the difficulty of reading the jump curve, it is well
It is seen that the
to check the column CPt by differences.
second differences in column 3 are inconsistent and should
probably be' all equal to +0'.1.
Working conversely from
column 4, we get the adjusted first differences in column 5.
and adjusted values of CPI in column 6 for further use.
. _.a
Representmg
l
m
a
2
by A, and 2 2 by B, we have, generally, whatever
m
the
value of m,
~3
= A  (m 1) B
= A  (m3) B =
= A  (m5)B
=
~4
= A 
(m 7) B = ~3
~6
= A 
(m q) B =
~l
~2
+ 2B
~l
+2B
2B
2B
~2
+
+
~4
etc., etc., etc., ad libitum, according to the values of m.
For m = 3; A
m = 4; A
m = 5; A
m = 10; A
= oI/3, and B = 02/18
= 01/4, and B = 02/32
= oI/5, and B
=
02/50
= oI/10, and B = 02/200
For our present
for every 20 yards.
work we wish to interpolate values of
200
Therefore we tnke m = 20 = 10.
CPI
:34
DIRECT. FIRE
Range
({J
yds.
ti.({JK
deg. min.
8000
200
400
600
800
9000
200
400
600
800
10000
5 15.2
524.7
534.2
544.1
554.0
604.0
6 14.1
6 24.4
634.7
645.1
655.6
Column
Range
yds ..
minutes
2.00
2.05
2.10
2.15
2.20
2.25
2.30
2.35
2.40
2.45
2.50
29.36
28.66
28.00
27.38
26.78
26.20
25.66
25.12
24.62
24.14
23.68
J
({Jx
deg. min.
({Jl
minutes
deg. min.
443.8
454.0
504.2
5 14.6
525.0
535.5
546.1
556.9
607.7
6 18.5
6 29.4
2.0
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.3
1.2
1.0
0.9
0.7
0.5
441.8
452.2
502.5
5 13.0
523.5
534.2
544.9
555.9
606.8
6 17.8
f) 28.9
4
.5
1
2
({Jl
(h
02
(02)
min.
(01)
min.
min.
min.
deg. min.
10.4
10.3
10.5
10.5
10.8
10.6
11.0
10.9
11.0
11.1
0.1
+0.2
+0.0
+0.3
0.2
+0.4
0.1
+0.1
+0.1
+0.1
+0.1
+0.1
+0.1
+0.1
+0.1
+0.1
+0.1
+0.1

 
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
109
11.0
11.1
11.2
441 <3
4 52.1
502.5
513.0
323.6
534.3
545.1
5 55.8
606.9
6 17.9
629.0
deg. min.
8000
200
400
600
800
9000
200
400
600
800
10000
ti. ({Jh
minutes
441.8
452.2
502.5
5 13.0
523.5
534.3
544.9
555.9
606.8
6 17.8
628.9
3
 

 
6
({Jl
 
From 8000 to 8200,
A .!!. = 10.3  1 03'
.  m
ti.1
ti.2
=
10 
"
B
=
Hence.
=
0.1
200
=
.0005
A (m1) B ~ 1.03  9 X .0005 = 1.0255
= ti.1+2B ~ 1.0255+.001 =
a
ti. = 1.0265+.001
= 1.0275
ti.. = 1.0275+.001 = 1.0285
ti. = 1.0285+.001 = 1.0295
ti.6 = 1.0295+.001 = 1.0305, etc ..
1i
ch
2m2
1.0265
ti.
7
ti.
s
ti.
9
ti.
10
=
=
=
=
1.0315
1.0325
1.0335
1.0345
DIRECT
R
deg.
8000
20
40
60
80
8100
20
40
60
80
8200
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
35
FIRE
. ~l
~1
min.
deg. min.
41.8
41.8+Al =4° 42'.8255
42.8255+A2=4° 43'.8520
43.8520'+Aa =4° 44'.8795
44.8795+A4=4° 45'.9070
45.9070+As=4° 46'.9365
46.9365+A6 =4° 47'.9670
47.9670+A7=4° 48'.9985
48.9985+As=4° 50'.0320
50.0320+A9=4° 51'.0655
51.0655+AIO=4° 52'.1000
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
41.8
42.8
43.9
44.9
45~9
46.9
48.0
49.0
50.0
51.1
52.1
Determine a new A. and a new B for 8200 to 8400, and
determine ~l for every 20 yards, etc.
For a further discussion see Appendix III, Hamilton's
Ballistics, Part I.
Following such a system of interpolation, the following
portion of an elevation table has been computed:
ELEVATION TABLE
(Columns 1 and 5)
R~x
TABLE
(Columns 1, 2, 3, and 4)
12inch Gun and Long Pointed Projectile
Height of Site, 200 feet
'
I
Range
yds.
8000
20
40
60
80
8100
20
40
60
80
8200
20
40
60
'80
8300
~
deg.
min.
5
15.2
16.2
17.1
18.1
19.0
19.9
20.9
21.8
22.8
23.8
24.7
25.7
26.6
27.6
28.5
29.5
~l
31.4
31.3
31.2
31.2
31.1
31.0
31.0
30.9
30.8
30.8
30.7
30.7
30.6
30.5
30.5
30.4
43.8
44.9
45.9
46.9
47.9
48.9
49.9
50.9
52.0
53.0
54.0.
55.0
56.0
57.1
58.1
59.1
deg.
min.
4
41.8
42.8
43.9
44.9
45.9
46.9
48.0
49.0
50.0
51.1 52.1
53.1
54.2
55.2
56.2
57.3
36
DIRECT
Range
yds.
20
40
60
80
8400
20
40
60
80
8500
20
40
60
80
8600
20
40
60
80
8700
20
40
,60
80
8800
20
40
60
80
8900
20
40
60
80
9000
I()
deg.
5
min.
30.5
31.4
32.4
33.3
34.3
35.3
36.3
37.2
38.2
39.2
40.2
41.2
42.1
43.1
44.1
45.1
46.1
47.1
48.1
49.1
50.0
51.0
52.0
53.0
54.0
55.0
56.0
57.0
58.0
59.0
6 00.0
01.0
02.0
03.0 •
04.0
FIRE
I:i.SOhK
min.
deg.
3004
30.3
30.2
30.2
30.1
30.1
30.0
29.9
29.9
29.8
29.8
29.7
29.6
29.6
29.5
29.5
29.4
29.4
29.3
29.3
29.2
29.2
29.1
29.0
29.0
28.9
28.9
28.8
28.8
28.7
28.7
28.6
28.6
28.5
28.5
5

SOx
min.
00.101.1
02.2
03.2
04.2
05.2
06.3
07.3
08.4
09.4
lOA
11.5
12.5
13.5
14.6
.15.6
16.7
17.7
18.8
19.8
20.8
21.9
22.9
24.0
25.0
26.1
27.1
28.2
29.2
30.3
31.3
32.4
33.4
34.5
35.5
deg.
4
5
SOl
min.
58.3
59.4
00.4
01.5
02.5
03.5
04.6
05.6
06.7
07.7
08.8
09.9
10.9
11.9
13.0
14.1
15.1
16.2
17.2
18.3
19.3
20.4
21.5
22.5
23.6
24.7
25.7
26.8
27.9
28.9
30.0
31.1
32.2
33.3
34.3
Assume the following:
Range to target, 8500 yards;
tide, 0; wind, none; atmosphere, normal; muzzle velocity,
2250 f.s.; projectile, long pointed; gun, 12inch.
. The piece should be given a quadrant elevation of SOl =
5° 7'.7. (The range setting will be 8500 yards.)
When the
piece is fired, the average jump will give a quadrant angle of
departure of SOx = 5° 9'.4.
Fig. 6 shows diagrammatically
the relations between "the
range table angle of departure, so, and the quadrant angle of
DIRECT
37
FIRE
~~
f/J =
~' =
li'ang'e hole Jblue.
NonRantye bble /b/ve
FIG. 4.
~
or
9? = f/el/al/on
h.6lf? J/alue.
rfJ/ or ~'=Non.EleJ/of/o/1
lable
I/o/vB.
FIG. 5.
6'
I5n;)
1668
T'
_..J:K
  + A sPh
T
1667
FIG. 6.
FIG. 7.
I61i8
38
DIRECTFIRE
departure,
CPx.
A sharp distin~tion must be drawn between
the quadrant angle of elevation, ((;I, and CPx. It is illustrated
As shown, the
in Fig. 7. AcpJ may be either plus or minus.
jump is positive, wherefore the correction for jump is Al(/j,
in order that when the piece is fired the elevation shall increase from CPt to the proper quadrant angle of departure CPx,
in the direction of jump.
RANGE CORRECTIONS
vVe are in a position to calculate CPx with sufficient accuracy.
for any gun, for any range, and for any conditions.
See Figs. 4, 5, and 8.
If the target is
changes from range
by altering cp by the
7, inclusive (see Fig.
in the initial plane and either V or C
table values, we can still hit the target
proper Acp, as illustrated in Problem 1 to
4).
It is assumed that by applying the same Acp (= Acpx) to
we can cause the shot to range to the same horizontal distance under the same variations in V and C, no matter how
great the height of site of the gun within service limits (see
Figs. 5 and 8).
cpz
The order of procedure can be stated to be as follows:
1. For any nonrangetable Condition of V and C, assume
the
, target to be in the initial plane, and solve for the required
.p •
2. Take cp for the range from the range table by interpolation where necessary.
(NOTE: It is preferable for this
purpose not to use the value in .the column headed "Change
in elevation for 10 yards in range.")
3.
cp' 
cp = Acp.
4. Determine
CPx for the range
from your computed
table for longpointed projectiles (or CPE from the quadrant elevation table for capped projectiles).
Rcpz
39
DIRECT FIRE
5. To 'Px (or 'PE) algebraically add D..'P to get cp'x (or CP'E)'
6. In your computed Rcpx table for long pointed projectiles (or 'PE table for capped projectiles), determine by
interpolation the range corresponding to your 'P'x (or CP'E)'
When the gun is set for this range you will have the proper
quadrant angle of departure, or angle of departure.
7. From the range setting determined in 6, subtract the .
actual range to the target.
This will give the AR (range c,orrection reference number) which, when applied to the range
scale, will cause the proper change in the ~ngle of departure .
. Problem 11
Given: 12inch gun and long pointed projectile; range to
target~ T', 8500 yards; C=I1.7945;
V=2215 f.s.; height of
site, 200 feet.
1. Solve for target as if in the initial plane ..
Z=X
C
log X = log 25500 = 4.40654
colog C = 8.92832 10
log Z = 3.33486
Z = 2162
Sin 2'P' = AC
. For Z = 2162.
(V = 2200)
(V = 2250)
A
.01739
.01661
A
78
15
A = .01739 78 X50 =.01716.
log A = log .01716 = 8.23451 10
log C = 1.07168
(V = 2215)
log sin 2'P' = 9.3061910
2cp' = 11° 40'.6
cp' = 5° 50'.3
2. Referring to the range table (Form 1014), we see that
cp = 5° 39'.2 for 8500 yards.
3. Therefore, to compensate for' the 35 f.s. reduction in
velocity, we must increase our angle of departure by 'P'  'P =
5° 50'.35° 39'.2= +11'.1 =AIp.
4. Referring to our elevation table, we see that the
quadrant angle of departure,lpf,
for 8500 yards is 5°09'.4.
The angle of departure must be increased by AIp, wherefore,
5. 'P'x = (Px + Alp ~ 5°09'.4 + 11'.1 = 5°20'.5.
40
DIRECT
FIRE
6.. What range setting will give us this angle of departure~
5°20'.5?
Referring again to the RAx table we see by. interpolation that the range setting will be
8700
+20 X
;g:~=~~:~=
8700
+20 X 1:0 = 8714
yards.
7. Therefore the change in the angle of departure is
obtained by a change in the range setting of
8714  8500 = +214 =
AR on the range scale.
This is the range correction reference number to .be
applied at the. range scale.
In the operation of a range board fitted with a range correction chart for the 12inch gun and long pointed projectile,
it will be found that the correction to be applied on the range
scale will be very close to + 207 for a gun on a height of
site of 200 feet.
The latest range correction charts for capped projectiles
are computed in a like manner, excepting that the A«J is applied to «JEto determine the range setting.
For a given variation from range table conditions, the
~R to be applied on the range scale will vary with the height
of site, because the relation between Rand «Jx,or «JE,varies as
the height of site varies.
In other words, the same elevation or R«Jx tables will
not do for 12inch guns and long pointed projectiles for all
heights of site; nor for 12inch guns and capped projectiles for
all heights of site; not for long pointed projectiles and capped
projectiles for any height of site. And, because we apply
~«J to «Jxor «JEto interpolate
for the new range setting, the
change in range setting, ~R, will vary with variations in height
of site.
Finally, this AR .at the range scale is a reference number
which secures a proper change in «Jx or «JEby changing the
range setting.
Adding 200 yards to the range setting may
be expected to increase the range of the shot by 200 yards only
under normal conditions.
Where the V or C varies fronl
normal, the range correction on the range board will give for
any range the range correction reference number which, when
applied at the range scale, will produce the proper change in
the angle of departure.
Problem 12
Given:
12inch gun and longpointed
projectile;
range to
41
DIRECT FIRE
target 8500 yards; V, 2250; C, 11.7945; height of site, 200 feet;
atmosphere reference number, 20.
What is the required range correction reference number?
An atmosphere
reference number of 16 represents a
normal atmosphere.
Under the conditions, there is an in
crease of 20 16 =4% in the ballistic coefficient due to atmos .
pheric conditions as determined by the barometer, thermometer,and atmospheric slide rule.
4
log C = 1.07168
log 104% = 0.01703
log C1 = 1.08871, for the day,
actual value we have to work with under the conditions.
Z=X
the
C1
log X = 4.10654
colog C1 = 8.91129 10
log Z = 3.31783
Z = 2079
Sin 2q,' = AC
(V =2250; Z =2079)
A =.01513+
91 X
Z~O=.01585
log A = 8.20003 10
log C] = 1.08871
log sin 2q/ = 9.28874 10
2cp' = 11° 12'.7
cp' = 5° 36'.3
2.
3.
4.
angle of
5.
6.
angle of
From the range table, for 8500 yards, cp =5°
Acp=cp'cp=5°
36'.35° 39'.2= 2'.9.
Referring to our Rcpx table, we see that the
departure, CPx,for 8500 yards is 5° 09'.1.
cp'x= CPx+Acp=5° 09'.1+( 2'.9) =5° 06'.5.
Referring to our Rcpx table, we see that a
departure of 5° 06'.5 corresponds to a range
39'.2.
quadrant
quadrant
setting of
8440 _ 06.5 06.3 X20 =8444
07.3  06.3
...
7. Therefore the range correction
reference
which will secure the proper change in the ql1adrant
departure is
AR =8444 8500 = 56
number
angle of
42
DIRECT FIRE
Problem 13
Given: 12inch gun and long pointed projectile; range to
target, 8500 yards; C, 11.7945; V, 2250; wind range component
reference number, 20; height of site, 200 feet.
What is the required range correction reference .number?
A range component reference number of 50 denotes that
either the direction of the wind with reference to the line of
fire is 90°, or that the wind has 0 velocity; in either case there
is little or no movement of the atmosphere parallel to the line
joining gun and target.
Therefore 20  50 = 30 miles per hour velocity of wind
against the motion of the projectile.
The effect of the wind is to decrease the value of the
ballistic coefficient.
= 1::l:: 2WxT5/4
/...
X
(log T = log 13.11 = 1.11760)
5/4 log T = 1.39700
log 2Wx = log 60 = 1.77815
colog X = 5.59346 10
log 0.0587 = 8.76861 10
Since it is a head wind,
f.. = 1  .059 = .9413 = .94
log C = 1;07168
log 0.94 = 9.97313 10
log C1 = 1.04481
log X = 4.40654
colog C1 = 8.95519 10
Sin 2lp' = AC
(V =
log Z = 3.36173
Z = 2300
2250; Z = 2300)
A = .01790
log A = 8.25285 10
log C1 = 1.04481
log sin 2lp'
=
9.29766 10
2lp'
q/
=
11° 26'.8
5° 43'.4
=
43
DIRECT FIRE
=50 43'.4 _50 39'.2 =4'.2
I()'x = I()"+dl() = 50 09'.4 +4'.2 = 50 13'.6
The range setting corresponding to an angle of departure
of 5° 13',6 is, from our Rlpx table, 8580.
Therefore the dR to be applied to the range scale to produce the proper change in the angle of departure is
AR = 8580  8500 = + 80
1:11()
= I()' I()
Problem 14
Given: a 12inch gun and long pointed projectile; range
to target, 8500 yards; C~ 11.7945; V, 2250'; tide, + 10 feet;
height of site, 200 feet.
What is the required range correction reference number?
Since the basic condition is mean low water, we must
determine ho~ much to increase the angle of departure so as
to raise the point struck 10 feet.
10
Tan AI()=y
log 10 = 1.00000
colog X = 5.59346 10
o
log tan AI() = 6.59346 10
AI() = 1'.4
0 09'.4+1'.4 =50 10'.8
lp'x = lpx+AI() =5
The range setting giving an angle of departure of 50 10'.8
is
8520 +20
X
i~
= 8527
The range correction reference number is, therefore,
8527  8500 =+ 27
Problems 11 to 14 inclusive illustrate how range correction
refe,rence numbers are computed for a particular height of .
site. For a range correction chart the computations are made
for every 1000 yards within the limits of quadrant elevation
permitted by the carriage, and for each of the following variations from range table conditions:
(a) Denote the normal velocity by NV:
NV200
NV100
NV
NV+100
(b) For atmosphere:
24
16
o
8
(c) For wind:
50
70
10
30
(d) For tide:
+20 '
o
10
+10
NV+200
32
90
+30
+40
44
DIRECT FIRE
The straight vertical. lines representing the ~ormal C9nditions are drawn at convenient distances apart, so that the
curves shall not cross. The horizontal range lines are drawn
for every 1000 yards, and are spaced to a vertical scale of
1 inch = 600 yards. The horizontal scale of the latest charts
is 1 inch = 200 yards.
The reference number for any abnormal condition is
plotted on the horizontal range line to a scale of 1inch = 200,
from the proper normal line as zero. The reference numbers
having a + value to the left of the normal; those having value to the right of the normal: Curves are then drawn
through all points representing the corrections' at every 1000
yards.' For example, having plotted in each range line the
corrections for a 70 wind, all such points are connected by a
smooth curve. The curve for the 60 wind is plotted and
drawn half way between the 50 (normal) and the 70 curve.
For issue to the service it has been determined that one
chart for a given gun, projectile, and normal muzzle velocity
is sufficiently accurate between each of the following limits of
height of site: 0 to 40 feet; 40 to 60 feet; 60 to 100 'feet; 100
to 160 feet; 160 to 240 feet; 240 to 320 feet; 320 to 400 feet;
400 to 500 feet; 500 to 600 feet. For each gun, projectile,
and normal muzzle velocity .there are nine charts. The particular chart for the battery depends on the limits of height
of site between which it lies. The chart for batteries (having
a given caliber, projectile, and normal muzzle velocity) on
heights of site between 40 and 60 feet are computed for a
height of site of 50 feet, or the meari height. Similarly for
the others.
I t will be seen that the range correction reference number
does not correspond to the horizontal range correction at the
.target, when either V, C, or tide is abnormal.
To illustrate:
From Problem 11, we see that an increase in the angle of
departure of A lfJ =
11'.1 is required for a muzzle velocity
of 2215 f.s., or a decrease from normal of 35 f.s. We have
determined that the range correction. to .be applied to the
range scale to produce an increase of 11'.1 in the angle of
departure is
214.
We see from the range table that for 8500 yards, lfJ = 5°
39'.2.
lfJ' ,.;, 5° 39'.2
11'.1 = 5° 50'.3
The range in the range table corresponding to 5° 50'.3 is
8725.
+
+
+
DIRECT
45
FIRE
8725  8500 = + 225
Or a change in the range setting of +214 will change the
horizontal range of the shot by +225 yards.
.
SOLUTIONS
FOR
MUZZLE
VELOCITY
Given: a 12inch gun and long pointed projectile; range
to the aiming point, 8500 yards; range table value of C,
11.7945; atmosphere
reference number, 20; wind reference
number,' 20; tide, +10; range to the center of impact, 8200
yards; height of site, 200 feet.
What was the muzzie velocity?
SOLUTION
I
Find the angle of departure.
The angle of departure is resolved into two parts: (1) the
quadrant angle of departure, 'P' x, or that part above thehorizontal plane through the trunnions; and (2) the angle of depression corresponding to the range to the center of impact,
or that portion below the horizontal plane.
Referring to problems 11 to 14, we see that the net range
correction reference number given by the range board is
21456 +80+27 + (2000) = +265 (2265)
_To suit our condition to mean low tide, for which our
elevation and R'Px tables are computed, we can consider our
range correction reference number to be 265  27 (the tide correction) = 238, and can consider that the range to the center
of impact would have been 8200 at mean low water, had the
range correction reference number been 2238 instead of 2265.
The corrected range becomes 8500 +238 =8738.
. 'P'x corresponding
to a range setting of 8738 is 50 21 '.8.
Also, from the R'Px table, we see that the depression
angle for the range to the center of impact is 30'.7.
Therefore,
'P' =50 21 '.8 +30'.7 = 50 52'.5 .
. From problems
Ct = fw X~X
o
12 and 13,
C = 1.04 X 0.94 X C
log C = 1.07168
log 1.04 = 0.01703
log 0.94 = 9.97313 10
log C1 = 1.06184
,.,
46
DIRECT FIRE
Z
.X
C1
=
log X = log (3 X 8200) = 4.39093
colog Ct = 8.93816 10
log Z = 3.32909
Z = 2133
_
A 
sin 2
tp'
C1
log sin 2 tp' = log sin 11 45'.0 = 9.30886 10
colog C1 = 8.93816 10
0
log A
=
A
=
8.24702 10
0.01766
We now enter Table II and determine the consecutive
velocities for which, for our value of Z = 2133, the values of
A bracket our value of A. Then we interpolate
for the
velocity by means of A.
Z
=
2133
(V
(V
=
=
2200)
2150)
A
A
=
=
0.01712
0.01782
=
V = 2200  50 X .01706.01712
.
.00070
220039
A =
=
70
2161 f.s.
NOTE:
If a range correction chart is at hand, the percentage change in C effected by the wind can be determined
quickly, as follows, without use of the wind formula:
Hold
the straight edge of a piece of paper parallel to the range lines
and at the range of the aiming point.
Graduate the edge
where it is intersected by the normal (50) and letter the mark
O. Gradp.ate the edge where the wind curve (or interpolated
imaginary curve) cuts the edge. Letter the graduation K.
Transfer the paper parallel to the range lines until the 0
graduation is over the normal atmosphere curve (16). The
K graduation n'ow indkates the equivalent change in C in
terms of an atmosphere reference number, whence the percentage change is determined by remembering
that 16 is
1.00, 18 is 1.02, 14 is .98, etc .
.If the chart is mounted on a range board, the operation
may be performed with the ruler.
SOLUTION
II
In this case, consider that the change in the ballistic
coefficient due to atmosphere and wind is compensated for
by their portions of the total range correction reference num
DIRECT
47
FIRE
ber. Then 'assume C as normal, and consider only the range
correction reference number due to veloci y.
From problem 11, we see that in the oPeration of the
range board we should have secured a range correction reference number of + 214 (2214) for an assumed velocity of 2215
for the trial shots.
Consulting our Rcpx table, we see that the quadrant angle
of departure for a range setting of (8500 +214 =) 8714 is
cp' x
. The depression angle
impact is 30'.7.
Therefore,
cp' =5°20'.5
x
=c
= 5° 20'.5
corresponding
+ 30'.7
to the
center
of
= 5° 51'.2
Z
log X = log (3 X 8200) = 4.39093
colog C = 8.92832  10
log Z = 3.31925
Z = 2086
. sin 2cp'
A =C~
log sin 2cp' = log sin 11° 42'.4 = 9.3072810
colog C = 8.92832 10
log A = 8.23560 10
A = 0.01720
We now enter Table II and determine the consecutive
velocities for which, for our value of Z = 2086, the values of A
bracket our value of A. Then we interpolate for V by means
of A.
.
Z = 2086
(V = 2200) A = 0.01667
Ll = 68
(V = 2150) A = 0.01735
V = 2200  50 X ~0172~O~6~1667=
2200  39 = 2161 f.s.
For capped projectiles the solutions are analogous, excepting that cp' = CP'E (for the corrected range)
E_~ (corresponding
to the range to the center of impact).
Velocity graphic charts are issued for the same limits of
height as the range correction charts, for a given caliber of
gun, projectile, and normal muzzle velocity.
In case the proper velocity graphic chart is not at hand,
one can be readily constructed as fol ows:
+
DIRECT FIRE
48
1.
Select the aiming point for the trial shots and deter
mine its range.
.
2. Determine the muzzle velocity to be assumed for trial
shots.
3. Assume centers of impact at 100 yard intervals over
and short, within limits of about ::l= 500 yards.
4. Compute and tabulate the velocities corresponding to
such rangings.
5. On crosssection paper, with the X axis for range and
the Y axis for velocities, plot these points and connect them
by a smooth curve.
Deflections
The deflection problem is briefly as follows (see Fig. 9):
Assume a target at T moving at such a rate in the direction
shown by the arrow that it will be at T 1 at the end of the time
of flight for the range GT. It is obvious that we must incline
the plane of departure to the plane of sight by the angle 1 to
correct for the angular movement of the target during tl:e
time of flight.
Assume that, due to drift alone, at this range, the point
of impact would fall in the direction of T2 instead of T. It
is obvious that we must increase the angle 1 by the angle 2
to correct for drift also.
Assume that the wind would blow the projectile so as to
cause the point of impact to be in the direction of Tg instead
of T. It is obvious that we must increase angle 1 by the
angle 3 to correct for the effect of the wind as well.
Therefore, the net angular correction for travel during
time of flight, drift, and the lateral wind component is the
angle 4 (= 1
2
3).
.
Then, if the plane of departure is inclined to the plane of
sight by the angle 4 as set off on the sight, the projectile will
depart from the plane GT 4 under the action of wind and drift
and will strike in the direction of the point T h the direction
of the target at the end of the time .of flight.
.
For simplicity, the figure is drawn showing the conditions
to require cumulative corrections.
In Cases I and II the required divergence of the plane of
departure from the plane of sight is secured by means of the
deflection set off on the sight.
. In Case III, the angle 4 is applied to the uncorrecte?
azimuth of the line GT in order to obtain the corrected aZImuth GT4 at which to lay the piece. This applies to both
+ +
DIRECT
49
FIRE
guns and mortars.
A study of the deflection board will
illustrate how these corrections are automatically added.
On a gun deflection board note that:
(a) The drift leaf is only for certain projectiles, caliber,
and muzzle velocity.
(b) The scale on the Tsquare is not equicrescent and the
ranges are graduated in proportion to their time of flight, and
therefore the'Tsquare is only for certain projectiles, caliber,
and muzzle velocity.
Rules for deflection corrections:
RR. RightRaise.
To shoot more to the Right, Raise
the value of the deflection or corrected azimuth by the desired
amount.
If the shots are falling 0°.10 to the left of the target,
Raise the value of the deflection or corrected azimuth 0°.10
in order' to shoot 0°.10 more to the Right.
FIG. 9.
1560
LL. LeftLower.
To shoot more to the Left, Lower
the value of the deflection or corrected azi,muth by the desired
amount.
If the shots are falling 0°.15 to the right of the target,
Lower the value of the deflection or corrected .azimuth 0°.15
in order to shoot 0°.15 more to the Left.
To avoid confusion and errors in applying corrections, the
corrected deflection, not the correction, should be transmitted.
The smallest division on the sight is 0.°05. The natural
tangent of 0°.05 (=3') is approximately 1/1000, but the true
value to sufficient accuracy is .00087.
The latter value should be used for cOIp.puting deviations
in yards from observed angular deviations.
The approximate value of .001 is of interest in making
quick computations.
1 division = 1 yard per thousand of
range.
DIRECT FIRE
50
Example
A battleship is headon at 8000 yards.
The shots seem
to fall consistently about half the width of the target to the
right.
Deflection: 2.80.
Solution:
One width from the center of the target equals about 90
feet = 30 yards.
One division on sight at 8000 yards
yds.
.20
30 +8 = 4 aivisions.
Correction = 4 X ..05
To shoot LeftLower.
=
0°.20
Corrected
= 8000 X .001 = 8
deflection
=
2.80 
= 2.60
DIFFERENTIAL
FORMULlE
Occasionally it is desirable to know how much of a range
error is to be expected from a variation from normal, either
in the weight of the projectile, or of the charge, or both.
The
following formulre are fairly accurate for small variations from
standard conditions.
.
Variation in muzzle velocity due to a variation
project; Ie:
(1)
AV = 
1Aw V
16 w
AV =
_.l4
in weight of
Aw V
w
I
Problem 16
An officer is to fire long pointed projectiles from his 12inch battery for the first time. Previous firings with the
same weight of powder and capped (1046lb.) projectiles
indicate that for the temperature of 70° F., the M.V. assumed
should be 2220 f.s. . About what M.V. will be given to the
long pointed projectiles weighing 1070 lbs.?
A
V
= 
7
24
16 X 1046 X 2220
= 
22 f.s.
The result indicates that he should assume about 2200 f.s.
Problem 17
A battery commander is to fire long pointed .projectiles
from his 12inch battery for the first time. Previous firings
with the weights of powder as made up into charges, and using
eapped (1046lb.). projectiles, indicate that at a temperature
of 70°F. the M.V. to be assumed is 2220 f.s. Each charge as
made up weighs 276.5 Ibs. About what weight of nitrocellulose powder should be added to each charge to give the nor
mal M.V.?
DIRECT
51
FIRE
From Problem 16 the M.V. will probably be approximately 2200 f.s.at 70° F.
The velocity to be expected due to changes in the weight
of powder charges may be computed from the formula,
(2)
V=
V
1
(WW )Y
(See C.A.D.R.,
1909, par 796.)
1
The average value of y is: for nitrocellulose
for nitroglycerin powder, 0.8.
Therefore,
220q = (276.5) 1.2
2250
WI
2250
X 276.51•2
12
Wt • =
2200
powder, 1.~;
log 2250 = 3.35218
. 1.2 log 276~5 = 2.93003
colog 2200 = 6.65758 10
1.2 log
log
should weigh.
281.7  276.5
=
WI
= 2.93979
WI =
WI =
2.44982
281.7Ibs.
= what each charge
5.2 pounds to be added to each charge.
Variation in muzzle velocity due to a variation in the travel
of the shot while in the bore:
1
(3)
tl V =.l tluV
~ V= 4 tlUUV
In which u
of shot.
=
16 u
travel of shot.
~u
=
variation
in travel
Variation
chamber:
in muzzle velocity due to variation in size oj
(4)~
v= ~tlv
~ V=J.. tlVV
3 v
volume of chamber.
~v = variation
4
In which v =
volume of chamber.
v
V
in
Variation in muzzle velocity due to a variation in caliber:
l5)
~V
=
.l
~d V
8 d
In which d = caliber.
tld = variation in caliber.
In American guns the weight of projectile and charge
should be taken in pounds, the length of travel and caliber in
inches, and the volume of chamber in cubic inches. Equation 5 is not very reliable.
The coefficients used in these formul::e, were obtained for
52
DIRECT FIRE
nitrocellulose powder, and for small variations may be considered as approximately true for smokeless powders.
Equations
AV=_lAWV
(1)
4
w
(3)
A
V= ~ AuU V
(4)
A
V=lAU V
3 U
Alston Hamilton.
are furnished
by Major
CHANGE OF HEIGHT
OF SITE DUE
OF THE MUZZLE
C. A. C.
TO SWEEP
.
Theoretically, the trajectory starts at the muzzle.
As we
change the inclination of the bore, it will be observed that
theoretically we may consider the height of site to be changed.
Practically, this has no bearing.
It will be observed from the"
method of solving for a range table C, as illustrated by Problem
8, that such sweep of the muzzle is neglected.
Thus, any
error introduced is compensated in the. determination
of i.
This conception is further strengthened by the fact that the
batteries at the proving ground are on comparatively low sites.
To be consistent with the methods involved in securing data
for our range tables, we are therefore correct in considering the
height of site of a piece as that of the axis of the trunnions.
This point is mentioned because of the speculation which
the idea has aroused in the past.
The following is quoted from Coast Artillery School
.
Information Series No.1, Sept. 1, 1914:I.
CORRECTION FOR GUN DISPLACEMENT
AND CARRIAGE OUT OF LEVEL
The following method of making thi's correction was devised by the
battery commanders at Fort Monroe, and some of the members of the class.
1. Select a point in the field of fire of the gun at about midrange
and for which the correction for gun displacement is zero.
2. Set the gun to the azimuth of this point, using the nearest full
degree. This may be called the reference azimuth.
3. By the clinometer bring the gun to level and set the index properly.
4. Traverse the gun right. and left, between the stops, halting at
every 10 degrees, and determine the amount, plus or minus, that the carriage is out of level. Tabulate the above readings for each azimuth.
5. On a piece of crosssection paper layoff along the Xaxis a scale
of degrees 01" ==10degrees), and layoff on the Y.axis a scale of yards
(1" =20 yards) from minus 100 to plus 100.
'. ~ I'm
6. Opposite each 10degree division plot the correction in yards
necessary to compensate for the amount that the carriage is out of level,
assuming a target at the range of the selected point. Connect these points
by a smooth curve. Letter this curve "Level Correction."
DIRECT
53
FIRE
7.• Opposite each 10degree division plot the correction in yards nec. essary to compensate for gun displacement.
Connect these points by a
smooth curve. Letter this curve "Displacement Correction."
8. Now draw the net correction curve by combining the level and.
displacement corrections.
It was found that at Battery Eustis the net correction curve is sensibly parallel to the Xaxis, which permitted a flat correction to be applied
by shifting the elevation pointer.
I t will be noted that where a flat correction cannot be
applied with sufficient accuracy, the pointer can be shifted to
compensate for the corrections obtaining in the most important
part of the field of fire. On the basis of this shift, the resultant
corrections for other azimuths can be determined and lettered
as heretofore, thus reducing the amount of the correction to
be applied at the range scale. In some rases it may be deemed
advisable so to shift the pointer that all corrections shall be of
a positive value, thus eliminating the necessity of applying now
a positive correction, and at another time a negative correction.
II.
CORRECTION TO ADJUST THE CENTER OF IMPACT TO THE
CENTER OF THE RECORD TARGET FOR MAJOR CALIBER GUNS
13 cot (w+e)
1.
The danger space in yards
2.
The number of yards to be added = 25
=
D.S.
(Note: These formulae have been changed from previous
targets prescribed for Coast Artillery target practice.)
editions
to apply to the present
Plot these values as determined for every 2000 yards from 3000 to
10,000 yards; scale: Xaxis, 1" = 1000 yards; Yaxis, 1" = 20 yards.
Connect these points by a smooth curve. This chart was found convenient
in plotting the target for the determination of hits.
These corrections vary with the range. They are incorrect for application as a range correction until the !lip corresponding thereto is determined
from the range table. With this !lip as an argument, the !lR to be applied
at the range scale is determined from the R<px, or RIpE, table for the battery.
3. The correction expressed in feet of tide is,
!lRt = 3 X correction in yards X tan(w +e)
4. To adjust the center of impact to the center of the record target, a
chart was made showing the above corrections expressed in feet of tide, by
plotting the corrections for every 3000 yards from zero to 11,000 yards and
connecting the points by a smooth curve.
It was seen that a flat correction could be made by~the tide curve for
target practice ranges without material error. For Battery Eustis the
correction was about 13 feet of tide.
I t will be observed that the greater tide curves on the
latest range correction charts were plotted up to
40 feet of
tide for this purpose, and to meet the service condition in
placing the center of impact at the desired point on a hostile
target.
+
54
DIRECT FIRE
The 1914 record target is described in the Regulations
for the Instruction and Target Practice of Coast Artillery Troops, .
1914 as follows:
123. Record Target for Alajor and Intermediate Caliber Guns.Using
a piece of crosssection paper at a scale of 50 yards to the inch, consider
one of the heavy lines as the track of the target and the intersection
of the two heavy lines as the location of the towed target.
On the
track of the target layoff the length of the towline and plot the position
of the tug.
Draw a line of direction through the center of the target and
the directing point of the battery.
Draw two lines parallel to and 15 yards
from the track of the target.
Similarly, draw two lines parallel to and 15
yards from the line of direction.
The parallelogram
so formed is the horizontal projection of a section of a battleship,
and is part of the record
target.
To complete the record target extend the sides of this parallelogram 10 yards toward the battery and the length of the danger space
away from the battery, assuming the freeboard of a battleship as 30 feet.
Thi~ completed parallelogram
is the record target.
TABLE
A
Values of aI/a for temperature and pressure of atmosphere
78% saturated with moisture. (From Artillery Note No. 25.)
Ther.
F.
20°
19°
18°
17°
16 °
15°
14 °
13°
12 °
11°
10 °
9°
8°
7 °
6 °
5 °
4 °
3 °
2
0
1 °
°
1°
2°
3°
4°
o
28"
Barometer
29"
30"
0.890
0.892
0.894
0.896
0.898
0.901
0.903
0.905
0.907
0.910
0.912
0.914
0.916
0.918
0.920
0.922
0.924
0.926
0.928
0.930
0.932
0.934
0.936
0.938
0.940
0.861
0.863
0.864
0.866
0.868
0.870
0.872
0.874
0.876
0.878
0.880
0.881
0.883
0.885
0.887
0.889
0.891
0.893
0.895
0.897
0.899
0.901
0.903
0.905
0.907
T her.
31"
0.831
0.806
0.833
0.808
0.835
0.809
0.837
0.811
0.839
0.813
0.841
0.815
0.843
0.816
0.845
0.818
0.847
0.820
0.848
0.822
0.850
0.824
0.852 . 0.826
0.854
0.827
0.856
0.829
0.858
0.831
0.860
0.833
0.862
0.835
0.864
0.836
0.866
0.838
0.868
0.840
0.870
0.842
0.871
0.844
0.873
0.845
0.876
0.847
0.878
0.849
F.
2811
Barometer
30"
29"
31"
5°
6°
7°
8°
9°
10°
11°
12°
13°
14°
15°
16°
17°
18°
19°
20°
21°
22°
23°
24°
25°
26°
27°
28°
29°
0.942
0.944
0.946
0.948
0.950
0.952
0.954
0.956
0.958
0.960
0.962
0.964
0.966
0.968
0.971
0.973
0.975
0.977
0.979
0.981
0.983
0.985
0.987
0.990
0.992
0.880
0.909
0.881
0.911
0.883
0.913
0.885
0.915
0.887
0.917
0.889
0.919
0.890
0.921
0.892
0.923
0.894
0.925
0.927
0.897
0.929
0.899
0.901
0.931
0.903
0.933
0.905
0.935
0.907
0.937
0.909
0.939
0.941 .0.911
0.912
0.943
0.914
0.945
0.916
0.947
0.918
0.949
0.920
0.951
0.953 .0.922
0.924
0.955
0.926
0.958
0.851
0.853
0.855
0.856
0.858
0.860
0.862
0.864
0.866
0.867
0.869
0.871
0.873
0.875
0.877
0.879
0.881
0.883
0.885
0.887
0.888
0.890
0.892
0.894
0.896
DIRECT
TABLE
Ther.
28"
30°
31°
32°
33°
34°
.35°
36°
0.994
0.996
0.998
1.000
1.003
1.005
1.007
1.009
1.011
1.013
1.015
1.017
1.019
1.021
1.023
1.026
1.028
1.030
1.033
1.035
1.037
1.040
1.042
1.044
1.046
1.048
1.050
1.053
1.055
1.057
1.059
1.062
1.064
1.066
1.068
1.071
37°
38°
39°
40°
41°
42°
43°
44°
45°
46°
47°
48°
49°
50°
51°
'52°
53°
54°
55°
56°
57°
58°
59°
60°
61°
62°
63°
64°
65°
AContinued.
29"
0.960
0.962
0.964
0.966
0.968
0.970
0.972
0.974
0.976
0.978
0.980
0.982
0.984
0.987
0.989
0.991
0.993
0.995
0.997
0.999
1.002
1.004
1.006
1.008
1.010
1.012
1.014
1.016
1.018
1.020
1.022
1.025
1.027
1.029
1.031
1.033 .
Barometer
Ther.
Barometer
F.
55
FIRE
30"
31"
F.
28"
29"
30"
31"
0.928
0.930
0.932
0.934
0.936
0.938
0.940
0.943
0.945
0.947
0.949
0.951
0.953
0.955
0.957
0.959
0.961
0.963
0.964
0.966
0.968
0.970
0.972
0.974
0.976
0.978
0.980
0.982
0.984
0.986
0.988
0.990
0.992
0.994
0.996
0.998
0.898
0.899
0.902
0.903
0.906
0.907
0.909
0.911
0.913
0.915
0.917
0.919
0.921
0.923
0.925
0.927
0.929
0.931
0.933
0.935
0.937
0.939
0.941
0.943
0.945
0.947
0.949
0.951
0.952
0.954
0.956
0.958
0.960
0.962
0.964
0.966
66°
67°
68°
69°
1.073
1.075
1.078
1".080
1.082
1.085
1.087
1.089
1.092
1.094
1.096
1.099
1.101
1.104
1.106
1.109
1.111
1.114
1.116
1.119
1.121
1.124
1.126
1.129
1.131
1.134
1.136
1.139
1.142
1.144
1.147
1.149
1.152
1.155
1.157
1.035
1.037
1.040
1.042
1.044
1.046
1.048
1.050
1.053
1.055
1.057
1.059
1.062
1.064
1.066
1.068
1.071
1.074
1.076
1.079
1.081
1083
1.086
1.089
1.092
1.094
1.096
1.099
1.102
1.105
1.107
1.110
1.112
1.115
1.117
1.001
1.003
1.005
1.007
1.009
1.011
1.013
1.015
1.017
1.019
1.022
1.025
1.027
1.029
1.031
1.033
1.035
1.038
1.041
1.043
1.045
1.047
1.049
1.053
1.055
1.057
1.059
1.062
1.064
1.066
1.068
1.071
1.074
1.076
1.079
0.968
0.970
'0.973
0.975
0.977
0.979
0.981
0.983
0.985
0.987
0.989
0.992
0.994
0.996
0.998
1.000
1.002
1.005
1.007
1.009
1.011
1.013
1.016
1.018
1.020
1.022
1.025
1.027
1.029
1.031
1.033
1.035
1.037
1.040
1.042
70°
71°
72°
73°
74°
75°
76°
77°
78°
79°
80°
81°
82°
83°
84°
85°
86°
87°
88°
89°
90°
91°
92°
93°
94°
95°
96°
97°
98°
99°
100°
56
DIRECT FIRE
TABLE
B
(Taken from Ingalls' Table II, Artillery Circular M)
V = 2000 f.s.
X
z=C
10gB'
A.
u
100
200
300
0.0037
0.0074
0.0111
37
37
37
1975
.1949
1924
400
500
600
0.0148
0.0186
0.0223
38
37
38
700
800
900
0.0261
0.0299
0.0337
1000
1100
1200
Az
1"
Az
log C'
A1.
26
25
25
0.051
0.103
0.156
52
53
53
10
4.9092
4.9129
4.9167
37
38
37
1899
1874
1850
25
24
24
0.209
0.262
0.316
53
54
55
4.9204
4.9242
4.9280
38
38
39
38
38
38
1826
1802
1779
24
23
23
0.371
0.426
0.482
55
56
56
4.9319
4.9357
4.9396
38
39
39
0.0375
0.0413
0.0451
38
38
38
1756
1733
1711
23
22
22
0.538
0.595
0.652
57
57
58
4.9435
4.9474
4.9514
39
40
40
1300
1400
1500
0.0489
0.0527
0.0566
38
39
38
1689
1667
1645
22
22
21
0.710
0.769
0.829
59
60
61
4.9554
4.9594
4.9634
40
40
40.
1600
1700
1800
0.0604
0.0643
0.0681
39
38
38
1624
1603
1582
21
21
21
0.890
0.952
1.014
62
62
63
4.9674
4.9715
4.9756
41 .
41
41
1900
2000
2100
0.0719
0.0758
0.0796
39
38
38
1561
1540
1520
21
20
20
1.077
1.142
1.207
65
65
66
4.9797
4.9838
4.9880
41
42
41
2200
2300
2400
0.0834
0.0873
0.0911
39
38
38
1500
1480
1461
20
19
19
1.273
1.,340
1.408
67
' 68
69
4.9921
4.9963
5.0005
42
42
42
2500
2600
2700
0.0949
0.0987
0.1024
38
37
37
1442
1423
1404
19
19
18
1.477
1.547
1.618
70
71
71
5.0047
5.0090
5.0132
43
42
43
2800
2900
3000
0.1061
0.1099
0.1136
38
37
37
1386
1368
1350
18
18
18
1.689
1.762
1.836
. 73
74
75
5.0175
5.0218
5.0261
43
43
44
3100
3200
3300
0.1173
0.1219
0.1246
36
37
36
1332
1315
1298
17
17
16
1.911
1.986
2.063
75
77
77
5.0305
5.0349
5.0393
44
44
44
3400
3500
3600
0.1282
0.1318
0.1353
36
35
36
1282
1266
1251
16
15
15
2.140
2.219
2.298
79
79
80
5.0437
5.0481
5.0525
44
44
44
.
57
DIRECT FIRE
TABLE
B
(Taken from Ingalls' Table II, Artillery
Circular M)
V = 2000 r.s.
X
z=C
log B'
L\z
u
L\z
T'
L\z
log C'
L\z
3700
3800
3900
0.1389
0.1423
0.1458
34
35
34
1236
1222
1209
14
13
13
2.378
2.459
2.542
81
83
83
10
5.0569
5.0613
5.0657
4000
4100
4200
0.1492
0.1525
0.1557
33
32
30
1196
1184
1172
12
12
12
2.625
2.709
2.794
84
85
86
5.0701
5.0746
5.0791
45
45
' 45
4300
4400
4500
0.1587
0.1617
0.1645
30
28
28
1160
1149
1138
11
11
11
2.880
2.967
3.054
87
87
88
5.0836
5.0881
5.0925
45
44
45
4600
4700
4800
0.1673
0.1699
0.1724
' 26
25
25
1127
1117
1107
10
10
9
3.142
3.231
3.321
89
90
91
5.0970
5.1014
5.lOfl8
44
44
43
4900
5000
5100
0.1749
0.1772
0.1795
23
23
22
1098
1089
1080
9
9
8
3.412
3.503
3.595
91
92
93
5.1101
5.1145
5.1189
44
44
43
5200
5300
5400
0.1817
0.1838
0.1858
21
20
19
1072
1064
1056
8
8
8
3.688
3.782
3.876
94
94
95
5.1232
5.1276
5.1319
44
43
42
5500
5600
5700
0.1877
0.1895
0.1913
18
18
17
1048
1040
1033
8
7
7
3.971
4.067
4.164
96
97
97
5.1361
5.1404
5.1446
43
42
42
5800
5900
6000
0.1930
0.1946
0.1962
16
16
15
1026
1019
i012
7
7
6
4.261
4.359
. 4.457
98
98
99
5.1488
5.1530
5.1571
42
41
41
6100
6200
6300
0.1977
0.1991
0.2005
14
14
13
1006
999
993
7
6
6
4.556
4.656
4.756
100
100
101
5.1612
5.1653
5.1693
41
40
40
6400
6500
6600
0.2018
0.2031
0.2043
13
12
12
987
981
976
6
5
6
4.857
4.959
5.061
102
102
103
5.1733
5.1773
5.1813
40
40
40
6700
6800
6900
0.2055
0.2066
0.2077
11
11
11
970
964
958
6
6
5
5.164
5.267
5.371
103
104
105
5.1853
5.1892
5.1931
39
39
38
7000
0.2088
10
953
5
5.476
105
5.1969
38
44"
44
44
58
DIRECT
FIRE
TABLE B
(Taken from Ingalls' Table II, Artillery
V
X
z=C
log B'
.1z
u
100
200
300
0.0037
0.0074
0.0111
37
37
37
2073
2047
2021
400
500
600
0.0148'
0.0185
0.0222
37
37
37
700
800
900
0.0259
0.0296
0.0333
1000
1100
1200
=
Circular M)
2100 f.s.
T'
.1z
log C'
.1z
26
26
26
0.048
0.097
0.146
49
49
50
10
4.8663
' 4.8700
4.8737
37
37
37
1995
1970
1945
25
25
25
0.196
0.246
0.297
50
' 51
52
4.8774
4.8812
4.8850
38
38
38
37
37
38
1920
1895
1871
25
24
24
0.349
0.401 '
0.454
52
53
54
4.8888
4.8926
4.8965
38
39
39
0.0371
0.0409
0.0447
38
38
38
1847
1823
1800
24
23
24
0.508
0.562
0.617
54
55
56
4.9004
4.9043
4.9082
39
39
, 40
1300
1400
1500
0.0485
0.0523
0.0561
38
38
3~
1776
1753
1730
23
23
22
0.673
0.730
0.787
57
57
58
4.9122
4.9161
4.9201
39
40
40
1600
1700
1800
0.0600
0.0638
0.0676
38
38
38
1708
1686
1664
22
22
22
0.845
0.904
0.964
59
60
61
4.9241
4.9282
4.9322
41
40
41
1900
2000
0.0714
0.0752
0.0790
38
38
39
1642
1620
1599
22
21
21
1.025
1.086
1.148
61
62
63
4.9363
4.9404
4.9445
41
41
41
2200
2300
2400
0.0829
0.0867
0.0905
38
38
38
1578
.1557
1537
21
20
20
1.211
1.275
1'.339
64
64
65
4.9486
4.9528
4.9570
42
42
42
2500
2600
2700
0.0943
0.0981
0.1019
38
38
38
1517
1497
1477
20
20
19
1.404
1.471
1.538
67
67
69
4.9612
4.9654
4.9696
42
42
43
2800
2900
3000
0.1057
0.1094
0.1132
37
38
39
1458
1439
1420
19
19
19
1.607
1.676
1.746
69
70
71
4.9739
4.9782
4.9825
43
43
43
3100
3200
3300
0.1171
0.1210
0.1249
39
39
38
1401
1383
1365
18
18
18
1.817
1.889
1.962
72
73
73
4.9868
4.9912
4.9955
44
43
44
3400
3500
3600
0.1287
0.1324
0.1361
37
37
36
1347
1330
1313
17
17
16
2.035
2.110
2.186
75
76
76
4.9999
5.0043
5.0087
44
2100
.
.1z
..
44
45
59
DIRECT FIRE
TABLE B
(Taken from Ingalls' Table II, Artillery Circular M)
V
X
z=C
log B'
u
Az


= 21D0
Az
f.s.
T'
Az
Jog C'
Az


3700
3800
3900
0.1397
0.1432
0.1467
35
35
35
1297
1281
1266
16
15
15
2.262
2.340
2.418
78
78
80
10
5.0132
5.0176
5.0221
44
45
45
4000
4100
4200
0.1502
0.1536
0.1570
34
34
34
1251
1236
1222
15
14
13
2.498
2.579
2.660
81
81
82
5.0266
5.0311
5.0356
45
45
45
4300
4400
4500
0.1604
0.1638
0.1671
34
33
32
1209
1196
1183
13
13
12
2.742
2.825
2.909
83
84
85
5.0401
5.0446
5.0491
45
45
45
4600
4700
4800
0.1703
0.1733
0.1762
30
29
28
1171
1159
1147
.12
12
11
2.994
3.080
3.167
86
87
87
5.0536 .
5.0581
5.0626
45
45
46
4900
5000
5100
0.1790
0.1818
0.1844
28
26
24
1136
1126
1116
10
10
10
3.254
3.343
3.432
89
89
91
5.0672
5.0717
5.0763
45
46
45
5200
5300
5400
0.1868
0.1892
0.1916
24
24
23
1106
1097
1088
9
9
9
3.523
3.614
3.706
91
92
92
5.0808
5.0853
5.0898
45
45
45
5500
5600
5700
0.1939
0.1961
0.1982
22
21
20
1079
1071
1062
8
9
8
3.798
3.891
3.985
93
94
94
5.0943
5.0987
5.1031
44
44
44
5800
5900
6000
0.2002
0.2022
0.2041
20
19
17
1054
1046
1039
8
7
7
4.079
4.174
4.270
95
96
97
5.1075
5.1119
5.1162
44
43
43
6100
6200
6300
0.2058
0.2074
0.2090
16
16
15
1032
1025
1018
7
7
6
4.367
4.464
4.562
97
98
99
5.1205
5.1248
5.1291
43
43
42
6400
6500
6600
0.2105
0.2120
0.2134
15
14
14
1012
1005
999
7
6
7
4.661
4.760
4.860
99 ~
100
100
5.1333
5.1375
5.1417
42
42
42
6700
6800
6900
0.2148
0.2162
0.2175
14
13
12
992
986
980
6
6
6
4.960
5.061
5.163
101
102
102
5.1459
5.1500
5.1541
41
41
41
7000
0.2187
11
974
6
5.265
103
5.1582
40
I
60
DIRECT FIRE
TABLE B
(Taken fromlngalls' Table II, Artillery Circular M)
X
V
=
2200
u
.1z
T'
z=C
log B'
.1z
100
200
300
0.0036
0.0072
0.0108
36
36
37
2173
2146
. 2120
27
26
27
400 .
500
600
0.0145
0.0181
0.0218
36
37
37
2093
2067
2041
700
800
900
0.0255
0.0292
0.0329
37
37
37
1000
1100
1200
0.0366
0.0404.
0.0441
1300
1400
1500
f.s.
.1z
log C'
.1z
0.046
0.092
0.139
46
47
47
10
4.8266
4.8301
4.8337
35
36
36
26
26
26
0.186
0.234
0.283
48
49
49
4.8373
4.8409
4.8446
36
37
37
2015
1990
1964
. 25
26
25
0.332
0.382
0.433
50
51
51
4.8483
4.8520
4.8557
37
37
38
38
37
38
. 1939
1914
1889
25
25
24
0.484
0.536
0.588
52
52
54
4.8595
4.8633
4.8672
38
39
39
0.0479
0.0516
0.0554
37
38
38
1865
1840
1816
25.
24
23
0.642
0.696
0.750
54
54
56
4.8711
4.8750
4.8789
39
39
39
1600
1700
1800
0.0592
0.0630
0.0668
38
38
38
.1793
1769
1746
24
23
23
0.806
0.862
0.919
56
57
58
4.8828
4.8868
4.8908
40
40
40
. 1900
2000
2100
. 0.0706
0.0745
0.0783 .
39
38
38
1723
1701
1679
22
22
22
0.977
1.035
1.094
58
59
60
4.8948
4.8989
4.9030
41
41
41
2200
2300
2400
0.0821
0.0860
0.0898
39
38
38
1657
1636
1614
21
22
21
1.154
1.215
1.277
61
62
62
4.9071
4.9112
4.9154
41
42
41
2500
2600
2700
0.0936
0.0974
0.1012
38
38
38
1593
1572
1552
21
20
21
1.339
1.403
1.467
64
64
65
4.9195
4.9237
4.9279
42
42
43
2800
2900
3000
0.1050
0.1088
0.1l26
38
38
38
1531
151l
1491
20
20
20
1.532
1.597
1.664
65
67
67
4.9322
4.9364
4.9407
42
43
43
3100
3200
3300
0.1l64
0.1202
0.1240
38
38
37
1471
1452
1433
19
19
19
1.731
1.799
1.868
68
69
70
4.9450
4.9493
4.9536
43
43
43
3400
3500 _.
3600
0.1277
0.1315
0.1353
38
38
37
1414
1395
1377
19
18
17
1.938
2.009
2.0R2
71
73
73
4.9579
4.9623
4.9667
44
44
44
I
61
DIRECT FIRE
TABLE B
(Taken from Ingalls' Table II. Artillery
Circular M)
V = 2200 f.s.
X
Z=C
10gB'
Az
u
Az
T'
Az
log C'
Az
3700
3800
3900
0.1390
0.1428
0.1465
38
37
38
1360
1342
1325
18
17
16
2.155
2.229
2.304
74
75
76
10
4.9711
4.9755
4.9800
44
45
45
4000
4100
4200
0.1503
0.1540
0.1577
37
37
36
1309
1293
1277
16
16
16
2.380
2.457
2.535
77
78
78
4.9845
4.9890
4.9935
45
45
46
4300
4400
4500
0.1613
0.1648
0.1682
35
34
34
1261
.1246
1232
15
14
14
2.613
2.693
2.774
80
81
81
4.9981
5.0026
5.0072
45
46
46
4600
4700
4800
0.1716
0.1749
0.1782
33
33
32
1218
1204
1191
14
13
12
2.855
2.938
3.021
83
83
85
5.0118
5.0163
5.0209
45
46
46
4900
5000
5100
0.1814
. 0.1845
0.1876
31
31
29
1179
1167
1155
12
12
11
3.106
3.191
3.277
85
86
87
5.0255
5.0301
5.0347
46
46
46
5200
5300
5400
0.1905
0.1934.
0.1961
29
27
26
1144
1134
1123
10
11
10
3.364
3.452
3.541
88
89
89
5.0393
5.0439
5.0485
46
46
46
5500
5600
5700
0.1987
0.2013
0.2037
26
24
23
1113
1103
1094
10
9
9
3.630
3.720 .
3.811
90
91
92
5.0531
5.0577
5.0622
46
45
45
5800
5900
6000
0.2060
0.2083
0.2104
23
21
21
1085
1076
1068
9
8
8
3.903
3.996
4.089
93
93
94
5.0667
5.0713
5.0758
46
45
45
6100
6200
6300
0.2125
0.2145
0.2164
20
19
18
1060
1052
1045
8
7
8
4.183
4.278
4.374
95
96
96
5.0803
5.0848
5.0893
45
45
44
6400
6500
6600
0.2182
0.2199
0.2216
17
17
16
1037
1030
1023
7
7
7
4.470
4.567
4.664
97
97
98
_ 5.0937
50981
5.1025
44
44
44
6700
6800
6900
0.2232
0.2248
0.2262
16
14
14
1016
1010
1003
6
7
6
4.762
4.861
4.960
99
99
100
5.1069
5.1112
5.1155
43
43
43
7000
0.2276
13
997
6
5.060
101
5.1198
43
I
62
DIRECT FIRE
TABLE B
(Taken from Ingalls' Table II, Artillery Circular M)
V
~_=~I
10gB'
.1.
=
u
2300 f.s.
.1•
T'

.1•
log C'
.1.


35
35
36
.
100
200
300
0.0036
0.0071
0.0107
35
36
36
2272
2244
2216
28
28
27
0.044
0.088
0.133
44
45
45
10
4.7878
4.7913
4.7948
400
500
600
0.0143
0.0179
0.0215
36
36
36
2189
2162
2135
27
27
27
0178
0.224
0.271
46
47
47
4.7984
4.8020
4.8056
36
36
37
700
800
900
0.0251
0.0287
0.0324
36
37
37
2108
2082
2056
26
26
26
0.318
0.366
0.414
48
48
49
4.8093
4.8130
4.8167
37
37
'37
1000
1100
1200
0.0361
0.0398
0.0435
37
37
37
2030
2004
1979
26
25
25
0.463
0.513
0.563
50
50
51
4.8204
4.8242
4.8280
38
38
38
1300
~400
1500
0.0472
0.0509
0.0546
37
37
38
1954
1929
1904
25
25
25
0.614
0.665
0.717
51
52
53
4.8318
4.8356
4.8395
38
39
39
1600
1700
1800
0.0584
0.0621
0.0659
37
38
38
1879
1855
1831
24
24
24
0.770
0.824
0.878
54
54
55
4.8434
4.8473
4.8512
39
39
40
1900
2000
2100
0.0697
0.0735
0.0773
38
38
38
1807
1784
1761
23
23
23
0.933
0.989
1.045
56
56
57
4.8552
4.8592
4.8632
40
40
41
2200
2300
2400
0.0811
0.0849
0.0887
38
38
38
1738
1715
1693
23
22
22
1.102
1.160
1.219
58
59
60
4.8673
4.8713
4.8754
40
41
42
2500
2600
2700
0.0925
0.0963
0.1002
38
39
38
1671
1649
1627
22
22
21
1.279
1.339
1.400
60
61
62
4.8796
4.8837
4.8879
41
42
42
2800
2900
3000
0.1040
0.1078
0.1117
38
39
38
1606
1585
1564
21
21
21
1.462
1.525
1.588
63
63
64
4.8921
4.8963
4.9005
42
42
42
3100
3200
3300
0.1155
0.1192
0.1230
37
38
38
1543
1523
1503
20
20
20
1.652
1.717
1.783
65
66
67
4.9047
49090
4.9133
43
43
43
3400
3500
3600
0.1268
0.1306
0.1344
38
38
38
1483
1464
1445
19
19
19
1.850
1.918
1.987
68
69
70
4.9176
4.9220
4.926.'1
44
44
44
63
DIRECT FIRE
TABLE
B
(Taken from Ingalls' Table II, Artillery
CircUlar M)
V = 2300 f.s.
X
z=C
log B'
3700
3800
3900
0.1382
0.1420
0.1458
38
38
38
1426
1407
1389
19
18
18
2.057
2.127
2.198
70
71
73
10
4.9308
4.9352
4.9396
44
44
45
4000
4100
4200
0.1496
0.1534
0.1572
38
38
38
1371
1353
1335
18
18
17
2.271
2.344
2.418
73
74
76
4.9441
4.9486
4.9531
45
45
45
4300
, 4400
4500
0.1610
0.1647
0.1683
37
36
36
1318
1301
1285
17
16
16
2.494
2.570
2647
76
77
78
4.9576
4.9621
4.9667
45
46
46
4600
4700
4800
0.1719
0.1754
0.1789
35
35
34
1269
1254
1239
15
15
14
2.725
2.804
2.885
79
81
81
4.9713
4.9759
4.9805
46
46
46
4900
5000
5100
0.1823
0.1857
0.1891
34
34
33
1225
1212
1199
13
13
12
2.966
3.048
3.131
82
83
84
4.9851
4.9897
4.9943
46
46
47
5200
5300
5400
0.1924
0.1956
0.1987
32
31
30
1187
1175
1163
12
12
12
3.215
3.300
3.386
85
86
87
4.9990
5.0036
5.0083
46
47
46
5500 '
5600
5700
0.2017
0.2046
0.2074
29
28
26
1151
1140
1130
11
10
11
3.473
3.560
3.648
87
88
89
5.0129
5.0176
5.0222
47
46
47
5800
5900
6000
0.2100
. 0.2126
0.2151
26
25
24
1119
1109
1100
10
9
9
3.737
3.827
3.917
90
90
91
5.0269
5.0315
5.0362
46
47
47
6100
6200
6300
0.2175
0.2198
0.2220
23
22
22
1091
1082
1073
9
9
8
4.008
4.100
4.193
92
93
94
5.0409
5.0456
5.0502
47
46
46
6400
6500
6600
0.2242
0.2262
0.2282
QO
20
19
1065
1057
1049
8
8
8
4.287
4.381
4.476
94
95
95
5.0548
5.0594
5.0639
'46
45
46
6700
6800
6900
0.2301
0.2319
0.2336
18
17
16
1041
1034
1027
7
7
7
4.571
4.667
4.764
96
97
98
5.0685
5.0730
5.0774
45
44
45
7000
0.2352
15
1020
6
4.862
99
5.0819
45
~z
U
~z
T'
~z
log C'
~z
~4
DIRECT FIRE
j
j
TABLE
(Taken from Ingalls' Table II, Artillery
V
Z
X
=,
C
=
I
B
Circular M)
2400 f.s.
J
log B'
~z
U
~z
T'
~z
log C'
~z
100
200
.300
0.0035
. 0.0070
0.0105
35
35
35
2371
2342
2314
29
28
28
0.082
0.044
0.127
42
43
43
10
.. 4.7506
4.'7541
4.7576
35
35
36
400
500
600
0.0140
0.0176
.0.0212
36
.36
36
2286
2258
2231
28
27
28
0.170
0.214
0.259
44
45
45
4.7612
4.7647
4.7683
35
36
36
700
800
900
0.0248
0.0284
0.0320
36
36
36
2203
2176
2149
27
27
27
0.304
. 0.350
0.396
46
46
47
4.7719
4.7755
4.7792
36
37
37
1000
1100
1200
0.0356
0.0392
0.0429
36
37
36
2122
2095
2069
27
26
26
0.443
0.491
0.539
48
48
49
4.7829
. 4.7866
4.7903
37
37
38
1300
1400
1500
0.0465
0.0502
0.0539
37
37
37
2043
2017
1992
26
25
26
49
50
51
4.7941
4.7979
4.8017
38
38
39
1600
1700
1800
0.0576
0.0613
0.0651
37
38
37
1966
1941
1916
25
25
25
0.588.
0.637
0.687
,
0.738
0.789
0.841
51
52
52
4.8056
4.8094
4.8133
38
39
39
.1900
2000
2100
0.0688
0.0726
0.0764
38
38
38
1891
1867
1843
24
24
24
0.893
0.946
1.000
53
54
54
4.8172
4.8212
48252
40
40
40
2200
2300 .
2400
0.0802
0.0840
0.0878
38
38
38
1819.
1795
1772
24
23
23
1.054
1.110
1.166
56
56
57
4.8292
4.8332
4.8372
40
40
41
2500
2600
2700
0.0916
0.0954
0.0992
38
38
39
1749
1726
1703
23
23
22
1.223
1.280
1.338
57
58
59
4.8413
4.8454
4.8495
41
41
41
2800
2900
3000
0.1031
0.1069
0.1107
38
38
38
.1681
1659
1637
22
22
21
1.397
1.457
1.518
60
61
61.
4.8536
4.8578
4.8620
42
42
42
3100
3200
3300
0.1145
. 0.1182
0.1220
37
38
38
1616
1595
1574
21
21
20
1.579
1.641
1.704
62
63
64
4.8662
4.8704
4.8747
42
43
43
38
38
38
1554
1534
1514
20
20
20
1.768
1.833
1.899
65
66
67
4.8790
4.8833
4.8876
43
43 .
44
3400
350Q
3600
0.1258
0.1296 .
0.1334
1
DIRECT FIRE
TABLE
65
B
(Taken froIn .Ingalls' Table II, Artillery Circular M)
V = 2400 f.s.
X
z=C
log B'
u
..1.
..1.
T'
..1•
log C'
..1.
3700
3800
3900
0.1372
0.1410
0.1449
38
39
38
1494
1475
1455
19
20
19
1.966
2.033
2.102
67
69
69
10
4.8920
4.8964
4.9008
44
44
44
4000
4100
4200
0.1487
0.1525
0.1563
38
38
38
1436
1417
1398
19
19
19
2.171
2.241
2.311
70
70
72
4.9052
4.9096
4.9141
44
45
45
4300
4400
4500
0.1601
0.1638
0.1675
37
37
37
1379
1361
1344
18
17
17
2.383
2A56
2.530
73
74
75
4.9186
4.9231
4.9276
45 '
45
45
4600
4700
4800
0.1712
0.1749
0.1786
37
37
36
1327
1310
1294
17
16
16
2.605
2.680
2.757
75
77
78
 4.9321
4.9367
4.9413
46
46
46
4900
5000
5100
0.1822
0.1858
0.1894
36
36
36
1278
1263
1248
15
15
15
2.835
2.914
2.994
7f)
80
81
 4.9459
4.9506
4.9553
47
47
46
5200
5300
5400
0.1930
0.1965
0.1999
35
34
33
1233
1219
1206
14
13
13
3.07.5
3;156
3.239
81
83
83
4.9599
4.9646
4.9693
47
47
47
5500
5600
5700
0.2032
0.2064
0.2095
32
31
30
1193
1180
1168
13
12
12
3.322
3.406
3.491
84
85
86
4.9740
4.9787
4.9834
47
47
.47
5800
5900
6000
0.2125
0.2154
0.2182
29
28
27
1156
1145
1134
11
11
10
3.577
3.664
3.752
87
88
89
4.9881
4.9929
4.9976
48
47
47
6100 .
 6200
6300
0.2209
0.2235
0.2261
26
26
25
1124
1114
1104
10
10
9
3.841
3.930
4.020
89
90
91
5.0023
5.0071
5.0118
48
47
47
6400
6500
6600
0.2286
0.2310
0.2333
24
23
22
1095
1086
1077
9
9
8
4.111
4.203
4.295
92
92
93
~5.0165
5,0212
5.0258
47
46
47
6700
6800
6900
0.2355
0.2376
0.2396
21
20
19
1069
1061
1053
8
8
8
4.388
4.482
4.577
94
95
95
5.0305
5.0352
5.0398
47
46
46
7000
0.2415
18
1045
7
4.672
96
5.0444
46
66
DIRECT FIRE
TABLE B
(Taken from Ingalls' Table II, Artillery Czrcular M)
r.s.
V = 2500
X
z=C
log B'
t.z
u
100 .
200
300
0.0035
0.0070
0.0105
35
35
35
2470
2441
2412
29
29
29
400
500
600
0.0140
0.0175
0.0210
35
35
35
2383
2354
2326
700
800
900
0.0245
0.0281
0.0316
36
35
36
1000
1100
1200
0.0352
0.0388
0.0424
1300
1400
1500
T'
t.z
~z
log C'
liz
0.040
0.081
0.122
41
41
42
10
4.7150
4.7185
4.7220
35
35
35
29
28
28
0.164
0.206
0.249
42
43
43
4.7255
4.7290
4.7325
35
35
36
2298
2270
2242
28
28
28
0.292
0.336
0.380
44
44
45
4.7361
. 4.7397
4.7433 .
36
36
37
36
36
36
2214
21&7
2160
27
27
27
0.425
0.470
0.516
45
46
47
4.7470
4.7507
4.7544
37
37
37
0.0460
0.0496
0.0532
36
36
36
2133
2106
2080
27
26
26
0.563
0.610
0.658
47
48
48
4.7581
4.7618
4.7656
37
38
38
1600
1700
1800
0.0568
0.0605
0.0642
37
37
37
2054
2028
2002
26
26
26
0.706
0.755
0.805
49
50
50
4.7694
4.7732
4.7770
38
38
39
1900
2000
2100
0.0679
0.0716
0.0753
37
37
38
1976
1951
1926
25
25
25
0.855
0.906
0.958
51
52
52
4.7809
4.7848
4.7887
39
39
39
2200
2300
2400
0.0791
0.0828
0.0866
37
38
38
1901
1876
1852
25
24
24
1.010
1.063
1.117
53
54
54
4.7926
4.7966
4.8006
40
40
40
2500
2600
2700
0.0904
0.0942
0.0980
38
38
38
1828
1804
1781
24
23
23
1.171
1.226 .
1.282
55
56
57
4.8046
4.8086 .
4.8127
40
41
41
2800
2900
3000
0.1018
0.1056
0.1094
38
38
38
1758
1735
1712
23
23
22
1.339
1.396
1.454
57
58
59
4.8168
4.8209
4.8250
41
41
41
3100
3200
3300
0.1132
0.1170
0.1208
38
38
38
1690
1668
1646
22
22
21
1.513
1.572
1.632
59
60
61
4.8291
4.8333
4.8375
42
42
42
3400
3500
3600
0.1246
0.1284
0.1322
38
38
39
1625
1604
1583
21
21
21
1.693
1.755
1.818
62
63
64
4.8417
4.8460
4.8503
4
43
43
67
DIRECT FIRE
TABLE
B
(Taken from Ingalls' Table II, Artillery Circular M)
V  2500 f.s.
X
z=C
log B'
~I
3700
3800
3900
0.1361
0.1399
0.1437
38
38
38
1562
1541
1521
21
20
20
1.882
1.946
2.012
64
66
66
10
4.8546
4.8589
4.8633
43
.44
44
4000
4100
4200
0.1475
0.1513
0.1551
38
38
38
1501
1481
1461
20
20
19
2.078
2.145
2.213
67
68
68
4.8677
4.8721
4.8765
44
44
44
4300
4400
4500
0.1589
0.1626
0.1663
37
37
38
1442
1423
1404
19
19
18
2.281
2.351
2.422
70
71
72
4.8809
. 4.8854
4.8899
45
45
45
4600
4700
4800
0.1701
0.1739
0.1776
38.
37
38
1386
1368
1351
18
17
17
2.494
2.567
2.640
73
73
74
4.8944
4.8990
4.9036
46
46
46
4900
5000
5100
0.1814
0.1852
0.1890
. 38
38
37
1334
1317
1300
17
.17
16
2.714
2.790
2.866
76
76
78
4.9082
4.9128
4.9174
46
46
47
5200
5300
5400
0.1927
0.1964
0.2000
37
36
35
1284
1268
1253
16.
15
15
2.944
3.022 .
3.101
78
79
80
4.9221
4.9268
4.9315
47
47
47
5500
5600
5700
0.2035
0.2069
0.2103
34
34
33
1238
1224
1211
14
13
13
3.181
3.262
3.344
81
82
83
4.9362
4.9409
4.9456
47
47
47
5800
5900
6000
0.2136
0.2168
.0.2199
32
31
31
1198
1185
1173
13
12
11
3.427
3.511
3.596
84
85
86
4.9503
4.9551
4.9599
48
48
48
6100
6200
6300
0.2230
0.2260
0.2289
30
29
.27
1162
1151
1140
11
11
11
3.682
3.769
3.856
87
87
88
4.9647
4.9695
4.9743
48
48
47
6400
6500
6600
0.2318
0.2345
0.2371
27
26
25
1129
1119
11'09
10
10
9
3.944
4.033
4.123
89
90
91
4.9790.
4.9838
4.9886
48
48
47
6700
6800
6900
0.2396
0.2420
0.2443
24
23
22
1100 .
1091
1082
9
9
9
4.214
4.305
4.397
91
92
93
4.9933
4.9981
5.0028
48
47
48
7000
0.2465
21
1073
8
4.490
94
5.0076
48
U
T'
~I
~I
log C'
.
~I
.
68
DIRECT FIRE
TABLEB
(Taken from Ingalls' Table II, Artillery
Circular M)
V = 2600 f.s.
x
Z=c C
!
log B'
u
T',
log C'
'100
200,
.300
0.0034
0.0069
0.0103
35
34
35
2569
2539
2509
30
30
30
0.039
0.078
0.118
39
40
10
4.6809
4.6843
4.6878
400,
500
600
0.0138
0.0173
0.0208
35
35
35
2479
2450
2421
29
29
29
0.158
0.199
0.240
41
41
41
4.6912
4.6947
4.6982
35
35
700
800
900
0.0243
0.0278
0.0313
35
35
35
2392
2363
2334
29
29
. 28
0.281
0.323
0.366
42
43
43
4.7017
4.7053
4.7089
36
36
36
1000
1100
1200
0.0348
. 0.0383
0.0419
35
36
36
2306
2278
2250
28
28
27
0.409.
0.453
0.497
44
44
44
4.7125
4.7161
4.7198
37
1300
1400
1500
0.0455
0.0490
0.0526
35
36
36
2223
2195
2168
28
.27
27
0.541
0.586
0.632
45
46
47
4.7234,
4.7271
4.7308
1600
'1700
1800
0.0562
0.0599
0.0635
37
36
36
2141,
2115
2088
26
27
26
0.679
0.726
0.773
47
47
48
4.7346
4.7~84
4.7422
1900
2000
2100
0.0671
0.0708
0.0745
37
37
37
2062
2036
2010
26
26
26
0.821
0.870
0.919
49
4.7460
4.7498
4.7537
38
49
50
2200
2300
2400
0.0782
0.0819
0.0856
37
37
38
1984
1959
1934
25
25
25
0.969
1.020
1.071 .
51
51
52
4.7576
4.7615
4.7654
39
39
39
2500
2600,
2700
0.0894
0.0931
0.0968
37
37
38
1909
1885
1860
24
25
24
1.123
1.176
1.230
53
54
4.7693
4.7733
4.7773
40
,5 4
2800
2900
3000
0.1006
0.1043
0.1081
37
38
38
1836
1812
1789
24
23
23
,1.284
1.339
.1.394
55
55
56
4.7813
4.7854
4.7895
, 41
41
41
3100
3200
3300
0.1119
0.1157
0.1195
38
38
38
1766
1743
1720
23
23
23
1.450
1.507
1.565
57
58
59
' 4.7936
4.7977
4.8019
41
3400
3500,
3600
0.1233
0.1271
0.1309
38
38
39
1697
1675
1653
22
22
21
1.624
1.683
1.743
59
4.8061
4.8103
4.8145
42
42
40
60
61'

34
35
34
35
36
36
37
37
38
38
38
38
39
39
40
40
42
42
43
.
'69
))IRECT FIRE
TABLE B
(Taken from Ingalls' Table II,AriilleryCircu[ar
M)
V == 2600 f.~.
X.
z==
C
log B'
.1z
u
.1z
,T'
.1z
"
log C'

.1,

3700
3800
3900
0.1348
0.1386
0.1425
38
39
38
1632
1610
1589
22
21
21
1.804
1.866
1.929
62
63
63
10
4.8188
4.8231
4.8274
4000
4100
4200
0.1463
0.1501
0.1540
38
39
38
1568
1547
1527
21
20
20
1.992
2.056
2.121
64
65
66
4.8317
4.8360
4.8404
43
44
44
4300
4400
4500
0.1578
0.1616
0.1654
38
38
38
1507
1488
1468
19
20
19
2.187
2.254
2.321
67
67
69
4.8448
4.8492
4.8537
44
45
45
4600
4700
4800
0.1692
0.1730
0.1767
38
37
38
J449
1430
1411
19
19
18
2.390
2.460
2.530
70
70
72
4.8582
4.8627
4.8672
45
45
46
4900
5000
5100
0.1805
0.1842
0.1879
37
37
36
1393
1375
1357
18
18
18
2.602
2.674
2.747
72
73
74
4.8718
4.8764
4.8810
46
46
46
5200
5300
5400
0.1915
0.1952
0.1989
37
37
36
1339
1322
1305
17
17
17
2.821
2.896
2.972
75
76
77
4.8856
4.8902
4.8949
46
47
47
5500
5600
5700
0.2025
0.2061
. 0.2097
36
36
36
1288
1272
1257
16
15
14
3.049
3.127
3.206
78
79
80
4.8996
4.9043
4.9090
47
47
47
5800
5900
6000
0.2133
0.2168
0.2203
35
35
34
1243
1229
1215
14
14
13
3.286
3.367.
3.449
81
82
83
4.9137
4.9185
. 4.9233
48
48
48
6100
6200
6300
0.2237
0.2270
0.2302
33
32
31
1202
1189
1177
13
12
12
3.532
3.616
3.700
84
84
86
4.9281
4.9330
4.9378
49
48
48
6400
6500
6600
0.2333
0.2363
0.2393
30
30
28
1165
1153
1142
12
11
10
3.78e
3.872
3.959
86
87
88
4.9426
4.9474
4.9523
48
49
48
. 6700
6800
6900
0.2421
0.2448
0.2474
27
26
26
1132
1121
1111
11
10
9
4.047
4.136
4.226
89
90
90'
4.9571
4.9619
4.9668
48
49
48
7000
0.2500
25
1102
9
4.316
91
4.9716
48

43
43
43
70
DIRECT FIRE
TABLE
B
(Taken from Ingalls' Table II, AJ tillery Circular M)
V
x
z=C
log B'
=
2700 f.s.
u
Az
A
T'
Az
log C'
Az
100
200
300
0.0034
0.0068
0.0102
34
34
34
2669
2638
2607
31
31
31
0.037
0.075
0.113
38
38
39
10
4.6480
4.6514
4.6548
34
34
34
400
500
600
0.0136
'0.0170
0.0205
34
2576
254~
2516
30
30
30
0.152
0.191
0.231
39
40
40
4.658.
4.6617
4.6652
35
35
35
700
800
900
0.0239
0.0274
0.0309
35
30
29
29
0.271
0.311
0.352
40
41
41
4.6687 '
4.6722
4.6757
35
35
2486
2456
2427
1000
1100
1200
0.0344
0.0379
0.0414
35
35
35
2398
2369
2340
29
29
28
0.393
0.435
0.477
42
42
43
4.6793
4.6829
4.6865
36
36
37
1300
1400
1500
0.0449
0.0484
0.0520
35
36
36
2312
2284
2256
28
28
28
0.520
0.564
0.608
44
44
45
4.6902
4.6938
4.6975
36
37
37
1600
1700
1800
0.0556
0.0592
0.0628
36
36
36
2228
2201 .
2174
27
27
27
0.653
0.~98
0.744
45
46
46
4.7012
4.7049
4.7086
37
37
37
1900
2000
2100
0.0664
0.0700
0.0736
36
36
36
2147
2120
2094
27
26
26
0.790
0.837
0.885
47
48
48
4.7123
4.7161
4.7198
38
. 37
38
2200
2300
2400
0.0772
0.0809
0.0845
37
36
37
2068
2042
2016
26
26
26
0.933
0.982 .
1.031
49
49
50
4.7236
4.7274
4.7312
38
38
39
2500
2600
2700
0.0882
0.0919
0.0956
37
37
37
1990
1965
1940
25
25
25
1.081
1.132
1.183
51
51
52
4.7351
4.7390
4.7429
39
39
40
2800
2900
3000
0.0993
0.1030
0.1068
. 37
38
38
1915
1890
1866
25
24
24
1.235
1.287
1.340
52
53
54
4.7469
4.7509
4.7549
40
40
41
3100
3200
3300
0.1106
0.1144
0.1183
38
39
38
1842
1818
1794
24
24
24
1.394.
1.448
1.503
54
55
56
4.7590
4.7631
4.7672
41
41
42
3400
3500
3600
0.1221
0.1259
0.1297
38
38
38
1770
1747
1724
23
23
22
1.559
1.616
1.674
57
58
58
4.7714
4.7756
4.7798
42
42
43
35
34
35

35
36
71
DIRECT FIRE
TABLE
B
(Taken from Ingalls' Table II, Artillery
V
X
z=C
log B'
ilz
Circular M)
= 2700 f.s.
u
T'
~z
ilz
log C'
ilz
3700
3800
3900
0.1335
0.1373
0.1411
38
38
38
1702
1680
1658
22
22
22
1.732
1.791
1.851
59
60
61
10
4.7841
4.7883
4.7926
. 42
.43
43
4000
4100
4200
0.1449
0.1487
0.1524
38
37
38
1636
1615
1595
21
20
21
1.912
1.974
2.036
62
62
63
4.7969
.4.8012
4.8056
43
44
43
4300
4400
4500
0.1562
0.1600
0.1638
38
38
38
1574
1554
1534
20
20
20
2.099
2.163
2.228
64
65
66
4.8099
4.8143
4.8187
44
44
45
4600
4700
4800
0.1676
0.1714
0.1753
38
39
38
1514
1494
1474
20
20
20
2.294
2.361
2.428
67
67
69
4.8232
4.8277
4.8322
45
45
45
4900
5000
5100
0.1791
.. 0.1829
0.1867
38
38
37
1454
1434
1415
20
19
19
2.497
2.566
.2.636
69
70
71
4:8367
4.8412
4.8457
45
45
46
5200
5300
5400
0.1904
0.1941
0.1978
37
37
37
1396
1378
1360
18
. 18
17
2.707
2.779
2.852
72
73
74
4.8503
4.8549
4.8595
46
46
47
5500
5600
5700
0.2015
0.2052
0.2089
. 37
37
37
1343
1326
1309
17
17
16
2.926
3.001
3.077
75
76
77
4.8642
4.8689
4.8736
47
47
47
5800
5900
6000
0.2126
0.2162
0.2198
36
36
36
1293
1277
1262
16
15
15
3.154
3.231
3.310
77
79
80
4.8783
4.8830
4.8878
47
48
48
6100
6200
6300
0.2234
0.2270
0.2305
36
35
35
1247
1233
1219
14
14
14
3.390
3.471
3.543
81
82
83
4.8926
4.8974
4.9022
48
48
49
6400
6500
6600
0.2340
0.2373
0.2405
33
32
31
1205
1192
1180
13
12
12
3.636
3.719
3.803
83
84
"85
4.9071
4.9119
4.9168
48
49
48
6700
6800
6900
0.2436
0.2466
0.2495
30
29
28
1168
1156
1145
12
11
11
3.888
3.974
4.061
86
87
88
4.9216
4.9265
4.9314
49
49
49
7000
0.2523
28
1134
10
4.149
89
4.9363
49
72
DIRECT FIRE
TABLE B
(Taken from Ingalls' Table II,Artillery
V
=
Circular M)
2800 f.s.
x
z=C
log B'
~z
100
200
300
0.0033
0.0067
0.0101
34
34
33
2768
2736
2705
32
31
31
400
500
600
0.0134
0.0168
0.0202
34
34
34
2674
2643
2612
700
800
900
0.0236
0.0270
0.0305
34
35
34
1000
1100.
1200
0.0339
0.0374
0.0409
35
1300
1400
1500
0.0443
0.0478
0.0514
35
1600
1700
1800
0.0549
0.0584
0.0620
35
1900
2000
2100
~
u
T'
Liz
log C'
0.036
.0.072
0.109
36
37
37
10
4.6163
4.6197
4.6231
34
34
34
31
31
31
0.146
0.184
0.222
38
38
39
4.6265
4.6299
4.6333
34
34
34
2581
2551
2521
30
30
30
0.261
0.300
0.339
39
39
40
4.6367
4.6402
4.6437
35
35
3~
2491
2461
2432
30
29
29
0.379
0.419
0.460
40
41
42
4.6472
. 4.6507
4.6543
35
36
35
2403
2374
2345
29
29
29
0~502
0.544
0.586
42
42
43
4.6578
4.6614
4.6650
36
36
37
28
35
2316
2288
2260
28
0.629
0.672
0.716
43
44
45
4.6687
4.6724
4.6761
37
37
37
0.0655
0.0691
. 0.0727
36
36
36
2232
2205 .
2178
27
27
27
0.761
0.806
0.852
45
46
46
4.6798
4.6835
4.6873
37
38
38
2200
2300
2400
0.0763
0.0799
0.0835
36
36
26
27
36
2151
2125
2098
26
0.898
0.945
0.992
47
47
48
4.6911
4.6949
4.6987
38
38
38
2500
2600
2700
0.0871
0.0908
0.0945
37
37
37
2072
2046
2020
26
26
25
1.040
1.089
1.138
49
49
50
4.7025
4.7064
4.7103
39
39
40
2800
2900
3000
0.0982
0.1019
0.1056
37
37
37
1995
1969
1944
26
25
25
1.188
1.238
1.289
50
51
52
4.7143
4.7182
4.7222
39
40
40
3100
3200
3300
0.1093
0.1131
0.1168
38
1919
1894;
1869
25
37
38
25
24
1.341
1.393
1.446
52
53
54
4.7262
4.7302
4.7343
40
41
40
3400
3500
3500
0.1206
0.1243
0.1281
37
38
38
1845
1821
179 7
24
24
23
1.500
1.555
1.610
55
55
56
4.7383
4.7424
4.7465
41
41
42
35
34
36
35
36
28
I
~z
73
DIRECT FIRE
TABLEB
(Taken frotnJngalls'
Table II, Artillery
Circularl"!)
V. = 2800 f.s.
z=.XC
log B'.
Az
3700
3800
3900
0.1319
0.1357
0.1395
38
38
38
4000
4100 .
4200
0.1433
0.1471
0.1509
4300
4400
4500
Az
T'
1774
1751
1728
23
23
23
1.666
1.723
1.780
57
57
58
10
4.7507
.4.7549
4.7591
38
. 38
38
1705
1683
1661
22
22
21
1.838
1.897
1.957
59
60
60
4.7633
4.7675
4.7718
0.1547
0.1585
0.1623
38
38
38
1640
1619
1598
21
21
21
2.017
2.078
2.141
61
63
63
4.7761
4.7804
4.7848
4600
4700
4800
0.1661
0.1699
01737
38
38
39
1577
1556
1535
21
. 21
20
2.204
2.268
2.333
64
65
66
4.7892
4.7936
4.7980
44
44
4900
5000
5100
0.1776 .
0.1814
0.1852
38
38
37
1515
1495
1475
20
20
20
2.399
2.465
2.532
66
67
45
68
4.8025
4.8070
4.8115
5200
5300
'5400
0.1889
0.1927
0.1964
38
37
38
1455
1436
1417
19
19
18
2.600
2.669
2.739
69
70
'71
4.8160
4.8206
4.8252
46.
46
46
5500
5600
5700
0.2002
0.2039
0.2077
37
38
37
1399
1381
1363
1S"
18
18
2.810
2.882
2.955
72
73
74
48298
4.8344
4.8391
46
47
47
5800.
5900:
6000
0.2114
0.2152
0.2189
38
37
38
1345
1328
1312
17
16
17
3.029
3.104
3.180
75
76
77
4.8438
4.8485
4.8533
47
47
6100
6200
6300,
0.2227
0.2264
0.2300
37
36
36
. 1295
1279
1264
16
15
15
3.257
3.335
3.414
78
79
79
4.8580
4.8628
4.8676
48
48
48 .
6400:
6500
6"600'
0.2336
0.2371
0.2405
35
34
33
124~
1234
1220
15
14
14
3.493
3.573
3.654
80
81
83
4.8724
4.8772
4.8821
48
6700~
6800.
6900:
0.2438
0.2471
0.2503
33
32
31
1206
1193
1181
13
12
12
3.737
3.820
3.904 .
83
84
85
4.8870
4.8919
4.8968
49
49
49
7000
0.2534
31
1169
11
3.989
86
4.9017
50
u:
~z
log C'
42
42
42
42
43.
43
43
44
44
45
45
45
48
49
49
74
DIRECT FIRE
TABLE B
(Taken from Ingalls' Table II, Artillery Circular M)
V
X
=
2900 f.s.
Z=c
log B'
Az
u
Az
T'
Az
log C'
Az
100
200
300
0.0032
0.0065
0.0098
33
33
33
2867
2835
2803
32
32
32
0.035
0.070
0.105
35
35
36
10
4.5857
4.5890
4.5923
33
33
33
400
500
600 .
0.0131
0.0164
0.0198
33
34
34
2771
2739
2708
32
31
32
0.141
0.177
0.214
36
37
37
4.5956
4.5990
4.6024
34
34
34
700
800
900
0.0232
0.0266
0.0300
34
34
34
2676
2645
2615
31
30
31
0.251
0.289
0.327
38
38
38
4.6058
4.6092
4.6126
34
34
35
1000
1100
1200
0.0334
0.0368
0.0403
34
35
35
2584
2554
.2524
30
30
30
0.365
0.404
0.443
39
39
. 40
4.6161
4.6196
4.6231
35
35
36
1300
1400
1500
0.0438
0.0473
0.0508
35
35
35
2494
2464
2435
30
2\)
30
0.483
0.524
0.565
41
41
41
4.6267
4.6302
4.6338
35
36
36
 1600
1700
1800
0.0543
0.0578
0.0613
35.
35
. 35
2405
&2376
2348
29
28
29
0.606
0.648
0.690
42
42
43
4.6374
4.6410
4.6447
36
37
36'
1900
2000
2100
0.0648
0.0683
0.0718
35
35
36
2319 .
2291
2263
28
28
28
0.733
0.776
0.820
43
44
44
4.6483
4.6520
4.6557
37
37
37
2200
2300 .
2400
0.0754
0.0789
0.0825
35
36
36
2235
2208
2181
27
27
27
0.864
0.909
0.955
45
46
46
4.6594
4.663'2
4.6670
.38
38
38
2500
2600
. 2700
0.0861
0.0897
0.0933
36
36
37
2154
2127
2100
27
27
26
1.001
1.048
1.095
47
47
48
4.6708
4.6746
4.6784
38
38
39
2800
2900
3000
0.0970
0.1006
0.1043
36
37
37
2074
2048
2022
26
26
,.26
1.143
1.192
1.241
49
49
50
4.1>823
4.6862
4.6901
39
39
39
3100
3200
3300
0.1080
0.1117
0.1154
37
37
37
1996
1971
1946
25
25
25
1.291
1.341
1.392
50
51
52
4.6940
4.6980
4.7020
40
40
40
3400
3500
3600
0.1191
0.1228
0.1266
37
38
38
1921
1896
1871
25
25
24
1.444
1.496
1.549
52
53
54
4.7060
4.7101
4.7142
41
41
41
75
DIRECT FIRE
TABLE
B
(Taken from Ingalls' Table II, Artillery
•V
X
Circular M)
= 2900 f.s.
z=C
log B'
.1z
u
.1z
T'
.1z
Jog C'
.1z
3700
3800
3900
0.1304
0.1341
0.1379
37
~8
38
1847
1823
1799
24
24
23
1.603
1.658
1.713
55
55
56
10
4.7183
4.7224
4.7265
41
41
42
4000
4100
4200
0.1417
0.1455
0.1494
38
39
38
1776
1753
1730
23
23
22
1.769
1.826
1.883
57
57
' 58
4.7307
4.7349
4.7391
42
42
43
4300
4400
4500
0.1532
0.1570
0.1608
38
38
38
1708
1686
1664
22
22
22
1.941
2.000
2.060
59
60
61
4.7434
4.7477
4.7520
43
43
43
4600
4700
4800
0.1646
0.1684
0.1722
38
38
38
1642
1620
1599
22
21
21
2.121
2182
2.244
61
62
63
4.7;)63
4.7607
4.7651
44
44
44
4900
5000
5100
0.1760
0.1798
0.1835
38
37
37
1578
1557
1536
21
21
20
2.307
2.371
2.435
64
64
65
4.7695
4.7739
4.7784
44
45
45
5200
5300
5400
0.1872
0.1910
0.1947
38
37
38
1516
1496
1477
20
19
19
2.500
2.567
2.634
67
67
68
4.7829
4.7874
4.7919
45
45
46
5500
5600
5700
0.1985
0;2023
0.2061
38
38
38
1458
1439
1420
19
19
19
2.702
2.771
2.841'
69
70
71
4.7965
4.8011
4.8057
46
46
46
5800
5900
6000
0.2099
0.2137
0.2175
38
38
38
1401
1383
1365
18
18
18
2.912
2.984
3.057
72
73
74
4.8103
48150
4.8197
47
47
47
6100
6200
6300
0.2213
0.2250
0.2287
37
37
36
1347
1329
1312
18
17
16
3.131
3.205
3.281
74
76
77
4.8244
4.8292
4.8339
48
47
48
6400
6500
6600
0.2323
0.2359
0.2395
36
36
35
1296
1280
1265
16
15
15
3.358
3.435
3.514
77
" 79
79
4.8387
4.8435
4.8484
48
49
48
6700
6800
6900
0.2430
0.2465
0.2500
35
35
34
1250
1235
1221
15
14
13
3.5~3
3.673
3.755
80
82
82
4.8;)32
4.8581
4.8630
49
49
49
7000
0.2534
33
1208
13
3.837
83
4.8679
49
76
DIRECT FIRE
TABLE B
(Taken from lngalls~ Table II, Artillery Circular M)
V
X
z=C
10gB'
.1.
u
=
3000 f.s.
T'
.1
log C'
.1.


100
200
300
0.0031
0.0063
0.0095
32
32
32
2967
2934
2901
33
33
33
0.033
0.067
0.101
34
34
35
10
4.5564
4.5596
4.5629
32
33
33
400
500
600
0.0127
0.0160
0.0193
33
33
33
2868
2836
2804
32
32
32
0.136
0.171
0.207
35
36
36
4.5662
4.5695
4.5728
33
33
34
700
800
900
0.0226
0.0260
0.0294
34
34
34
2772
2741
2709
31
32
31
0.243
0.279
0.316
36
37
37
4.5762
4.5795
4.5828
33
33
' 34
1000
1100
1200
0.0328
0.0363
0.0399
35
36
36
2678
2647
2616
31
31
0.353
0.390
0.428
37
31
39
4.5862
4.5895
4.5929
33
34
34
1300
1400
1500
0.0435
0.0471
0.0507
36
36
36
2585
2554
2524
31
30
30
0.467
0.506
0.545
39
39
40
4.5963
4.5997
4.6032
34
35
35
1600
1700
1800
0.0543
0.0579
0.0615
36
36
35
2494
2464
2435
30
29
29
0.585
0.625
0.666
40
41
41
4.6067
'4.6102
4,6137
35
35
36
1900
2000
2100
0.0650
0.0686
0.0721
36
35
36
2406
2377
2348
29
29
28
0.707
0.749
0.791
42
42
43
4.6173
4.6209
4.6245
36
36
37
2200
2300
2400
0.0757
0.0792
0.0828
35
36
36
2320
2292
2264
28
28
28
0.834
0.877
0.921
43
44
45
4.6282
4.6319
4.6356
,37
37
38
2500
2600
2700
0.0864
0.0899
0.0935
35
36
36
2236
2208
2181
28
46
27
0.966
1.011
1.057
45
27
46
4.6394
4.6432.
4.6470
38
38
38
2800
2900
3000
0.0971
0.1007
0.1043
36
36
35
2154
2127
2101
27
26
26
1.103
1.150
1.197 .
47
47
48
4.6508
4.6547
4.6586
39
39
39
3100
3200
3300
0.1078
0.1114
0.1149
36
35
37
2075
2049
2023
26
26
26
1.245
1.293
1.342
48
49
50
4.6625
4.6665
4.6705
40
40
40
37
37
38
1997
1972
1947
25
25\
25
1.392
1.442
1.493
50
4.6745
4.6785
4.6825
40
40
40
3400
3500
3600
38
51
I .52
77
DIRECT FIRE
TABLE B '
(Taken from Ingalls' Table II, Artillery
Circular M)
V == 3000 f.s.
X
z=C
log B'
.1z
u
T'
.1,


.1,
log C'
.1,

3700
3800
3900
0.1298
0.1336
' 0.1373
38
37
38
1922
1898
1873
24
25
24
1.545
1.597
1.650
52
53
54
10
4.6865
4.6905
4.6946
40
41
41
4000
4100
4200
0.1411
0.1448
0.1485
37
37
38
1849
1825
1801
24
24
24
1.704
1.759
1.814
55
55
56
4.6987
4.7029
4.7071
42
42
42
4300
4400
4500
0.1523
0.1560
0.1597
37
37
38
1777
1754
1731
23
23
23
1.870
1.927
1.984
57
57
58
4.7113
4.7155 .
4.7198
42
43
43
4600 '
4700
4800
0.1635
0.1673
0.1711 .
38
38
37
1708
1686
1664
22
22
22
2.042
2.101
2.161
59
60
60
4.7241
4.7284
4.7327
43
43
44
4900
5000
5100
0.1748
0.1786
0.1824
38
38
31'
: 1642
1621
1600
21
21
21
2.221
2.282
2.344
61
62
63
4.7371
4.7415
4.7460
44
45
45
5200
5300
5400
0.1861
0.18990.1937
38
38
37
1579
1558
1538
21
20
20
2.407
2.471
2.535
64
64
66
4.7505
4.7550
4.7595
45
45
45
5500
5600
5700
0.1974 '
0.20il
0.2049
37
38
37
1518
1498
1478
20
20
19
2.601
2.668
2.735
67
67
68
4.7640
4.7686
4.7732
46
46
46
5800
5900
6000
0.2086
0.2124
0.2162
38
38
38
1459
1440
1421
19
19
19
2.803
2.872
2.942'
69
70
70
4.7778
4.7823
4.7868
45
45
45
6100
6200
6300
0.2200
0.2239
0.2278
39
39
39
1402
1384
1366
18
18
17
3.012
3.083
3.155
71
72
73
4.7913
4.7958 .
4.8003
45
45
46
6400
65(0
6600
0.2317
0.2355
0.2392
38
37
37
1349
1332
1315
17
17
16
3.228
3.302
3.377
74
' 75
77
4.8049
4.8096
4.8143
47
47
48
6700
6800
6900
0.2429
0.2465
0.2500
36.
35
34
1299
1283
1267
16
16
15
.3.454
3.532
3.610
78
78
80
4.8191
4.8240
4.8290
49
50
50
7000
0.2534
34
1252
15
3.690
81
4.8340
51
78
DIRECT FInE
TABLE.
C
(From Ballistics, Part I, Hamilton)
Values of the coefficient of form, for projectiles
of which are of ogival radius n calibers.
n
the heads
c
1.00
0.82
0.71
0.64
0.58
0.54
2
3
4
5
6
7
TABLE
D
(From Ballistics, Part I, Hamilton)
Values of D..in degrees, for use with the formula,
Deflection for W mile wind
V
Z
0000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
11000
12000
13000
14000
15000
16000
17000
18COO
19000
20000
21000
1600
0
.0055
.0059
.0061
.0061
.0060
.0059
.0057
.0055
.0054
.0053
.0052
.0051
.0051
.00nO
.0050
.0049
.0049
.0049
.0049
.0048
.0048
.0048
1700
0
.0055
.0058
.0060
.0062
.0062
.0061
.0061
.0060
.0059
.0057
.0056
.0055
.0054
.0054
.0053
.0053
.0053
.0052
.0052
.0052
.0051
.0051
1800
0
.0055
.0058
.0061
.0063
.0063
.0064
.0065
.0064
.0062
.0060
.0059
.0058
.0058
.0057
.0057
.0056
.0056
.0055
.0055
.0055
.0054
.0054
=
~z ."D
1900
0
w
2000
2100
.0054
.0057
.0060
.0063
.0065
.0067
.0068
.0068
.0067
.0066
.00f;6
.0065
.0064
.0063
.0062
.0062
.0062
.0061
.0061
.0060
.0060
.0060
.0053
.0056
.0059
.0062
.0065
.0067
.0069
.0070
.0070
.0069
.0069
.0068
.0067
.0067
.0066
.0065
.0065
.0064
.0064
.0063
.0063
.0062
0
.0054
.0057
.0060
.0063
.0065
.0066
.0066
.0065
.0064
.0063
.0062
.0061
.0061
.0061
.0060
.0059
.0059
.0058
.0058
.0057
.0057
.0057
0
DIRECT
TABLE
V
2100
Z
0
0000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
11000
12000
13000
14000
15000
16000
17000
18000
19000
20000
21000
.0053
.0056
.0059
.0062
.0065
.0067
.0069
.0070
.0070
.0069
.0069
.0068
.0067
.0067
.0066
.0065
.0065
.0064
.0064
.. 0063
.0063.
.0062
V
z.
0000'
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
11000
12000
13000
14000
15000
16000
17000
18000
19000
20000
21000
2200
79
FIRE
DContinued.
2300
2400
2500
2600
0
0
0
0
0
.00.52
.0056
;0059
.0062
.0065
.0068
.0070
.0071
.0071
;0071
.0072
.0070
.0069
.0069
.0068
.0068
.0067
.0067
.0067
.0066
.0066
.0065
.0051
.0055
.0058
.0061
.0064
.0067
.0070
.0072
.0072
.0072
.0072
.0071
.0071
.0071
.0070
.0070
.0069
.0069
.0069
.0069
.0068
.0068
.0050
.0054
.0057
.0060
.0063
.0067
.0070
.0072
.0073
.0074
.0074
.0073
.0073
.0073
.0072
.0072
.0072
.0071
.0071
.0071
.0071
.0071
.0049
.0053
.0056
.0059
.0063
.0067
.0070
.0072
.0074
.0075
.0075
.0075
.0075
.0074
;0074
.0074
.0073
.0073
.0073
.0073
.0073
.0073
.0048
.0052
.0055
.0059
.0063
.0067
.0070
.0072
.0074
.0076
.0076
.0076
.0076
.0076
.0076
.0076
.0075
.0075
.0075
.0075
.0075
.0075
2600
2700
2800
2900
3000
3100
0
0
0
0
.0048
.0052
.0055
.0059
.0063
.0067
.0070
.0072
.0074
.0076
.0076
.0076
.0076
.0076
.0076
.0076
.0075
.0075
.0075
.0075
.0075
.0075
.0048
.. 0051
.0054
.0058
.0062
.0066
.0069
.0072
.0075
.0077
.0077
.0078
.0078
.0078
.0078
.0078
.0077
.0077
.0077
.0077
.0077
.0077
.0047
.0050
.0054 .
.0057
.0060
.0064
.0068
.0072
.0075
.0077
.0078
.0079
.0079
.0079
.0079
.0079
.0079
.0079
.0079
.0079
.0079
.0079
.0047
.0050
.0053
.0056
.0060
.0063
.0067
.0071
.0074
.0077
.0078
.0079
.0080
.0080
.0081
.0081 .
.0081
.0081
.0081
.0081
.0081
.0081
0
.0046
.0049
.0052
.0055
.0059
.0063
.0066
.0070
.0074
.0077
.0079
.0080
.0081
.. 0081
.0082
.0082
.0082
.0082
.0082
.0083
.0083
.0083
0
.0046
.0048
.0051
.0054
.0058
.0062
.0065
.0069
.0073
.0077
.0079
.0081
.0082
.0082
.0083
.0083
.00~3
.0084
.0084
.0084
.0084
.0084
80
DIRECT FIRE
TABLE DContinued
V
3100
3200
3300
3400
3500
3600
Z
0000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
11000
12000
13000
14000
15000
16000
17000
. 18000
19000
20000
21000
°
.0046
.0048
.0051
.0054
.0058
.0062
.0065
.0069
.0073
.0077
.. 0079
.0081
.0082
.0082
.0083
.0083
.0084
.0084
.0084
.0084
.0084
.0084
°
.0045
.0047
.0050
•0053
.0057
.0061
.0064
.0068
.0072
.0076
.0079
.0081
.0082
.0083
.0084
.0084
.0085
.0085
.0085
.0086
.0086
.0086
°
.0045
.0047
.0050
.0053 .
.0057
.0060
.0063
.0067
.0071
.0075
.0078
.0081
.0083
.0084
.0085
.0085
.0086
.0086
.0087
.0087
.0087
.0087
°
.0044
.0046
.0049
.0052
..0056
.0059
.0062
.0066
.0070
.0075
.0078
.0081
.0083
.0084
.0085
.0086
.0086
.0087
.0088
.0088
.0089
.0089
0
.0044
.0046
.0048
.0051
.0055
.0058
.0061
.0065
.0069
.0073
.0077
.0080
.0083
.0085
.0086
.0087
.0087
.0088
.0089
.0089
.0090
.0090
°
.0043
.0045
.0047
.0050
.0053
.0056
.0060
.0064
.0068
.0073
.. 0077
.0080
.0083
.0085
.0086
.0088
.0088
.0089
.0090
.0090
.0091
.0091
TABLE E
(From Ballistics, Part I, Hmhilton)
Table of Values of percentage changes in muzzle velocity
of powders tested at 70° F. and fired with a magazine temperature to F.
t
~ V/V
0°
10
20°
30°
40°
50°
60°
70°
80°
90°
100°
0
.0323
.0302
.0275
. .0241
.0199
.0147
.0082
.0000
.0101
.0228
.0387
~ V for V =
2000
2250
2500
65
60
55'
48
40
29
16
0
20
46
77
73
67
62
54
45
33
18
81
75
69.
60
50
36
20
0
25
58
96
0
23
52
87
DIRECT
81
FIRE
(Computed from the formula
A~
=
.00867 { 2.032t_ 2.032X 70}
= .00867 { 2.032t_ 4.73 }.)
K
TABLE
(From Ballistics, Part I, Hamilton)
.
R
2
K = [3.3333  10] R2 = .2154 (1000)
in which K is the curvature in feet and R the range in yards.
The curvature in feet for ranges at 1000 yards interval are
given in the following table.
Cur:vature inFee~ .

Range
Curvature
A
feet
feet .
yds.
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
11000
0.22
0.86
1.94
3.45
5.39
7.75
10.55
13.79
17.45
21.54.
26.06
•
TABLE
v
Pv
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
.018
.044
.077
.118
.166
.221
.283
.353
.430
.515
.607
.706
.813
.927
1.048
0.64
1.08
1.51
1.94
2.36
2.80
3.24
3.66
4.09
4.52
4.96
Range
Curvature
yds.
12000
13000
14000
15000
16000
17000
18000
19000
20000
21000
22000
feet
feet
31.02
36.40
42.22
48.47
55.14
62.25
69.79
77.76
86.16
 94.99
104.25
5.38
5.82
6.25
6.67
7.11
7.54
7.97
8.40
8.83
9.26
A
P (From Ballistics, Part I, Hamilton)
Table of Values of Pv
.
A
lJ
26
33
41
48
55
62
70
77
85
92
99
107
114
121
129
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400
2500
2600
2700
2800
2900
3000
Pv
1.177
1.313
1.457
1.585
1.714
1.842
1.971
2.100
2.228
2.357
2.485
2.614
2.742
2.871
3.000
A.
136
144
128
129
128
129
129
128
129
128
129
128
129
129
82
DIRECT
FIRE
FOT oblique
impact, a being the angle of incidence
(measured from the normal to the plate) the following table
of percentages to be subtracted from perforations at normal
. impact for each value of a, is given:
TABLE
Q.
(From Ballistics, Part I, Hamilton)
a
%
a
%
0
5
10
15
20
0
0
1
2
4
25
30
35
40
45
6
8
11
15
19
TABLE
R.
(From Ordnance Pamphlet
~
....
0
Normal
Os:
Muzzle
No. 1872)
Velocities .
'Cl)
0."0
S~
~& 833
980 1056 1148 1220 2000 2100 2150 2200
2250 2400 2600
10 27 917
32      38 _.30
34
40
65
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
26
25
23
20
17
13
7
0
9
19
32
29
28
26
23
19
14
8
0
9
21
35
31
29
27
24
20
15
8
0
10
22
37
33
31
29
25
21
16
9
0
11
24
41
37
35
32
29
24
18
10
0
12
26
44
39
37
34
30
25
19
10
0
13
28
47
63
60
55
49
41
30
17
0
21
46
77
67
69
66
67
62
64
58
59
51
53
43
44
32
33
18
18
0
0
22 22
48
50
81
82
1
71
69
66
61
54
46
34
19
0
23
50
84
72
70
67
62
55
46
34
19
0
24
52
87
77
84
75
81
71
77
b'dedoot,d
66
71
from normal
59
64
muzzle velo49
53
city.
36
39
20
22
0
0
26
28 }To.be added to
56
60
normal muz92 100
zle velocity.
fTO
00
90
90
91
o
,81
,74
69
93
95
97
0.01222
0.01310
0.01400
166
.64
'64
98
100
101
0.01492
0.01585
0.01680
:65
168
)73
103
105
107
0.01776
0.01875
0.01976
l80
~89
100
109
111
113
0.02078
0.02182
0.02288
:>13 115
328 117
745 120
865
987
111
122
124
127
238
367
499
129
132
134
633
769
908
136
139
142
050
0194
,341
141
147
150
l491
1644
1800
153
156
158
L958
)119
)283
161
164
167
UIV~V
0:01135
o
02396
0'02505
0:02617
o
02731
0:02847
0.02965
o
03086
0'03209
0:03335
0.03463
o 03593
0:03725
o 03860
0'03998
0:04138
0.04281
o 04427
0:04575
o 04726
0:04880
0.05037
:>450 170
5620 173
~793 176
0.05197
0.05359
0.05524
5969
5148
5330
179
182
185
0.05692
0.05863
0.06037
6515
6703
6894
188
191
194
0.06214
0.06394
0.06577
7088 196
17284 199
17483 202
0.06763
0.06952
0.07144
17685
)7890
)8098
205
208
211
0.07339
0.07536
0.07737
)8309
)8523
)8740
214
217
220
0.07941
0.08147
0.08357
)8960
)9183
09409
223
226
230
0.08569
0.08784
0.09003
09639
234
0.09224
87
U.UI003
0.01084
81
83
0.00958 \ 78
79
0.01036
0.00917\
0.00992
88 0.01167.
84 0.01115
81 0.01068
90 0.01251
86 0.01196
82 0.01145
92 0.01337
87 0.01278
83 0.01223
93 0.01424
89 0.01361
85 0.01302
95 0.01513
91 0.01446
86 0.01383
96 0.01604
92 0.01532
88 0.01466
99 0.01696
94 0.01620
90 0.01550
101 0.01790
96 0.01710
92 0.01636
102 0.01886
97 0.01802
93 0.01724
104 0.01983
99 0.01895
95 0.01813
106
101 0.01990
96 0.01903
108 0.02082
0.02183 103 0.02086
98 0.01995
109 0.02286
100 0.02088
112 0.02390 .104 0.02184
102 0.02183
114 0.02497 107 0.02284
109 0.02386
104 0.02280
116 0.02606
106 0.02379
118 0.02717 111 0.02490
107 0.02480
121 0.02830 113 0.02596
115 0.02703
110 '0.02583
123 0.02945
126 0.03062 117 0.02813
112 0.02688
128 0.03182 120 0.02925
115 0.02795
122 0.03040
116 0.02904
130 0.03304
132 0.03428 124 0.03156
118 0.03015
135 0.03554 126 0.03274
120 0.03128
129 0.03394
123 0.03243
138
0.03683
131 0.03517, 125 0.03360
140
143 0.03814 134 0.03642 128 0.03480
0.03948 136
0.03770
130 0.03602
146
0.04084
139 0.03900 133 0.03726
148
151 0.04223 142 0.04033 135 0.03853'
0.04365 144
0.04168 138 0.03982
154 0.04509
147
157
0.04656 150 0.04306 140 0.04114
160 0.04806
0.04446 143 0.04248
152 0.04589 146 0.04385
162 0.04958
165 0.05113 155 0.04735 148 0.04525
168 0:05271 158 0.04883 151 0.04667
1()0 0.05034
153 0.04811
171 0.05431 164
174 0.05595 167 0.05187 157 0.04958
177 0.05762 169 0.05344 160 0.05107
0.05504 162 0.05259
180 0.05931 173
0.06104
183
176 0.05666 165 0.05414
186 0.06280 178 0.05831
0.05572
0.06000 169
171 0.05733
0.06458
181
'189
184 0.06171
174 0.05897
192 0.06639
0.06823
187 0.06345
195
0.06064
0.06522 177
180 0.06234
0.07010 191
197 0.07201
0.06702 183
0.06407
201 0.07394 193
196 0.06885
0.06583
0.07070 185
204
189 0.06762
199 0.07259
0.07590
206 0.07789 202
191
210 0.07991 205 0.07450 195 0.06944
0.07645
212
197 0.07129
0.07317
0.08196 208 0.07842
215 0.08404 211 0.08043 201 0.07508
219 0.08615 214 0.08246 203 0.07701
206 0.07896
221
0.08829 217 0.08452 209
221!:::=="'
0.08094
.
~
,'"
75
76
U.UU~'~
0.00951
72
77
78
79
0.01023
0.01097
0.01172
74
75
76
81
83
84
0.01248
0.01325
0.01404
77
79
80
86
88
89
0.01484
0.01566
0.01650
82
84
85
90
92
93
0.01'735
0.01821
0.01909
86
88
90
95
97
99
0.01999
0.02090
0.02183
91
93
95
101
103
105
0.02278
0.02374
0.02472
96
98
101
107
109
111
0.02573
0.02675
0.02779
102
104
106
113
115
117
0.02885
0 ..
02993
0.03103
108
110
112
120
122
124
0.03215
0.03329
0.03445
114
116
11 8
127
129
132
0.03563
0.03684
0.03808
121
124
12 6
134
137
140
0.03934
0.04062
0:04193
12 8
13 1
13 3
142
144
147
0.04326
0.04462
0.04600
13E
13~
14(
149
152
155
0.04740
0.04884
0.05030
14L
14(
14~
158
161
164
0.05179
0.05331
0.05485
15:
15'
15:
167
170
173
0.05643
0.05803
0.05966
161
16:
161
176
179
182
0.06132
0.06300
0.06472
16
17
17
185
188
191
0.06646
0.06824
0.07004
17
18
18
193
195
198
0.07187
0.07373
0.07562
18
18
HJ
201
0.07754
H
F
Ballistics.
To face page 82.
(21)
H
JUMP AS FUNCTION
From
JOURNAL
OF ELEVATION
U. S.
OF GUN FOR DISAPE:AflING CARRIAGES
ARTILLERY,
Volumn
36, oppOSI'te Page 186.
880
High Angle Fire
(Reprint
from JOURNAL U. S. ARTILLERYfor
SeptemberOctober,
1913.)
By LIEUT.COLONEL ALSTON
HAMILTON,
COAST ARTILLERY CORPS
Recent firings by the Coast Artillery Board and by the
Ordnance Department
have thrown additional light on the
flight of mortar projectiles; and as.new rangetables have been
prepared upon the basis of the results of these firings, it follows
that the formulas and methods employed will be of interest to
officers of Coast Artillery.
The notes here given will be limited to the presentation of
formulas and methods and to the application of these to ordinary ballistic computations.
I. FUNDAMENTAL.QUANTITIES
1. It is usual in mortar fire to assume various muzzle
velocities, each of which when taken with elevations ranging
from 45° to about 65° will determine a zone covered by the
fire of the mortar.
A number of these: zones, overlapping
each other somewhat, will cover a total field of fire limited by
conditions as to mortar and carriage.
The basis, then, of a
mortar rangetable will be:
The muzzle velocity.
The angle of departure.
The projectile.
The muzzle velocity is represented by V, the angle of
departure by cp and the projectile by its ballistic coefficient, C,
analytically defined as follows: .
a
1
.W
C=T'i(J2
in which,
~
is the ratio
of the standard
density
to the. actual
density of the atmosphere.
Its values are given in Table I,.
with barometer and thermometer readings as arguments.
(83)
84
HIGH
ANGLE
FIRE
w is the weight of the projectile in pounds.
d is the caliber of the projectile in inches.
i is the index of the projectile and refers to its form.
For the ordinary or Johnson cap, its value is unity fOf the
purposes of this article, where the head has a two caliber
radius of ogive; for the long pointed projectile, having an
ogival head struck with a radius of 7 calibers, and no cap, the
value of i is for mortar fire 0.75.
The first value of i (that for the cap) was assumed at the
outset and the second was deduced from actual firings on
the basis of laws established with the capped projectile.
2. With the ordinarily assumed law of resistance for the
velocities usual in mortar fire, the retardation is represented
by,
r=F~)
=
.00004676~
= [5.6699 10]
V2
C
This refers to a twocaliber radius of ogive, without cap.
The actual firings with the capped projectile gave,
r
F(Y)
=c
V2
=KC
in which
I
K =.00005 { 14
100( V 800)
. 1002+ (V 800)2
1100
= [5.6990 10] { 1 4
. 1002+
}
(V  800) }
(V _ 800)2
The values of log K, are given in Table II, page 98, for
the zone velocities.
Its computation for any velocity presents
no difficulty.
3. At the point of fall the relation between the range X
(feet) and the fundamental quantities was found to be,
V2 sin 2 cp 1 + 4
F ( V)
gX
=
3. gc
.
, .
1\
SIn cp
in which
g is the accelleration due to gravity (= 32.16 f.s. per sec.)
and
, .
1\
2.4
sIn~
Values of log A sin
=
cp =
(1 +sin 2 cp)i
log E are given in Table III.
HIGH
4.
Representing
ANGLE
FIRE
85
by M the ratio,
gX
V2 sin 2SO
and by N the ratio,
gT
2 V sin SO
in which T is the time of flight, in seconds, to the point of
fall, for which the range is X,we have ~rom the firings,
M=l
1
+B
In which,.
B = i . F:%) . A sin ~, for all projectiles
and
N ==M( 1 + i~3~t),for
1046lb.
N = 16.884 ( Si~t ) t for 824 and 700lb.
5. The expressions for the remaining rangetable
ments as deduced from the firings are given below:
R
ele
MV2 sin 2SO MV2 sin 2SO
=
3g
96.48
ange (d)
yar s = R
'. of FlIght (secon~s) = T = 2 N Vg..sin SO= N 16.08
V sin SO
TIme
Drift
,
d3
(degrees) =2(1K).
SOO
sec SO
wn
D (Tables
tan SO
=p
tanw=~
Velocity of Fall =
VW
IV and V.)
=M~ V cos SOsec w
Thickness of Deck} =e=[5.417510j
Steel perforated
IWV
3
W
~. d
{1_
(90W)2}
100
In these formulas M, N, w, d are as already defined.
K is a drift constant having a value (for projectiles with
Johnson caps) t, and a value 0.837 for projectiles with 7caliber
radius of ogive.
n is a drift constant,
defining the twist of rifling, and
as the mortar, model 1890 (and subsequent models), has a
twist of one turn in 20 calibers, n = 20 for these.
For the C.L
mortar, model 1886, and for the steel mortar, 188690, n = 25.
86
.
HIGH
ANGLE
FIRE
e is the thickness of deck steel perforated, and is in inches.
and ware the velocity of fall and the angle of fall, respectively. 'In the value of e the factor,
Vw
1_(9~~ow)2 .
takes cognizance of oblique impact on the horizontal deck, due.
to the angle of fall. Thus its value for a 60° angle of fall is,
1 (9~~60)
2
= 1.09
=0.91
The drift is given in degrees: .The values of D.= cp sec
are tabulated
and shown in Table IV, and those of p
.
d3
2 (1  K)  are shown in Table V.
cp
=
wn
In Table II we shall give,
log F~~) =log K
log F(V) =log KV2
.
log
4
F(V)
3. g =log H
and in Table I
log A sin
cp
= log E
so that
B=HE
C
1
M=l+B
II.
CORRECTIONS
FOR ABNORMAL
CONDITIONS
The rangetables
as calculated above apply when normal
conditions exist; that. is, .when the muzzle velocities and air
density are those presumed in the rangetable, and when there
is no motion of the atmosphere.
As these conditions are ideal, it is necessary to provide
means of adapting the elevations to actual conditions.
Formulas for this purpose are readily found as follows:
+
1 _ V2 sin 2SO 1 4
M gX
. 3'
=1
4
F ( V)
..gc
V2K
1
.1\
•
sIn SO
.
+3" C" g "A SIn SO
HIGH
ANGLE
87
FIRE
Simple differentiation gives,
.~ (2dV + d sin 2cp _ dX)
M
V
sin 2cp
X
=
2 d V _ d C + dK + dA s.in cp}
M
V
C
K
A SIn cp.
Now
(l_ 1) {
.
2.4
. A SIn cp = (l + sin 2 cp) ~
and hence
d A sin
A sin
5
cp
cp
= 
d sin 2 cp
3 . 1 + sin 2 cp
So that
dX 2MdV
_(l_M)dK
X V
K
.+ (l_M)dC
C
+. { 1 +~(1
.
sin.2cp } d .sin 2cp .
3
1 + SIn 2 cp
sm 2 cp
This formula affords the .means of making slight changes,
but it is better to ascertain the effects by recalculating, using a
modified V or C to accord with the facts.
Specifically, the abnormalities which, in practice, cause
corrections to be necessary are:
1.
2.
3.
_ M)
Change in ballistic. condition of powder due to
storage.
Change in atmospheric density.
Motion of the atmosphere.
1.
POWDER
CHANGES
These are rather complex; but the matter is. finally
summarized by saying that a change in powder condition
producing a 1 per cent range effect, either with the 1046lb.
pr.ojectile at 1050 f.s., or with the 824lb. projectile at 1300
f.s., will produce changes in other zones as shown in Table A
on page 88.
It is to be noted that the percentage range correction
having been determined for one zone, that for each of the
others may be found by proportion.
This applies to the first
7 zones and the zone with the 824lb. projectile and muzzle
velocity 1300 f.s., when the same powder is employed throughout. As a different (coarser) powder. is employed with the
700lb. projectile, the zones using this projectile are not so
related to the others.
:/
88
HIGIi
ANGLE
FIRE
Table A
1
2
3
%
550
600
1.93
1.84 .
1.80
1.80
1.70
1.40
1.00
1.00
660
4
.5
6
7
8
.
I
2.
.725
810
915
1050
1300
ATMOSPHERE
dR
de
Ii
= (lM)c=(lM)
3.
!lR/R
v
Zone
MOTION
(aT1
l)
.
OF THE ATMOSPHERE
. Due to the great altitudes reached by mortar projectiles
in their flight, the mean direction and rate of motion of the
atmosphere as a whole can only be inferred from the fall of the
shots.
At the same time, it has been practicable to demonstrate by analytical methods that the deflection produced by
a 10mileperhour
lateral movement of the atmosphere will,
in the case of each of the three mortar projectiles, produce a
lateral motion on the part of the projectile, equivalent in effect
to 8.7 per cent of the drift for that projectile.
This is important in that it permits the cross windcomponent
to be readily
inferred, and corrected by making a percentage correction in the
drift.
In regard to the effect, on the range,
atmosphere in the plane of fire, exhaustive
subject shows
a.
b.
of motion
discussion
of the
of the
.
That the range effect of wind is sensibly constant in
any zone, between 45° and 650.
That in the case of the 12inch mortar this effect in
yards is given by,
JR=5Wx{
106~r
in which Wx is the velocity in miles per hour of the atmosphere in the direction of fire.
Hence, for a 10mile
component,
HIGH
ANGLE
89
FIRE
JR =50{ 1060}
for all three projectiles.
III.
ILLUSTRATIVE
EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Calculate the ranges for 45° and 65° for the 1046lb. projectile, service, capped, for its rangetable muzzle
velocities.
1046
Here C = 144 =7.2639
log C = 0.8612
From Table II (page 98) obtain log H, and .from Table
III (page 99) log E.
.
Then,
For 45°
V
og H
a.c.~g
600
660
725
810
915
1050
9.83329.9143 0.00420.08650.122.70.18200.3198
9.1388 9.1388 9.138819.1388 9.1388 9.1388 9.1388
1
C
loge
1
8.97209.0531,9.1430,9.22539.26159.32089.4586
log E"
log B45
B45
1+B45
a.c.log(l
2lo~ V
+B45)
2SO
SIll
log3Jog R45
550
9.8785 9.878519.8785/9.878519.8785 9.8785 9.8785
8.85058.93169.02159.10389.14009.19939.3371
.0709 .08541.10511.1270
.1380 .1582 .2173
1.07091.08541.1051
1.12701.13801.15821.2173
9.97039.96449.95669.94819.94399.93629.9146
5.48075.5563/5.6391
5.72075.81705.9228/6.0424
1
1
8.01568.01568.01568.01568.01568.0156'8.0156
g
R45
1
/3.46663.536313.611313.684413.7.7653.87463.9726
2928 3438 4086 4835 5977 7492 9389
For 65°
log
H
C
log E65
log B65
B65
1+B65
a.cJog(l +B65)
2 log V
j
8.97J9.0531
9.9685
8.9405
.0872
1.0872
9.9637
5.4807
9.1430 9.2253 9.2615 9.3208 9.4526
9.9685/9.9685
9.02169.1115
.1051 .1293
1.1051 1.1293
9.95669.9472
5.55635.6391
9.9685 9.9685 9.9685 9.9685
9.1938 9.2300 1.2893 9.4271
.1562 .1698 .1947 .2674
1.15621.16981.19471.2674
9.93709.93199.92279.8971
5.7207/5.8170,5.922816.0424
1
90
HIGH
V
550


sin 2~
I og
 
FIRE
660
725
810
915
1050
   
7.89987.89987.89987.89987.89987.89987.8998
3g
log
600
ANGLE
1
R65

3.34423.41273.4861 3.55753.64873.74533.8393
2209 2586 3063 3610 4453, 5563 6907
R65
Ex. 2. The thermometer reads 79°, and the barometer
29.40 inches; what effect will this have on the ranges?
Table I gives
~=1.050
(J
Now,
dJ:
and, in this case,
dCC =
= (l  ~Jl;I)~
~l
1 =.050
The values of M are the reciprocals of 1 +B, and a.c. log
(1 + B) is log M. Consequently we have,
v
5501
45
M
.9339
.0661
.9198
.0802,
(lM)45
M65
(1 M)65
Hence the percentage
At 45 °
At 65
0
600
.9213
.0787
.9049/
.0951
6601 725
.9049
.0951
.8855
.1145
.8874
.1126
.8650
.1350
810 915 1050
.8788 .8634 .8215
.1212
.1366 .1785
.8549 .8370 .7890
.1151
.1630 .2110
range changes are,
/.003311.003941.004761.005631.006061.006831.00893
.00401.00476.00573.00675.00726.09815.01055
And the actual range changes ate,
. Ex. 3. Calculate the values of log H, and of log C for the
following zones for the 12 inch mortar, model 1890.
(a) V = 1300
projectile 824lb., Johnson cap
(b) V = 1250}
(c) V = 1500
projectile
700lb., long pointed,
7 cal. rad. ogive
HIGH
ANGLE
.(a)
V800
(V 800)2
1002
100 (V 800)
1002
(V 800)2
+
ratio

26
5
104
99
104
9.9786
6.2279
5.6990
8.6176
~ ratio
1 
500
250000
10000
50000
260000
5
~ ratio
log
log V2
a .c. log 20000
logUg
log H
log w
a.c. log d2
a.c. log i
log C
0.5231
2.9159
7.8416
0.0000
0.7575
(b)
450
202500
10000
45000
212500
18
. 85
9
170
161
170
9.9764
6.1938
5.6990
8.6176
0.4868
2.8451
7.8416
0.1249
0.8116
Ex. 4. Given,
V = 1500
cp = 56°
R = 13875 yards
700 lb. long pointed projectile
Calculate,
a. Time of flight.
b. Drift.
c. Angle of fall.
d. Maximum ordinate.
e. Velocity of fall.
f. Thickness of deck armor perforated.
Here,
a.
N
=
16.884
(Si~t) t
T=2NVsin~
g
1.05 VO.6 (sin~)1.2
.0212
= 1.9057
= 9.9023
=
log 1.05
0.6 log V
1.2 log sin cp
91
FIRE
(c)
700
490000
10000
70000
500000
7
50
7
200
193
200
9.9845
6.3522
5.6990
8.6176

0.6533
2.8451
7.8416
0.1249
0.8116
92
HIGH
log T
T
ANGLE
FIRE
1.8292
67.48 sec.
b.
(1)
(2)
2 ,(1  K) = 2 X .163 = .326
log .326
= 9.513210
log d3
= 3.2375
a.c. log w
= 7.1549 10
a.c. log n
= 8.6990 10
log rp see rp = ~
log Drift
Drift
log p
=
=
log D
log Drift =
Drift =
8.6046 10 Table Y
2.0006
Table IV
0.6052
4°.029
= 0.6052
4°.029
=
C.
tan w
1
y2 sin 2rp
tan rp = M =
3gR
Hence
(1)
2
tanw=_
sin2
y2
(2)
rp
96.48 R
2 log
2 log
a.c. log
a.c. log
V
sin rp
R
48.24
log tan
w
y2
48.24 R
= 6.3522
= 9.8372
= 5.8578
= 8.3166
=
=
w
sin2
0.3638
66°36'
rp
tanw=
u
tan
log 3g
log R
a.C. 2 log V
a.C. log sin 2rp
logM
a.C. log M
log tan
log tan
rp
w
w
d.
Yo
from (a) 2 log T
log 4.02
e.
=
=
tg
T2
4.02 T2
= 3.6584
= .6042
log Yo= 4.2626
Yo = 18306 feet
v'" = M3/2 Y cos
3/2 log M = 9.710810
log Y = 3.1761
logcos rp = 9.7476
a.C. log cos w = 0.4010
log v'"
1'",
=
3.0355
= 1085 f.s.
rp
rp
see w
=
=
1.9844
=
9.8072
0.1928
0.1710
0.3638
66°36'
4.1422
= 3.6478
= 0.0328
f.
=
=
=
=
HIGH
e =[5.417510l
f.
ANGLE
,
WVw3
93
FIRE
f
"dl1
(9~~OlJJ)
}
{jJ = 66.6
90 lJJ = 23.4
=
90 lJJ).2
100
(
1 _ (90 lJJ )
100
log W
3 log Vw
a.c. log d
2
.055
=
.945
=2.8451
= 9.1065
= 8.9208 10
con~t log = 5.417510
log .945 = 9.9754
log e = 0.8291
e = 6.747 inches
2)10.8724
5.4362.
Ex. 5. Firing of trial shots in zone 5 (1046lb., 810 f.s.)
with barometer 29.4 and thermometer
79°, showed a range
6100 yards at 45°. Atmosphere still and clouds motionless.
(a) What part of this was due to powder?
(b) What percentage correction should be made for powder in each zone?
(a) Ex. 2 shows that 36 yards of this was due to air density; so that the range, all conditions normal except powder,
was 6100  36 = 6064.
Ex. 1 shows that the rangetable range is 5977 yards.
Hence the shot ranged too far by
6064  5977 = 87 yards = 1.45 %
Table A (page 88) shows 1.70 per cent as corresponding
for this zone to one per cent in the 7th and 8th zones. Hence
the percentage figures should be multiplied by
1.45 29
1.70 = 34
giving:
Zone
I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
I
Effect
Correction
1.65 %
1.56 %
1.53 %
1.53 %
1.45 %
1.19 %
0.85 %
0.85 %
1.65
1.56
1.53
1.53
1.45
1.19
0.85
0.85
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
94
HIGH
ANGLE
FIRE
Ex. 6. Shots were fired in the 6th zone (1046lb. projectile, V = 915 f.s.) at an elevation 590.
Four shots were fired at azimuth 230° and four at azimuth
290°.
The mean ranges and deflections observed were:
At az. 230°
Range 6628 yards
Deflectio:p. 4°.70
At az. 2900
6670 yards
30.58
The barometer stood "at 28.50 and the thermometer
The range table shows for this zone and elevation,
Range6532
yards
Drift3°.79
at 700.
(a) Find mean direction and rate of motion of the atmosphere.
(b) Find the percentage
in this and other zones.
range correction
due to powder
Let A be the azimuth of the direction towards which the
atmosphere is moving.
Then A 180° will be the azimuth
from which it comes, or its "azimuth."
Then if Wbe the rate of motion of the atmosphere in miles
per hour, and JR be the effect in yards on the range of the
change in condition of the powder, we shall have,
v
Az. 230°
Deflecting componen t of W, W sin (A  230°)
Range component of W,
W cos (A  230°)
or, representing A 290° by ex,
Az. 2900
W sin (A _ 2900)
W cos (A _ 2900)
Deflecting componentw
sin (a+600) W sin ex
Range component
W cos (a+600)W cos a
To reduce these components to effects in yards, it is
necessary to note that:
The deflection due to a 10mile wind is 8.7% of the drift.
The range effect due to a 10mile wind is given by
JR
= 50 (
1060 )
2
= 50 (1~~~)2
=. 42 yards in this case
The deflection for 10miles per hour is,
.087 X3.79
0°.33
HIGH
ANGLE
FIRE
95
The actual deflections not due to drift are:
Az. 230°
Az. 290°
4°.70 3.79 =0.91
3°.58 3.79 = 0°.21
The actual ,range effects due to all causes were:
Az. 230°
Az. 290°
6628 6532 =96 yards
6670 6532 = 138 yards
The deflection components should produce effects:
W sin aX.033
W sin (a+60) X.033
=0°.91
= 0°.21
That is,
W (sin
'P
cos 60° +cos a sin 60°) =
g:~i~
=
0.210
.0.033
W sin a
Now,
cos 60° =
Consequen tly,
72 and sin 60°
~ { si~ a + Y T cO;
a} = 25.78 .
= 6.36
W sin a
. .
B Y d.IVlslOn,
lL
72
+
lL,/3
72
v
lL,/3
72v
t
CO
t
co
a=
25.78.
.6.36
_ (25.78+3.18)
6.36.
a
"28.96
= 6.36
.
 6.36
tan a= 28.96
So that,
log6.36
a.C. log 28.96
logl/3
a.c. log 2
log tan a
72y3
v/3
2
= 0.8035n
=
B.538210
= 0.2386
= 9.699010
== 9.2793n 10
a= ...:..
10°46'
The effect of
~d~ = 1.063
on the range is given by Ex. 2 for thjs zone ~s follows:
For 5% JR = 48.5.
.
lor6.3 JR = 61 yards
llence the real range effects of powder and motion of the
atmosphere are,
9661 =35. yards, and13S::61
77 yards~
96
HIGH
ANGLE
FIRE
These effects, in view of the fact that 1 mi. per hr. produces a range effect 4.2 yards, may be used as follows:
JRv + 4.2 W cos (a + 60°) = 35
JRv
4.2 Wcos a
= 77
+
or
By subtraction,
4.2 W {cos (a + 60°) cos
a}
W{cos (a+600) ('os a}
Now, a
a + 60°
=
=
'42 yards
10
.
10046'.
49° 14'
cos (a + 60°)
cos a
cos (a+600)  cos a
Hence,
=
=
0.6529
0.9824
0.3295
10
W= 0.3295
= 30.4 mi. per hour.
JRv = 77  4.2 Wcos a
= 77  4.2 X 30.4 X 0.9824
= 77  125
=  53 yards
Hence the percentage change due to powder is,
53
6532
Hence, (a) Azimuth
A180°
W
= 0.81 %
=
= 290°+ a180°
= 30 mi. hr.
= 990
(b) Percentage change in range in this zone 0.81 %.
Percentage change in other zones, from Table A:
Zone
I
II
III
IV
.V
VI
VII
VIII
Effect
1.93 X;'" 1~~
=
1.84 X
1.80 X
1.80 X
1.70'X
1.40 X
1.00 X
1.00 X
=  .04;
= 1.04;
= ;"'0.98;
= 0.81;
= 0.58;
1.12~
= 1.07;
= 0.58;
Correction
+1.12%
+1.07%
+1.04%
+1.04%
+0.98%
+0.81%
+0.58%
+0.58%
(REMARK: Had no allowance been made for wind it would
have been presumed that the average effect due to powder was,
HIG~
ANGLE
35+77
2.
=
97
FIRE
+56 yards
and a percentage
correction in the various zones in exactly the
and almost equal in amount would have
been made, and in firing on a different day a large error would
have been made in powder correction with no assurance of .a
compensating wind. Even on the same day, large errors would
have been made in other zones; and some error even in this
zone.)
opposite direction,
TABLE
Values of
Ther.
F.
I
aI/a
for temperature and pressure of atmosphere 78% saturated
with moisture.
(From Artillery Note No. 25.).
28"
Barometer
29"
30"
31"
0
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
I
Ther.
F.
28"
Barometer
29"
30"
31"
0
0.890
0.8~2
0.894
0.896
0.898
0.901
0.903
0.905
0.907
0.910
0.912
0.914
0.916
0.918
0.920
0.922
0.924
0.926
0.928
0.930
0.932
0.934
0.936
0.938
0.940
0.942
0.944
0.946
0.948
0.861
0.863
0.864
0.866
0.868
0.870
0.872
0.874
0.876
0.878
0.880
0.881
0.883
0.885
0.887
0.889
0.891
0.893
0.895
0.897
0.899
0.901
0.903
0.905
0.907
0.909
0.911
0.913
0.915
0.831
0.833
0.835
0.837
0.839
0.841
0.843
0.845
0.847
0.848
0.850
0.852
0.854
0.856
0.858
0.860
0.862
0.864
0.866
0.868
0.870
0.871
0.873
0.876
0.878
0.880
0.881
0.883
0.885
0.806
0.808
0.809
0.811
0.813
0.815
0.816
0.818
0.820
0.822
0.824
0.826
0.827
0.829
0.831
0.833
0.835
0.836
0.838
0.840
0.842
0.844
0.845
0.847
0.849
0.851
0.853
0.855
0.856
9
0.950
10
0.952
11
0.954
12
0.956
13
0.958
14
0.960
15
0.962
16
0.964
17
0.966
18
0.968
19
0.971
20
0.973
21
0.975
22
0.977
23
0.979
24
0.981
25
0.983
26
0.985
27
0.987
0.990
28
0.992
29
30
0.994
31
0.996
32
0.998
33
1.000
34
1.003
35
36
1.007
37
1.009
11.005
0.887
. 0.919
0.921
0.923
0.925
0.927
0.929
0.931
0.933
0.935
0.937
0.939
0.941
0.943
0.945
0.947
0.949
0.951
0.953
0.955
0.958
0.960
0.962
0.964
0.966
0.968
0.970
0.972
0.974
0.887
0.889
0.890
0.892
0.894
0.897
0.899
0.901
0.903
0.905
0.907
0.909
0.911
0.912
0.914
0.916
0.918
0.920
0~922
0.924
0.926
0.928
0.930
0.932
0.934
0.936
0.938
0.940
0.943
0.858
0.860
0.862
0.864
0.866
0.867
0.869
0.871
0.873
0.875
0.877
0.879
0.881
0.883
0.885
0.887
0.888
0.890
0.892
0.894
0.896
0.898
0.899
0.902
0.903
0.906
0.907.
0.909
0.911
98
HIGH
Ther.
F.
28"
Barometer
29"
30"
ANGLE ,FIRE
Ther.
31"
F.
28"
Barometer
29"
30"
31"
0
0
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
. 1.011 0.976
1.013 0.978
1.015 0.980
1.017 0.982
1.019 0.984
1.021 0.987
1.023 0.989
1.026 0.991
1.028 0.993
1.030 0.995
1.033 0.997
1.035 0.999
1.037 1.002
1.040 1.004
1.042 1.006
1.044 1.008
1.046 1.010
1.048 1.012
1.050 1.014
1.0.53 1.016
1.055 1.018
1.057 1.020
'1.059 1.022
1.062 1.025
1.064 1.027
1.066 1.029
1.068 1.031
1.071 1.033
1.073 1.035 .
1.075 1.037
1.078 1.040
1.080 1.042
0.945 0.913
0.947 0.915
0.949 0.917
0.951 0.919
0.953 0.921
0.955 0.923
0.957 0.925
0.959 0.927
0.961 0.929
0.963 0.931
0.964 0.933
0.966 0.935
0.968 0.937
0.970 0.939
0.972 0.941
0.974 0.943
0.976 0.945
0.978 0.947
0.980 0.949
0.982 0.951
0.984 0.952
0.986 0.954
0.988 0.956
0.990 0.958
0.992 0.960
0.994 0.962
0.996 0.964
0.998 0.966
1.001 0.968
1.003 0.970
1.005 0.973
1.007 0.975
TABLE
V
550
600
660
725
810
915
1050
1250
1300
1500
log K
5.734910
5.7404'10
5.747510
5.748210
5.688110
5.6416 10
5.659810
5.675410
5.677610
5.683510
70
1.082
71
1.085
72
1.087
73
1.089
74
1.092
75
1.094
76
1.096
77
1.099
78
1.101
79
1.104
80
1.106
81
1.109
82
1.111
83
1.114
84
1.116
85
1.119
86
1.121
87
1.124
88
1.126
89
1.129
90
1.131
91
1.134
92
1.136
93
1.139
94
1.142
95
1.144
96
1.147
97
1.149
98
1,152
99
1.155
100
1.157


1.044
1.046
1.048
1.050
1.053
1.055
1.057
1.059
1.062
1.064
1.066
1.068
1.071
1.074
1.076
1.079
1.081
1.083
1.086
1.089
1.092
1.094
1.096
1.099
1.102
1.105
1.107
~.11O
1.112
1.115
1.117
1.009
1.011
1.013
1.015
1.017
1.019
1.022
1.025
1.027
1.029
1.031
1.033
1.035
1.038
1.041
1.043
1.045
1.047
1.049
1.053
1.055
1.057
1.059
1.062
1.064
1.066
1.068
1.071
1.074
1.076
1.079
0.977
0.979
0.981
0.983
0.985
0.987
0.989
0.992
0.994
0.996
0.998
1.000
1.002
1.005
1.007
1.009
1.011
1.013
1.016
1.018
1.020
1.022
1.025
1.027
1.029
1.031
1.033
1.035
1.037
1.040
1.042



II
log F (V)
1.2156
1.2967
1.3866
1.4689
1.5051
1.5644
1.7022
1.8692
1.9055
2.0357
log H
9.8332 10
9.9143 10
0.0042
0.0865
0.1227
0.1820
0.3198
0.4868
0.5231
0.6533
I
99
HIGH ANGLE FIRE

TABLE III

Values of log E = log~ (A sin rp).
I{J
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
~
logE
9.8785 10
9.8787
9.8794
9.8805
9.8820
9.8840
9.8865
9.8894
9.8927
9.8964
9.9006
9.9053
9.9105
Ll
I{J
2
7
11
15
20
25
29
33
37
42
47
52
56
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
logE
Ll
9.9161 10
9.9222
9.9287
9.9357
9.9432
9.9512
9.9596
9.9685
9.9779
9.9878
9.9982
0.0092
0.020~
61
65 '
70
75
80
84
89
94
99
104
110
116
 
TABLE IV
I{J
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
7
Values of log (I{J sec
= log D
log
rp
sec
I
I{J
i
I
1.8037
1.8210
1.8383
1.8558
1.8733
1.8909
1.9087
1.9267
1.9448
1.9632
1.9818
2.0006
2.0198
I{J)
log
q;
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
i
I
II
I
I
I{J
sec
I{J
2.0392
2.0590
2.0792
2.1000
2.1209
2.1423
2.1644
2.1870
2.2102
2.2342
2.2589
2.2846
2.3110
TABLE V
. Values of log p
Projectiles
_____
~
n
10461b., capped !_82_4__1_b_.,_c_a_pp_e_d_ _7_0_0_lb_._,
_lO_ll_g_P_Ol_'
ll_te_d
I
1890
~
20
8.519110
8.422210
8.625710
8.528810
d3
p=2(lK)
wn
Drift
=
pD
8.604610
8.507710
Greel{ Letters
A
B
a
Alpha
Beta
Gamma
~ Delta
e Epsilon
C Zeta
T) Eta
{}
Theta
t
Iota
Kappa
A Lamda
p. Mu
1)
Nu
~ Xi
0
Omicron
fl
r r
J
E
Z
H
f)
I
K
A
M
N
""'"
t:f,
0
II
p
X
T
r
rP
X
1Jf
!J
"
7T:
p
a
r
u
cp
I
cjJ
w
Pt
Rho
Sigma
Tau
Upsilon
Phi
Chi
Psi
Omega