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(4)
2008 ajcOjyifa&;udpP

2020 ckEpS f a&G;aumufyu JG &kd nfp;l +y;D yGq


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2020 a&G;aumufyu
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2008 ajcOjyifa&;ESihf 2020 a&G;aumufyo JG nf wqufwpyfwnf; jzpfonf?


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wzufwiG f pdwu f ;l r,Ofr=d uzd@k vnf; vdo k nf? 2008 ajcO&Sad eoa&G@ wdik ;f jynf. Edik if aH &;oGijf yifukd ajymif;vJEikd rf nf r[kw?f
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6
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(5)
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2? b,favmufpm;pm; r0Edik af om ppftyk pf k
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4? trsKd ;om;a&;pdw"f mwfawG wzGm;zGm;jzpfvmaeonfh wdik ;f &if;om;rsm;
5? vuf&AdS rmjynfEikd if aH &;tajctaetay: ydI k / ydIk rcHr&yfEikd jf zpfvmaeaom Edik if aH &;tpOftvm&So d rl sm;/ ausmif; om;rsm;/
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ESifh vl@tcGifhta&;tzGJ@awG. ypfrSwfu ppfwyfjzpfaeonf? oluvnf; ab;usyfeHusyfrdk@ xGufayguf&Smudk
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2019 ckEpS f pufwifbm (1) &uf
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8
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15
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qifE+J$ y;D vlx}k u;D udOk ;D aqmif+y;D +Aw d o d #EiS *hf syefwyfrsm;udk wdu
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orm;rsm;. vufwiG f vk,ufra_ wG/ uaomif;ueif;jzpfra_ wG xm;cJ=h uygonf?
ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygw. D tapmydik ;f umvrsm;wke;f u rmhupf 0f g'rlrsm;udak ±S@aqmifco hJ uJo h @kd yif vuf±dS udv
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ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwD t"Ge@f &n S yf gap?
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16
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17
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JG iG f OD;aqmifae&ayonf?
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18
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+Adwo d #e,fcsŒJ orm;rsm;udk wdu k yf 0JG ifjcif;/ onfah emuf 'kw, d urBmppftwGi;f wGif &ufpuf=urf;=uKwfaom
*syefppfwyf usL;ausmaf &;orm;rsm;tm; vufeufuikd w f eG ;f vSejf cif; jyKcJ&h onf? wzef tar&duefe,fcsŒJ
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hf a&;ESihf vGwv
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19
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f @kd taejzihf tar&duefe,fcsŒJ orm;ESihf w¶kwjf ynfw@kd .tm;+ydKifyw JG iG f tar&duef. tusKd ;
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0ifa&mufpu G zf uf&ef vHŒ_ aqmfaeonf?

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f ikd af e=uaom ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwt D m; vkyif ef;wdik ;f wGif atmifjrifr&_ ap&ef qENjyKvduk yf gonf?
u|Eykf wf @kd taejzifh ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygw/D ol&aJ umif;yDoaom Armjynfjynforl sm;. Edik if t hH csKyftjcm/
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uae'gueG jf rLepfygwD (rmhu0f g' - vDeif0g')
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20
ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwDtwGuf avxD;OD;tke;f armif.
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e,fcsŒJ qef@usiaf &;/ zufqpfawmfveS af &;/ trsKd ;om;vGwaf jrmufa&; wdu k yf JG tqifq h ifYh ygÿifaqmif¶u G f
cJyh gonf?
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aqmif¶u G cf yhJ gonf?
zufqpfawmfveS af &; qifE&J$ ef pwifcsed rf pS I jrefrmjynfY wckwnf;aom ypPn;f rJt h vkyo f rm;
vlwef;pm;ygwD jzpfonfh ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwYD omrefygwÿD iftjzpfrS A[dak umfrwDÿifjzpfonftxd ygÿifI
wmÿefxrf;aqmifcyhJ gonf?
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auseyfcyhJ gonf? *k%, f rl qk;H jzpfc&hJ ygonf?
vGwv f yfa&;&±S+d yD; ra±S;raESmif; 1948 ckEpS f rwfv 28&ufae@ ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwD pwifI
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,if;uJo h @kd xd;k ESuf wdu k cf u
kd cf &H jcif;rsm;udk wk@H jyef±iS ;f vif;cGirhf sm; r&±Scd o hJ jzifh vnf; wbufowf
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f m awmcdo k mG ;=ujcif; jzpfonf? ,if;

21
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hl m%m

22
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hl m%m

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vnf; jzpfEdkifovdk wOD;OD;u ay;onfh [k qkH;jzwfv#if zqyv ESifh yl;aygif; awGŒ&ygw,f? ESpaf ygi;f 50 =umwJt h xd
rrSeo f wif;udk trSe[ f k ,lqum ¶d;k om; aqmif¶Gufzdk@ óu;pm;yg? bma=umifhqdk ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwD aygvpfAsL¶dk tzGŒJ
pGm a&;om;ajymqdkjcif;vnf; jzpfEdkifyg trsKd ;om;"e±Siq f wkd m e,fcsŒJ qef@usiw f hJ ÿifxu J wpkw H a,mufr# OD;ausm+f idr;f &JŒ
onf? vuQ%m ±Sw d ma=umifh jzpfw,f? 'Dtcsuf vltjzpf ray:aygucf yhJ gb;l ? xdpk Ofu jynf
wu,f h t jzpf r S e f r S m td E N d , udk A[dak umfrwD tpnf;taÿ;Y pOf;pm; xJa&;ÿef}uD; OD;ausmf+idrf;&JŒ tajccH
uGejf rLepfygwrD S &Jabmf*±kd , S Ef iS thf wl Arm aqG;aEG;ae=uonfrmS 27 - 3 - 48 ae@ tawG;tac:jzpfwJh awmfvSefa&;oaE<
jynfueG jf rLepfygwt D m; ay;vdu k o f nfh pm naetxd aqG;aEG;r+yD; qkH;jzwfcsuf om;udk tarG;rcH&bl;/ zsufcsypf&r,f
rSm Armjynfonf +Adwo d # udv k ekd D e,fcsŒJ rcsEikd af o;yg? qdw k hJ ,lqcsuaf =umifh wjynfv;Hk udk zrf;
vufatmufrS vGwfvyfa&; &±Sdonfh 'DtawmtwGif;Y ÿef}uD;csKyf qD;apcJw h m jzpfw,f? ÿef}uD;csKyf OD;Ek&ŒJ
tcsed w f iG f zqyv onf tm%m& vmcJh ocifE/k Advk v f ufsmwd@k u ArmjynfueG jf rLepf oabmwlncD suu f kd r& &wJeh nf;eJ@ ,lchJ
+yD? 'ga=umifh zqyvudk vlwef;pm; ygwD ocifoef;xGe;f ESihf awGŒqkv H akd =umif; wm jzpfw,f? ('Dta=umif;udk OD;ode;f azjrifh
vuQ%m jzwf&rnf? ygww D &yf. aoe*F Adkvfatmif}uD;uwqifh qufoG,fcJh a&;wJh “ausmf+idrf;” pmtkyfrSm yg+yD;
AsL[mudk csrw S &f mY vlwef;pm;vuQ%m a=umif; Adkvfatmif}uD;&JΠaqmif;yg; jzpfygw,f?)

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tJ'D rwfv 28 &ufae@ tzrf; rwlaomfvnf; trsm;pk&ŒJ qk;H jzwfcsuu f kd tJ'v D kd jynfwiG ;f ppf pwifjzpf
tqD;awG cH&+yD;wJah emuf aygvpfAsL¶dak wG vdkufem+yD; ygwDeJ@twl ygoGm;cJhw,f? wJ h t csd e f r S m yJ zqyv A[d k OD ; pD ;
vGwo f mG ;=uw,f? tJ'aD e@rmS yJ aygvpf awmwGif; a&mufwJhtxd yxrydkif;rSm nDvmcHrSm tr_aqmiftzGJŒu tpD&if
AsL¶dk (3) OD;jzpfwhJ ocifoef;xGe;f / ocif v,form; vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&; cH&mrSm 1948 ckEpS f rwfv 28 &ufae@wiG f
Aodef;wifESifh &Jabmf*dk±S,fwdk@ (3) OD; vkyw f mudk oabmrwlwt hJ wGuf wmÿef uGefjrLepfrsm; awmcdkoGm;=uonf[k
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taÿ;rSm &Jabmf*±kd , S u f zqyv tpd;k & aygvpfAsL¶dk tzGŒJ ÿifbÿrS wdu k ef ,fpnf;¶k;H acgif;aqmif Adkvfatmif!Gef@u jyifqif
u pwif &efpvm+yD? ygwDtaeeJ@ ajr a&;r–; wmÿefom xrf;aqmifc&hJ w,f? csuw f ifoiG ;f &mrSm awmcdo k mG ;=uonf
atmuf (Under Ground) qif;+yD; 'gukd =unfjh cif;tm;jzifh tdE, dN uGejf rLepf tpm; awmcdo k mG ;&onf[k jyifqifay;
tvkyform;awG pnf;¶kH;+yD; oydwfawG ygwu D vufeufuikd af wmfveS af &;vkyzf @kd &ef wifjycJyh gonf? olw@kd bmom awmcdk
arSmufapum oydwpf Hk olyek x f &r,fv@kd !ïe=f um;wmudk &Jabmf*±kd , S u f vufcH oGm;=ujcif;r[kwb f J zqyv tpd;k &u
wifjyw,f? ocifoef;xGef;eJ@ ocif ,lvm+yD; aygvpfAsL¶du k qk;H jzwf+yD; awm zrf;qD;jcif;a=umifh awmcdkoGm;&jcif;
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kd cf whJ hJ Ttaxmuf t xm; ouf
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w,f? 'Dae&mrSm tdE, dN uGejf rLepfygw&D ŒJ tpdk;&u wjynfvkH; uGefjrLepfygwDÿif &ufae@wGif pwifjzpfyGm;cJh&aom jynf
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qdkwJh OD;odef;azjrifh&JŒ a&;om;ajymqdk =u&wm jzpfwt hJ rSewf &m;udk u|Eykf t f ae jynfom;rsm;/ ordik ;f ynm±Sirf sm;taejzifh
csu[ f m wufwufpifatmif vGrJ mS ;cJw h m jzifh rSww f rf;ðyxm;cJyh gonf? trSeu f kd twnfðy&efEiS hf trSm;udk y,f
jzpfygw,f? 'DaygvpfAsL¶dk (3) OD;&JŒ tpnf; awmwGif;a&muf+yD; (6) vr# zsuEf ikd af p&ef u|Eykf t f aejzifh rSww f rf;ðypk
taÿ;uyJ 2 rJ 1 rJe@J awm&yfukd tajccH t=umrSm “awmfveS af &; 6 v c&D;”qdw k hJ cJjh cif; jzpfygw,f?
v,form;udk pnf;¶kH;+yD; vufeufudkif rde@f ceG ;f wckxrJ mS OuUÏ ocifoef;xGe;f u (u|Efkyfudk,fwdkif a&;om;&ef
awmfvSefa&;vkyfzdk@ qkH;jzwfcJh=uw,f? “u|efawmfwdk@[m vufeufudkif awmf &nf¶G,fxm;cJhaomfvnf; a&;om;&ef
('D t a=umif ; ud k ocif A od e f ; wif u vSeaf &; vky&f r,fqw kd mudk owdr&=u tcsed f r&Edik af wmhonft h wGuf u|Eykf . f
Bertil Litner udk twnfðyajym=um; ygb;l ? zqyv tpd;k &u tayguu f sO;f &Jabmfa[mif;wOD;udk a&;om;apcJhI
cJah =umif; olŒ&JŒ The Rise and Fall uav;xJu uefxw k +f y;D rif;wd@k vufeuf rSww f rf;ðyxm;cJjh cif; jzpfygonf?)
of Communist Party of Buma udik f awmfveS af &; vky=f uawmhv@kd cdik ;f
pmtkyx
f rJ mS a&;om;azmfjyxm;ygw,f?) wmeJ@ u|efawmfw@kd vufeufuikd af wmf tke;f armif (avxD;)
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vnf; &Jabmf*±kd ,
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f uGejf rLepfaumif; ygw,f?
wa,muf yD o pG m ol u oabm

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ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwD&ŒJ ESpf 80 jynfah jrmufwhJ aeŒ xl;aeŒ jrwfukd


txdr;f trSwðf yjcif;

(1)
ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwD ay:ayguv f mjcif;
Armjynf[m 1824/ 1852eJ@ 1885 ckEpS w f @kd rmS t*Fvyd ef @J ppf 3 }udrjf zpfymG ;um ppf¶;H_ edr+hf yD; wjynfv;Hk t*Fvyd u f |eb f ÿ us
a&mufomG ;&awmhw,f? 'gayrJh trsKd ;om;toD;oD; jynfov l x l }k u;D [m tEdik rf cH t¶_;H ray;bJ t*Fvyd ef ,fcsŒJ orm;udk &&mvuf
eufuikd pf +JG yD; enf;rsKd ;pkeH @J wduk yf ÿJG ifc=hJ uw,f?
'Dvekd @J 1938-39 rSm 1300 jynft h a&;awmfyv Hk @kd Armjynfordik ;f rSm ausm=f um;cJw h hJ wjynfv;Hk u tvkyo f rm;/
v,form;/ ausmif;om;rsm; ygÿifwhJ t*Fvyd u f v
kd ekd eD ,fcsŒJ qef@usiaf &; ta&;awmfy}Hk uD; ay:aygucf w hJ ,f? 'gayrJh 'D}uD;rm;
us,jf yef@whJ 1300 jynfh ta&;awmfy}Hk uD;[m aemufq;Hk rSm ¶_;H edro hf mG ;&w,f?
'DtcsdefrSm ¶k±Sm;atmufwdkbmawmfvSefa&; atmifyGJ&JŒ ¶dkufcwfr_a=umifh Armjynfwÿef;rSm rmhufpfvDeifÿg'udk
avhvmaewJh wd@k Armtpnf;t¶k;H tzGŒJ ÿif avhvma&;tpkrsm; tES@H tjym; ay:ayguaf e+yDjzpfygw,f? 'DtpkawGu 1300 jynfh
ta&;awmfy}Hk u;D ¶_;H edro hf mG ;&jcif;[m rmhupf v f eD ifÿg' awmfveS af &;oabmw&m; vufeufwyfqifxm;wJh uGejf rLepfygww D &yf&ŒJ
acgi;f aqmifr_ uif;rJah evd@k qw kd hJ rSeu f efwhJ ed*;Hk csKyfcsuu f kd &±Sv d u kd =f uw,f? 'g[m twWbmÿtajctaejzpfw,f?
tJ'u D mvu wdik ;f jynf&ŒJ tajctaeudk =unfv h u kd jf yefawmhvnf; trsKd ;om;a&;eJ@ vlwef;pm;wdu k yf rJG sm; jyif;xefvm
aewJh ¶kyb f ÿ tajctaersKd ;jzpfw,f? tJ'¶D yk b f ÿtajctaeeJ@ twWbmÿ tajctae 2 &yfaygi;f pyfr+d yD; txufazmfjycJw h hJ
rmhupf /f vDeifÿg' avhvma&;tpkrsm; aygi;f pnf;+yD; 1939 ck/ =o*kwv f 15 &ufae@rmS ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwu D kd ocifatmifqef;/
ocifvaS z/ ocifA[de;f / ocifAwif/ ocifp;kd / ocifAv kd /f a'guw f mewf polw@kd u pwifxal xmif cJ=h uw,f? 'ga=umifh 'DEpS [ f m
ygwD tESpf 80 jynfah jrmufwhJ ae@x;l ae@jrwfjzpfw,f?
'ga=umifh ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygw[ D m trsKd ;om;vGwv f yfa&;wdu k yf eJG @J vlwef;pm;wdu
k yf rJG sm; jyif;xefvmaewJh tvkyf
orm;/ v,form;/ ausmif;om;v_y±f mS ;r_rsm;twGi;f rS a±SŒwef;a&muforl sm;eJ@ wd;k wuforl sm;jzpfwhJ rmhupf ÿf g'rD sm;u ordik ;f a&;
vdtk yfcsut f & xlaxmifcw hJ mjzpfw,f? wenf;ajym&&if ordik ;f a&; vdt k yfcsut f & ay:xGuv f mcJw h mjzpfw,f? ygw[ D m
ay:ayguv f muwnf;u rdr&d ŒJ ordik ;f ay;wmÿefrsm;tjzpf vGwv f yfa&;/ 'Dru kd a&pDa&;/ qd±k ,S vf pfa&;qd+k yD; wmÿef}uD; 3 &yfukd
csrwS xf rf;aqmifcw hJ ,f? vGwv f yfa&;udv k nf; t&,lqw G cf ;l Edik cf w hJ ,f?
tcktcg ygw&D ŒJ oufwrf;[m tESpf 80 jynfo h mG ;+yDjzpfw,f? 'ga=umifh ygw[ D m ArmjynfrmS oufwrf;t±Sn=f umqk;H
ÿgt&ifq h ;Hk tawGŒtñuH tºu,fÿqk;H ygwjD zpfovdk tcuftcJ tauGŒtaumuf twuftqif;trsKd ;rsKd ;udk ausmef if;jzwfoef;

25
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cJh& jzwfoef;ae&qJvnf; jzpfw,f? 'D auGŒrSm awmfveS af &; c&D;uae vGiphf if oa,mif avoHypfum Armjynfvil ,f
cufcaJ uGŒaumuf *k%af &mifajymifwhJ t oGm;wm od@k r[kwf aoGznfomG ;wm jzpf xkukd r_id ;f wdu k v
f mw,f? b,fvykd J r_id ;f
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(1) 1939 rS 1945 ckEpS t f xd ajratmuf u oif=um;ay;cJyh g+yD? om;vlŒtzGJŒtpnf;&JŒ ordkif;OD;wnfcsD
umv yxrydik ;f (2) 1945 rS 1948 ckEpS f u|eaf wmfw@kd tck 'Dc&D;=urf;rSm wufaer_ukd rsujf cnfrjywfcyhJ gb;l ?
txd Oya'wGi;f w&m;ÿifygwt D jzpf &yf ygwDtvHv$ifhxl csDwufaewJh rsdK;quf ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD tyg
wnfcw hJ hJ umv 'kw, d ydik ;f (3) 1948 rS [m ygw&D ŒJ wwd,rsKd ;qufyg? 'DrsKd ;quf tÿif rmhupf ÿf g'udk vrf;!ïet f jzpfxm;wJh
,cktxd/ 'Dru kd a&pDa&;eJ@ qd±k , S v f pfa&; [m 1989 e,fpyfta&;tcif;vd@k ac:wJh EdkifiHwumu tvkyform;ygwDrsm;eJ@
c&D;pOf- wwd,ydik ;f qd+k yD; cGjJ cm;Edik w f ,f? vlrsKd ;pkvufeufuikd f tiftm;pkrsm; ygwD uGejf rLepfygwrD sm;[mvnf; rmhupf ÿf g'udk
'Dc&D;pOfrsm;udk u|eaf wmfw@kd &Jabmfrsm; atmufucGJxGufwJh jyif;xefwJh ta&; tvkyv f rf;!$et f jzpfxm;um rdrEd ikd if &H ŒJ
tm;vk;H rsKd ;qufwquf+yD;wquf yck;H tcif;eJ@ ñuHawGŒcJh&olawGyg? ygwDtzdk@ tcdkiftrmvufawGŒeJ@ aygif;pyfusifhokH;
ajymif;cH,v l mcJ=h uw,f? ,cktcg ygw&D ŒJ vnf; aoa&;±Siaf &;eJ@ &ifqikd v f u kd &f wm oGm;a&;udo k m jyÏmef;cJ=h uwmjzpf+y;D usihf
&nfreS ;f csujf zpfwhJ 'Dru kd a&pDa&;/ qd±k , S f yg? tJ'D wdik ;f &if;om;awmfveS af &; tif ok;H +rJusio hf ;Hk =uygw,f? uGejf rLepfygweD @J
vpfa&; - uGejf rLepfavmuudk taumif tm;pk awmfawmfrsm;rsm;[m ygw&D ŒJ tvkyform; vlwef;pm;&JŒ ordkif;ay;
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wvSr;f csw D ufae=u&w,f? axmifpòk yuGrJ e_ @J ta±SŒOa&my qd±k , S vf pf ygw,f? b,fygwu D rS rmufpÿf g'udk acwf
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ygwDu, kd =Hk unf&r,f/ uGejf rLepfta&;awmfy}Hk uD; ,m,D ¶_;H edrhf xJrSm odrf;rypfvdkufygbl;? 'Dae@umv
jynfou l , kd =Hk unf&r,f r_e@J ñuv H ukd &f jyefw,f? 'gayrJh ygw[ D m rdrd t&if;±SiEf ikd if rH sm;rSm uGejf rLepfygwD 120
txufrSmazmfjycJhwJh ygwD&JŒ tvHukd qufvi$ +hf yD; rdr&d nfreS ;f csuf yef; ausmfeJ@ tm%m&ygwDtjzpf w¶kwf/
&nfreS ;f csujf zpfwhJ 'Dru kd a&pDa&;/ qd±k , S f wdkifqDudk qufvufcsDwufzdk@ jyifqifcJh AD,uferf/ usLbm;/ ajrmufu&kd ;D ,m;eJ@
vpfa&;&nfreS ;f csuf yef;wdik u f kd vGwv f yf w,f? 'Dtcg t&if;±Sif tiftm;pkrsm;u vmtdk 5 Edik if ±H adS evd@k urBmay:rSm uGef
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70 ausmo f mG ;cJyh g+y?D 'Dvckd ufcJ ±Sn=f umwJh csuf[m vpfb&,f'Drdkua&pDom jzpf wufvmwJh &mpkESpfjzpfw,f”qdkwmudk
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26
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urBmah e&m tES@H tjym;rSm ðyvkycf w hJ ,f? tac:udk rdrw d @kd &ŒJ vrf;!ïet f awG;tac: awmfw@kd ygw[ D m rdryd gwÿD ifrsm;&JŒ ygwD
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epfygweD @J tvkyo f rm;ygwrD sm;u tus,f taumiftxnf azmfomG ;rSm jzpfygw,f? Edik if aH &;ygwD wck&ŒJ ygwv D uQ%mqdw k m
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onf? ae&ygonf? Tenf;vrf;rSm 2008 zJŒG pnf;tkycf sKyfykH tajccH
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a&;qJjG yÏmef; twnfjyKvdu k jf cif; jzpfygonf?

35
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1 - 8 - 19

ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwrD mS 2008 tajccHOya' wdu k f


zsuaf &;/ ppfo;kH ppfwu
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&yfwnfwu kd yf 0GJ ifaeonf

36
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ðyvdu k yf gawmhw,f? e,fy,fwckv;Hk rSm ,cifuxuf ydrk kd }u;D rm;us,jf yef@ onf;oef
“2008 tajccHOya'” udk b,fvdk=unfhjrifovJ/ vmygawmhw,f?
b,fvkd oabmxm;ovJqw kd m ,ae@ jy\em tm;vk;H eD;yg; 'gth jyif 'DcsKyfygw[ D m tkypf ;kd oltpd;k &jzpfvmawmh
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37
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38
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rvJ? ppftyk pf [
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39
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ewfqif}uD; rsuf&nfrusawmh_yD

(1)
ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygw. D ESpf ±Spq f ,fc&D;wGif ta±SŒajrmufppf ±SmazGpm;aomufjcif;bÿrS awmif,mpyg;pdu k yf sKd ;jcif;/ a&oGi;f
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(2) umv?
1949 ckEpS f aemufyikd ;f wGif ÿe,fo@kd w¶kwjf ynfrS wdr;f ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwo D nf azmufjyefa&; &efow l yf
a±Smifvm=uaom ulrifwefwyfrsm; a&muf±v dS mcJ=h uygonf? rsm;udk wdu k cf u kd Ef rdS ef if;+yD; ÿe,fo@kd ajccsro d nfEiS hf yxrOD;qk;H
ÿa'oonf ulrifwefwyfrsm;u wyfom;opfpkaqmif;&m vky&f onft h vkyrf mS ya'o&mZf apmfbmG ;wd@k . tkycf sKyfa&;
a&aomufjrpf? 1957-58 ckESpfrsm;Y tpdk;&ppfwyfrsm;u pepfq;kd }uD;udk òzcszsuq f ;D ypf&jcif; jzpfonf? (apmfbmG ;rsm;rSm
ulrifwefrsm;udk armif;xkwEf ikd cf yhJ gonf? od@k &mwGif 1960 ckEpS f jynfov l xl t k ay: !SO;f yef;ESyd pf ufrr_ sKd ;pkjH zifh tEdik u f siu hf m aoG;
rsm;wGiv f nf; ulrifwefwyftcsKd Œ Ta'oY qufvufvy_ ±f mS ; pky&f ,lxm;om OpPm"ersm;ESihf pnf;pdr, f pfae=uolrsm; jzpf
aeqJ? tjcm;wbufwiG v f nf; ÿa'oonf tpd;k &wyfrsm;u onf? aemfcrf;OD; (erfch rf;OD;) apmfbmG ;qdv k #if trJvu kd &f mYyif
zGŒJ ay;xm;aom umuG,af &;wyfzŒJG rsm; ajc¶_y&f ma'o jzpfyg vlom;udk jrif;vkypf ;D +yD; trJvu kd wf wfo/l vlxt k ay: &uf&uf
onf? ÿe,fonf umuG,af &;wyfzŒJG rsm;twGuf wyfom;opf pufpuf tEdik u f siAhf v kd u
f swwfol jzpfonf?) tkypf rk sm; tcsi;f csi;f
pkaqmif;&m a&cHajrcH jzpfaejyefonf? ÿe,fapmfbmG ;rsm;wGif wduk cf u
kd af er_ukd &yfwef@ap+yD; tcsi;f csi;f &efbufrjzpfatmif
vnf; ud, k yf ikd w
f yfrsm; ±S=d uonf? wyfzŒJG wzGŒJ v#if tiftm; aphpyf!EdS id_ ;f ay;&onf? ,Ofaus;r_ edru hf saeaom ÿvlŒtzGŒJ
400- 500 cef@? 1960 ckEpS rf sm;wGif ulrifwefEiS hf Armtpd;k & tpnf;udk ,Ofaus;r_ jr‡iw hf ifay;zd@k óu;yrf;tm;xkw&f onf?
umuG,af &;wyfzŒJG wd@k ukd qef@usiw f u
kd cf u
kd af om ÿe,fajymuf acgi;f jzwf ewfwifjcif;/ ,Zfyal Zmfjcif; "avhq;kd udrk l
usm;wyfzŒJG i,frsm; pwifay:ayguv f monf? Tumvrsm;wGif ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwu D jyif;xefaom trde@f ukd xkwjf yef+yD;
vnf; ÿe,fwiG f ya'o&mZfapmfbmG ;rsm; tkycf sKyfra_ tmufwiG f wm;jrpf,lcJh&onf? acgif;jzwfowf&efpkaqmif;xm;aom
±Sad eqJ? apmfbmG ;rsm;onf ulrifwefwyfºuif;wyfuserf sm;ESihf ÿtrsKd ;om; uav;i,f av;&mausmu f kd ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwD
aygi;f I ÿe,fukd rl;,pfaq;ÿg; tarSmifxx k J ESpjf rK‡ yt
f yk cf sKyxf m; rS u,fwifEikd cf o hJ nf? Tuav;rsm;udk jynfow l yfrawmfrS ðypk
cJ=h uonf? tkypf ck si;f wduk yf rJG sm;/ e,fajrvkyrJG sm;/ jynfov l xl k apmifha±SmufI twwfynmrsm;oif=um;ay;onf? ausmif;
tay: wAdv k wf rif; zdEydS !
f OS ;f yef;r_rsm; ±Sad ecJo h nf? acgi;f jzwf xm;ay;onf? rl;,pfaq;ÿg;tarSmifxkwGif; epfðryfaeaom
,Zfyal Zmfonfh "avhq;kd vnf; }uD;xGm;aeqJ jzpfonf? ÿe,f ÿvlxt k m; bde;f tpm;xd;k oD;ESrH sm; pdu k yf sKd ;vm=uap&ef pnf;¶k;H
vlŒtzGŒJ tpnf;onf t¶dik ;f acwfvkd trJvu kd jf cif;/ opfOopfzk odr;f oGi;f &onf?

40
_ynfot
hl m%m

ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygw. D tESpf 80 c&D;wGiaf omfvnf;aumif;/ xdtk csed w


f iG f vlxo k nf wESppf m pyg;tvkt H avmuf
ta±SŒajrmuftESpf 20 c&D;wGiv f nf;aumif; tm;aumif;csuf r&±S?d wcsKd Œ 3 vpm/ wcsKd Œ 5-6 vpm ±So d ul rsm;onf? vl
rsm; ±So d vdk tm;enf;csurf sm;vnf; ±Sad yvdrrhf nf? od@k &mwGif wa,muf wESpf y#r;f r# pyg; 25 yk;H &rS ÿrf;pmvkaH vmufonf[k
ygwo D nf &yfwnfcsut f & rSm;,Gi;f aom trSm;rsKd ; wcgr# r±Scd ?hJ qdkEdkifonf? rdrdwdk@pdkufysdK;&±Sdxm;aom ÿrf;pmpyg; apmapm
xdek nf;twl jynfoŒl tusKd ;udk xmÿpOf OD;xdyyf ef xrf;¶Gucf hJ ukeo f u
l apmapmiwfonf? aemufusrS ukeo f u
l enf;enf;
onfcsn;f om jzpfonf? wjynfv;Hk ±Sd jynfov l x l t k usKd ;pD;yGm; cHomao;onf? 'Dawmh awmxJomG ;I ÿO ajrmufO ponfh
qdo k nft h xJwiG f rdrt d ajcpdu k f rScD t
kd m;xm;&m a'ocH jynfol opfoD;opfzkrsm;udk ±SmazGwl;azmfpm;aomuf&onf? wcsdKŒ
vlxt k usKd ;vnf; ygonf? ygwo D nf ÿe,fjynfov l xl tk usKd ; touft¶G,}f uD;olrsm;ESihf uav;i,frsm; awmxJrmS opfO
pD;yGm;twGuf rdrx d rf;¶Guo f ifoh nfh wmÿefrsm;udk tpGr;f ukef opfz±k mS &if; xdak e&mrS jyefrxEdik b f J vJusaoqk;H &avonf?
óu;yrf;tm;xkwcf o hJ nfom? ygwx D rf;aqmifco hJ nfh vkyif ef; ta±SŒajrmufppfa'o ÏmecsKyfwiG f Edik if aH &;r–; &Jabmf
wmÿefrsm;xJwiG f u|efawmfw@kd onfvnf; ygw. D aoG;om; wif&D (&Jabmfaeÿif;/ ygwAD [dk Edik if aH &;OD;aqmiftzGŒJ ÿif) u
tjzpf ygÿifxrf;aqmif;cJ=h uygonf? vkyif ef;wmÿef vnfywf u|eaf wmfu h kd r=umc% ac:aqG;aEG;onf? vlxak wG pyg; 25
atmif v_y±f mS ;pD;qif;aeaom ygw. D eDarmif;aom aoG;&nf yk;H &atmif óu;pm;aqmif¶u G zf @kd ? u|eaf wmfw@kd vnf; jyefvnf
rsm;xJwiG f u|eaf wmfw@kd onfvnf; aoG;pufuav;rsm; toGif tpD&ifc&H onf? vlxw k iG ;f qif;/ vlxx k J v_@H aqmfum b,f
jzifæ h ? avmufxd óu;yrf;cJyh ga=umif;/ 'gayrJh wESppf m pyg; 25 yk;H &zd@k
ÿe,fwGif usa&mufcJhaom ºuufuyfab;a=umifh tawmftvSrf;aÿ;aeao;a=umif; tpD&ifcH&onf? enf;em
ÿe,fwiG f vlxt k ajrmuftjrm; aoausysupf ;D r_ t±Sed rf ao trsKd ;rsKd ; ±Sm}uHpOf;pm;=u&onf?
ao;aomtcsed w f ckwiG f u|eaf wmfonf yefqef;òrŒe,f tvkyf
tzGŒJ taeESihf ÿe,fvx l =k um;xJo@kd a&muf±o dS mG ;cJah vonf? “vlxak wG yavmyDepH u kd zf @kd v_@H aqmfAsm? wzufEikd if H
(3) u yavmyDeaH wG ÿ,frwJ/h yavmyDeq H w kd mu pdu k v f @kd vnf;
ºuufuyfab;a=umifh vlxik wfjywfaeonfukd ygwrD S rcufb;l ? yavmyDeaH &mif;&wJah iGe@J vlxk &dumQ ÿ,f+yD; jznfph m;
tpGrf;ukef tm;oGefóu;yrf;u,fq,fcJhygonf? odk@&mwGif &if tajctae enf;enf;wufvmEdik w f ,f?”
temu tuif;raoao;? vlxak wG xrif; ÿvifatmif rpm; Edik if aH &;r–; !ïe=f um;csutf & u|eaf wmfw@kd onf yefqef;
Edik =f uao;? aoqk;H r_ wcsKd Œ xyfjzpfvmonfvnf; ±So d nf? xrif; òrŒe,fvx l t k wGi;f w¶Gmÿifw¶GmxGuf yavmyDepH u kd yf sKd ;a&;/
ÿvifatmif pm;Edkifonfh tajctaeodk@ ra&mufao;or# vlxkxrif;riwfapa&;eJ@ bdef;tpm;xdk;oD;ESHpdkufysdK;a&;
iwfaool enf;wmeJ@ rsm;wmyJ uGmrnf? tiwfab;u +cdr;f v_@H aqmf=uygonf? olw@kd ÿrf;a&;twGuf tpdu k cf ikd ;f w,f qdw k m
ajcmufaeayvdrOhf ;D rnf? “vlxik wfjywfaoqk;H wmeJ@ wòyifeuf vnf; em;vnfoabmayguv f m=uovd/k wzufEikd if u H vnf;
csucf si;f ygwu D kd wifjytpD&ifcw H mrvky&f if jyif;jyif;xefxef ÿ,f,rl ,fqw kd ma=umifh vlxak wG tm;wufoa&m yavmyDeH
ta&;,lr,f”[k ygwu D jywfjywfom;om; trde@f xw k of nf? awG pduk vf ukd =f uwm/ ¶Gmtÿif vrf;ab;rSmqdk yavmyDeH tcif;
“vlxkiwfjywfaewmudk tav;xm;wmrsdK; r±Sd&if ygwDÿif awGcsn;f ?
au'gaumif; r[kwb f ;l ”[k jywfjywfom;om; aÿzefonf? tpydkif;wkef;uawmh wzufEfdkifiHu yavmyDeHudk
txdu k tf avsmuf ÿ,fygao;onf? aemufyikd ;f yavmyDeaH wG
41
_ynfot
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vlxu k w&pyf tqufrjywf wify@kd awmh olw@kd u rÿ,fEikd f rsupf ?d ESmarmif;ae&mu ESmarmif;? em;¶Guaf e&mu em;¶Gu?f
awmh[k jzwfcsvu kd of nf? qifO;D acgi;f yko
H ¿mefygy?J olw@kd u ewfqif¶yk u f kd jyovdjk cif;u
tJ'Daemufydkif; u|efawmf umÿdkif;¶GmtoGm; ¶Gm t"du r[kw?f “tck 'Dewfqif}uD; rsu&f nfawG usaew,f?
ra&mufcif awmifay:vrf;ab;rSm ÿtrsKd ;om;wpk yavmyDeH cifAsm; jrif&ŒJ vm;? u|eaf wmfw@kd vlxak wG xrif;iwfaevd@k ewf
udu k pf m;ae=uonfukd awGŒ&onf? olw@kd u yavmyDeH udu k f qif}uD; rsu&f nfus&wm? u|efawmfw@kd vnf; rsu&f nfus&
ÿg;&if; u|eaf wmfu h kd E_wq
f ufonf? “olw@kd u rÿ,fawmhvnf; wmyJ? cifAsm;a&m rusb;l vm;? u|eaf wmfw@kd xrif;ÿwJt h csed f
udk,fhbmom udkufpm;ae=u&awmhwmayghAsm? tqmawmh ewfqif}uD; idrk aeawmhbJ ðyH;vmvdrrhf ,f? cifAsm; ewfqif}uD;
ajyygw,fAs? 'gayrJh rsm;rsm;pm;&if awmufwo hJ el @J rl;aÿwJo
h el @J ? ðyH;vmatmif vkyaf y;Edik rf vm;”wJ?h u|eaf wmf pdwx f cd u
kd vf eG ;f
atmhtefwo hJ el @J ? vm-pm;vSnphf rf;ygO;D ”wJ?h I rsu&f nfrsm; ÿJvmygonf? [kwu f ?hJ u|eaf wmfw@kd ewfqif
u|eaf wmf rsuEf mS ylvu kd o
f nfrmS ajymp&mr±S?d }uD; ðyH;vmatmif pGr;f aqmifz@kd rkcs óu;yrf;ygrnf?
acwfaemufus+yD; xrif;ÿvifatmif rpm;Edik af om
vlŒtzGŒJ tpnf;w&yfukd tajccHp;D yGm;a&; jrifw h ufvma&;/ vl Edik if aH &;r–; &Jabmfwif&u
D vnf; wESppf m ÿrf;pmpyg;
wdik ;f xrif;ÿÿvifvif pm;ok;H Edik af tmif vSnahf jymif;a&;qdo k nf 25 ykH; r&ao;v#ifvnf; owˆKrsm; ±SmazGI a&mif;Edkifv#if
rSmvnf; awmfvSefa&;twGif;rS cufcJ}uD;av;aom wmÿef vlxk&duQmudk jznfhay;Edkifvdrfhrnf[k pOf;pm;}uHqjyefonf?
w&yfyguvm;? u|eaf wmf yefqef;òrŒe,f 'dik ef ,f 5 ckpvk;H +yJ+yJpifatmif vSnhf
(4) vnfomG ;vmI owˆK±SmykaH wmfziG &hf jyefonf? awmifay:awm
tvm;wlpGm u|efawmfpdwfxdcdkufrdaom tjzpf vrf;awGwav#muf t¶l;}uD;wa,mufvkd ausmufcjJ rifor#
tysuw f ckukd ajymjyvdyk gao;onf? aumufuikd af vhvmonftxd vkyyf gonf? b,fae&m bm
v_id ;f xefaeaom yifv,fjyif}uD;uJo h @kd ÿawmifwef; owˆK±So d nfukd odvm&onf? erfzwf'ikd ef ,f yefÿg¶mG . ta±SŒ
rsm;onfvnf; v_dif;xefaeaom awmifwef;yifv,fjyif bufwiG f ±Sm;yg;aom ab&D,rfowWKausmuf ±So d nf? wde@f atm
jzpfygonf? Tawmifwef;rsm;xJrS awmifwvk;H . xdyOf ;D tjrifh 'dik ef ,f awmifa=umwckv;Hk rSm oHr%daumif;&zd@k t&nftcsi;f
wGif umÿdik ;f ¶Gm wnf±adS eygonf? jynfrh aD om oHausmufawG ±So d nf? wzufEikd if u H vnf; ò*[fwk
rS "mwfyaHk wGt& 'gukd odonf? ,kew f if'h ikd ef ,f ,kew
f if¶h mG teD;
erfzwf'ikd ef ,f umÿdik ;f ¶Gm}uD;. tay:¶GmESihf atmuf awmifuek ;f wckrmS aiGowˆKawG ±So d nf? wjcm; xl;jcm;aom
¶Gmt=um; 'dik ef ,f¶;Hk teD;wGif tvGe}f uD;rm;aom anmifyif}uD; owˆKxGuo f nfah e&mawG ±Syd gonf? jy\emu 'gawGukd b,f
wyif±Sdygonf? ewfanmifyif[k ac:=uygonf? tjrpfaygif; olu tuket f usc+H yD; vma&mufw;l azmfrvJ? b,fou l ÿ,f
rsm;pGm anmifaxmufuikd ;f rsm;pGm ±Syd gonf? tjrpfawGuvnf; rvJ? 'gawGtwGuf wzufEikd if u H rk %` rD sm;eJ@ qufo, G =f unfh
tzktxpfrsm;pGmESihf }uD;rm;vSygonf? onf? olw@kd pdwÿf ifpm;aomfvnf; wl;azmfonfv h yk if ef; rvkyf
vd=k uao;yg?
ÿtrsKd ;om; wpku u|eaf wmfu
h kd ewfanmifyif}uD;
qDudk ac:oGm;=uonf? “'DrSm=unfh - 'g ewfqif}uD;yJ?” EdkifiHa&;r–;&Jabmfwif&Du pyg;txGufwdk;atmif
anmifjrpf}uD;awGukd jyo=uygonf? [kwyf g?h rsupf ad e&mu "mwfajr=oZm ÿ,f,El ikd af tmif óu;pm;zd@k ? obmÿajr=oZmeJ@
42
_ynfot
hl m%m

EGm;acs;u|Jacs;rsm; tokH;ðyzdk@ }uHqjyefonf? ody`Henf;us - cg;csKd ;tvkyv


f yk f
pdu
k yf sKd ;a&;? acwfaemufusveG ;f aom ÿe,fa'owGif odyeH` nf; - oEMÏd mefcs aemufrqkwef @J
us pdu k yf sKd ;a&;udk u|eaf wmfw@kd tmayguaf tmif a[majymv_@H [lI jzpfygonf?
aqmfcahJ omfvnf; t&mrxifvmcJyh g? ÿe,f jynfov l x
l x
k rk mS
iwfwvSnhf jywfwvSnEhf iS hf cufc=J urf;wrf;aom &uf/ v/ ESpf 'Dvkd v_@H aqmfvu kd af wmh rsKd ;aphrsm;rsm;xkwzf @kd &m vlxk
wd@k ukd ausmjf zwfc&hJ ygonf? rSm rsKd ;aphrsm;rsm;±Srd S jzpfrnf? òrŒe,fu ESppf Ofaumufc&H ±Sad om
pyg;rsm;udk rsKd ;pyg;tjzpf vlxx k H jyefaÿvdu k yf gonf? awmif
onfvdkESifh u|efawmfwdk@ygwDrSm awmfvSefa&;qif ,mawGu us,u f s,cf w k v f @kd &ygonf? oD;ESt H xGuaf umif;rnfh
E$&J mwGif Edik if w
H umhtaetxm;ESihf rdrt d aetxm;t& ud, k hf ae&mudyk J ¶Gmol¶mG om;awG wdik yf ifaqG;aEG;}uHq vkyu f ikd =f uzd@k
'l;udk,fc|efpdwf"mwfudk cdkifcdkifrmrm rpdkufxlv#if rjzpfawmh jzpfonf?
onft h csed uf mvod@k a&muf±v dS mygonf? ygwOD uUÏud, k w f ikd f vlxu k cg;csKd ;tvkyv f yk Ef ikd zf @kd vlxu k xrif;ÿaerS
ajymif;qefEiS ahf &monfh xrif;udk pm;ae&yg+yD? onfwiG f &Jabmf jzpfrmS ayg?h vlxk pdu k yf sKd ;csed f pm;ok;H Edik zf @kd pyg;acs;iSm;ay;&ygonf?
wif&u D u|eaf wmfu h kd ud,
k pf rG ;f ^m%fprG ;f ±So
d r# }uHpnftm; aiG acs;iSm;ay;&ygonf?
xkwf+yD; vlxkxrif;ÿzdk@ jzpfwJhenf;eJ@ óu;yrf;ayawmh-[k vlxak &m*gb,awG usa&mufaev#if b,fvv kd yk f
!ïef=um;vmygonf? vlxkxrif;ÿrS u|efawmfwdk@vnf; pdu
k yf sKd ;a&;udk aumif;atmif vkyEf ikd yf gawmhrvJ? vlxk use;f
xrif;ÿrnfr[kwyf gvm;? rma&;udk taxmuftul ay;Edik af tmif ygwaD q;¶kEH iS hf ygwD
(5) aq;ausmif;wd@k ukd tultnDawmif;cH&onf? yefqef;aq;¶krH S
odyeH` nf;us pdu k yf sKd ;a&;wd@k bmwd@k v_@H aqmfraeEdik f q&mr}uD;&JabmfaiG OD;pD;onf aq;tzGŒJ &JabmfawG/ A[dak q;
awmh? vlxk tcsed w f tkd wGi;f xrif;ÿrS jzpfawmhrnf? u|eaf wmf ausmif;rS a'guw f mvSausmaf Zm OD;aqmifonfh aq;q&mÿef
wd@k vlxEk iS hf wdik yf ifaqG;aEG;+yD; }uHq&onf? awGu awmifóuawmif=um; ¶Gmóu¶Gm=um;rusef jrif;vm;awG
ÿawmifay:rSmu v,fr±Sd awmif,mom ±So d nf? ay: aq;aowWmawGwifum vSnfhvnf ukoay;=uojzifh
awmif,mae&mawGu trsm;}uD;±So d nf? ae&mwckukd ESpw f ikd ;f uyfa&m*gawGukd umuG,Ef ikd o f nft h ajctaea&mufvmum
xyfwvJvJ pdu k af eonfvnf; r[kwyf g? awmawGukd rD;wdu k +f y;D vlxk pdu k yf sKd ;a&;bufrmS vkyt f m;xkwEf ikdf pf rG ;f awG jrifv h monf?
awmif,mvkyo f jzifh ajr=oZmvnf; rnHv h yS g? wcsKd Œawmif,m ±Sr;f trsKd ;om;awGu ajrjyef@rSmae=u+yD; a&oGi;f pyg; pdu k =f u
awG[m ig;ESpaf jcmufEpS =f umrS wcg jyefvyk &f wm jzpfygonf? ygonf? a&oGi;f pyg; pdu k yf sKd ;aom ±Sr;f vlxt k wGi;f rSmrl aqmif;
vkyt f m;ESihf óu;pm;r_vykd grnf? rsKd ;aphvykd grnf? v,fpyg; pdu k yf sKd ;a&;udk 2 oD;pm;tjzpf u|eaf wmfw@kd !$e=f um;
csuf xkwf&ygonf? aqmif;v,fpyg;pdkufysdK;csifvmatmif
u|eaf wmfw@kd òrŒe,fwckv;Hk 'dik ef ,ftm;vk;H ¶Gmwdik ;f pnf;¶k;H a[majym&ygonf?
aph od@k vSnv hf nfpnf;¶k;H zd@k vrf;!ïecf sucf svu
kd yf gonf? vlxkuvnf; pdkufysdK;xkwfvkyfa&;udk tm;wuf
- awmif,mus,u f s,cf w k f oa&m aqmif¶GufcJh=uonf? awmif,mus,fus,fckwf=u
- rsKd ;aphrsm;rsm;xkwf awmif,mrD;¶_Œd =uwmuvnf; umÿdik ;f ¶Gmtxd awmrD;ul;vm
- aygi;f emem Ekwf
43
_ynfot
hl m%m

awmhrvdjk zpfojzifh aoewfawG ypfazmuf=u awmrD;+i‡rd ;f owf aqmufvm+yDqdkawmh t&rf;ajymif;vJoGm;+yD? vlwa,muf


=uwmu wdu k yf wJG ckvkd jzpfc&hJ onf? pyg; 25 wif; ru &ae=u+yD?
(6)
oEMÏd mefjzifh wdu k cf ahJ om onfwu kd yf rJG mS u|eaf wmfw@kd t&ifu ÿe,frmS ÿtrsKd ;orD;awG vufqaHk rmif;jzifh
aumif;pGmtEdkif&±SdcJhygonf? 'g[mvnf; ukefxkwfvkyfa&; qefaxmif;=u&onf? tck u|efawmfw@kd vlxt k wGuf pyg;
wdu k yf w
JG ck[k qd&k ygrnf? }udwq f aHk wG vkyaf y;zd@k }uHqvm=u&+yD? aemufq;Hk awmh wzuf
txufrmS u u|eaf wmf tusO;f csK;H wifjyvdu k w f myg? EdkifiHu pyg;}udwfpufi,fav;awGÿ,f,lzdk@ pDpOfay;vdkufvdk@
vG,fvifhwulr[kwfyg? 1 ESpf 2 ESpfru óu;yrf;¶kef;uef awmifay:rSm pyg;}udwpf ufawG a&mufvm+yD? vlxrk mS pyg;
cJ&h ygonf? cufcufccJ J wdu k yf ÿJG ifc&hJ ygonf? pdeaf c:r_rsm;pGmudk aygaygrsm;rsm; r&v#if 'gawG b,frmS vdt k yfrvJ? awmifay:rSm
&ifqikd u f m =urf;=urf;wrf;wrf; &ifqikd cf &hJ ygonf? wzufu pyg;}udwpf ufEiS rhf ;D pufrsm;udk u|efawmfw@kd wyfqifay;vdu k f
&efou l kd wdu
k &f if; tjcm;wzufu ÿtrsKd ;om; vlŒtzGŒJ tpnf; Edik yf gonf?
twGif; vlxkpm;ÿwfaea&;udk wqpfcsdK; ajymif;vJay;a&;
qdo k nfrmS tb,fr# cufcv J rd rhf nfqo kd nfukd rSe;f q=unfEh ikd f yxr erfzwf'ikd ef ,fu atmifo;D atmifEu HS kd pwif
vdrrhf nf xifygonf? ygweD @J vlxk vufww JG u kd cf u
kd cf &hJ aom qGwcf ;l Edik cf o
hJ nf? aemufawmh 'DpeH rlemtwdik ;f wòrŒe,fv;Hk ?
jyif;xefcufco J nfh wdu k yf wJG yG[ J k qd&k ygrnf?
vlxk pyg;txGuf wufvmygonf? od@k aomf- atmif yefqef;òrŒe,fuae ppfa'o XmecsKyf¶kH;odk@toGm;
jrifrt _ oD;tyGiu hf kd csucf si;f todtrSwrf ðy&Jyg? r,k&H aJ o;yg? vrf;ab;rSm aqmif;v,fpyg;cif;awG pdr;f !d@k aewm jrif&wdik ;f
u|eaf wmf&h ifrmS =unfE;l pdwaf wG aÿvmwwfonf?
yxrqk;H pwifvufcv H mrdwmuawmh umÿdik ;f ¶Gm vlxpk yg; zlvjHk ynfÿh vmojzifh tcGe&f ±Srd u
_ vnf; ydrk kd
wGif tdrw f ikd ;f tdrwf ikd ;f ab;Y wJi,fuav;awGu, kd pf D awGŒjrif wd k ; wuf r sm;jym;vmonf ? txuf y gwD t zG J Œ tpnf ; od k @
vmaom tcsd e f a &muf v mrS jzpf y gonf ? “'gawG u u|efawmfw@kd axmufyEhH ikd rf _ jrifw
h ufvmonf? ygwt D wGuf
bmawGvAJ s” 'dik ef ,fr;– udk u|eaf wmfar;=unfrh o d nf? jynfolŒwyfrawmfom;rsm;twGuf vlxktcGefpyg; aiGa=u;
“'gu pyg;usaD wGav” rsm;udk txufqifh ppfa'oodk@ u|efawmfwdk@ axmufyHhr_
u|eaf wmf tH=h ooGm;ygonf? jrifwh ufvmonf? yefqef;òrŒe,fvx l .
k atmifyjJG zpfovdk ygwD
u|eaf wmfw@kd aumuf,x l m;aom pm&if;t& vlxk . atmifyv JG nf; jzpfygonf?
pyg;txGuw f ;kd vmrSe;f odygonf? &dumQ zlvvHk m+y[D k qdEk ikd o
f nfh
tajctae a&muf+yDudk em;vnfygonf? 'gayrJh tdrfwdkif; ygwAD [d. k oabmwlnrD t _ & ppfa'oygwaD umfrwD
pyg;us±D v dS monfh tajctaeqdw k muawmh xifrw S o f nfxuf u yefqef;òrŒe,fukd yefqef;txl;òrŒe,f[k trnfajymif;um
ydrk kd aumif;rGeo f nfh tajctaeav? òrŒe,ftjzpfrS c¶dik t f qifo h @kd ajymif;vJowfrw S af y;vduk of nf?
ÿtrsKd ;om;awGu t&ifuqdk tdraf y:rSm usycf ;kd r_id ;f cH ud,k 'hf ;l ud,
k cf |eaf &;ESihf txufo@kd tyfEaHS &;wGif usecf ¶dik t
f m;vk;H
xm;wJh ÿg;yd;k ÿg;usnaf wmuf}uD;awGe@J pyg;awG qefawG xnfh u twk,zl @kd v_@H aqmfvu kd of nf?
oGi;f odak vSmifxm;=uwmyg? tck pyg;usaD wGawmif tdrw f ikd ;f
44
_ynfot
hl m%m

u|eaf wmfu erfzwf'ikd ef ,frS vlxuk kd tpnf;taÿ;vkyu f m “ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwu D ewfqif}uD;udk ðyH;&,fapvdu
k yf g+yD”[k
a[majymvduk yf gonf? ÿe,fvx l Ek iS t
hf wl atmifo;D atmifyiG u
hf kd u|eaf wmfw@kd pm;ok;H Edik cf yhJ gonf?

Txkwv f yk af &;wdu
k yf .
JG atmifjrifrt_ aeESihf u|eaf wmf oD;oef@&±Sv
d u
kd af om qkvmbfwck ±Syd gao;onf? ÿtrsKd ;
om;wd@k cGx
J u
G yf ek uf ef=uonft h cg u|efawmfonf u|efawmfwmÿef,cl zhJ ;l aom yef;qef;òrŒe,f¶;Hk rSmyif tusO;f csxm;jcif;
cH&ygonf? u|eaf wmfu h kd v$waf y;zd@k tm%mydik rf sm;xH vma&mufawmif;qd=k uaomolrsm;rSm aqmif;v,fpu kd yf sKd ;a&;a=umifh
acsmifvnfzlvkHvm=uum u|efawmfhtm; cifrifoHa,mZOfjzpfae=uonfh yefqef;òrŒe,f ÿrfem;¶GmrS ±Srf;trsdK;om;rsm;yif
jzpf=uygonf?

(7)
(ÿe,fwiG f ygwx D rf;aqmifcahJ om jynfoŒl tusKd ;ðyvkyif ef;wmÿefrsm;ESihf ÿe,fvx l t
k usKd ;ðyvkyif ef;wmÿefrsm;xJrS rdryd gÿif
xrf;aqmifc&hJ aom vkyif ef;w&yfuo kd m a&;om;wifjyjcif; jzpfygonf? ygwu D ÿe,fjynfoal wGtwGuf aumif;usKd ;qdv k @kd
waphwavawmif rðycJb h ;l qdyk gvm;? Tod@k aom ud,k u f sKd ;pD;yGm;twGuf trSew
f &m;udk zk;H uG,u
f m ygwu D kd ,kwrdW hJ xd;k ESuf
wdu
k cf u
kd af om ajym=um;csurf sm; ysujf y,fygapownf;?)

wzufu &efou l kd wdu k &f if; tjcm;wzufu ÿtrsKd ;om;


vlŒtzGŒJ tpnf; twGi;f vlxpk m;ÿwfaea&;udk wqpfcsKd ;
ajymif;vJay;a&; qdo k nfrmS tb,fr# cufcv J rd rhf nfqo kd nfukd
rSe;f q=unfEh ikd v f rd rhf nf xifygonf? ygweD @J vlxk
vufww JG ukd cf u
kd cf &hJ aom jyif;xefcufco J nfh wdu k yf w
JG yG[
J k
qd&k ygrnf?

45
_ynfot
hl m%m

“i&Jcef;rS yef;uav;rsm;twGuf
tvGr;f pmwyk'”f

jzpfEdkifrnfqdkv#if æ olwdk@ESifh wzef jyefqkHcsifygao;onf? ppfwyftiftm; tvk;H t&if;jzifh jyif;xefaomxd;k ppfukd &ifqikd f
1980-ckEpS u f yif æ olw@kd EiS ahf ÿ;cJ&h onf/ ESpaf ygi;f av;q,fyif ae&onfh umvjzpfonf? &efou l jzwfav;jzwfppfqifa&;
jynfyh gawmhrnf? &ifxrJ mS awmh trSww f &±Sad eqJ æ? 1979- vkyfvmonf? rdrdwdk@bufrS qkH;¶_H;r_}uD;rm;vSonf? t±Sif
ckEpS u f rpnfum;tyfaomae&m[kac:qdak vh¶ad_ om emrnf vwfvwfacgi;f jzwf æ raor±Siaf cgi;f jzwf æ ao+yD;om;udk
qd;k ESihf ausm=f um;onfh tif;pdeaf xmifi&Jcef;wGif u|eaf wmfw@kd vnf; acgi;f jzwf æ&efob l ufu jywfonf? tpmiwf a&iwf
qkcH =hJ uonf? olw@kd um; i&Jcef;. yljyif;awmufavmifaeaom t[m&jywf æ aojcif;w&m;u teD;uyfrmS a&mufvmayr,fh
rD;v#x H wJ iG f &J&ifÿh ifºh um;pGm yGichf =hJ uonfh oHr%d yef;yGiu hf av; oHr%dpw d "f mwfe@J æw&HrvyfæaoewfoaH wG=um;rSm ±Sio f ef
rsm;yif jzpfonf? ykyt f n hJ pfnrf;aomavxkxrJ mS ,dr;f xd;k v_yf cJh v_y±f mS ;cJ&h onf? yod@k qakd p acgi;f aqmifrsm; au'grsm; &Jabmf
±Sm;&if; xk&H D oif;ysŒH aom &eH@jzifh oef@±iS ;f rGejf rwfaom *k%f rsm;u cdik rf maom,k=H unfcsujf zifh toufay; wdu k yf ÿJG ifc=hJ u
odumQ udk rSww f ikd pf u kd x f cl =hJ uonf? æ ¶d;k om;onf? wnf+idrf onf? TumvrSmyif 1979 - ckEpS u f ygw. D wmÿefay;csuf
}uHŒcdik o f nf? &efigjywfonf? enf;y&d,m,f ±So d nf? olw@kd . t& ajratmufvyk if ef;twGuf &efoŒl a'owGi;f od@k c&D;xGucf hJ
owWdESifh tajrmftjrifudk u|efawmf. &ifoyf¶_arm tHh=o &m æ rar#mv f ifb
h &J aJ bmf wa,muf (&Jabmfoef;armif) ESihf
rdonf? av;pm;rdonf? olw@kd tawGŒ tñuHawGxrJ mS avhvm twl &efolŒvufwGif; usa&mufcJh&onf? rdrdtzdk@ vkH;ÿ
p&mawG rsm;pGm±Sd cJo h nf? olw@kd u u|eaf wmfu h kd tvif;a&mif ar#mv f ifh rxm;aom bÿtvSnt hf ajymif;yifjzpfonf?
wcsKd Œay;&if; æ v_u d v f aJS EG;axG;pGm óuqdck =hJ uonf? &Jabmf Tod@k jzifh a&=unftikd æ f tif;pdeaf xmif (6)wku d fæ
&JbufozG,f ayGŒzuf&if; wwfEdkifor# æ tultnDawG (5) wdu k rf sm;wGif emusiyf al vmif cg;oD;aom ae@&ufrsm;udk
ay;cJo h nf? u|eaf wmfEh v S ;Hk tdrw
f iG f pl;pl;epfepf cHpm;cJ&h onf? jzwfoef;cJh&onf? rdrd. ,kH=unfcsufESifh tawG;tac:udk
tajctae ta=umif;a=umif;a=umifh olw@kd twGuf trSww f & prf;oyfrSwfausmufwifaom ae@&ufrsm;[lIom rSwf,l
pmwyk'f a&;csiaf omfvnf; ra&;jzpfchJ æ Tod@k jzifh æ &ifxrJ mS ygonf? aemufq;Hk æ &efou l ppfa=uma&;vkyjf cif;udk vuf
taºu;wckvdk cHpm;aecJh&onfrSm ESpfawG=umcJh&ygonf? av#m+h yD; 17 — ( 1/2)yk'rf jzifh w&m;¶k;H wifaxmifcsz@kd taqmif
twdwfonf jyefrvmEdkifawmh ? odk@aomf &ifxJrSmawmh (1) udk yd@k ygonf? tcef;xJrmS awmh pdwrf csr;f ajrŒzG,f tedÏm¶kH
w&dy&f yd f ajy;aeqJæ jrifuiG ;f u qD;óuaeygonf? rdrt d zd@k awmh tawGŒtñuHtopf
1972 - ckEpS q f ef; u|eaf wmfvufeufuikd f awmfveS af &; æ? wef;pDIxdkifaeaom vlopfrsm;udk wajzmif;ajzmif;ESifh
qif;vmcsed u f awmfveS af &;tajctaeu onf;oefjyif;xef ¶dkufESufae&if; qJqdk[def;a[mufaeaom toHrsm;ESifh jrif
vGef;onf? jrpfÿu|ef;ay:tajccHa'o vufv$wfvdkuf&+yD; uGi;f u tusn;f wefvo S nf?
yJcl;¶dk;r æ taemuf¶dk;r &cdkif¶dk;r æ wdk@wGifvnf; &efol.
46
_ynfot
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“ 'DrmS wdu k x f uG Ef pS af ,muf vmyd@k wm” æ vdu k yf @kd pkpak ygi;f (11)a,muf æ olw@kd u tusO;f om;awGe@J awmif
vmolu toHus,u f s,jf zifh tcef;vl}uD;udk owif;yd@k +yD; jyef rwlæ oyfoyf&yf&yf ÿwfpm;xm;+yD; pmtkyu f , kd pf ED iS hf pkxikd af e
vS n f h x G u f o G m ; onf E S i f h t cef ; xJ r S vl i ,f w a,muf u =uonf?
u|eaf wmfw@kd xH csO;f uyfvm+yD; ,Ofaus;odraf rGŒonf[ h efjzifh pmar;yGeJ ;D vd@k pmudo k }J uD; rJ}uD; óu;pm;ae=uwJyh rHk sKd ;
rdwqf ufvmonf? æ ,refae@naeu tultnDay;cJah om ausmif;om;udv k nf;
“tpfuw kd @kd u wdu k x f u G af wGqakd wmh Edik if aH &;r_vm; olw@kd tzGŒJ xJrmS awGŒvdu k of nf? olw@kd tzGŒJ udk vSr;f =unfah epOf
æ u|eaf wmfu ta&;tcif; axmifusausmif;om;yg ” u|ef rSmyif eHab;u toHxu G v f mI vSn=hf unfv h u kd rf o d nf?
awmfu olŒtrlt&mudk wcsurf # tuJcwf=unf&h if;rqdik ;f rwG “ cifAsm;wd@k uGejf rLepfygwu D vm;ærae@u tcef;xJ
tajzay;vdu k rf od nf? rSm ajymoH=um;vdu k w
f ,f? u|eaf wmfw@kd av;a,mufu tr_
“ [kwæ f u|eaf wmfw@kd u ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwu D yg? wGJyg æjynfolŒtoHuv$ifhwJh Adkvfr–;csKyfa[mif;ausmfaZm&JŒ
17 (1/2) yk'rf eJ@ pGx J m;w,f” u|eaf wmfph um;qk;H onfEiS hf olu rde@f ceG ;f udk ul;+yD;jzef@v@kd tzrf;cH&wm? tck ¶k;H wufae&w,f?
uysmu,m E_wq f uf+yD; tcef;vl}uD;xHomG ;wm awGŒvdu k &f pGx
J m;wJyh 'k rf awGuawmh trsm;}uD;yJ?” ajymae&if;rSmyif ZvkH
onf? olu bmajymvdu k of nfrod æ tcef;vl}uD;u csucf si;f i,f ESpv f ;Hk vSr;f ay;&if; ajymvufp pum;udq k ufonf?
xvm+yD; tav;teufxm;onfh[efjzifh u|efawmfwdk@udk “avmavmq,f 'DZvkaH wGu cifAsm;wd@k twGuf r±Sd
E_wq f ufpum;ajymonf? rjzpf vdt k yfw,f? xrif;pm;zd@k a&csKd ;zd@k tok;H vdw k ,f? u|eaf wmf
“tpfudkwdk@ESpfa,mufuawmh ykHpHudkifwJhtxJrSm wd@k e@J twlae twlpm;=uwmayg?h Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;qdw k hJ
ygp&m rvdb k ;l at;at;aq;aq;om xdik af eyg?” t±Sed ef @J xrif;pk+yD;qGpJ m;vd@k &w,f? wef;pDp&mrvdb k ;l ? “
Tod@k jzifh ta&;tcif;ausmif;om;qdo k . l aus;Zl; Tod@k jzifh olw@kd tzGŒJ . aEG;axG;aomóuqdrk u _ v kd ufc+H yD;
a=umifh æ ok;H em&Davmuf t¶du k cf H tqJc&H rnf'h %frS vGwcf &hJ tjyeftvSef em;vnfr&_ cJo h nf? pm;a&;aomufa&; aea&;
onf? od@k &mwGif xdn k tzd@k awmh ar;cGe;f wcsKd Œudk tajz±Sm&if; tpp tqifajyoGm;onf? olwdk@ESifhtwlaecJhpOfu olwdk@
tawG;rsm;æwÿJvnfvnfjzifh tdyfraysmfEdkif ? æ tJh'D &ifxu J xGuv f monfph um;wcGe;f udak wmh ,ae@wikd f trSw&f
ausmif;om;qdo k u l igw@kd udk bmjzpfv@kd ulnw D mvJ ? ¶d;k ¶d;k aeygonf?
tusO;f om;awG=um;xJrmS ausmif;om;[m b,fv&kd yfwnfae “ u|eaf wmfw@kd vkycf w hJ hJ tvkyu f awmfveS af &;
&ovJ æ tcef;vl}uD;qdw k hJ vlru kd }f uD;u æ 'Dausmif;om; twGuf tao;tzGaJ v;ygy?J 'gayrJh ygwu D kd td;k pnfAaHk rmif;eJ@
tay:rSmawmh av;av;pm;pm; qufqaH eygvm; æ ponfjzifh óur,ft h xJrmS awmh u|eaf wmhw@kd a±SŒqk;H u jzpfygvrd rhf ,f?”
æponfjzifæ h yod@k qakd p olw@kd . yGiv hf if;¶d;k om;aom pum;vk;H av;
nu tdyrf &aomfvnf; eHeufapmapmxI ywfÿef; awGu u|eaf wmfw@kd twGuf tm; jzpfapcJo h nf?
usif topfukd tuJcwfaerdonf? eHeufcif;. aea&mifjcnfu ae@vnfxrif;pm;+yD;csdefrSmawmh rvSrf;rurf;±Sd
taqmifa±SŒuGif;jyifay:odk@ jzmusaeonf? uGif;jyifwckvkH; pkxdkifaeaom ausmif;om;tzGJŒrS ausmif;om;wa,muf
vlawGjynfah eonf? =unfah e&if; ¶ky±f iS x f u
J a&mracwf aus; vm+y;D rdwq f uf ygonf? olu æ &cdik jf zpf+y;D pufrw _ uUov kd u f
u|eaf wGukd jrifa,mifvmrdonf? taqmifxyd zf uf p}uFay:rSm emrnfu æ“cdik af Zmf”[kqo kd nf?
pkIxdik af eaom ausmif;om;wtkyu f kd vSr;f awGŒvdu k &f onf?
47
_ynfot
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“tpfuu kd &cdik ¶f ;kd rrSmaecJzh ;l w,fqv kd @kd tJ'h u


D tajc qef@xw k rf o d nf? æ axmifwiG ;f ygwD tzGŒJ tpnf;±Sad e+yDvm;
taeav; avhvmcsifvdk@yg” olŒtoHu &cdkifoHÿJaewm æ / r±Sad o;&if b,fvpkd pk nf;rvJ æ / tajctaeESiyhf wfouf+y;D
owdxm;rdonf? olu &cdik ¶f ;kd rvufeufuikd f awmfveS af &; A[du k kd tpD&ifczH @kd vrf;a=umif;wck±mS &efæaxmifxrJ mS ygwD
xJodk@ qif;oGm;aom olŒtaygif;toif;rsm;ta=umif;udk vdv k m;axmufco H l b,favmuftwdik ;f twm ±So d vJ/ ygwD
ca&aphwGif;us ar;onf? u|efawmfwdk@ jzwfoef;r_udkvnf; ay:vpDukd b,fvjkd zef@rvJæponfjzifæ h ponfjzifh tawG;r#if
ajymoifo h avmufajymjyzd@k awmif;qdo k nf? olu æ u|eaf wmf wd@k rjywfEikd af wmhæ?
wd@k ESpaf ,mufukd ygwu D vl tppftrSe[ f w k f æ r[kwf twnf TumvtwGif; w&m;¶kH; ESpf}udrfxGuf&onf?
ðycsifykH &ygonf? tjyeftvSefajym=u&if; aemufqkH;awmh w&m;¶k;H u axmufvrS ;f a&;. t&dyaf tmufrmS om ±Syd g onf?
,k=H unfpw d cf somG ;yk&H onf? olŒxHrS (vuf±adS xmifwiG ;f tajc rdrt d aejzifh &efou l kd zGichf saom pifjrifw h cktjzpfom oabm
tae) tjynft h pku H kd odvu kd &f onf? xm;ygonf? xk;H pHtwdik ;f w&m;ol}uD;qdo k u l tcsed rf qGb J J
vuf±u dS mvwGif axmiftyk cf sKyfa&;udk axmufvrS ;f æ jzpfuwwfqef; æ uysmu,m trdef@csay;vdkufonf?
a&;u ae&mwdik ;f rSm wdu k ¶f ukd u f ikd x
f m;onf? ,leaD zmif; tpdr;f (5)ESpæ f ?
awGukd ae&mwumrSm awGŒae&onf? 74 - 75 - 76 ta&; “(5)ESpw f v hJ m; æ wefvu kd wf m tpfuakd & æ vufeuf
tcif;rsm;rS tzrf;cH&onfh Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;rsmudk oD;oef@ udik +f yD; wdu k v f mwJv h u l (5)ESpf æ u|efawmfw@kd uawmh æ
rxm;bJ &mZÿwftusO;f om;rsm;ESihf a&mxm;onf? Edik if aH &; 'd@k ta&;atmfwmavmufe@J (10) ESpf æ (15) ESpf usc&H w,f?
orm;udk ESrd o f nfo h abmyif jzpfonf? wcsKd Œudk tvkyq f u
kd rf sm; wefw,fAsKd @ æ? “ausmif;om;wa,mufu u|eaf wmfv h ufukd
xJwiG f tvkycf ikd ;f +yD; wcsKd Œudak wmh bmtvkyrf S rvkycf ikd ;f bJ wif;wif;usyu f syf qkyu f ikd &f if; ajymvdu k jf cif;jzpfonf? pdwf
xm;onf? qef@usio f nfh v_y±f mS ;r_owif; tpte&onfEiS hf v_y±f mS ;aeykv H nf; &onf?
csKyfaESmifppfaq;wm ESdyfpuf!‡Of;yef;wmrsdK;awG vkyfonf? aemufae@ eHeuf æ t&yfaxmifaxmifarmif;armif;ESihf
tvkyo f rm; ausmif;om; pnf;vk;H nD!w G rf a_ umif;onf? jzpf vlvwfyikd ;f t¶G,f udv k id_ ;f qdo k l a&mufvmonf? “u|eaf wmfu
Edik o f nfah e&mwdik ;f wGif pkppk nf;pnf; aexdik =f uonf? taqmif txyfom;puf¶u Hk tvkyo f rm;yg? cifAsm;wd@k tr_ trde@f cs+yD;
(4) wGiaf eaomtpku vl (40) ausmf ±So d nf? tm%mydik af wG oGm;+yDqv kd @kd vmóuwm æ? (4)aqmifukd oGm;&r,f? [drk mS
uvnf; Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;awGukd em;vnfrj_ zifh tcGit hf a&; cifAsm;wd@k twGuf vdt k yfr,f[ h mawG jyifxm;w,f?” av,l
wcsdKŒay;xm;&onf? a&csdK;&if wef;pDp&mrvdk æ xrif;udk avodrf;u at;at;aq;aq; æ wnf=unfav;eufonfh
tpkvu kd q f ,JG pl m;cGihf ponfh tcGit hf a&;rsKd ; awGay;xm;onf? [efu olŒrsuEf mS wGif ay:vGiaf eonf? olŒudk b,fou l
taqmif(3) uawmh vkHðcHa&;wif;usyfonf? ygwD. ajr ta=umif;=um;vdu k w f mvJ æ/ olŒudk b,fou l wmÿefay;
atmuftr_EiS hf qufE, G of nfh &Jabmfrsm;±Sad eonf? waqmif vdu k v f @kd vmóuwmvJ? olu ygwv D vkd m;olvm; æ pdwx f rJ mS
ESiw hf aqmif owif;tquftoG,rf jywf±adS eonf? yod@k qakd p tawG;rsm; ÿifvmaomfvnf; bmrS apm'urwufawmhbJ
æ axmifwiG ;f rSm wd;k wufonfh tvkyo f rm; ausmif;om;ESihf v_u d v f aJS omtðyH;jzifo h m E_wq f ufw@Hk jyefvu kd +f yD; olŒtpDtpOf
Edik if aH &;tiftm;pkw@kd v_y±f mS ;r_ pepfwus ±Sio f efaeyk&H onf? twdik ;f aemufuxuf=uyfvu kd yf gomG ;cJo h nf?
u|eaf wmfu æ &±Sv d maom tcsut f vufrsm;udk taqmifa&mufawmh olu tajctaet&yf&yfukd
tajccHI æ a±SŒquf&rnfh ajcvSr;f rsm;twGuf tawG;rsm; ±Sif;jyonf? “tck'DtaqmifrSm pkpnf;aewJhtzGJŒrSm ta&;
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tcif;rSm ygcw hJ hJ tvkyo f rm;awG ausmif;om;awGe@J tv$m xGuaf jy;&if; wdu k yf rJG mS usq;Hk oGm;cJah om Armjynf uGejf rLepf
rsdK;pkHu vlawGygw,f? tm;vkH;u udk,fydkiftodEdk;=um;r_eJ@ ygwD a';'&JòrŒe,facgi;f aqmifukd qdv k jkd cif;jzpfonf?
vmpk=uwmyJ? &efoq l ef@usiaf &; pdw"f mwftajccH±o dS al wGygy?J jynfoŒl toHu toHvi$ w hf mawGukd em;axmif+yD; jzef@
pkppk nf;pnf;aeawmh &efou l rapmfum;&Jb;l av? Edik if aH &; ay;wJv h yk if ef;vkyzf @kd olw@kd u zdvpfa&'D,w kd vk;H ±Smay;onf?
a&csed u f awmh trsKd ;rsKd ;±Syd gw,f? trsm;pkuawmh ygwt D ay: tJ'u D mvu æ 79 -ygwAD [d&k ŒJ vrf;pOfawGukd v$iahf ewJt h csed f
oabmxm;rSeyf gw,f? vdv k m;axmufco H al wGvnf;±Sw d ,f ? jzpfygonf? toHvi$ chf suaf wGuo kd mru olw@kd wifvmaom
av;av;eufeuf ,k=H unfoal wGvnf;±Sw d ,f? ausmif;om;awG ygwD awmfveS af &;eJ@ ywfoufwhJ jy\emawGukd wwfEikd o f r#
uawmh avhvmzd@k yd+k y;D tcsed &f w,f? ygwaD e@ æ vufeufuikd f ±Si;f jywmawGvnf; vky&f onf? ar;cGe;f awGuawmh rsKd ;pko H nf?
awmfvSefa&;ae@vdk æ ygwD&JŒ ae@xl;ae@jrwfawGa&muf&if wcsKd Œu ygwaD e&mwGif “tar” [laom emrfpm;udk ok;H =u
tpm;taomuf zG,zf , G &f m&mawG jyifqifwmænbufrmS onf? tajctaeay;v#if ESpOf ;D csi;f tjrifzvS,f wmrsKd ;awGukd
ÿdik ;f zGŒJ aqG;aEG;=uwmrsKd ;awGukd vkyyf gw,f pm;a&;aomufa&; vkyyf gonf?
rSmæbk&H yd o f mpepfukd vkyyf gw,f? tjyifuyd@k vmwJh axmifÿif tvkyo f rm;&Jabmf udÿk if;xde. f &ifxrJ S pum;vk;H
pmawGukd bkrH mS pkw,f? axmifxrJ mS vnf; óu;pm;+yD; enf;em wcsKd Œudak wmh ,ae@wikd f rSwrf w S &f &±Sad eonf?
rsdK;pkH ±Sm=uw,f? a&aEG;a&mif;wmætvkyfqdkufawGxJrSm “trSet f wdik ;f ÿefc&H &if ygweD @J wdu k ¶f ukd xf ad wGŒwm
vkyt f m;eJ@ xGuv f mwJyh pPn;f udak &mif;+yD; &efyaHk iG±mS æ bku H kd r±Scd b hJ ;l ? vufeufcsawGa&;wJh ocifoef;xGe;f aemufq;Hk ae@rsm;
tyfygw,f? vdk &efolŒÿg'jzef@pmtkyfawGyJ zwfzl;cJhwm? 'gayrJh tpdk;&&JŒ
cifAsm;wdk@u vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&; vufawGŒ zdESdyfr_udk qef@usifwdkufyGJÿif&if; ygwD&JŒ*k%fajymifwJhordkif;eJ@
xJu avmavmvwfvwf a&mufvmwJh vlawGqakd wmh ygweD @J uGejf rLepfawG&ŒJ pGe@f vw $ rf a_ wGukd av;pm;vmcJ+h yD; ygwu D kd ,kH
awmfveS af &;&JŒ vuf±t dS ajcaeawGukd cifAsm;wd@k qu D avhvmzd@k =unfvmcJw h m? vufeufuikd af wmfveS af &;xJu tawGŒtñuH
qENjyif;jywJv h al wG ±Sad ew,f? 'ga=umifh cifAsm;wd@k EpS af ,muf awGukd av;pm;w,f tm;usw,f/ avhvmcsiw f ,f?” olu
ae&mcG+J y;D aezd@k pDpOfxm;w,f? oabmwlapcsiw f ,f? Tod@k jzifh tawmf pdwftm;xufoefaeykH &onf? u|efawmfuvnf;
olw@kd .qENt& &Jabmfoef;armifu tcef; (1) ±Sd ausmif;om; &ifxu J ±Sw d t hJ wdik ;f yGiyhf iG v
hf if;vif;jyefajymvdu k rf o d nf?
tzGŒJ ESihf twlomG ;ae+yD; u|efawmfu udv k id_ ;f wd@k tcef;rSmyJ “vufeufuikd w f u kd yf [JG m tvGe=f urf;wrf;cufxef
aeygonf? w,fqw kd m rSeyf gw,f? 'gayrJh æ &efou l kd wk@H jyefz@kd tenf;qk;H
&ufwcsKd Œ jzwfoef;+yD;aemuf ywfÿef;usiEf iS hf aeom; rD;usdK;armif;ysufjzpfyap vufeufawmh udkifxm;Edkifw,f?
usomG ;ovdk cHpm;rdonf? tm;onft h csed w f iG f a&aEG;vnf Edkif&ifwdkuf æ rEdkif&if ajy;vdk@&w,f? ygwD&JŒ wdkuf¶dkuf
a&mif;onfh tvkyu f kd vkyo f nf? zdeyfcsKyftvky¶f rHk mS ae&mcs acgi;f aqmifr_ ±Sw d ,f? axmufct H m;ay;wJh jynfov l x l ±k w dS ,f?
aomfvnf; tvkyfu rnfrnf&&r±Sd? pmzwfcsdef rsm;rsm;& vlxpk nf;¶k;H a&; vkyv f @kd &w,f? ygww D nfaqmufa&; wyfwnf
onf? “cifAsm;ætJ'h pD ma&;pm;yGu J o kd m tydik , f al yawmh ætJ'h g aqmufa&; tajccHa'o wnfaqmufa&;awG vkyv f @kd &w,f?
&Jabmf}uD; OD;ode;f vGif xdik cf w hJ chJ yHk ?J ” tvkyo f rm;&Jabmf}uD; cifAsm;wdk@vdk axmifxJa&mufvm&wJh &JabmfawGuawmh
udak ¶$rif;u &if;&if;ES;D ES;D jzifh yGiyhf iG v hf if;vif; ajymwwfonf? &efou l kd &ifqikd zf @kd toufwckyJ t&if;tES;D ±Sw d ,f? cHEikd &f nf±rdS _
olajymonfh OD;ode;f vGif qdo k nfrmS a';'&J tcsKycf ef;udk azmuf qdkwJh vufeufyJ±Sdw,f? tcHbufucsnf;yJ? 'Dvdkae&mrSm
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u|eaf wmft h zd@k awmh cifAsm;wd@k qrD mS avhvmp&m tawGŒtñuH pDpOfaqmif¶u G f OD;aqmifay;cJo h æ l ? olu Adv k o f mausmw f @kd e@J
awG trsm;}uD;yJ? txl;ojzifu h awmh cifAsm;wd@k ygwt D vHukd &if;&if;ES;D ES;D teD;uyfaewJo h yl æJ ? tdru f av;u wJomom
jrwfjrwfE;kd Ed;k udik xf m;wm awGŒ&awmh =unfE;l ÿrf;ompdwef @J æ ,dik ef @J vy_ &f rf;aeonf? ÿg;x&Hu usKd ;wd;k usw J EJ iS ?f h "edr;kd
rsu&f nfawmifusrw d ,f?” tayguu f aeajymufav;rsm;u=urf;jyifay:xd;k qif;aeonf?
“u|eaf wmfawmh vufeufuikd af wmfveS af &;udyk J tm; olu c&D;a&mufrqdu k f opfom;aowWmxJu pmtdwf
oefw,fAsm vGw&f if ygwu D o kd mG ;r,f” olutawmf pdwt f m; uav;wckudk xkwf,l+yD; u|efawmfhudkvSrf;ay;&if; ðyH;ðyH;jzifh
xufoefwufºuaeyk&H onf? ajymonf?
rar#mfvifhbJ arv (28) &ufae@rSm taxGaxG “tJ'h g æ txJrmS wke;f u 'd@k tzGŒJ pkxm;wJah iG? enf;em
vGw+f idr;f csr;f omcGihf xkwjf yefvmojzifh ¶kww f &ufajymif;vJ ±Sm+y;D tjyifukd xkwx f m;wmæ/ 580 usyf / rif;u c&D;oGm;&rSm
vmwJh tajctaerSm a±SŒvkyif ef;twGuf vkyo f ifw
h mawGukd jzpfv@kd rif;udak y;vdu k zf @kd qk;H jzwf+yD; ay;vdu k w f myJ” vk;H ÿ
tcsed v
f +k yD; taqmwvsif vky&f ygonf? +yD;awmh tcsi;f csi;f ar#mv f ifrh xm;ojzifh ¶kww f &ufr@kd æ jyefajymzd@k pum;vk;H ±Smr&
aEG;axG;pGmvufqGJ E_wfquf=uonf? awmufywJh rsufvkH; æ awGceJ jzpfomG ;rdonf?
rsm;ESihf tjyeftvSepf ;l pdu k =f unf&h if; æ &ifxrJ x S uG v f maom “bmrS pOf;pm;raeeJ@æigw@kd wwfEikd w f m vkyaf y;wm
E_wfqufpum;awG ajym=uonf? rSmp&m±SdwmawG rSm=u yJ æ” pum;qk;H onfEiS hf pmtdwu f kd u|eaf wmfv h ufxJ xnfah y;
onf? tem*wftwGuf oHpOfawG !‡=d uonf? aemufq;Hk awmh vdu k yf gonf?
æ avSmiftrd x f uJ v$wv f u kd w f hJ iSuu f av;awGvkd æ olw@kd “vd&k mc&D;udk acsmacsmarmarm a&mufygap æ &nf
cGet
f m;tjynfeh @J ysx H uG o f mG ;=uonf? ¶G,cf suaf wG atmifjrifygapuG,æ f ?”
u|eaf wmfw@kd uawmh 15 &ufaemufus+yD;rS vGwyf g u|efawmfh&ifxJrSm wv_dufv_dufESifh qdk@wufvmyg
onf? pkpkaygif; ig;a,mufæ? n 12 em&Dcef@ jzpfojzifh onf? rsuf&nfpwdk@ &pfÿJvmonf? olŒvufudk wif;wif;
b,foGm;rnfrod tcuftcJ awGŒaecsdef æ a&eHacsmif;rS usyu f syf qkyu f ikd &f if; E_wq f ufpum;ajymvdu k o f nf?
ausmif;om;u olŒtpfrtdrw f iG f tdyzf @kd ac:oGm;ojzifh tqif “pdwcf syg tb”
ajyoGm;ygonf? aemufae@eeH ufwiG f vGwv f maom ausmif; tESpf (40) eD;yg;=umcJ+h yjD zpfaomfvnf; æ cHpm;r_w@kd u
om;wa,mufu u|eaf wmfw@kd ukd xrif;zdwaf u|;ygonf? a[mif;EGr;f roGm;cJæ h ? ¶kyyf v Hk m$ wd@k u &ifxrJ mS wzsyzf syf v_ycf wf
ae@vnfrmS awmh udv k id_ ;f u xGuv f mwJah e@rmS olEiS hf aeqJ ?
awGŒjzpfatmif vmcJyh g[k rSmxm;cJo h jzifh ay;xm;onfh vdypf m tbcspx f eG ;f qkawmif;ay;vdu k o
f vdk æ u|eaf wmf
twdik ;f oltrd u f kd oGm;ygonf? olu tif;pde±f dS acsmifusonfh vd&k mc&D;udk acsmacsmarmarm a&mufcyhJ gonf? odŒk aomf c&D;
ae&mav;udkac:oGm;onf? tdrfa±SŒa&mufonfESifh ÿrf;om um; rqk;H ao; æ qufav#mufaeqJæ/?
tm;& E_wq f uf óuqdv k u kd o f nft h oHukd =um;vdu k &f onf? i&Jcef;xJrmS &uf- v wcsKd Œ olw@kd EiS t hf wlwl jzwf
“vm=ua[h ætay:udk wufc=hJ u æ igu ar#maf e oef;cJh&aom bÿrsm;udk u|efawmf wouf æ arhr&Edkif
wm ærif;u vGww f m aemufusaewmud;k uG” awmhyg? &ifxu J ævGr;f ygonf? jzpfEikd v f #irf æl olw@kd EiS hf jyefqHk
tbcspx f eG ;f ygvm; æ *keH pD uf¶u Hk tvkyo f rm;}uD; csiyf gao;onf?
æ axmifxrJ mS wke;f u tzGŒJ wckv;Hk udk tppt&m&mOD;aqmif+y;D
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aq;¶Hpk cef;eJ@ awm+rdKifajcvrf;

onfwcgawmh onfae&m onfa'orSm u|eaf wmf ao&awmh rysurf uGuf ckwx f m;cJoh nf? ygw. D vltiftm;trsm;pk}uD;udk
rnf xifonf? ta=umif;rJh tm;i,fwwfol r[kwaf omfvnf; vHjk cKH ab;uif;&m ta0;wae&mod@k qkwcf mG apcJo h nf? ygweD ,f
Tod@k xifavmufp&m ta=umif;tcsuf u|eaf wmhrf mS tcdik f ajrxJrmS c±dik w f yf/ c±dik af q;±Hw
k yfz@JG 0if tcsKd @/ c±dik ±f ;kH tzG@J ESihf
trm &Sad eygonf? iSuzf sm;a&m*g'%fukd tjyif;txef cHpm; wyfeD vli,fav;rsm;wd@k yg0ifaom vltiftm; (50) cef@uo kd m
ae&aomfvnf; aomufp&m aq;tvHktavmuf r&Sdaom csex f m;cJo h nf? rde;f uav; wyfz@JG 0ifrsm; tygt0if tysKd / vlysKd
a=umifh jzpfygonf? e,fcv H rl sm;uawmh iSuzf sm;a&m*gEiS hf ESpf vltiftm; (20) cef@&adS om c±dik w f yfz@JG 0ifrsm;udk c±dik w
f yfrLS ;u
aygi;f rsm;pGm ,Ofyg;aeolrsm;jzpfI aq;raomuf&v#iv f nf; OD;pD;+yD;/ usefvltiftm; (30) cef@udk c±dkiftwGif;a&;rSL;u
udprP &S/d tzsm;wufv#if wufonfh c%wmav;rSm atmifch /H OD;pD;onf?
awmifch v H ukd ¶f ykH if? +yD;v#if vlaumif;wa,mufuo hJ @kd oGm;vm u|eaf wmfu ,ck topfwnfxm;aom c±dik pf cef;rSm
v_y&f mS ; vkyu f ikd Ef ikd =f uonf? u|eaf wmfuawmh olw@kd vkd cHEikd f &Sdaejcif;jzpfonf? wu,fawmh onfa'oonf u|efawmf
&nf &Srd nfrxif? u|eaf wmfonf iSuzf sm;aq;udk oDwif;wywf yxrOD;qH;k a&mufz;l aom ygweD ,fajrjzpfonf? ygwXD mcsKy&f &dS m
jynfah tmif raomufvu kd &f ? aq;ukeo f mG ;aoma=umifh jzpf ta&S@ajrmufa'oodk@oGm;&ef &nf&G,fcJhaomfvnf; rdwfaqG
onf? aq; (uGED ikd )f tvHt k avmuf raomuf&v#if tzsm; vlrsKd ;pkvufeufuikd f tzG@J wzG@J xJrmS acwœa&mufaepOfrmS yif
aysmufrnfrxif? tzsm;raysmufI iSuzf sm;yd;k acgi;f xJ0ifomG ; ta&S@ajrmufa'owyfrsm; +ydKuGo J mG ;aoma=umifh ygw. D eD;&m
v#if aooGm;Edik o f nf? tenf;qH;k awmh OD;aESmufysu+f y;D ¶l;oGm; Tppfa'ood@k a&mufvmcJjh cif; jzpfonf? ,cka&mufaeaom
Edik of nf? e,fajrrSwqifh wm0efxrf;aqmif&rnfh ygw. D tjcm;e,fajr
aq;0g; r&Edik jf cif;onf &efo@l x;kd ppfa=umifh jzpfonf? wcko@kd u|eaf wmfomG ;&rnfjzpfygonf? Te,fajrESihf u|eaf wmf
ygwo D nf rESpf rd;k OD;uwnf;u &efo@l x;kd ppfukd tjyif;txef wm0efxrf;aqmif&rnfh tjcm;e,fajrwd@k onf wqufwpyf
ckcaH e&onf? &efou l ygwv D y_ &f mS ;&me,f ajrwGi;f &Sd aus;&Gm wnf; r[kwo f nft h jyif oGm;&rnfh c&D;vrf;uvnf; tEœ&m,f
rsm;udk tcsed , f l cGirhf ay;bJ csucf si;f ajymif;apcJo h nf? tokb rsm;vGe;f aoma=umifh Tae&mrSm u|eaf wmf acwœae ae&jcif;
tavmif;udyk if ajrjr‡Kyfo+*õK[fciG hf ray;cJah cs? ygwu D kd &dumQ jzpfygonf? b,favmuf=um=umae& rnfqo kd nfukd rodEikd f
jzwf+yD;/ ygwDe,fajrxJodk@ ppfa=umif;rsm;jzifh 0ifar$cJhonf? aoma=umifh c±dik t f wGi;f a&;rSL;u u|eaf wmft h m; ,m,Dtm;
wdu k yf aJG ygi;f rsm;pGm jzpfymG ;+yD;aemufwiG f ygwu D &efo@l x;kd ppf. jzifh 0g'jzefcsad &;wm0ef ay;xm;ygonf? xdw k m0eft& u|eaf wmf
tvm;tvmudw k u G +f yD;/ aemifEpS rf ;kd &moD &dumQ twGuf acsmif u ygwDpmapmifrsm;udk za,mif;puULjzifh ul;,lyHkESdyf&efESifh
usaomae&mrsm;wGif awmif,mrsm;udk ESppf Ofcw k af eustwdik ;f tcGit hf cg=uKH v#i=f uKH ovdk ygw&D aJ bmfrsm;ESihf ygweD ,fajrvlxk
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tm; c±dik t f wGi;f a&;rSL;ESit hf wl (u|eaf wmf wwfoavmufrw S f &dumQ vHak vmufrnf xifonf? od@k &mwGif onfEpS rf ;kd &moDrmS
oavmuf) ynmay;a[majym&ef jzpfonf? yHEk ydS v f yk if ef;twGuf &dumQ jy\em rnfo@kd &rdS nfuakd wmh u|eaf wmf rod?
toufEpS q f ,f0ef;usit f &G,f rde;f uav;ESpOf ;D udk u|eaf wmf. u|eaf wmf zsm;pu touf (16) ESpt f &G,f &Jabmfopf
±H;k tzG@J 0ifrsm;tjzpf wm0efay;xm;onf? xdrk ed ;f uav;rsm;udk uav;wa,mufEiS hf wzuf,yfwaJ v; wvH;k xJrmS twlae&
u|eaf wmfu yxrOD;pGm vufa&;vSvS a&;wwfatmifEiS hf onfh onf? wJav;u awmif,mckwaf om &Jabmfrsm; tdypf ufem;ae
aemufwiG f za,mif;puULay:rSm pma&;+y;D yHEk ydS w f wfatmif oif &ef aqmufxm;aom ,m,DwaJ v;jzpf&m vl 2 a,muftwGuf
=um;ay;&rnfvnf; jzpfonf? yl;yl;uyfuyf tdy&f ±Hak vmufom us,o f nf? 2 a,muf yl;yl;
ta0;wae&mod@k ygw. D vlrsm;pk=u;D qkwcf mG oGm;oGm; uyfuyf tdy&f I ylavmifjcif;'%fukd rcHEikd af oma=umifv h m;rod/
csi;f yif c±dik t f wGi;f a&;rSL;u wyfpw d w
f pdwpf m tiftm;&Sad om &Jabmfav;0if;Edik o f nf bmrajym nmrajym wJay:rS qif;+y;D
wyfev D il ,fav;rsm;udk ac:aqmifum a&S@wef;od@k xu G of mG ;onf? teD;tem;&Sd opfyif}u;D wyif. ajc&if;u opf&u G af jcmufyakH y:
wu,fawmh ta0;wae&mod@k qkwcf mG oGm;rnfh vltyk f}uD; oGm;oGm; tdyaf ewwfonf? awG@onfh aq;wyfom;&Jabmfrsm;
vma&mufpak 0;pOfu pcef;&Sd &dumQ tawmfrsm;rsm; ukeo f mG ;cJh u wJay:od@k jyefac:wifay;&onf? aemufq;kH Y ol@ukd u|eaf wmf
aoma=umifh a&S@wef;rSm &dumQ &Smpm;&ef xGuo f mG ;cJjh cif; jzpfonf? ESihf twlrxm;awmh? ol@tzd@k acsmifacsmifcscd sd tdyI f &aom tjcm;
od@k jzpfonfw h ikd f pcef;rSm use&f pfaom &dumQ pyg;onf usev f l (20) wJwvH;k rSm xm;vdu k yf &kH onf?
cef@tzd@k awmif,mpyg;opfay:csed t f xd pm;avmufrnfyh kH ray: u|efawmfonf wa,mufwnf; &uftawmf=um
acs? &efo@l x;kd ppfrsm;udk t}udr}f udrf ckccH &hJ mwGif qm;iwfaom vSaJ e&onfukd +iD;aiG@veG ;f vSojzifh tzsm;raysmufaomfvnf;
'kuu Q kd qd;k qd;k &Gm;&Gm; cHc&hJ zl;aoma=umifh qm;udak wmh tvHk wJxrJ S ‘,D;’,dik x f u G +f y;D tjcm;&Jabmfrsm;qD oGm;vnfonf?
tavmuf pkaqmif;odak vSmifxm;a=umif; od&onf? TwGif &Jabmf0if;Edik u f kd jyefawG@&onf? olonf u|eaf wmfEiS hf
,ck c±dik pf cef;opfae&monf ygw. D awmif,mpcef; pum;wcGe;f r# rajymzl;aomfvnf; u|eaf wmfu h kd rSwrf yd &kH onf?
wckjzpfonf? &efol@xdk;ppfudk ckcH&if; aemifESpf&duQmtwGuf ol u|eaf wmfu h kd =unf&h mwGif ol=unfyh u kH xl;qef;aeonf? ol@
acsmifusaom Tae&mrSm aqmif;v,f eawœmf/ jymodkv rsuv f ;kH rsm;u a=umifawmifawmif jzpfaeonf? tjcm;&Jabmf
uwnf;u ckwx f m;aom awmif,mjzpfonf? wzuf,yfwJ wa,mufu ajymjyrSyif acgi;f xJo@kd iSuzf sm;yd;k 0if+y;D pdwaf zmuf
uav;rsm;onf awmif,mckwaf om &Jabmfrsm; em;aetdypf uf oGm;onf[k od&onf? TwGif u|eaf wmft h wGuf u|eaf wmf
zd@k aqmufxm;jcif; jzpfonf? TwJrsm; aqmufxm;aom awm pd;k &drof mG ;rdonf? ygweD ,fajrod@k ra&mufru D u|eaf wmfonf
&dy. f tqH;k wGif awmif,muGu}f u;D wuGu&f o dS nf? o}ueF v f eG f rdwaf qGvrl sKd ;pk vufeufuikd t f zG@J tpnf;wckrmS wESpaf usmaf usmf
uwnf;u pyg;xd;k (pl;xd;k I pyg;rsKd ;aphcsjcif;) xm;[efwyl gonf? aecJ&h onf? xdak 'orSmyif u|eaf wmhrf mS iSuzf sm;a&m*g pwifjzpf
pyg;yifuav;rsm;u wxGmcef@yif&adS e+y?D Tae&mESihf tawmf yGm;+y;D tzG@J tpnf;. aq;±Hrk mS t}udr}f udrf wufa&mufuo k cJh
a0;a0; ajrjyef@rsm;wGiv f nf; awmif,muGuf av; - ig;uGuf &onf? uGED ikd Ef iS hf wufx&mqdu k u f vif;aq;wd@k ukd (6) em&Dv#if
&Sad o;onf[k od&onf? &efo@l ppfa=umif;rsm; 0ifvm+yD; zsuq f ;D w}urd f (7) &uf aomufc&hJ onf? ,ck u|eaf wmf iSuzf sm;jzpf&m
v#if tm;vH;k ukeo f mG ;onfh tjzpfo@kd a&mufroGm;ap&efjzpfonf? wGif aq;udk (3)/ (4) }udrcf ef@om aomufc&hJ onf? xd@k a=umifh
vmrnfEh pS f pyg;ay:csed rf pS I &Jabmftiftm; (50) cef@twGuf oDwif;ESpyf wf ausmv f monfw h ikd f u|eaf wmfrh mS tzsm;rjywf
ao;acs? npOf tcsed rf eS f tzsm;wufaeygonf? onfvq kd v
kd #if
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tzsm;aysmufawmhrnf r[kw?f aq;udv k nf; b,fawmhrS &SmI &dumQ (qm;/ ig;ydEiS q hf ef) odak vSmif&mESihf xrif;csu&f m ae&m
&rnfreS ;f rod? c±dik t f wGi;f a&;rSL;u a&S@wef;e,fajrrSm aq;rsm; jzpfonf? awmifapmif;u rwfapmufonf? tay:od@k wuf&ef
udk }udKpm;&Smaeonf[k od&onf? &efou l u|eaf wmfw@kd ukd twGuf txpfrsm;jzpfatmif ayguw f ;l jzifh aygux f m;onf?
wif;wif;usyu f syf ydwq f @kd xm;onf[v k nf; od&onf? ajr}uD;u rd;k a&jzifh pdpk w G af e+yD; acsmaf eonft h jyif awmifapmif;
u|efawmfhtzdk@ iSufzsm;aysmufaq; tjrefvdkaeyg uvnf; rwfaeojzifh txpfrsm; aygurf xm;Edik v f #if vlem
onf? aq; tcsed rf rD &v#if u|eaf wmfvnf; &Jabmf0if;Edik v f kd rqdx k m;bd vlaumif;rsm;yif wufI &rnfr[kwaf cs? yxrOD;
tjzpfrsdK;a&mufzdk@om &Sdonf? pcef;udk jzwfoGm;aom prf; qH;k awG@&aom wJonf vGecf ahJ om wvavmufu wdu k yf rJG mS
acsmif;ab;wGif aZmf*srD w k q f wd [ f ak c:aom tyifwrsKd ;udk u|ef '%f&m&cJhaom wyfpkrSL;wa,muftwGuf wJjzpfonf?
awmfawG@onf? t&Guu f 0dik ;f +yD;/ tcsi;f (10) vuRcef@ &So d nf? '%f&mu 'l;txufyikd ;f udk &Syx f ad om '%f&mjzpfaomfvnf;
ta&mifu c&rf;a&mif&ifh&ifhjzpf+yD;/ ajymifacsmaeonf? xdk yifeq D vD ifaq;udk vHak vmufatmifx;kd ray;Edik o f jzifh wud, k f
tyifonf iSuzf sm;a&m*gukd Edik o f nf[k u|eaf wmf=um;zl;onf? vH;k od@k yd;k vdu
k u f m tdy&f mxJ vJaeoljzpfonf? olEiS hf twl'%f&m
a&m*gaysmuf&ef aocsmonfvm; raocsmonfvm;awmh &aom tjcm;&Jabmfwa,mufurl ydk;vdkufonfh temrsm;
rod? aysmufvdkaysmufjim; u|efawmftzdk@ Taq;udkom a=umifh a&S@wef; pcef;wckwiG yf if usq;kH oGm;cJo h nf[k od&onf?
aomuf&ef &Sad wmhonf? xdt k yif. Oudw k ;l +yD; u|eaf wmf0g;pm; xdwk . J txufuwJwiG f u|eaf wmfae&onf? u|ef
vduk o f nf? ae@pOf pm;&efvnf; Orsm;udk tajcmufveS ;f xm; awmfw h aJ &S@ vrf;wzufu wJwiG f rD;zGm;+yD;I wvyif rjynfh
vdu k o f nf? ao;aom rkq;kd rwOD; &So d nf? ol@tjzpfu qd;k onf? oltrd f
u|eaf wmfonf tzsm;raysmufaomfvnf; a&m*gu axmifus+yD; r=umrDrmS yif ol@cifyeG ;f jzpfou l wdu k yf rJG mS usomG ;
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k ;kd vmjcif;awmh r&Syd g? od@k &mwGif xrif;pm;vdpk w d rf &S?d aq; cJ&h m ud, k 0f efEiS hf use&f pfco hJ jl zpfonf? ol@wo J nf tumr&Sd
wyfom;&Jabmf tcsdefrSefvmau|;aom xrif;wyef;uefudk aomfvnf; trdk;udk wJ.=urf;jyifxuf edrfhaomae&mtxd
ukeaf tmifrpm;Edik ?f iSuzf sm; a&m*gonfonf emvefxvm rdk;xm;&m ol@udk u|efawmf rjrif&acs? wcsufwcsufwGif
v#if xrif;udk tvGet f u|H pm;wwf=uonfjzpf&m u|eaf wmfh uav;. wtJt h jhJ rnfou H kd cyfoo hJ =hJ um;&wwfonf? xdo k m;
tajctaeonf emvef x aom tajctaer[k w f o nf onf rdcifw. J wzufwiG f wJo;kH vH;k &So d nf? wvH;k rSm ud, k 0f ef
uawmh aocsmygonf? tzsm; onf;oefvmjcif; r&Sdjcif; &ifrh maeaom ZeD;onfEiS hf 4if;udak pmifah &Smufae&if; wm0ef
onfyif awmfv+S yD? uGED ikd af q; raomuf&v#if onftzsm; xrf;aqmifaeaom (u/ e) (a=u;eef; qufo, G af &;) &Jabmf
b,fawmhrS raysmufEikd [ f k u|eaf wmf xifonf? aZmf*srD w k f aeonf? aemufwvH;k wGif arG;vkarG;cifjzpfaeaom ud, k 0f ef
qdwf aq;jrpfaomufaom 'kw, d ae@ eHeufwiG f u|eaf wmhu f kd onfEiS hf 4if;. cifyeG ;f jzpfonfh wyfcrJG LS ;wd@k aeonf? wyfcrJG LS ;u
aq;±Ho k @kd yd@k onf? &Jabmf0if;Edik u f awmh pcef;rSm use&f pfygonf? awmif,mrsm;udk wm0ef,x l m;&aoma=umifh nrd;k csKyfrS jyef
pcef;teD;&Sad wmif,m tv,frjS zwfomG ;+yD; awm vmwwfonf? usef wJwvH;k wGif u|eaf wmfh ±H;k tzG@J 0iftjzpf
tkyw f ckukd (15) rdepfcef@ jzwfomG ;&ygonf? awmtkyt f vGef wm0efay;xm;aom toufESpfq,fcef@t&G,f rdef;uav;
wGif awmifEpS v f ;kH =um;&Sd v#Kd twdik ;f (15) rdepfcef@ av#mufomG ; ESpaf ,muf aeonf? olw@kd EpS af ,mufu aq;±Hpk cef;&Sd vltm;vH;k
&m aq;±Ho k @kd a&mufygonf? aq;±Hq k okd nfrmS wu,fawmh vlem pm;zd@k twGuf xrif;csujf cif;/ xrif;yd@k jcif;/ vlemjyKpkjcif; wm0ef
rsm;udk xm;&S&d m wJpw k pkomjzpfygonf? awmifajc&Sw d o J nf
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rsm;udk aqmif&Gufonfhtjyif ae@vnf au'gay:vpD/ ygwD vky[ f ef (3) &yf) p vlemjzpfaeI u|eaf wmhrf mS aoewfr&S?d
ae@cif;rsm;Y u|eaf wmfq h rD mS vufa&;vS onfwdk@? u|efawmfaeaumif;v#if xdk "m;wvufyif r&Sday? wn nOD;ydkif;Y
avhusi=f u h onf? rSwpf rk sm;udk za,mif;puULjzifh rdwLœ yGm; u|eaf wmfw h J rsuEf mS pm&Sd wJwikd af jc&if;rS
uqkev f rukeaf o;aomfvnf; um pmtkyif ,fav;wtkyf xkwrf nf[k =uufom;tkyfrwaumif. pl;pl;0g;0g;
rd;k u ae@a&mnyg tqufrjywf &Gmae u|eaf wmf &nf&, G x
f m;onf? u|eaf wmfh atmfoaH =umifh u|eaf wmf vef@E;kd onf?
onf ? aea&mif a v; vif ; vuf v m qD vm+yD; vufa&;avhusifhaom rdef; u|eaf wmfh wJatmufrmS xd=k uufom;tkyf
v#iv f nf; wc%om=um+yD; rd;k arSmif}uD; uav;ESpfa,muftm; rSwfpkyg tcsuf r tdyfwwfa=umif; u|efawmfrodcJh?
usvmwwfonf? ndKr_id ;f tH@k qikd ;f aeaom rsm;udk zwfapygonf? olw@kd odvo kd nf atmfoaH =umifh pcef;wckv;kH Ed;k rnfxif
ywf0ef;usifwGif b,fudk =unfhvdkuf rsm;udk u|eaf wmf &Si;f jyonf? onf? rD;cGux f eG ;f +yD; wJay:rS u|eaf wmf
=unfv h ukd f opf&u G pf rd ;f a&mifuo kd m jrif ae@tcgwGif vufa&;avhusifh vSrf;=unfhvdkuf&m a¹r}uD;}uD;waumif
ae&onf? tat;a&mifjzpfaom tpdr;f ay;vdu k /f Edik if aH &;ta=umif; ajymjyvdu k f u =uufrudk udu k af ea=umif; awG@&onf?
a&mifonf vl@pdwfudk at;csrf;aponf ESihf ae&onfwiG f u|eaf wmfonf tzsm; “a¹r/ a¹r/ a¹r” [k u|eaf wmfvrS ;f atmf
qdak omfvnf; u|eaf wmfw@kd aeaom pcef; raysmufaomfvnf; tenf;i,faeom vdu k &f m u/ e &Jabmfu xif;wH;k }u;D wwH;k
wGiu f m; tpdr;f a&mifonf u|eaf wmht f zd@k xdik of m &So d nf[k xifonf? od@k &mwGif udkifv#uf ajy;vm+yD; a¹rudk ypfayguf
emusicf cH ufygonf? ta=umif;rSm tpdr;f ntcgYrl a&'D,dk em;axmift+yD;wGif vdu k of nf? wyfcrJG LS ;u vufEydS "f mwfr;D
a&mifEiS w hf ygwnf; tH@k ysre_ rf id_ ;f jcif;/ pGwf u|eaf wmf tzsm;wufavh &So d nf? rde;f jzifh xd;k um a¹rudk ±du k o
f wfvu kd o
f nf?
pdjk cif;ESihf at;pdrjhf cif;wd@k ukd useG af wmfcpH m; uav;ESpaf ,mufEiS hf ud, k 0f efonf trsKd ; a¹r. vH;k ywfu vufaumuf0wfcef@om
ae&aoma=umifh jzpfygonf? tpdr;f uEœm& orD;wd@k u u|eaf wmf. nnf;oHukd =um; &Sdaomfvnf; t&Snfu (10) aycef@&Sd
[kyif qd&k rvdk jzpfaeygonf? rd;k u rjywf v#i/f “tzsm;wuf+yDvm; OD;a&”[k vSr;f onf? a&$0ga&mifay:rSm tpuftajymuf
&Gmaeonfhtjyif awmifapmif;onf pdk ar;wwfonf? wu,fawmh vSrf;ar; rsm;&Sad om ief;a¹rjzpfonf? bma=umifrh eS ;f
pGwu f m acsmcf |waf eaoma=umifh csnehf @J onfh t"dym` ,f roufa&mufb/J tm;ay; rod/ xdak ¹rudk csurf pm;=uacs?
aeaom u|eaf wmft h zd@k tjcm;wJrsm;od@k onfh oabmoufa&mufygonf? tzsm; aemuf ES p f & uf oH k ; &uf c ef @
oGm;rvnfEdkif? ae@tcgrSmqdkv#if rdef; . zdpD;ESdyfpufr_'%fudk wJwvHk;xJrSm t=um oef;acgi, f H tcsed Yf &dumQ wJqrD S
uav;ESpfa,mufom xrif;ydk@&efESifh wuk, d wf nf; tefwk wGe;f vSeaf e&csed rf mS aoewfoH ESpcf suf qufwu kd f =um;vduk f
vufa&;vSavhusifh&ef u|efawmfhwJqD olw@kd . atmfar;oHa=umifh “igwa,muf &onf? “0H+rD;aumufa[h/ 'Daumifu h kd ig
a&mufonf? ygw. D taxGaxGvyk if ef; wnf; r[kw”f [laom tod0ifvmum rae@nuwnf;u acsmif;aewm/ ckrSyJ
pOf E S i f h ygwD w nf a qmuf a &;vrf ; pOf tm;tifwck wd;k vmygonf? &awmhw,f” [k tm;&rf;0rf;om vSr;f
pmapmifwdk@udk txyfxyft}udrf}udrf wJonf tumt&HEiS hf wHcg;rsm; ajymvdu k af om wyfcrJG LS ;. toHukd =um;
zwf+y;D rSwo f m;zG,f tcsurf sm;udk &Jabmf r&So d jzifh wcgwcgY om;&Jw&d p>mefrsm;/ vdkuf&onf? 0H+rD;aumuf[k ac:aom
rsm;twGuf u|efawmf rSwfpkxkwfae awm}uD;a¹ra[mufuJhodk@aom tqdyf 0uf0rH sKd ;onf t&G,t f pm;u acG;avmuf
rdonf (wOD;csif;0g'/ qENpGJ0g'/ ygwD. jyif; a¹rrsm;/ ppyg;}uD;uJo h @kd aom a¹r}uD; &So
d nf? t+r;D &Sn&f n S u f tay:od@k aumuf
pnf;±Hk;a&;pnf;urf; (4) &yf/ ygwD. rsm;.&efudk u|efawmf awG;ylrdonf? wuf a eaoma=umif h 0H + rD ; aumuf [ k
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ac:jcif; jzpf[efwlygonf? tom;[if; taygufr&Sdaom awmeuf}uD;udk ESpf c&D;wav#mufvHk;rSm tm;cJI av#muf


rpm;&onfrmS =um+yDjzpfaom vlemrsm; &uf=um jzwf&rnfuawmh aocsmonf? vmcJhaomfvnf; wJay: ta&mufwGif
aemufae@ reufwiG f 0H+rD;aumufjyKwfjzifh u|efawmfonf aumif;pGm xrif;rpm; tm;ukecf ef;um u|eaf wmfonf =urf;jyif
xrif;pm;aumif;ayvdrfhrnf? ,cifu Edkifojzifh tm;tifcsnfheJ@aeaomfvnf; ay: vSJcs&rnfudkyif {&mr tvkyf}uD;
&Jabmfwa,mufv#if xrif;weyfpm tajymif;tvJtaeESihf c&D;xGu&f rnfukd wckvdk 0efav;aerdonf? &Jabmfav;
&dumQ twGuf qefE@kd qb D ;l wbl;&cJh aomf 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;omjzpfum wufºuae 0if;Edik v
f nf; u|eaf wmhv f ykd if? pum;wcGe;f
vnf; ,ckrl oH;k a,mufv#if Ed@k qb D ;l 2 rdonf? r#yif rajymbJ/ ili}l uD;xdik u f m a&S@w±l o l @kd
bl;om &=uawmhojzif/h xrif;r0=uacs? c&D;pxGuaf omae@wiG f &Jabmf ai;aeygonf? u|efawmfvnf; pum;
u|ef a wmf t ygt0if vl e mrsm;ud k 0if;Edik u f vrf;wav#mufv;kH rSm c%c% rajymEdik yf g? wu,fawmh vrf;wav#muf
pm;Edik of avmufpm;&ef cGijhf yKxm;aomf vSt J yd +f yD;/ “u|eaf wmf rav#mufEikd b f ;l As? vH;k rSm rnnf;rnLbJ u|eaf wmf vdu k yf g
vnf; u|eaf wmfonf vmyd@k aom xrif; 'DrSmyJ tdyfaeawmhr,f” ajymum idkyg vmEdkifjcif;onf &Jabmf0if;Edkifa=umifh
yefuef. w0ufr#avmufuykd if renf; onf? &Jabmfrsm;u pdw&f n S &f n
S x
f m;+yD; c&D;aESmifah ES;aecsed rf mS u|ew f mf em;cGi&hf
tm;wif;+yD; rsKcd sae&ygonf? acsmhac:ygonf? ntdyf pcef;cs&rnfh aoma=umifjh zpfonf?
u|efawmfh usef;rma&; tajc ae&mod@k rd;k rcsKyfcif a&mufz@kd vykd gonf? b,favmuf=umoGm;rSef;yif
taeonf ar#mv f ifch surf o hJ avmufe;D yg; aEGtcgqv kd #if ntdy&f onfrmS jy\em rod? arSmifvak rSmifciftcsed Yf rde;f uav;
jzpfaeonf? tzsm;raysmufbJ wm&Snf r&S?d ajr}u;D ay: opf&u G of pfcufrsm;cif;+y;D ESpaf ,mufu u|eaf wmfw@kd qD xrif;vm
aeonfhtjyif xrif;udkvnf; +rdef+rdef tdyv f u kd ±f ykH if? rd;k tcgrmS awmh 0gwmz±l; yd@k onf? xrif;xnfx h m;aom oHyef;uef
&Su&f u S f rpm;Edik ?f iSuzf sm;aq;udk b,f [kac:aom rd;k umprsm;ESihf ykcufr&Sv d #if jym;wcsypf . D E_wcf rf;ay:rSm arsmufom;
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oGm;rnfukd u|eaf wmf pd;k &dryf gonf? pcef; a=umifh trd;k tum&Sad om ae&mwGif pcef; vdkufonfESifh tirf;r&Ed_ufpm;awmh
rSm (10) &ufcef@ =umt+y;D wGif c±dik t f wGi;f cs&rnfjzpfonf? xd@k jyif naepm xrif; onf? u|eaf wmfu ol@vrkd [kw?f xrif;
a&;rSL;qDu xl;xl;jcm;jcm; a=u;eef; udv k nf; csu&f OD;rnf? &Jabmf0if;Edik u f kd pm;csipf w d f r&So
d nft h jyif xrif;udk vuf
wapmif a&mufvmcJo h nf? u|eaf wmfEiS hf acsmw h vSnhf ajcmufwvSnjhf zifh ac:vm ESihf ,lpm;&rnfuykd if tvGeyf ifyef;p&m
&Jabmfav;0if;Edik f tygt0if trsKd ;om;§ cJh&if; nae ae0if&Dwa&mwGif ygwD. tvkyf}uD;wcktjzpf 0efav;aeonf?
trsKd ;orD; &JabmftcsKd @ukd a&S@wef;od@k ac: awmif,mwcif;od@k a&mufonf? awmif xrif;vmyd@k aom rde;f uav;&Jabmfrsm;
jcif; jzpfonf(twGi;f a&;rSL;ESihf jyefawG@ ,monf awmifukef;rsm; t=um;u u t}udr}f udrf tm;ay;wdu k w f eG ;f +yD;rSyif
awmh u|eaf wmfu h se;f rma&; tajctae cyfajyajyqifajcav#m jzpfonf? pyg;yif xrif;udk u|eaf wmf av;av;wG@J w@JG E_u d f
udk olrodI ac:rdjcif;jzpfa=umif; u|ef uav;rsm;yif wxG m ausmf a usmf / pm;jzpfawmhonf? od@k jzpfonfw h ikd f xrif;
awmft h m; awmif;yefpum;qdyk gonf?)? wawmifeD;yg;cef@ &Sdae+yD; pdrf;ndK@ae=u udk u|eaf wmf ukeaf tmifrpm;Edik ?f w0uf
c&D;u b,fE&S uf=umrnfukd u|eaf wmfrod onf? u|eaf wmfw@kd ESpaf ,mufukd wzuf avmufom pm;Edik o f nf? xrif;pm;+yD;+yD;
aomfvnf; omref&mG om;wd@k ta&muf ,yf wJav;wvH;k xJrmS ae&mcsay;onf? csi;f 0g;=urf;jyifay:od@k vJcS svu kd &f m reuf
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vif;rSyif Ed;k awmhonf? &Jabmfrsm; b,f ygwDrSm 0efxkyf0efydk;jzpfaejcif;twGuf tm; ay;tyfaom wm0efudk rysuf
tcsed u f wnf;u x+yD; xrif;wnfonf rdru d ,kd rf rd d tm;rvdt
k m;r&jzpfaerdum ruGuf xrf;aqmifae=uolrsm;jzpfonf?
rod/ u|eaf wmfw@kd EpS af ,muf Ed;k onfEiS hf tzsm;jrefjref aysmufcsifprf;bdonf? olw@kd ukd u|eaf wmftm;usro d nf? u|ef
rsuEf mS opfcikd ;f +y;D xrif;au|;onf? reuf aq;&rS aysmufrnfjzpf&m/ ar#mv f ifch surf hJ awmf aejyefaumif;rS jzpfrnf?
pmudv k nf; xnfah y;or# u|eaf wmf ukef &jyefonf? acsmif;urf;ab; opfyifwyif
atmif rpm;Edik ?f nae (5) em&D xd;k avmufryS if atmufwiG f o&ufo;D rSnhf tyHw k yHEk iS /hf
xdkae@c&D;wGif &Jabmf0if;Edkif pcef;csrnfh ae&m&Sd acsmif;i,fav;. 'l;&if;oD;yHk wyHk&Sdonf? &efol. jzwf
tomw=unf wdwq f wd pf mG vdu
k yf gvm wzufurf;od@k a&mufonf? ae@wm&Snf av;jzwf ppfqifa&;a=umifh vlou l if;rJh
cJo
h nf? ol@a=umifh bmjy\emrS rjzpf? aom &moDjzpfI naecif;aea&mifu aeaom O,smOfwckxrJ S &Jabmfrsm; &Sm
jy\em vkyfolu u|efawmfjzpfonf? vif;I aumif;wke;f yif? acsmif;onf ay azGaumuf,x l m;aom opfo;D rsm; jzpf
rGe;f wnfch sed af usmaf usmaf vmufwiG f u|ef (30) cef@omus,+f yD; a&jynfah ecsed rf mS yif onf? &efo. l pkpnf;a&;pcef;xJ a&muf
awmf tm;jywfawmhonf? b,fvdkyif cg;omomavmufom eufonf? u|ef aeaom O,smOfydkif&Sifu olypfxm;cJh&
tm;cJcJ/ u|efawmf qufrav#mufEdkif? awmf ygweD ,fajrod@k ajccsr+d y;D p tcsed u f onfh ol@O,smOfxJu opfoD;rsm;
ajr}uD;ay: vSJcs+yD; em;ae&onf? u|ef Tacsmif;od@k a&mufczhJ ;l onf? xdck sed u f wzkwzf w k f aºuusaeonfukd awG;rdum
awmfh ausmyd;k tdwu f kd rde;f uav; wyfz@JG rd;k rusao;I acsmif;. ae&mwdik ;f rSm a&&Sd &ifemvd@k rqH;k jzpfaeayvdrrhf nf?
0if wOD;u ol@ausmyd;k tdwaf y:rSm xyfy;kd onfr[kwfacs? csdKifhjzpfaeaom ae&m opfo;D yHk ESpyf ekH m;wGif o&uf
+yD; o,fay;onf? pcef;csrnfh ae&mod@k rsm;wGifom a&&Sdonf? noef;acgif oD;rSnw hf udu k Ef iS hf 'l;&if;oD;rSnhf wvkwf
a&mufv+k y/D }uKd ;pm;av#mufyg[k 0dik ;f tm; ausmf a usmf a vmuf w G i f wyf c G J r S L ; udk wvSnphf D tirf;r& pm;aeaom &Jabmf
ay;=uaomfvnf; u|eaf wmfh tm;tifrsm; wa,mufu a&aomufqif;vmaom 0if;Edik u f kd awG@&onf? iwfxm;cJo h r# ckrS
udk !‡px f wk I f r&awmh? (5) rdepf/ (10) qwfwaumifudk ypfI &cJhonf? rqD twd;k cs+yD; pm;aeyHyk if? u|efawmfvnf;
rdepfwcg ajr}uD;ay: vSJcsvdkuf&onf? rqdik f ok0Àomr Zmwfxu J orifaygi;f ol@enf;wlyif jzpfonf? o&ufoD;rSnhf
aemufqHk;Y u|efawmfhudk apmifhac:&ef ig;&mESit hf wl ok0Àomr a&cyfqif;&m (3) vH;k ESihf &Jabmfi,fwa,muf tvsirf D
&JabmfESpfa,muftm; wm0efay;cJh+yD; rd*or`'gjrpfukd u|eaf wmf owd&rdojzifh atmif cGaJ y;aom 'l;&if;oD;}uD; }uD; (3)
usef&Jabmfrsm; qufav#mufoGm;=u Tacsmif;av;udk rd*or`'gjrpf[k u|eaf wmf vH;k udk ukeaf tmif pm;ypfvu kd o
f nf? acsmif;
onf? npmtwGuf xrif;csuf&efESifh pGrJ w S x f m;cJo h nf? udk jzwful;t+yD;wGif opfyiftkyfwtkyf
tdyfpufem;aep&mtwGuf rdk;rcsKyfcif ,ck Tacsmif;xJrSm &Jabmf atmuf ajruGuu f av;wuGurf mS rde;f
tcsed rf D cif;usi;f jyifqif&rnf jzpfonf? tcsdK@ wa,mufudk wa,muf aemuf uav; &Jabmfrsm; qefaxmif;/ qefjym
&Jabmfrsm;u u|eaf wmft h wGuf rnnf; ajymif uspD ,fum a&upm;ae=u onf? vkyaf eonfukd awG@&onf? teD;tem;
rnL 0dik ;f 0ef;az;ray;=uonfrmS rSeaf omf &efol‹xdk;ppfa=umifh tvGefqif;&Jusyf wGif ausmufawmifeH&Hwck &Sdaeonf?
vnf; olw@kd ukd u|eaf wmf tvGet f m;em wnf;aom umvrSmyif T&Jabmfrsm; Tae&monf &dumQ pyg;rsm; 0Sux f m;&m
aerdonf? ygwt D wGuf rdru d bmwckrS onf nnf;nLjcif; r&Sb d J }uHKovdk us v#d K @0S u f p cef ; jzpf [ ef w l y gonf ? cyf
rnfrnf&& vkyrf ay;&ao;cifrmS rdru d ovdk oGm;vmaexdik ;f &if; rdrw d @kd u, kd pf D pdypf yd af yguaf eaom opfyifrsm;=um;xJu
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wJwvH;k xJrmS &Jabmf0if;Edik Ef iS hf u|eaf wmfu h kd ae&mcsay;onf? u|eaf wmfw@kd qD xrif;vmyd@k awmh (opf&yd rf sm;a=umifv h m;rod)
arSmifpysKd ;aeay+yD? [if;tjzpf xrif;ay:rSm 'l;&if;oD; t¹rmrsm;udk wifxm;ay;onf?
&Jabmfav;0if;EdkifESifh u|efawmhfudk tv,frSmxm;+yD; wzufwcsufpDrSm &JabmfESpfa,mufpD tdyf=uonf? yl;yl;
uyfuyftyd =f u&&m ylaoma=umifv h m;rod/ tdyI f aumif;wke;f rSm &Jabmf0if;Edik u
f pl;pl;0g;0g; atmfiakd vonf? awmfawmf=umrSyif
arm+yD; oltyd af ysmo f mG ;onf? reufvif;awmh reufpmtjzpf 'l;&if;oD;ESihf xrif;pm;+yD; c±dik t f wGi;f a&;rSL;&S&d mod@k u|eaf wmfw@kd
c&D;quf=uonf? ,ckc&D;onf ygw. D twGi;f pnf;e,fajr r[kwaf wmhaoma=umifh owdxm;&ef &Jabmfwa,mufu u|eaf wmfh
tm; }udKwif owday;xm;onf? TtwGuaf =umifh xifonf? &Jabmf0if;Edik u f kd &JabmftcsKd @EiS t
hf wl pcef;rSm csexf m;cJo
h nf?
vrf;av#muf&mY u|eaf wmfu h kd ouf!m‡ aomtm;jzifh &Jabmfrsm;u r=umr=um xdik ef m;=uygonf? od@k &mwGif onfah e@c&D;wGif
u|efawmf aumif;pGm vrf;av#mufEikd yf gonf? u|efawmfu h ,
kd f u|efawmfvnf; tH=h ordonf? 'l;&if;oD;. tm[m&a=umifh
tm;jyef&v dS mjcif; jzpfonf[k xifonf? aq;±Hpk cef;rS xGuv f m+y;D yxrnuwnf;u tzsm;rwufawmhonfuv kd nf; u|eaf wmf
owd&rdvu kd o
f nf? xdt k csed uf pI a&S@wef;e,fajrrSm aecJ&h aom wrd;k wGi;f vH;k vnf; u|eaf wmf tzsm;rwufcahJ cs? aq;raomuf
&bJ emwm&Snf iSuzf sm;a&m*grS u|eaf wmf xl;qef;pGm emvefxvmcJjh cif;jzpfygonf? &efo@l ppfa=umif;rsm; 0ifar$aeonfh
a&S@wef;e,fajrrSm Ed;k Ed;k =um;=um; zswzf swv f wfvwf &Sad e&rnf[al om awmfveS af &;todu u|eaf wmhrf mS twGi;f tm;tjzpf
ude;f atmif;aejcif;a=umif[ h k xifygonf?

tzsm;. zdp;D ESyd pf ufr'_ %fukd wJwvH;k xJrmS


wuk,
d wf nf; tefwk wGe;f vSeaf e&csed rf mS olw@kd .
atmfar;oHa=umifh “igwa,mufwnf; r[kw”f
[laom tod0ifvmum tm;tifwck wd;k vmygonf

57
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taumif; tqd;k

tjzpfe@J tysu/f atmifjrifre_ @J &;H_ edrrhf p_ wJh qef@usib f uf t&m


ae@pOfomrefb0twGi;f udpt P rsKd ;rsKd ;rSm taumif;awGqyk u f ikd f awG[m tEkyÉdavmruspmG jzpfay:wd;k yGm;aewm jzpfw,f?
tqd;k awG z,f&mS ;zd@k ajymqdw k mawGukd taxGtxl; apm'u 'Dae&mrSm tqd;k taumif;/ ta[mif;topf pwm
wufp&m r&Sdyg? 'gayrJh urBmh vuf&Sdt&if;&SifpD;yGm;a&; awGukd b,fpeH @J wdik ;f rvJ? "e&Siaf ygupf awGuawmh wuUaA'
b0twGif; ‘wdkif;jynfpD;yGm;a&;}uD;xGm;r_’udk jr‡ifhwif&if; pdw0f g't& qENpt JG & wdik ;f wmayvdrrhf ,f? od@k jzifh taumif;
qif;&Jcsr;f om uGm[r_ukd z,f&mS ;oGm;zd@k ajymqdw k m ar#mv f ifh tqd;k / ta[mif;topf pwmawG[m yk*v ~ ud tvdu k s pdwu f ;l
csuf ay;wmrsdK;/ vuf&Sd ArmjynfpD;yGm;a&; EdkifiHa&;b0 pHowfrw S cf suaf wG jzpfvmygawmhw,f?
taxGaxGrSm ppftkyfpk}uD;pdk;r_atmuf tkyfpdk;olrsm; ‘vkyf 'Dae&mrSm ‘tbd"rRm.qif;&Jjcif;’ usr;f rSm rmhupf f
aqmifEikd cf w hJ hJ atmifjrifcsu’f awGukd todtrSwjf yK qkyu f ikd +f yD; ajymxm;wJh ya&muf'Gef;tay: a0zefcsufwcsdKŒudk owd&
‘rvk y f a qmif E d k i f a o;wJ h csd K Œ,G i f ; csuf ’ rsm;ud k onf ; cH / tav;xm;zd@k vdrk ,fxifygw,f?
wjznf;jznf; tcsed , f l ajz&Si;f oGm;zd@k acGs;odyw f mrsKd ;pwmawG ya&muf'eG ;f tzd@k u “pD;yGm;a&; tjcif;t&mwdik ;f rSm
tay:rSmawmh apm'uwuf&ygvrd rhf ,f? taumif;bufe@J tqd;k bufq+kd yD; bufEpS b f uf &Sw d mcsn;f yJ/
'Dvkd wifjycsuaf wGu=kd unf&h if taumif;qdw k m t+rJ ol[m 'Dtjcif;t&mawGukd =unf&h mrSm "e&Siaf ygupf wa,muf
vdv k m;p&m aqmifp&mjzpf+y;D tqd;k qdw k muawmh xm0& y,f u ordik ;f tausmt f armf yk*Kd~ vfawGtay: =unfyh t Hk wdik ;f =unfh
p&m a&Smifp&m jzpfw,fqw kd hJ aumif;usKd ;aqmif oDv tawG; w,f? eydv k , D [
H m yk*Kd~ vf}uD;jzpfw,f? ol[m aumif;wmawG
tac:oufoufudk aphaqmf+yD; vl}udKufrsm;atmifvkyfwm trsm;}uD; vkycf o hJ vdk 'kuaQ wGvnf; trsm}uD;ay;cJw h ,fv@kd
awGŒ&ygr,f? tqd;k awGukd wjznf;jznf; z,f&mS ;oGm;&if; aemuf =unfjh rifwmrsKd ;ayg?h ”
qk;H rSm taumif;awGyJ usev f rd rhf ,fqw kd hJ arsmS vf ifch surf mS ; ay; ya&muf'eG ;f twGuu f awmh “pD;yGm;a&; tjcif;t&m
wmudv k nf; awGŒ&rSm jzpfygw,f? 'gt h jyif taumif;tqd;k wdkif;rSm taumif;bufeJ@ tqdk;buf/ tm;omcsufrsm;eJ@
bufaygif;pkHxnfhwGuf okH;oyfoa,mif ykHpHzrf;xm;ayr,fh tm;enf;csurf sm;wd@k [m yÉdyuQbufrsm; jzpfw,f?”
taumif;eJ@tqd;k qdw k mwd@k ukd tjyeftvSeaf rG;zGm;rScD akd e+y;D tjyef ol@twGuf “jy\emudk ajz&Si;f enf;uawmh taumif;
tvSef qef@usiaf ewJh t&mawGtjzpfjrifwhJ tEkyÉdavmrenf; bufukd xde;f odr;f +y;D tqd;k bufukd z,f&mS ;ypfz@kd y?J ” olem;vnf
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r[kwb f ;l ? qufpyf - v_y&f mS ; - wGe;f aqmf - qifu h aJ jymif;vJ ESpb f ufw@kd twlwuG wnf&adS e+yD; tjyeftvSef wdu k cf u
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aewm jzpfw,f? taumif;eJ@tqdk;/ ta[mif;eJ@topf/

58
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w,f?” tqdk;bufudk z,f&Sif;ypfrSawmh tEkyÉdavmr Oyrm urBmph ;D yGm;a&; rsuEf mS pmrSm 21 &mpktwGi;f
vuQ%m v_y&f mS ;r_u tqk;H owfz@kd yJ &Sad wmhwmayg?h ydrk x
kd if&mS ;pGm v$r;f rd;k vmwJh *vdb k ,f vuf0g;}uD;tkyf b¾m
'Dvekd @J ya&muf'eG ;f [m “tjcif;t&m&JŒ bufEpS b f uf t&if;pepfu t&if;tES;D tajrmuftjrm;udk pkpnf;ay;Edik v f @kd
t=um;rSm pdwv f y_ &f mS ; Asmrsm; a'goyGm;” ae&ygawmhw,f? t}uD;pm;&if;ES;D jrêyEf rHS v _ yk uf m t}uD;pm;zGŒH +zdK;a&; pDru H ed ;f rsm;
rSeu f efwehJ nf;emeJ@ xGuaf ygu&f mS r&jzpf+yD; wjcm;tjcif;t&m (+rdKŒopf/ pufrZ_ /Hk puf±/Hk a&umwm/ tdr&f mpwJh pDru H ed ;f rsm;)
topfwckxJudk twif;ckefxGuf&ygawmhw,f? “ol[m taumiftxnfazmfEdkifwmawGuawmh aumif;ygw,fvdk@yJ
vufxaJ &mufvmwJh yxrtjcif;t&mudk aumufuikd v f ukd +f yD; qd k = uygpd k @ ? 'gayrJ h b¾mtzG J @ }uD ; awG [ m ouf q d k i f & m
'gudk ykHawmfovdk vuQ%mowfrSwfum 'Dtjcif;t&m&JΠukr% ` aD wG &S,, f m aps;wufapzd@k / &S,, f m0ifawG tjrwfw;kd
tqd;k bufawGukd z,f&mS ;zd@k enf;awG wifjyygawmhw,f?” 'Dvkd apzdk@twGuf wcsdK@vkyfief;awGudk ydwfypfwm/ tvkyform;
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taumufeJ@ z,f&Sm;r,f/ tcGeftaumuf&JŒ tm;enf;csuf p&dwf jzwfawmufypfwmawG &Sw d ,f? b¾maps;uGuf aps;
awGukd ukeo f , G af &; csed cf iG v f #meJ@ z,f&mS ;r,f” pwmrsKd ;awG upm;wm/ pDt;D tdv k kd uyfyg;aumifawGukd ajrawmifajrm‡ ufay;
woDwwef;}uD; xGuv f mygw,f? wmawG &Syd gw,f æ tp&So d jzifh 'Dvrdk sK;d udak wmh tqd;k pm&if;xJ
ya&muf'eG ;f tay: rmhupf &f @J a0zefcsux f u J taumif; xnf+h yD; xde;f csKyf&r,f z,f&mS ;&r,f qd=k uygp@kd ? jzpfEikd yf grh vm;?
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qGzJ @kd r[kwyf g? (vufawG@ }uKHawG@ae&wJh ordik ;f jzpfpOfqikd &f m 'Durk % ` aD wG[m b¾ma&; a&ay:qDtv$mtopfukd tpOfarG;
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59
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63
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hl m%m

udak wmif a&mufomG ;wwfwmrsKd ;awG ±Sd vmatmif tðyoabm aqmifvmatmif a=umifh tvGwzf wfrw S f ¶Gwq f jkd iif;ckaH e
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aemufwcsufuvnf; t&if; ,ae@umv ArmjynfrmS rdr. d wnfavhvmr_ taetxm;uae wdik ;f
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uvd k t&if ; ±S i f p epf t zd k @ (ynma&;/ jzpfygw,f? 'gukd tjynft h ÿ tok;H cs+yD; pepftay: vk;H ÿtjywftowf tEdik , f l
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vlrqefq;Hk jzpfwhJ yifrvuQ%meJ@ tES@H 'Dae&mrSm rmhupf ÿf g' avhvm epfÿg'eJ@qdk±S,fvpfpepfu ,ae@umv
tjym; vuQ%maqmifwhJ aoG;pkyrf a_ wG/ a&qdw k hJ bufo;Hk bufteuf toufvkd t&if;±Sifpepftay: (t&if;±Sifpepfu
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r_awG/ umvydik ;f tvdu k pf ;D yGm;a&; uyf ygÿif vkyu f ikd af &;qdw k hJ tcsuf ysuu f uG f ,lrx _ uf ydrk }kd uD;us,cf rf;em;wJh atmifyJG
qdu k rf a_ wGukd t&if;±Sipf epfu 21 &mpkrmS ae&ifawmh wuUov kd yf &ÿk%x f u J rmhupf f cHrr_ sKd ;eJ@ rvGrJ aoG tEdik , f yl gvrd Ohf ;D r,f?
vlom;qefvmatmif odrfarGŒnifom ÿg'tjzpfom *dwfqkH;aeygvdrfhr,f? 'gh (2019 ckEpS /f =o*kwv f 15 &uf)

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64
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vif;vufawmufyaeqJ rmhupf ÿf g' rD;¶–;wefaqmif

ppfat;wdu k yf JG tvGerf mS e,fcsŒJ orm;awGe@J "e±Siaf ygupf ynmwwfa,mifa,mif e,fcsŒJ tvdak wmf&ad wGu rmhupf ÿf g' usq;Hk
oGm;+yDv@kd vufcarmif;cwf=uygw,f? qd±k , S v f pfpepf/ uGejf rLepfpepf qdw k mawG[m Edik if aH &;t& tm%m±Sipf epfjzpfovdk
pD;yGm;a&;t&vnf; wvGJwacsmfawGvkyf+yD; pD;yGm;ysufapwJhpepf jzpfw,fvdk@ pdwfóuuf ÿg'jzef@=uw,f? aemufqkH;awmh
vpfb&,f t&if;±Sipf epfom wckwnf;aom a¶G;cs,pf &meJ@atmifyjJG zpfw,f/ vlŒtzGŒJ tpnf;ordik ;f rSm vpfb&,f t&if;±Sif
pepfom tqk;H owf atmifycJG w H hJ Edik if aH &;eJ@p;D yGm;a&;pepf jzpfw,fv@kd aºu;a=umfaysmjf rL;=uygw,f? vlŒtzGŒJ tpnf;ordik ;f u
wu,fyJ vpfb&,f t&if;±Sipf epfrmS ed*;Hk csKyfovm; od&zd@k ody=f um=um rapmifv h ukd &f ygb;l ?
2007-2008 ckEpS f pD;yGm;ysuu f yfqukd w f thJ cg uyfoifw h hJ t&if;±SiEf ikd if }H uD;awGrmS uGejf rLepfa=unmpmwrf;eJ@ t&if;
usr;f vdk pmtkyaf wG ta&mif;oGuv f mw,f? um;vfrmhupf &f ŒJ emrnfukd t&if;±Sif rD', D mawGutp yvlysaH tmif azmfjyvm
=uw,f? vlx=k um;rSm txl;ojzifh vli,fawG=um;rSm rmhupf af jymcJw h mawGukd tav;xm; avhvmaqG;aEG;r_awG ðyvmygw,f?
t&if;±Sipf epftay: vli,fawG&ŒJ t,kt H =unfrrhJ v _ nf; qxufxrf;yd;k wd;k yGm;vmygw,f?
1990 ck ESprf sm; aESmif;ydik ;f rSm ay:xGuv f mwJh *vdb k ,fvu kd af Z;±Si;f (vpfb&,ft&if;±Sipf epf urBmt ES@H xad wGŒaygi;f
pyfr)_ qef@usiaf &; v_y±f mS ;r_awGrmS vnf; rmhupf ÿf g'u atmifvw H vlvv l i$ +hf yD; ygÿifcyhJ gw,f? qdAk , D uf,el , D H aeÿif+yDq+kd yD;
atmifycJG zH @kd }uHoal wG[m vpfb&,ft&if; ±Sipf epf urBmvk;H v$r;f ðcHr_ qef@usiaf &; t¶k%Of ;D a&mifeaD tmufrmS a,muf,ufcwf
ukeyf gw,f? rmhupf ÿf g' wausmjh yefvmwdik ;f oabmw&m;oufoufr[kw/f vufawGŒwdu k yf aJG wGyg wygwnf; ay:xGuv f mwwf
ygw,f?
*vdb k ,fvu kd af Z;±Si;f qef@usiaf &; v_y±f mS ;r_awGay:xGu+f yD; aemufyikd ;f rSm vpfb&,fÿg'opf (eD,v kd pfb&,f) eJ@
b¾mt&if;±Sipf epf uyfqu kd rf &_ ŒJ aemufqufwJG qd;k usKd ;awGukd urBmtES@H rSm qef@usiw f u kd yf ÿJG ifvm=uw,f? odr;f ydu k af &;
v_y±f mS ;r_awG ay:xGuv f mw,f? yg&/D vef'ef/ atoif pwmawGrmS t"du¶k%;f awG jzpfw,f? v$waf wmfwiG ;f vufÿt J pd;k &awG
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vuf,m vl+yde;f óuufÿg' a±SŒxGuv f mygw,f? urBmo h rdik ;f rSmawmh zufqpfÿg' acgi;f axmifvm&if tJ'ÿD g'udk ¶du k cf sKd ;r,fh
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jynfwiG ;f / jynfyrSm tpOftvmeJ@*% k af &mif ajymifcw hJ myg? vpfb&,f tacsmiform;eJ@ vuf,mzufqpfawG[m uGejf rLepfqkd
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rmhupf ÿf g' usq;Hk oGm;+yD/ acwfrrDawmhb;l qdw k phJ um;udk vpfb&,f"e±Siv f w l ef;pm;eJ@ e,fcsŒJ orm;awG t}udr}f udrf
rarmEdik /f ryef;Edik f ajymcJ=h uwmyg? olw@kd tJ'v D kd t±Surf ±Sd xyfwvJvJ ajymae=uayr,fh urBmwÿef;u rsKd ;qufopfawG[m
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2007 - 2008 ckEpS f rSm t&if;±Sipf epf uyfqu kd w
f t hJ cg pD;yGm;ysu&f wJh ta=umif;t&if;udk ±Sm=uw,f? xGuaf yguf
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hJ ,f/ aemifvnf;
65
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tckvkd uyfqu kd af eOD;rSm qdw k mudk rmhupf f r[kwyf gb;l ? qdAk , D uf ,le, D òH yuGwJ m/ tpnf; wd;k wufz@kd twGuf t[ef@twm;
ÿg' aus;Zl;a=umifh odjrifvm=uygw,f? bmvHww H ikd ;f òyvJwm pwmawGe@J twl jzpfvmrSm pwmawGukd a[mude;f xkwf
t&if;±Sipf epfe@J ywfoufv@kd rmhupf ef @J ta±SŒOa&my uGejf rLepftpd;k &awG tm cJyh gw,f? b¾ma&; yËdyuQawG (pD;yGm;
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b,favmufreS o f vJ tm;óu;rmefwuf e,fcsJŒorm;awG tcGifhomcJhygw,f? yËdyuQawG jzpfwt hJ cg vlwef;pm; rnDr#
avhvmzd@k jzpfvm=uw,f? wzufrmS rmhupf ÿf g'u w&m;aoÿg'eJ@ r_eJ@qif;&J-csrf;om uGm[r_u ydkqdk;ÿg;
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eJ@eD;pyfolawGom rmhufpfta=umif;/ ESp&f yfukd &ifqikd f ajz±Si;f &ygw,f? 'gayrJh avmbavmifpmeJ@armif;ESiw f hJ
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±Sif rD'D,mawGeJ@ "e±SifynmwwfawG w,f? pHwifrmhupf ÿf g'eJ@ rmhupf u f , kd w f ikd f ðyef;/ awmifðyef;wmawG jzpfapw,f?
=um;rSmyg us,u f s,af vmifavmif ajym ajymcJw h mawGukd usm;ukwu f sm;cJ avh &moDOwk azmufjyefajymif;vJra_ wG jzpf
qdak qG;aEG;zd@k jzpfvmwmyg? ordik ;f ed*;Hk csKyf vmae=uwm jzpfygw,f? apw,f? t&dyaf eae tcufcsKd ;csKd ;vkyw f hJ
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om; udk,fhwHawG;udk,f jyefaumuf,l qDavsmfudkufnDaeqJ jzpf&wJh t"du awmh tzdESdyfcH/ tkyfpdk;cH jynfolvlxk
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ao+yD/ ajrðryfo+*FK[ d v
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ajym=uwmom jzpfw,f/ rmhupf ÿf g'udk vnf; jzpfw,f? rmhupf u f t&if;±Sipf epf rvGwfvyfygbl;? udk,fusdK;pD;yGm; um
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jzpfw,f qdw k mudk vlawG wjznf;jznf; tr# rnDr#ru _ kd ydjk zpfapvdrrhf ,f/ vlwef; awGu tdwpf u kd af vsmaf y;&wJph epf jzpfyg
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66
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pD;yGm;a&;pepf txGe;f um;qk;H wdik ;f jynfawGrmS ypPn;f rJah wmfveS af &;awG ay:xGuv f mr,fv@kd rmhupf u f cef@reS ;f cJyh gw,f? 'gayrJh
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What is Marx 200?
https://marx200.org/en/mediathek/what-marx200
Social movements in Europe and North America since 1989
https://marx200.org/…/social-movements-europe-and-north-ame…
Is Marxism making a political come back? By Debating Europe
https://www.debatingeurope.eu/…/19/marxism-making-comeback/…
Fukuyama’s second thoughts: ‘socialism ought to come back’

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u apmif=h unfah e&wm jzpfw,f? ‘tar Ed k i f w J h uk r ` % D w ck u d k tar&d u ef u rSaD ewm jzpfw,f? tar&duef&mZoH
&duefu ESmacswmeJ@ wurBmvHk; em axmif a y;xm;w,f ? 'D v d k r S a=umifh w±kwf/ ±k&Sm;eJ@ tjcm;EdkifiH
70
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tenf;i,fuykd J AifeZD v JG m;[m a&eHa&mif; w,f? tar&dueftpd;k &&J@ zdtm;a=umifh aiGa=u;&efyHkaiGtzGJ@ (IMF) qDu AifeD
Edkifawmhw,f? 2018 rSm a&eHaps;us tar&duefr[mb%f}uD; (Citigroup) ZGJvm;[m aiGacs;vdk@ r&ygbl;? 'DtzGJ@
vmvdk@ tajctaeu ydkqdk;oGm;w,f? [m ole@J AifeZD v JG m;Edik if tH =um; oabm (IMF) [m Edik if w H Edik if H pD;yGm;a&; tusyf
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qyf&r,fh twdk;t&if;awGeJ@ t&ifu a&$ a wG u d k xd e f ; csKyf x m;vd k u f w ,f ? wmvd@k qdw k ,f? 'gayrJh 'DtzG@J rmS tar&d
xkwfa&mif;xm;wJh a':vmeJ@owfrSwf t*FvefA[db k %f (Bank of England) uefeJ@ol@r[mrdwfOa&myEdkifiHawGu rJ
xm;wJh aiGacs;pmcsKyfawGtwGuf twd;k uvnf; tar&duef&@J wdu k wf eG ;f csuu f kd trsm;pkukd csKyfuikd x f m;wmrd@k tar&duef
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vnf; &Sw d ,f? tJ'gawGuv kd nf; a':vm a&$awGukd at;cJ (freeze) vdu k w f ,f? ygb;l ? tar&duefe@J tvGr;f oifw h hJ tm
tpm; a&eHe@J ay;acs&wmawG jzpfvm tbl'gbD (Abu Dhabi ) pwJh urBmh *siwf ;D em;Edik if u
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w,f? a&$aps;uGuaf wGrmS vnf; AifeZD v JG m; a&$ 'DtzG@J }uD;qDu pHcsed w f ifacs;aiG a':vm
tar&d u ef u aemuf x yf awG ta&mif;t0,frvkyzf @kd wm;qD;ydwf 50 bDvs&H cJw h mjzpfw,f?
wqifh wufvu kd w
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EdkifiHrSm tajcpdkufxm;wJh AifeDZGJvm; a=umifh tckvkd ydwyf ifvu kd wf mygy?J tpdk;&udk tusyfqdkufatmifvkyfay;+yD;
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udk odr;f vdu k wf myJ jzpfw,f? ydq k ;kd wmu wefzdk;usvmwma=umifh a':vmeJ@0,f acgi;f aqmifqw kd hJ *GKd uf'gukd aiGa=u;tul
ukr`%Du odrf;vdk@&wJh a':vmawGudk oGi;f &wJh ukepf nfawG aps;}uD;vmw,f? tnDawG ay;w,f? aemuf+yD; rD', D mawG
tar&duef pdwfóuufa&G;xm;wJh AifeD rsm;rsm;vnf;roGi;f Edik v f @kd ukeyf pPn;f awG uvnf; AifeDZGJvm; tpdk;& pDrHcef@cGJr_
ZGJvm;twdkuftcHacgif;aqmif *GdKif'gudk aps;}uD;±Hkru &Sm;yg;jywfvyfwmawG raumif;vd@k / jcpm;vd@k tckvkd wdik ;f jynf
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EdkifiHu tar&duefb%fawGrSm tyfESH puf±Hktvkyf±HkawGvnf; vdktyfwJh ukef enf;vrf;udv k nf; y,frxm;bl;qd+k y;D +crd ;f
xm;wJh a':vmaiGawG/ t&if;tES;D pwm =urf;awG/ pufypPn;f pwmawG rwifoiG ;f ajcmuf y gw,f ? Aif e D Z G J v m; ppf w yf
awG tm;vHk;udkvnf; odrf;qnf;vdkuf Edik af wmhv@kd vkyif ef;csKH @ypfwm/ 'grrS [kwf udvk nf; tpd;k &udk opPmrcHbJ twdu k f
w,f? tjcm;Edik if aH wGuv kd nf; tvm;wl ydwfypf&wmawG jzpfvmw,f? tvkyf tcHbuf ul;ajymif;zdk@ ajAmifa&m cdk;
vkyzf @kd tar&duefu zdtm;awG wd;k ay; vufrahJ wG rsm;vmw,f? wdik ;f jynfp;D yGm; a=umifc;kd 0Suyf g vkyyf gw,f? 'gayrJh tck
w,f? a&;vnf; uarmufurjzpfw,f? usyf csdeftxd AifeDZGJvm;orRw rm'l±dk[m
a':vmawGord ;f qnf;±Hek @J r&yf wnf;r_'%f rcHEikd af wmhv@kd tdref ;D csi;f Edik if H }uH@}uH@c&H yfwnfaeEdik w f ek ;f jzpfygw,f?
bJ EdkifiHjcm;wdkif;jynfawGrSm&SdwJh AifeD awGudk xGufcGmolawG oef;eJ@csD&Sdvm 'g[m urBmhtiftm;}uD;EdkifiH
ZGv J m;ydik f a&$awGuv kd nf; odr;f qnf;jyef w,f? tar&duefu EdkifiHi,fav;wEdkifiHudk
ygw,f? 'g[m Edik if w H umOya'udk ajymif wdkif;jynfaiGwefzdk; xdk;us+yD; b¾a&;a':vmvufeufo;kH +yD; b,fvkd
ajymifwif;wif; csdK;azmufwmyJ jzpfyg rwnf r+idrfjzpfaeayr,fh EdkifiHwum tEdik uf sihf Advk u f sp;kd rd;k zd@k óu;pm;aeovJ
71
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qdw
k mudk azmfjyvdu k w
f myg? tar&duef[m ol@&@J tckvkd urBm}uD;udk Adv k uf sp;kd rd;k aeEdik w
f hJ tae txm;udk qufvufxed ;f odr;f
xm;vdw k ,f? wenf;tm;jzifh 0if±;kd wckwnf;urBmpepfukd xlaxmifcsiw f ,f? 'gayrJh 'gukd ol@ aemufvu kd Ef ikd if w
H csKd @uvGv
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H rsm;pku vufrcH=uygb;l ? 0if±;kd trsm;&Sw d hJ urBmpepfuo kd m vdv k m;=uygw,f?
tar&duefwEdik if w
H nf;u Adv
k uf sp;kd rd;k r,fh 0if±;kd wck urBmph epfukd rdrw d @kd taejzifv h nf; rvdv k m;yg? 0if±;kd wck urBmph epf
udk urBmjh ynfot l m;vH;k aoG;pnf;nD!w G pf mG jzifh qef@usiw f u
kd yf 0JG if=uygp@kd [k wdu k w
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kd yf gw,f?
&nf!eï ;f -
- Lenin’s Imperialism in the 21st Century (Institute of Political Economy Manila, 2017)
- Financial Imperialism - The Case of Venezuela by Jack Rasmus
Wikipedia

tar&dueftpd;k &taeeJ@
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72
bDvseH molºu,frsm;eJ@ owif;eJhrSwfcsuf
tar&duefEikd if aH &;
2019 ckEpS f rwfvrSm
tar&duefEikd if u H bDvseH m tdraf xmifpak wG&@J ydik q f ikd rf u
_ 3µ t&eftwm;&efyakH iGbv D seH m}u;D
pkpak ygi;f [m 607 a,muf&w dS ,f? usqif;cJw h ,f? a&mbwfrmqmeJ@ orD;&Dbufum
tJ't D xJu 14 a,muf [m bDvseH m}uD;awG yd+k yD;csr;f om wd@k [m 2016 ckEpS rf mS vuf,mEdik if aH &;
urBmt h csr;f omqH;k 20 pm&if;xJ vmwmeJ@tr# tar&duefEikd if aH &;rSm e,fy,f rSm a':vm 49 oef;
ygoal wG jzpfw,f? olw@kd tusKd ;pD;yGm;twGuf yd+k yD;&if;ES;D oH;k pGcJ whJ ,f? b&dwb f wf (Breitbat
ay:vpDavhvma&;tzG@J (Institute for jr‡KyfEv HS m=uwmudk awG@&w,f? News) owif;XmeeJ@ tJ'o D wif;
Policy Studies) &J@ cef@reS ;f csut f & rxl;qef;bl;vd@k yJ ajym&rSmyg? Xme&J@ OuUXjzpfol pwdzb f efeefw@kd ukd
2017 ckEpS rf mS tar&duef tar&dueforRwjzpfomG ;wJh axmufyahH y;cJw h ,f? befeef[m
tcsr;f omqH;k bDvseH m 3 OD; (*suzf b f ZD /kd olaX;}uD;awGvnf; renf;ygb;l ? orRwx&rfo h ufwrf; yxr 7 vrSm
bDv*f w d ef @J 0g&ifbmaz;) wd@k &@J vuf&o dS rRwx&rf[ h mvnf; tdrjf zLawmfAsL[mrª;wm0ef ,lco hJ yl g?
pkpak ygi;f ºu,f0r_[m a':vm 248²5 bDvseH m}uD;wOD;ygy?J ude;f b&pftemvpfwu D m
bDvsH &Sw d ,f? 'g[m tar&duef tar&duefEikd if aH &;rJq, G yf JG tcsut f vufurk % ` u D v kd nf;
vlO;D a&pkpak ygi;f w0ufausmf awGrmS olaX;}uD;awG&@J yrm%}uD;wJh axmufyahH y;cJw h ,f? x&rfrh q J ,G rf r_ mS
ydik q
f ikd wf mxuf ydrk sm;w,f? aiGawGu t+rJwrf; ta&;ygwahJ e&mrSm tompD;&apatmif tJ'u D rk %` u D
azmhbrf *~Zif;tqdt k & tckq&kd if olw@kd &Sad ecJw h myg? Edik if aH &;jyef=um;r_ azhpb f w G cf rf mS tcsut f vufawG
(3) OD;&J@ ydik q f ikd rf [_ m a':vm 350²5 A[dt k zG@J tqdt k & tar&duefEikd if &H @J ravsmrf uef toH;k cscw hJ m jzpfw,f?
bDvsH &So d mG ;+yD? 2 ESpf rjynfw h t hJ csed f 0²01µ &St d csr;f omqH;k awG&@J x&rft h Edik &f +yD;aemuf
twGi;f rSm a':vm 102 bDvsH (41µ) Edik if aH &;&efyakH iGv'ª ge;f r_[m x&rf&h @J &mxl;v$, J al &;tzG@J rmS
wd;k yGm;vmwm jzpfw,f? pkpak ygi;f vª'ge;f aiG&@J 29µ &Sv d mw,f? orD;&Dbufum yg0ifcw hJ ,f?
tJ'aD y:vpDavhvma&;tzG@J &J@ vGecf w hJ hJ 4 ESpu f qdk 21µ yJ&w dS ,f? orRwtopfpufpufx&rf&h @J
r=umao;cifu xkwjf yefcsut f &qd&k if xdyw f ef;olºu,f 100 &J@v'ª ge;f aiGu ay:vpDawGukd vlxu k
csm;vfe@J a';Apfuck f (ukcv f yk if ef; - 39µ &Sw d ,f? vwfpAf ;D *wfpf umpDEkd axmufcv H mzd@k twGuf
±kyºf uif;avmifpmtifyg,m}uD;)/ avmif;upm;±Hb k vD seH m}uD; ‘r[mtar&duefjzpfatmif
rm;pfo=um;vH;k rdom;pke@J &Sv J 'f eft'Jvq f ef[m 2018 ckEpS rf mS jyefvyk =f uygp@kd ’ qdw k t hJ zG@J wzG@J uv kd nf;
a0gvrf wfurk % ` w D @kd &@J ydik q
f ikd rf [_ m &DbwfbvDuefawGukd a':vm 113 olu zG@J cw hJ ,f?
a':vm 348²7 bDvs&H w dS ,f? olw@kd &@J oef; vªcw hJ ,f? ole@J tjcm;bDvseH m bDvseH mwcsKd @[m
ºu,f0r_[m 1982 xufpm&if olaX;}uD;awG&@J vª'ge;f aiGawGa=umifh 'Dru kd &ufawGuv kd nf; aiGv=ª uygw,f?
&mcdik Ef e_ ;f 6˜ 000 wd;k vmwmjzpfw,f? 2018 ckEpS f ESpyf wfvnfa&G;aumufyJG 'gayrJh tv,ftvwfoabmxm;
umvwltwGi;f rSm rJq, G t f oH;k p&dw[ f m a':vm 5²2 &So
d al wGuykd J vªwmjzpfw,f? wpHw k &m
tar&dueftvwfwef;pm; bDvst H xd xd;k wufomG ;cJw h ,f? wd;k wufwo hJ abmxm;&So d al wGuakd wmh
73
owif;eJhrSwfcsuf
urBmph ;D yGm;a&;wH@k qikd ;f r_
jzpfawmhr,fqw kd hJ
aemufvuQ%m&yfwckuawmh
a&Smifygw,f? olw@kd u wd;k wufw,fv@kd 'Dru
kd a&pD[m tusKd ;&v'frsO;f auG;ajymif;jyefjzpfjcif;
owfrw S o f al wG[m csr;f omolawGukd vlwud, k rf w J rJqwkd mrsKd ;yJ (yield curve inverted) yg? yHrk eS q f kd
tcGew f ;kd aumufr,f qdw k o hJ rl sKd ;awGukd jzpfcsiw f myg? 'gayrJh csr;f om+yD; umv&Snaf iGacs;pmcsKyf[m
ajymwmyg? a':vmwoef;csuv f ufrw S af &;+yD; umvwdak iGacs;pmcsKyfxuf
tck'rD u kd &uforRwavmif;tjzpf vªEikd w f o hJ ul tusKd ;tjrwf yd&k ygw,f?
0ifòyifaewJh tJvZD buf0g&ife@J a&G;aumufc&H oltay:rSm tJ'v D rkd [kwb f J (ajymif;jyef)
bmeDqef'g;wd@k uq kd kd olºu,fawGu omrefraJ y;olwa,mufxuf umvwdak iGacs;pmcsKyfu
oabmrawG@=uygb;l ? trsm;}uD;=oZm ydak nmif;ygw,f?’ umv&Snaf iGacs;pmcsKyfxuf
t&eftwm;&efyakH iGbv D seH m}uD; twd;k yd, k al ewmudk
wOD;jzpfwhJ vD,eG u f ;l yg;rif;u olw@kd 2 tusKd ;&v'frsO;f auG;ajymif;jyefjzpfw,fv@kd
a,mufukd ajAmifyx J ;kd ESuf urBmph ;D yGm;a&;wH@k qikd ;f r_e@J qdw k ,f? umvwdt k wGi;f
wduk cf u kd w f ,f? ‘tcGeEf e_ ;f u a=umuf';l wkeaf ewJph t D ;D tdak wG pD;yGm;a&;tay: ,H=k unfr_
jrif+h yD;om;yJ? u|eaf wmfw@kd avsmeh nf;vmwma=umifh tckvkd
pD;yGm;a&;uvnf; urBmrSm =o*kwv f 14 &ufae@ a0gvrf;r jzpf&wmyg? vwfwavmumv
taumif;qH;k yg? t&if;&Sipf epfu pawmhaps;uGuaf wG xd;k us+yD; pD;yGm;a&;[m tEW&m,fyrkd sm;w,fv@kd
tvkyjf zpfygw,f?’ vd@k ajymcJw h ,f? aemufw&ufrmS urBmwv$m;u ,lqwma=umifh twd;k yd, k w
l hJ
pwm;bwfcu f rk % ` &D @J pawmhaps;awGvnf; vdu k u f scwhJ ,f? oabmyg? 2008 pD;yGm;ysuu f yfrwdik rf D
,ciftr_aqmift&m&Scd sKyf urBmph ;D yGm;a&;}uD;xGm;r_aES;auG;jcif;/ 2006/ 2007 wd@k rmS (yield curve
bDvseH m}uD;a[mif;0yf±u _ awmh 0g&if&@J ukeo f , G af &;yÉdyuQjzpfra_ wGe@J inverted) jzpfcw hJ ,f? 1970 ckEpS f
tcGeaf umufprD u H ed ;f [m Oa&myor*~rS +AdwefEw k x f u G af &; uwnf;uqd&k if
rdu
k rf ±J ;l oGyv f wS ,fv@kd qdck w hJ ,f? tusyt f wnf;u jzpfay:vmEdik rf ,fh pD;yGm;a&;tajctaeqd;k awmhr,f
wu,fv@kd 'Dru kd &ufygwu D tJ'v D kd tEW&m,fawGa=umifh pd;k &dryf yl efra_ wG qdw k mudk (yield curve inverted) u
vlpm;rsKd ;awGukd orRwavmif;tjzpf jzpfae=uw,f? aemuf+yD; rSerf eS uf efuefjyoEdik cf w hJ m 7 }udrf
a&G;cJrh ,fq&kd if ol@taeeJ@ aiGacs;pmcsKyfaps;uGuef @J &S+d yDjzpfw,f? tckavmavmq,f
wwd,ygw0D ifòyifwmudk ukex f w k v f yk rf t
_ csut f vufawGu tar&duefe@J +Adwed w f @kd rmS (yield curve
pOf;pm;&vdrrhf ,fv@kd qdyk gw,f? urBmph ;D yGm;a&;[m wH@k qikd ;f r_qD inverted) jzpfaew,f?
b&efeefw&m;r#wa&;A[dt k zG@J &@J OD;wnfaew,fv@kd azmfjyaewma=umifh *smreD'KdG ufcsb f %frS
xdyw f ef;t&m&Sw d OD;&J@ajympum;eJ@yJ tckvkd pawmhaps;awG AsL[mrª;jzpfol *si&f 'd u f awmh tckvkd
tqH;k owfygr,f? ‘u|eaf wmfw@kd usqif;ukew f myg? ajymif;jyefjzpfvmwmudk
tpd;k &drq f ;kH yJv@kd ajymygw,f?
74
owif;eJhrSwfcsuf
pD;yGm;a&;wH@k qikd ;f r_jzpfrjzpfcef@reS ;f &mrSm
(yield curve inverted) u
trSeq f ;kH !ïejf yEdik w f ma=umifv h @kd
qdyk gw,f? A[db k %fvnf; ygw,f?
aemuf+yD; tEkw&f v'f vmr,fph ufwifbmvrSm tenf;qH;k 'Dwcg a=umufwmu
(negative yield) qdw k m &Syd gw,f? 0²25µ xyfcsz@kd &Syd gw,f? Oa&my tajctjrpfusus a=umufaewmyg?
aps;uGurf mS ta&mif;t0,fvyk af ewJh A[db k %fuvnf; vmr,fph ufwifbm azmfusLef;r*~Zif;}uD;&J@ (CEO)
aiGacs;pmcsKyfawG aps;jrifv h mwJh tpnf;ta0;rSm aiGa=u;ay:vpD jzpfol tvefrma&;u r*~Zif;
oabmyg? A[db k %f/ tmrcHb%fe@J tajymif;tvJawG vkyzf @kd &w dS ,f? 'gayrJh rsuEf mS zH;k aqmif;yg;rSm tckvkd
yifpif&efyakH iGpwmawGu 'Dvekd nf;eJ@ urBmph ;D yGm;a&;udk a&;vmygw,f? ‘olw@kd wawG
xkww f ahJ iGacs;pmcsKyfawGyg? }uD;xGm;vmaprSm r[kwyf gb;l ? vnfywfaewJh pepf}uD;tay:
oufwrf;jynfw h t hJ cg jyef&r,fh 'DaiGawG[m tavmif;tpm;qefwhJ vlx&k @J axmufcrH _
(twd;k t&if;) aiGyrm%xuf b¾ma&;aps;uGuf aysmufq;kH awmhr,ft h EW&m,f
vuf&0dS ,f&wJah ps;E_e;f u ta&mif;t0,fawGqyD J &Sv d mae+yDq+kd yD; pd;k &dryf yl efaewJh (CEO)
jrifah ewmrsKd ;yg? 'Dvjkd zpf&wm a&mufomG ;=urSmyg? awG ydyk rkd sm;vmaew,f?’ 'Dwcg
wjcm;ae&mrSm(ukr% ` t D pk&, S , f m tckvkd pD;yGm;a&;wH@k qikd ;f r_ pD;yGm;wH@k qikd ;f r_ jzpfvm&if awmfveS af &;
0,fwm) &if;ES;D jr‡KyfE&HS if yd+k yD; jzpfawmhr,fh t&dyt f a&mifawG jzpfvmvdrrhf ,fv@kd vnf;
qH;k ±H;_ Edik af jcrsm;wJt h wGuf jzpfygw,f? jrifvm&wJh tcgrmS pd;k &draf e=uygowJ?h a0gvrf;rudk
tJ'D (negative yield) wefz;kd [m aumfyakd &;&Si;f }uD;awG&@J t&m&Scd sKyf odr;f ydu k =f uqdw k hJ v_y&f mS ;r_rsKd ;awG
'Dvqef;ydik ;f rSm tar&duefa':vm 15 (CEO) awGvnf; xdwv f ef@vm t&Sed yf jkd yif;jyif;eJ@ jzpfvmrSmudk
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