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(500 – 1200 AD)
Made and Owned by:SAMUELDICHOSO
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word “Romanesque”, meaning „‟descended from Roman”, was first used in English to designate what are now called Romance language. Architecturally, the term was first applied in French by the archaelogist Charles de Gerville or his associate Arcisse de Caumont, in the early 19th century, to describe Western European architecture from the 5th to the 13th centuries, at a time when the actual dates of many of the buildings so described had not been ascertained. The word was used to describe the style which was identifiably medieval and prefigured the Gothic, yet maintained the rounded Roman arch and thus appeared to be a continuation of the Roman tradition of building Romanesque is related to a style of European architecture containing both Roman and Byzantine elements, prevalent especially in the 11th and 12th centuries and characterized by massive walls, round arches, and relativelt simple ornamentations.. The term Romanesque was first given to this type of architecture in the 9th century due to its similarities between the barrel vault and the Roman arch. Church buildings, art, and sculpture, were all used for the purpose to spread the Christian Gospel. Facade of the Lisbon Cathedral
ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE It is an architectural style of medieval Europe, evolving into the Gothic style. Although there is no consensus for the beginning date of the style, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 10th centuries, making Romanesque architecture the first pan-European architectural style since Imperial Roman Architecture. The Romanesque style in England is more traditionally referred to as Norman architecture. Romanesque architecture was the first distinctive style to spread across Europe since the Roman Empire. Despite the impression of 19th century Art historians that Romanesque . architecture was a continuation of the Roman, in fact, Roman building techniques in brick and stone were largely lost in most parts of Europe, and in the more northern countries had never been adopted except for official buildings. During this time in Europe there was a very large interest in religion. Large numbers of people traveled on pilgrimages to visit sites of saints and martyrs. People believed that holy relics had the power to do miracles. The routes to the more famous holy places, such as Santiago, became very well traveled and required larger buildings to hold the large crowds. The basilica style church could not hold the large crowds which were coming. They began to build churches in the shape of the Latin cross. The pilgrim would enter the church through the nave. Facade of Angouleme Cathedral, France
South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century
Genga Italy of undressed stone. Mainz Cathedral. Chartres Cathedral (1150 – 1175) . Sant‟ Ambrogio. The First Romanesque employed rubble walls. Germany. The building stone was often used in comparatively small and irregular pieces. such as an arch or bridge. Poland. has a typically fortress-like appearance Piers In architecture. are commonly cruciform in shape. They were built of masonry and square or rectangular in section. Although basically rectangular. in both ecclesiastical and secular buildings. elevation of 3 stages. First Romanesque is also called as Lombard Romanesque. Arcades of columns cut from single pieces are also common in structure that do not bear massive weights of masonry. relies upon its walls. They are often double shells. a pier is an upright support for a superstructure. Columns Columns are very important structural feature of Romanesque architecture. Romanesque architecture is often divided into two periods known as the “First Romanesque” style and the “Romanesque” style.ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE (500 – 1200 AD) Made and Owned by:SAMUELDICHOSO The general impression given by Romanesque architecture. depending upon the local stone and building traditions. Romanesque architecture. In italy. Sometimes piers have vertical shafts attached to them. A greater refinement marks the Second Romanesque. columns pilasters and arches. It took place in the Lombardy (Northern Italy). or appear to be. Lleida and Huesca (the Spanish Mark). filled with rublble. smaller windows and unvaulted roofs. granite and flint. Sections of wall between openings function as piers. In Romanesque architecture. Milan is constructed of bricks San Vittore alle Chiuse. the earliest exmaple of an internal such as those under the crossing of the nave and transept. in the regions of Girona. Romanesque Columns. in common with Byzantine architecture. brick is generally used. bedded in thick mortar. and in the south of France. with half-segments of large hollow-core columns on the inner surface supporting the arch. or sections of walls called piers. where they are sometimes paired. The building material differs greatly across Europe. piers were often employed to support arches. as they had been in Roman and Early Christian architecture. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTERISTICS Walls The walls of Romanesque buildings are often of massive thickness with few and comparatively small openings. and may also have horizontal mouldings at the level of base. is one of massive solidity and strength. In contrast with both the preceding Roman and later Gothic architecture in which the load bearing structural members are. along with increased use of the vault and dresses stone. such as cloisters. Colonnetteds and attached shafts are also used structurally and for decoration. Abbaye Le Thoronet (2003) Romanesque columns support the figures of biblical kings and queens which flank the south side of the central door of portal. each arch having its own supporting rectangular pier at right angles to the other. The difference is chiefly a matter of expertise with which the buildings were constructed. Other areas saw extensive use of limestone. generally having a horizontal moulding representing a capital at the springing of the arch. piers can often be highly complex form. Monolithic columns cut from a single piece of stone were frequently used in Italy. has possibly Piers that occur at the intersection of two large arches. much of germany and parts of the Netherlands.
Drum Columns In most parts of Europe. In parts of France and Italy there are strong links to the pierced capitals of Byzantine architecture. Alternation A common characteristics of Romanesque buildings.ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE (500 – 1200 AD) Made and Owned by:SAMUELDICHOSO Savage Columns In Italy. Hollow Core Columns Where really massive columns were called for. generally of the Corinthian Or Roman Composite style. and sometimes heavy vaults. . There are many variations on this theme. While some are dependent on manuscripts illustrations of Biblical scenes and depictions of beastes and monsters. Milan where the nature of the vault dictated that the alternate piers bore a great deal more weight that the intermediate ones and are thus very much larger. thoses in Italian churches such as Pisa Cathedral and southern France being much closer to the Classical than those in England. piers of entirely different form from each other. such as those of Sant‟Ambrogio. while retaining the form of a square top and a round bottom. during this period. The most simple form that this takes is to have a column between each adjoining pier. This is particularly the case on large masonry columns. This form of capital was maintained in the general proportions and outline of the Romanesque capital. Some buildings. Sometimes the columns ar in multiples of two or three. occuring both in churches and in the arcades which separate large interior spaces of castles. others are lively scenes of the legends of local saints. like the atrium at San Clemente in Rome. The most durable of these columns are of marble and have the stone horizontally bedded. a great number of antique Roman columns were salvaged and reused in the interiors and on the porticos of churches. sometimes foliate in imitation of the source. but rather. These huge untappered columns are sometimes ornamented with incised decorations. At St. so that it was not piers and columns that alternated. most notably at Durham Cathedral where the mouldings and shafts of the piers are of exceptional richness and the huge masonry columns are deeply incised with geometric patterns. as they supported thich upper walls with small windows. as can be seen at St. where it supports the wall or arch. They may have retained their original Roman capitals. an ABBA alternation occurs in the nave while an ABA alternation can be seen in the transepts. In Northern Europe the foliate capitals generally bear far more resemblance to the intricacies of manuscript illumination than to Classical sources. It is in the figurative capitals that the greatest originality is shown. The capitals. such as those at Durham Cathedral. This shaped lent itself to a wide variety of superficial treatments. were often compressed into little more than a bulging cushion-shape. as in the crypt at Speyer Cathedral. but often figurative. Architectural compromises of this type are seen where materials have been salvaged from a number of buildings. or on large columns that alternate with piers as at Durham Cathedral. may have an odd assortment of columns in which large capitals are placed on short columns and small capitals are placed on taller columns to even the height. they were constructed of ashlar masonry and the hollow core was filled with rubble. The most common method of construction was to build them out of stone cylinders called drums. and the accuracy with which they were carved depended very much on the availability of original models. but octagonal at the bottom. This was achieved most simply by cutting a rectangular cube and taking the four lower corners off at an angle so that the block was square at the top. Often the arrangement was made more complex by the complexity of the piers themselves. Capital The foliate Corinthian style provided the inspiration for many Romanesque capitals. Romanesque columns were massive. The Corinthian capital is essentially round at the bottom where it sits on a circular column and square at the top. Michael‟s Hildesheim. Salvaged columns were also used to a lesser extent in France. Michael‟s Hildesheim. is the alternation of piers and columns.
the barrel vault generally required the support of soild walls. with the exception of a very small number of buildings such as Autun Cathedral in France and Monreale Cathedral in Sicily in both of which pointed arches have been used extensively. C. However. the structural and design problem inherent in the ribbed vault is that the diagonal span is larger and therefore higher than the transverse span. or walls in which the windows were very small. larger windows are nearly always arched. 1080 Ribbed Vault In ribbed vaults. not only are there ribs spanning the vaulted area transversely. Groin Vault Groin vault occur in early Romanesque buildings. strongly projecting and polychrome. the entire arch is a structural member. Groin vaults are frequently separated by transverse arched ribs of low profile as at Speyer and Santiago de Compostela. In the case of trussed rafter roofs. A La Madeleine. The llater solution was used on the sexpartite vaults at both the Saint-Etienne. an arcade with colonnetted and an occular window The interior of St. Unlike a ribbed vault. in a domical manner. Spain. While small windows might be surmounted by a solid stone lintel. the timbers have often been decorated as at San Miniato al Monte. Nivelles. At Saint-Etienne. Vaults of stone or brick took on several different forms and showed marked development during the period. the nave of a church. but each vaulted bay has diagonal ribs. andthe spaces between them can be filled with lighter. and tie beams frequently occure on conjunction with vaults. The Romanesque builders used a number of solutions to this problem. typically the aisles are vaulted. Another solution was to stilt the transverse ribs. In Italy where open wooden roofs are common. Because Romanesque arches are nearly always semi-circular. has a round-topped windows. In a ribbed vault. Doorways are also surmounted by a semi-circular arch. or depress the diagonal ribs so that the centreline of the vault was horizontal. In later buildings employing ribbed vaultings. for example. A groin vault is almost always square in plan and is constructed of two barrel vaults intersecting at right angles. the ribs are square in section. generally of a simple truss. has a king post roof Bayeux Cathedral. Belgium. notably at Speyer Cathedral where the high vault of about 1060 inches is the first emplyment in Romanesque architecture of this type of vault for a wide nave. In churches. the Abbaye-aux-Hommes . but the nave is roofed with timber.ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE (500 – 1200 AD) Made and Owned by:SAMUELDICHOSO ARCHES AND OPENINGS Arches in Romanesque architecture are semicircular. Florence. with the infill of all the surfaces sloping upwards towards it. groin vaults are most frequently used for the less visible and smaller vaults. VAULTS AND ROOFS The majority of buildings have wooden roofs. This solution was employed in Italy at San Michele. tie beam or king post form. Pavia and Sant‟Ambrogio . Gertrude. Milan. The apse of the Cathedral of Santa Maria d‟ Urgell. non-structural material. both the nave and the tower are covered by ribbed vaults. particularly in crypts and aisles. like that of a barrel vault. as is the case at both Peterborough and Ely. the length of the space to be vaulted. Barrel Vault The simplest type of vaulted roof is the barrel vault in which a single arched surface extends from wall to wall. the ribs are the structural members. Vezelay. except where the door is set into a large arched recess and surmounted by a semi-circular “lunette” with decorative carving. Caen. It is believed that in these cases there is a direct imitation of Islamic architecture. One was to have the centre point where the diagonal ribs met as the highest point. the crypt has groin vaults and simplified Corinthian capitals. they are sometimes lined with wooden ceilings in three sections like those which survive at Ely and Peterborough cathedrals in england. evolving into the pointed ribbed arch which is characteristic of Gothic architecture.
round chancel. barrel vaults. The earliest pointed vault in France is that of the narthex La Madeleine. abbey churches and cathedrals are in the Romanesque style. Often aisles extended through two storeys. has recently had its polychrome plaster restored. Boschherville. Peterborough and Norwich Cathedrals have retained round east ends in the French style. if present. simple churches without apses and with no decorative features were built by the Cistercians who also founded many houses in England. but are hidden inside the triforium gallery. More ambitious churches have aisles separated from the nave by arcades. if it was vaulted. or a square end from which an apse projects as in Germany and Italy. while in Italy it is often short or non-existent. Abbey and cathedral churches generally follow the Latin Cross plan. Smaller churches often have a single tower which is usually placed to the western end. or half-bbarrel vaults over the aisles helped to buttress the nave. causing the transverse ribs to meet at a point. The common decorative feature is arcading. the extension eastward may be long. apsidal chapels and high between the arcade and the clerestory. rather than the one usual in Gothic architecture. flat buttresses and arcade beneath the roof. In the case of Durham Cathedral. germany. they are probably influenced by Anglo Saxon churches. Schoengrabem church. or The nave of the bbey church of Saint-Georges de were originally built in the Romanesque style and have subsequently undergone changes. Where square ends exist in English churches. particularly in Tuscany. frequently in remote areas. known as a triforium. flying buttresses have been employed. During the Romanesque period there was a development from this twoThe abbey church of Fontgommbault displays a stage elevation to a three-stage elevation in which there is a gallery.ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE (500 – 1200 AD) Made and Owned by:SAMUELDICHOSO Pointed arched vault Late in the Romanesque period another solution came into use for regulating the height of diagonal and transverse ribs. cruciform plan. to a fully developed second story with a row of window lighting the gallery. The nave and aisles are separated by an arcade carried on piers or on columns. are usually symmetrical. shows a semi-circular BUTTRESSES chancel. the typical aiseld church or cathedral has a nave with a single aisle on wither side. Vezelay. At San Miniato al Monte the definition of the architectural parts is made even clearer by the polychrome marble. yet its builders introduced several structural features which were new to architectural design and were to later to be hallmark features of the Gothic. sometimes with apses on the transept end as well as to the east. However. buttresses are not a highly tower is of the Baroque period significantly feature. with iether a high chancel surrounded by an ambulatory as in France. In section. CHURCH AND CATHEDRAL FACADES AND EXTERNAL DECORATION Romanesque church facades. or sometimes. the church being of T plan. dating from 1130. In the cases where half-barrel vaults were used. However. to a narrow arcaded passage. particularly in England. In England. Above the aisle roof are a row of windows known as the clerestory. while larger churches and cathedrals often have two. In the case of aisled churches. In Italy there is often a single central ocular window. in France or England. which give light ot the nave. CHURCH AND CATHEDRAL PLAN AND SECTION Many parish churches. dating from 1128. has pointed transverse ribs. Austria. these are hidden beneath the roofs of the aisles. as they are in Gothic architecture. The simplest Romanesque churches are aisless halls with a projecting apse at the chancel end. so as to better support the weight of a vaulted nave. a feature of many Italian Medieval facades. This varies from a simple bilnd arcade decorating nave with lower aisles the walls. they effectively became like flying buttresses. in France. Limburger Dom. This was to use arches of the same diameter for both horizontal and transverse ribs. CHURCH AND CATHEDRAL EAST ENDS The eastern end off a Romanesque church is almost always semi-circular. The roof of the aisle and the outer walls help to buttress the upper walls and vault of the nave. generally to the west end of the building. . This is seen most notably at Durham Cathedral in northern England. a projecting rectangular chancel with a chancel arch that might be decorated with mouldings. have a large central portal made significant by its mouldings or porch and an arrangement of arched-topped windowsa. Romanesque buttresses are generally of flat square profile and do not project a great deal beyond the wall. The Because of the massive nature of Romanesque walls. either centrally or to one side. Durham is a cathedral of massive Romanesque proportions and appearance.
then three windows at the uppermost level. they are usually paired and often flank an apse. In Italy. It is also seen in Spain. Dwarf Galleries encircle Speyer Cathedral . with the central tower being the tallest. Two fine examples occur at Lucca. This is also common in Germany. through the slow process of the building stages. and are positioned differently in relation to the church in different countries. the number and size of openings increases as can be seen on the right tower of the transept of Tournai Cathedral where two narrow slits in the fourth level from the top becomes a single window. typical also Italian and Cathedral. in Arezzo. a feature is the polygonal towers at the crossing. These have Vall de Bohi. except in Sicily where a number of churches were founded by the Norman rulers and are more French in appearance. In England. such as that at Cluny. 1140. In other countries where circular towers occur. and in many cases the upper parts of the tower were not completed until centuries later as at Durham and Lincoln. Piacenza. such as the "Torre del Gallo" at Salamanca Old the windows at each level. or the distinctive Rhenish helm shape seen on the cathedrals of Limburg or Speyer. As a general rule. had many towers of varied forms. square. both externally and internally. In Germany. from the Lombard band which is a row of small arches that appear to support a roofline or course. Spain and Italy where an example that is unusual for its height is that on the crossing of Sant' Antonio. This was often not achieved. such as Germany. At Sant Climente de Taull. As the towers rise. rising without diminishing through the various stages. They take a variety of forms. Circular towers are uncommon in England. Arcades could be used to great effect. which are usually built of brick and may have no other ornament. they often have spires which may be four or eight sided. This sort of arrangement is particularly noticeable on the towers of Italian churches. for large abbeys and cathedral buildings. Exeter.ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE (500 – 1200 AD) Made and Owned by:SAMUELDICHOSO TOWERS Towers were an important feature of Romanesque churches and a great number of them are still standing. This is the case in nearly all Italian churches both large and small. large Romanesque towers are square with corner buttresses of low profile. Many abbeys of France. In Spain. Large paired towers of square plan could also occur on the transept ends. at the church of San Frediano and at the Duomo. there are a number of large free-standing towers which are circular. then two windows. as exemplified by the church of Santa Maria della Pieve. in the 12th century. Towers are usually marked into clearly defined stages by horizontal courses. rather than aesthetics. first used at Speyer Cathedral and widely adopted in Italy as seen on both Pisa Cathedral and its famous Learning Tower. Octagonal towers were often used on crossings and occur in France. the tower has an increasing size in ribbed vaults and are elaborately decorated. In Italy towers are almost always free standing and the position is often dictated by the landform of the site. such as those at Tournai Cathedral in Belgium. The richly decorated tower of Norwich Cathedral is surmounted by a 15th Century spire. It occurs in a variety of forms. Southwell and Norwich. Germany. three towers were favoured. where the apses were sometimes framed with circular towers and the crossing surmounted by an octagonal tower as at Worms Cathedral. Large Norman towers exist at the cathedrals of Durham. but occur throughout the Early Medieval period in Ireland. circular and octagonal. to shallow blind arcading often a feature of English architecture and seen in great variety at Ely Cathedral to the open dwarf gallery. German towers DECORATION Architectura embellishment Arcading is the single most significant decorative feature of Romanesque architecture. the most famous of these being the Learning Tower of Pisa. where four towers frequently occur.
are Biblical in subject and include scenes of Creation and the Fall of Man. The best-known surviving large sculptural work of ProtoRomanesque Europe is the life-size wooden Crucifix commissioned by Archbishop Gero of Cologne in about 960–65. Moissac. The cloisters of Santo Domingo de Silos Abbey in Northern Spain. The tympanum is typically decorated with the imagery of Christ in Majesty with the symbols of the Four Evangelists. Northern Spain and Italy. the style of ornament was more classical in Italy. and more "barbaric" in England. such decoration could be discrete. figurative sculpture flourished in a distinctly Romanesque style which can be recognised across Europe. although the most spectacular sculptural projects are concentrated in South-Western France. An outstanding example of its use in drapery is that of the central figure of Christ at La Madaleine. both straight courses and the curved moldings of arches. Lleida. The “blind arcade” beneath this window at Canterbury Cathedral has overlapping arches forming points. drawn directly from the gilt covers of medieval Gospel Books. Similar decoration occurs around the arches of the nave and along the horizontal course separating arcade and clerestory. such as that seen around the door of Sant Giusto in Lucca. one of the finest is the figure of the Prophet Jeremiah from the pillar of the portal of the Abbey of Saint-Pierre. Souillac and La Madaleine. France. Figurative sculpture With the fall of the Roman Empire. Many of the smaller sculptural works. such as Jonah and the Whale and Daniel in the Lions' Den. Although much sculptural ornament was sometimes applied to the interiors of churches. or have a sense of massive energy as at Durham where the diagonal ribs of the vaults are all outlined with chevrons. Moissac. jambs and central posts. . the mouldings of the nave arcade are carved with several layers of the same and the huge columns are deeply incised with a variety of geometric patterns creating an impression of directional movement. A capital from Seu Vella. the polychrome ribs of the vault are all edged with narrow filets of pierced stone. Chevrons and other geometric ornaments. Many Nativity scenes occur. the focus of such decoration was generally the west front. Major figurative decoration occurs particularly around the portals of cathedrals and churches. many have survived. as at Hereford and Peterborough cathedrals.During the 11th and 12th centuries. and Moissac are fine examples surviving complete. ornamenting the tympanum. the theme of the Three Kings being particularly popular. In general. referred to by 19th century writers as "barbaric ornament" are most frequently found on the mouldings of the central door. lintels. with extensive other sculpture remaining in cloisters and other buildings. the tradition of carving large works in stone and sculpting figures in bronze died out. that figures are contorted to fit the space that they occupy. from about 1130. showing spiral and paired motifs. Vézelay– all daughter houses of Cluny. France produced a great range of ornament. Giselbertus. a common decorative feature of Romanesque architecture in England On these much-restored mouldings around the portal of Lincoln Cathedral are formal chevron ornament. sometimes deeply carved and curling outward after the manner of the acanthus leaves on Corinthian capitals. 1130s. Stylized foliage often appears. This most frequently took a purely geometric form and was particularly applied to mouldings. such as that seen at Speyer Cathedral. Nearby. and symmetrical motifs in the Byzantine style The tympanum of Vezelay abbey. Vezelay. France. tongue-poking monsters. but also carved in shallow relief and spiral patterns. this gives a delicacy and refinement to the interior. a form which is applied to both plant motifs and drapery in Romanesque sculpture. both in manuscript illumination and sculptural decoration. Combined with the pierced carving of the capitals. Spain. This style of doorway occurs in many places and continued into the Gothic period. In England. Vezelay. Burgundy. with impressive examples at Saint-Pierre. has much decorative spiral detail in the draperies It is a feature of Romanesque art. episodes from the life of Christ and those Old Testament scenes which prefigure his Death and Resurrection. with particularly fine interwoven and spiraling vines in the "manuscript" style occurring at Saint-SerninToulouse. These features combine to create one of the richest and most dynamic interiors of the Romanesque period. Autun Cathedral has a Last Judgement of great rarity in that it has uniquely been signed by its creator. Germany and Scandinavia. for example. A rare survival in England is that of the "Prior's Door" at Ely Cathedral. Among the many examples that exist. In La Madeleine. imitating the intricacies of manuscript illuminations. particularly capitals. and in particular. In South-Western France. A significant motif of Romanesque design is the spiral.ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE (500 – 1200 AD) Made and Owned by:SAMUELDICHOSO Architectural sculpture The Romanesque period produced a profusion of sculptural ornamentation. the portals. vines and figures.
both pictorially and in the functional use of the glass. Germany. indicating that their maker was well accustomed to the medium. a number of panels of the 12th century have survived. On the sanctuary arch were figures of apostles. The north wall of the nave would contain narrative scenes from the Old Testament. prophets or the twenty-four "elders of the Apocalypse". she might replace Christ here. as its focal point in the semi-dome of the apse. looking in towards a bust of Christ. The scheme extends to other parts of the church. the Prophet Daniel from Augsburg Cathedral. including. late 11th century . Made and Owned by:SAMUELDICHOSO Fresco from Church of St. derived from earlier examples often in mosaic. At Canterbury and Chartres Cathedrals. at Canterbury. Italy and elsewhere in France. now in Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya (MNAC) The painted crypt of San Isidoro at Leon. A classic scheme for the full painted decoration of a church. with the martyrdom of the local saints shown in the crypt. while on the lower are the pairs of animals. with an enthroned and judging Christ at the top. the robes have been used to great decorative effect. The earliest intact figures are five prophet windows at Augsburg. On the apse walls below would be saints and apostles. perhaps including narrative scenes. or his symbol the Lamb. the lowest with a quatrefoil depicting the Martyrdom of St Peter. showing the Creation. The figures. had. The window is described by George Seddon as being of "unforgettable beauty". the Fall of Man and other stories including a lively depiction of Noah's Ark complete with a fearsome figurehead and numerous windows through with can be seen the Noah and his family on the upper deck. Adam represents a highly naturalistic and lively portrayal. curving vaults of the Romanesque period lent themselves to mural decoration. Far fewer large windows remain intact from the 12th century. The figure of the crucified Christ is already showing the Gothic curve. In other countries they have suffered from war. dating from the late 11th century. One of the most intact schemes to exist is that at Saint-Savinsur-Gartempe in France. including the famous windows of Chartres. at the top of the arch. demonstrate considerable proficiency in design. France and the Netherlands such pictures were systematically destroyed in bouts of Reformation iconoclasm. Stained glass. for example of the saint to whom the church was dedicated. symbols of the Four Evangelists. date from the 13th century. Clement. and Apocalypse in the narthex and Christ in Majesty. Spain Stained glass The oldest-known fragments of medieval pictorial stained glass appear to date from the 10th century. and the south wall from the New Testament. yellow ochre. comparing directly with examples from the gilt covers or the illuminations of Gospel Books of the period. Christ in Majesty or Christ the Redeemer enthroned within a mandorla and framed by the four winged beasts. a figure of Adam digging. a remarkable composition which rises through three stages. On the rear west wall would be a Last Judgement. reddish brown and black. The long barrel vault of the nave provides an excellent surface for fresco. and another of his son Seth from a series of Ancestors of Christ. One such is the Crucifixion of Poitiers. while in the figure of Seth. The range of colours employed is limited to light blue-green. Similar paintings exist in Serbia. and is decorated with scenes of the Old Testament. In England.ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE (500 – 1200 AD) Murals The large wall surfaces and plain. neglect and changing fashion. Spain. birds on the middle deck. many of these early wall paintings have been destroyed by damp or the walls have been replastered and painted over. Most of the magnificent stained glass of France. similar to the best stone carving of the period. If the Virgin Mary was the dedicatee of the church. the largest central stage dominated by the crucifixion and the upper stage showing the Ascension of Christ in a mandorla. Unfortunately. Another scene shows with great vigour the swamping of Pharaoh's army by the Red Sea. though stiff and formalised.
or windows that are identical in height and width. Good examples of the style are Marshall Fields store. It is not uncommon. The facades of Gothic churches in Italy are not always easily distinguishable from the Romanesque. the Romanesque ground plan. and when it did so. when Gothic Revival architecture was fashionable. There are a number of Romanesque Revival churches. despite its Gothic form. The facade of Laon Cathedral. even when the openings were treated with the fashionable pointed arch.Richardson. continued to affect the style of building of cathedrals and those large abbey churches which were also to become cathedrals in the 16th century. England. 1390s. the brick walls becoming a shell to a building that was essentially of modern steel-frame construction. include rare and exotic species. frequently have flattened buttresses rising to wide arches at the upper levels after the manner of some Italian Romanesque facades. cycads and tropical tree ferns. features that were to become typical of Gothic architecture began to appear. and the Facade of Laon Cathedral which. The columns of the foyer. Despite the fact that English cathedrals were rebuilt in many stages. Other variations that appear to hover between Romanesque and Gothic occur. London designed by Alfred Waterhouse. Paired columns in the foyer of the Natural History Museum. 1879. although many churches such as Florence Cathedral and Santa Maria Novella were built in the Gothic style. to have very similar arcading of both semi-circular and pointed shape. Porch. for example. In England. This style was adapted to suit commercial buildings by opening the spaces between the arches into large windows. and the Chadwick Lead Works in Boston USA by William Preston. and provincial churches continued to be built in the heavy manner and rubble stone of the Romanesque. 1885. In the case of Winchester Cathedral. for example. The Natural History Museum. the Gothic arches were literally carved out of the existent Norman piers. which in that country commonly had a very long nave. give an impression of incised geometric design similar to those of Durham Cathedral. maintains rounded arches and arcading in the Romanesque manner Romanesque revival During the 19th century. for a part of building that has been constructed over a lengthy period extending into the 12th century. London . Germany was not quick to adopt the Gothic style. Chicago by H. on the other hand. such as the facade designed by Abbot Suger at the Abbey of Saint-Denis which retains much that is Romanesque in its appearance. 1887. is a Romanesque revival building which makes full use of the decorative potential of Romanesque arcading and architectural sculpture. 1250s. The style also lent itself to the building of cloth mills. The type of modern buildings for which the Romanesque style was most frequently adapted was the warehouse. However. of which there are many. particularly in the nave arcades. lanter. The pointed vault was utilized where convenient. the sources of the incised patterns are the trunks of palms. The animal motifs. but in which the later ones are pointed. One of the smaller towers fell. where a lack of large windows and an appearance of great strength and stability were desirable features. This can be seen on the towers of Tournai Cathedral and on the western towers and facade at Ely Cathedral. Romanesque influence Paris and its surrounding area were quick to adopt the Gothic style of Abbot Suger Abbey of Saint-Denis in the 12th century but other parts of France were slower to take it up.ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE (500 – 1200 AD) Made and Owned by:SAMUELDICHOSO Transitional style During the 12th century. has round arches. 1180s. sturdy columns with capitals of a modified Corinthian form continued to be used. Richardson Romanesque. These buildings. Ely Cathedral. 1225. dating from as early as the 1830s and continuing into the 20th century where the massive and "brutal" quality of the Romanesque style was appreciated and designed in brick. The Romanesque appearance has been achieved while freely adapting an overall style to suit the function of the building.H. but it is commonly interspersed with semicircular arches and vaults wherever they conveniently fit. as Cologne Cathedral was modeled on Amiens. the architect Henry Hobson Richardson giving his name to the style. In Italy. The smaller churches and abbeys continued to be constructed in a more provincial Romanesque manner. the date only being registered by the pointed window openings. often the buildings were modeled very directly upon French cathedrals. steelworks and powerstations. had an elaborate west front with its central tower framed by smaller towers showing transitional features. substantial areas of Norman building can be seen in many of them. generally of brick. buildings were occasionally designed in the Romanesque style.
however. giving the church a cross shape) an apse (semicircular niche. 1077) distraction to monks and worshipers. usually at the west end and over the transept crossing sculptured decoration on portals. 1077) the time and money spent on decoration that would only be a St. Saulieu (c. Notable examples of Durham Cathedral (c. angularity. France (begun 1150) and in many ways anticipated the Gothic style. Distinctive features include tall proportions. 1104) Norman churches. Winchester Cathedral (c. REGIONAL VARIATIONS OF ROMANESQUE Romanesque architecture was employed all across Europe in the early Middle Ages. 1119) Some of the most important Norman churches (some of which Beaune (c. 1120–40) received partial Gothic renovations) are: Autun (c. and Norman Romanesque early forms of rib vaulting and flying buttresses. Norman churches in Compostela (and Santiago Cathedral itself). Anglo-Norman architecture took on characteristics of The style is evident in all churches controlled by Cluny as well as its own. 1072) Romanesque. elaborate sculptured decoration. grouped piers. Before figures and by the swirling lines of extensive drapery. 1089) this simplicity has a beauty of its own.1104) Cistercian Romanesque include: Hereford Cathedral (c. England (founded 1132. This provided the opportunity for large glass windows. drastic flattening. 1107) Cîteaux Abbey. France (founding abbey. Burgundian Romanesque flourished from about 1075 to 1125 Noirlac Abbey. in ruins) Some of the most splendid Romanesque churches were built in the Rievaulx Abbey. 1125–93. France (1133–74. while architecture back in Normandy increasingly conformed numerous churches along the pilgrimage route to Santiago de to the typical French Romanesque style. Notable examples of England are characterized by exceptionally long plans. 1130–40) Saint-Étienne. in ruins) Burgundy region of France under the influence of the great Abbey of Fontenay Abbey. pointed arches in the barrel vaults. and generally more delicate and more vertical architecture. but where it appears it is a fascinating fusion of Paray-le-Monial (c. and no sculptures at all. and hierarchical size of England. Caen (begun 1067) Ely Cathedral (c. 1090) Norwich Cathedral (c. Figurative sculpture is fairly uncommon in Vézelay (c. Not surprisingly. which was conquered by the Normans in 1066. The austere Cistercian order strongly disapproved of Rochester Cathedral (c. aesthetic tastes. 1118) Clairvaux Abbey. use of carved Cluny (1088-c. from the German north to the Spanish and Italian south. 1070) A diametric opposite to the Burgundian Cluniac style is Cistercian Lincoln Cathedral (c. capitals and other surfaces (except in Cistercian monasteries) painted decoration throughout the interior (little of which survives today) Gothic architecture adopted many of these characteristics. 1109) typical Romanesque art with Anglo-Saxon and Celtic elements. the availability of materials. Burgundian The Norman style of Romanesque architecture developed almost Romanesque art is also distinctive.ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE Most Romanesque churches (the primary type of Romanesque architecture) have the following characteristics: (500 – 1200 AD) Made and Owned by:SAMUELDICHOSO Romanesque sculpture at Vezelay (c. 1088) arches. France (begun 1139) Cluny. but the major development that marked the beginning of the Gothic style was the ability to support heavy stone vaults on much thinner walls. and practical needs led to significant regional variations within the Romanesque style. usually in the east end) an ambulatory (often with radiating chapels) around the apse multiple towers. with round Tewkesbury Abbey (c. 1096) Cistercian Romanesque Canterbury Cathedral (c. little survives) . Albans Cathedral (c. little survives) Peterborough Cathedral (c. allowing the purity and harmony Southwell Minster (11th century) of the Romanesque architecture to shine through. 1130. long. with a "majestic severity" achieved simultaneously in the Normandy region of northern France and in by the elongation. England (founded 1132. thinner walls and pillars. 1079) Cistercian abbey churches are therefore very simple. It might be plain but Gloucester Cathedral (c. only a small section survives) geometric decoration. separated from the nave by a triforium a transept (section crossing the nave at a right angle. shorter ceilings. a massive Burgundian Romanesque churches can be seen at: scale (especially in great round columns in the nave).1104) harmonious proportions stone barrel vault or groin vault thick and heavy walls thick and heavy pillars small windows round arches supporting the roof round "blind arches" used extensively for decoration inside and out (especially out) nave with side aisles (though some modest churches are aisleless) galleries above the side aisles. Burgundian Romanesque Fountains Abbey.
though the ribs here may be largely decorative in intent. becomes a characteristic feature of many a Romanesque church. a word not coined until the 18th century. many of them decorated with deeply incised patterns. . in particular sculpture. It is a very early example of 'rib vaulting' . The ambulatory. An innovation of architectural significance in French Romanesque relates to the pilgrims. and many of the Romanesque churches of France are on the great pilgrimage routes which develop at this period . And both are echoed in the full flowering of the Romanesque style.a continuation of the Roman tradition. but the Romans are content to cover their large rectangular buildings (or basilicas) with wooden roofs. has the informal charm of many a small Romanesque church of the 10th or 11th century.ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE (500 – 1200 AD) Made and Owned by:SAMUELDICHOSO HISTORY TIMELINE OF ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE (9TH – 12TH century AD) Romanesque. Seeking out the sources of Romanesque is a complex academic exercise. like the dome. The problem with a stone vault. many variations of its Roman origins have evolved. The cluster of little curved roofs at the east end. This in turn requires vast side walls and buttresses. Before that time naves are either covered with flat wooden ceilings or are open up to the timbers of the roof. where the round arches of Romanesque can easily be seen as what the name implies . makes possible the addition of several small chapels to contain relics. This warmly reassuring little building. or astride classical columns (as.a period when the Germanic tribes are already in France. The pilgrims can progress in their devotions from one to another. It has become applied by extension to other arts. with its round-topped windows and striped interior arches on top of classical pillars.a significant Romanesque innovation of this period. with its classical columns and round striped arches. Vézelay is a pilgrimage church (the monks here have on show the bones of Mary Magdalene). seen from outside. This remains the case with the first Christian churches. And it is still the case with all rectangular Romanesque churches until the last few decades of the 11th century. ranged like a row of starfish along the ceiling. It is no accident that cathedrals such as Durham are massive. a few decades before the nave of Vézelay. Charlemagne's chapel in Aachen. The vaults appear to rest on crossed ribs. in the churches ofRavenna). is that it needs to be very thick and therefore heavy.particularly those leading to Santiago de Compostela in northern Spain.whether in their great aqueducts and bridges. The vault. But the term remains most appropriate to architecture. is first used to describe the architecture of western Europe from about the 9th to 12th century. a passage behind the altar following the curve of the apse. spanning a large space. The round arch is characteristic of much in Roman building .the glory of English Romanesque (often given the alternative name of Norman architecture) The chunky pillars of Durham. This apparently Romanesque gem is pure Roman. But it dates from the late 5th century . A perfect example of this continuity is the tiny baptistery at Fréjus in the south of France. but far too early for there to be any architectural influence other than Roman in this region. in emperors' triumphal arches. The construction of Durham begins in 1093. Justinian's 6th-century church of San Vitale inspires Charlemagne's early 9th-century chapel. A good example is the interior of Durham cathedral . also recalls the little baptistery at Fréjus. is among the technical achievements of Roman architecture. Durham has one feature on its vaulted roof which in the longer term points to the solution. based on the Roman basilica. By the time of the period properly considered Romanesque. support a vaulted stone roof over the nave . for the vaulting remains extremely thick. One well-established line of influence comes through Ravenna to Aachen. as seen in the 12th-century nave at Vézelay. The vaulted stone roof: from the 11th century AD Romanesque in the north tends to be more massive in style than the delicate arches of Vézelay. for example.
particularly those involved in the building of fortifications and the metal working needed for the provision of arms. ideas and trade skills. The roof of the Capella Palatina. At a time when the remaining architectural structures of the Western Roman Empire were falling into decay and much of its learning and technology lost. This concept. The mosaics are in the Greek tradition. carved and painted in intricate patterns. The most notable single building which demonstrates this is St Mark's Basilica. He is numbered as Charles I in the regnal lists of France. the Kingdom of Germany giving rise to the Holy Roman Empire. by contrast. rulers. . but to follow their lord to travel across Europe to the Crusades.holding up a much thinner roof of stone to keep out the weather. Charlemagne helped define both Western Europe and the Middle Ages. in traditional Byzantine style. is unlike anything in a Byzantine church. of a light structural skeleton. was an important factor in creating a homogeneity in building methods and a recognizable Romanesque style. with its walls covered in bright pictorial mosaic. or places of coronation and burial. and from the lives of St Peter and St Paul. During his reign. abbots. stone ribs are capable of forming an independent structure . Classical pillars. Several significant churches that were built at this time were founded by rulers as seats of temporal and religious power. though greatly evolved in style since the fall of Rome. The continual movement of people. with a gradual emergence of the separate political states which were eventually to become welded into nations. particularly in France. The domed churches of Constantinople and Eastern Europe were to greatly affect the architecture of certain towns. particularly through trade and through the Crusades. Speyer Cathedral and Westminster Abbey (where little of the Norman church now remains). not only for local and regional spats. Through his reign conquests and internal reofmrs. inherited from an earlier period of Sicily's rich history. is one of the most exquisite buildings of the Middle Ages. will be developed to an extraordinary degree in the next few centuries by the builders of the great Gothic cathedrals. Charlemagne's political successors continued to rule much of Europe. with them. ROMANESQUE POLITICS Charlemagne was crowned by the Pope in St. nobles.Christ Pantocrator is in the apse and cupola. Capella Palatina in Palermo: 1132-1189 The small palace chapel in Palermo. it is begun in 1132 and completed in about 1189. craftsmen and peasants. which was also applied to the fitting and decoration of buildings. Round the walls are sequences of scenes from the Old Testament. The result of this was that they could be called upon. the building of masonry domes and the carving of decorative architectural details continued unabated. and the Holy Roman Empire. Périgueux and Angoulême Cathedral. Known as the Capella Palatina (Latin for 'palace chapel'). These include the Abbaye-Saint-Denis. it would seem at home in a pavilion of a Muslim palace or in a covered section of a mosque. Charlemagne was King of the Franks from 768 and Emperor of the Romans (Imperator Romanorum) from 800 to his death. in the enduring Byzantine Empire.ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE (500 – 1200 AD) Made and Owned by:SAMUELDICHOSO Like the cast-iron struts of the Crystal Palace. He expanded the Frankish kingdom into an empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe. It perfectly encapsulates the merits of Norman Sicily. Germany. The Crusades. The sturdy round arches supporting the walls are from yet another tradition . 1095–1270. created by craftsmen from Constantinople. complete the influences seen in this eclectic building. In vaulted wood. brought about a very large movement of people and. with an aim to re-establishing the old Western Roman Empire. The invasion of England by William. This is a narrative convention which will later be much used in Italian frescoes. Duke of Normandy. Peter's Basilica on Christmas Day in the year AD 800. despite regional differences. either by allegiance or defeat. Much of Europe was affected by feudalism in which peasants held tenure from local rulers over the land that they farmed in exchange for military service. bishops. such as the church of Saint-Front. Venice but there are many lesser known examples.that of European Romanesque. he conquered Italy and was crowned Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III on 25 December 800. in 1066. if they were required to do so. saw the building of both castles and churches which reinforced the Norman presence.
Several important Romanesque churches were built in the Crusader kingdoms. They crossed two passes in the Pyrenees and converged into a single stream to traverse north-western Spain. A great number of these buildings. living in a mutually dependent community. a great number of Holy the Abbey. such as Canterbury which were rebuilt on the site of Saxon churches. claimed the remains and the patronage of a powerful saint. most notably Santiago de Compostela. The monasteries. and several. Bishops and the abbots of important monasteries lived and functioned like princes. Périgueux. the Rhine and its tributaries were the location of many Romanesque abbeys. Benedict had ordered that all the arts were to be taught and practiced in the monasteries. was established by the monk Benedict in the 6th century. established a be suitably commemorated by their family in a work of stone and mortar. its massive appearance and the repetition of the simple arched window motif. very little of the abbey church at Cluny remains. MONASTICISM The system of monasticism in which the religious become members of an order. Burgundy was the centre of monasticism. Roncesvalles. In Cologne. grown saint while others. Vézelay. In England. The Benedictine Monasteries spread from Italy throughout Europe. The monasteries were the major seats of learning of all sorts. Arles and St. of the 27 cathedrals of ancient foundation. has five domes like Byzantine churches. 1080–1120. Cluny. is typical of the A copy of the Plan of Saint Gall churches that were founded on the pilgrim route. As monasticism spread across Europe. the famous abbeys of Aux Dames and Les Hommes at Caen and Mont Saint-Michel date from this period. was to excite a great deal of religious fervour. France. the Cistercians. located near the western extremity of Galicia(present day Spain) became the most important pilgrimage destination in Europe. Serbia and Tunisia. Sicily. The Cathedral of Saint-Front. Romanesque churches sprang up in Scotland. both large and small. congregating for the journey at Jumièges. Hungary. then the largest city north of the Alps. The Nobility of Europe. a very important group of large city churches survives largely intact. the church of St. Paris. has remained intact and demonstrates the regularity of Romanesque design with its modular form.ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE ROMANESQUE RELIGION (500 – 1200 AD) Made and Owned by:SAMUELDICHOSO Across Europe. with common ties and a common rule. all were begun in this period with the exception of Salisbury. among other things. Likewise. but is Romanesque in construction . the military orders of the Knights Hospitallers and the Knights Templars were founded. James on foot. In association with the Crusades. the late 11th and 12th centuries saw an unprecedented growth in the number of churches. In France. like Saint-Front. Santiago de Compostela. those who did not return from the Crusades could of Saint Columbanus. the "Cluny II" rebuilding of 963 onwards has completely vanished. remain. which sometimes also functioned as cathedrals. Sernin at Toulouse. They moved along one of the four main routes that passed through France. in the Berry province. On each of the routes abbeys such as those at Moissac. He lived in his cell until his Relics of saints and apostles. were a major source of power in Europe. being always by far the most numerous in England. but we have a good idea of the design of "Cluny III" from 1088–1130. Along the route they were urged on by those pilgrims returning from the journey. In Germany. Conques. where the monks relocated from Old Sarum. Perigueux. Saint-Benoît-du-Sault. notably Mainz. which in turn inspired great dat Switzerland. had their own home death in 646. the Baptistery in Florence and San Zeno Maggiore in Verona. Around 613 an Irish monk building programs. Poland. many of them barefooted as a sign of penance. Speyer and Bamberg. They were followed by the Cluniac order. Gall in Switzerland. Within the monasteries books were transcribed by hand. rather than as a group of hermits living in proximity but essentially separate. Worms. and few people outside the monasteries could read or write. Most of the pilgrims travelled the Way of St. Many churches. Toulouse. upon safe return. in this case one of the Twelve Apostles. In France. Gallen in present from Islamic control. the most famous church of the period is Santiago de Compostela. a disciple and companion church or the enhancement of an old one. In Spain. which were intended to wrest the Holy Places of Palestine complex in the city of St. Unfortunately. as well as the abbeys of the pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela. They include many very well-known churches such as Santa Maria in Cosmedin in Rome. thanked God by the building of a new named Gallus. Limoges and Burgos catered for the flow of people and grew wealthy from the passing trade. hermitage on the site that would become The Crusades resulted in the transfer of. which until the Renaissance remained the largest building in Europe. However. and the cathedrals which had bodies of secular clergy often living in community. Scandinavia. The enormous and powerful monastery at Cluny was to have lasting effect on the layout of other monasteries and the design of their churches. PILGRIMAGE AND CRUSADE The Abbey of Saint Gall is a religious One of the effects of the Crusades. Carthusians and Augustinian Canons.
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