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Jean-Luc Godard’s Use of Sound in Une femme est une femme: Geared Toward Deleuzian Scholarship Relating

to Cinema’s Ability to Create Thought

Jon Tichenor SNDS-755-01 Stephen Michael LeGrand November 15, 2010

1 It seems as if it would be extremely difficult to not instantly fall in love with Anna Karina’s character, Angela, within the first minute of the first scene of Jean-Luc Godard’s 1961 sophomore film, Une femme est une femme (A Woman Is a Woman). Not only because of her unforgettable and undeniable beauty and grace but, perhaps more influential, the tune that accompanies her, “Tu t'Laisses Aller.” It is so rich and romantic in a way that only Charles Aznavour can swoon it. This musical choice is not arbitrary. Jean-Luc Godard is a master of his craft, both of the visual and aural elements. Through out his entire oeuvre he consistently uses every means available to push the boundaries of Cinema to help form something new— the French New Wave. Early in his career, as a film critic and contributor to the French film magazine, Les cahiers du cinéma1, he apposed classical forms and conceptions of cinema. Once he began producing his own films Godard approached it from a very different angle, thus, creating a new way to not only produce but to critically think on cinema. Film theorists largely concern themselves with and concentrate on the image but it seems as if in this modern age of cinema sound plays just as important a role. Michel Chion, a leading theorist on film sound, wrote in the Preface to Audio-Vision, one of his books on the subject of film sound, that: “Theories of the cinema until now have tended to elude the issue of sound, either by completely ignoring it or by relegating it to minor status. Even if some scholars have made rich and provocative contributions here and there, their insights […] have not yet been influential enough to bring about a total

1

The Internet Movie Database, A Woman Is a Woman (1961), http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0055572/ (accessed November 3, 2010). 2 Michel Chion, Audio-Vision (New York: Columbia University Press, 1994), xxv.

2 reconsideration of the cinema in light of the position that sound has occupied in it for the last sixty years.”2 Perhaps if one were to broaden the scope of which the critical ears’ of film theorists were examined, newfound concepts of it could bring the “total reconsideration of the cinema” that Chion is alluding to. Examining Godard’s use of sound, in his films, with a leaning toward Deleuzian Scholarship new insights about film sound occur. Which, then, call for a deepening of existing concepts and, thus, conceivably new ones are formed. Similar to Jean-Luc Godard, Gilles Deleuze was constantly looking for something new. As a postmodern French philosopher, Deleuze also formed radical new ideas and concepts towards a multitude of things. According to Jon Roffe, of the University of Melbourne, “as a constructivist, he was adamant that philosophers are creators, and that each reading of philosophy, or each philosophical encounter, ought to inspire new concepts,”3 and Donato Torero, Canadian Journal of Film Studies author, claims “there are film theories, and then there is Deleuze.” He goes on, “his Cinema books suggest that cinema runs parallel with philosophy and responds to the history of philosophy.”4 Une femme est une femme is part comedy, part classical Hollywood musical, and part drama—told in a way that only Godard could; an homage to all these genres while, at the same time, a sever critic on them. Although it is not seen as Godard’s finest film the sound design is one of his most unique and it serves as a strong case study into his use of sound and the affects it has on the image. Godard’s unique use of all three stems of the soundtrack (Sound Effects, Music, and Dialog) not only help to progress the narrative—
2 3

Michel Chion, Audio-Vision (New York: Columbia University Press, 1994), xxv. Jon Roffe, Gilles Deleuze (1925-1995), July 12, 2005, http://www.iep.utm.edu/deleuze/#SSH8b.ii (accessed November 3, 2010). 4 Donato Totaro, "Deleuzian Film Analysis: The Skin of the Film ," Off Screen, June 30, 2002, http://www.horschamp.qc.ca/new_offscreen/skin.html (accessed November 6, 2010).

3 the typical role of film sound in classic Hollywood cinema—but also allows Godard to tell it in a new way that is contrary to classical conceptions of film sound. Une femme est une femme incorporates a love triangle; a popular theme in Godard’s works. Angela (Anna Karina) is a striptease artist. She wants to have a baby and tries to sway her boyfriend Émile (Jean-Claude Brialy) to go along. Émile is not interested, so she enlists Émile's friend Alfred (Jean-Paul Balmondo) to do the job. Dixon quotes Godard about the subject of the film as, “a character who succeeds in resolving a certain situation, but I conceived the subject within the framework of a neo-realistic musical: an absolute contradiction, but that is precisely why I wanted to make the film.”5 With its shifting opening titles between the above-the-line credits (Producers, Cinematographer, Music Composer, Production Designer, etc.) along with the words comedy, musical, theatrical, sentimental, and opera, paired with the sound of an orchestra tuning and a voice trying to organize the apparent chaos with a bicycle bell accentuating Godard’s title (the only sound effect in the sequence and one of his favorite and often used sounds), Une femme est une femme, immediately relates to the viewer Godard’s intention of the film as “‘the idea of a musical,’ ‘nostalgia for the musical,’ and, most provocatively, a ‘neorealist musical.’”6 Its first title being “Once upon a time”, suggests that this is meant as a kind of fairy tale. The first actual dialog in the film is Karina’s voice-over proclaiming, “Lights, … camera, … ACTION!” (the traditional cue to the film crew at the start of each take) over silence, while showing the faces, each in sequence, of Émile, Angela, and Alfred with titles, over the images, of their real last

5

Wheeler W. Dixon, The Films of Jean-Luc Godard (Albany, New York: State University of New York, 1997), 28. 6 J. Hoberman, "A Woman is A Woman," The Criterion Collection, June 21, 2004, http://www.criterion.com/current/posts/330-a-woman-is-a-woman (accessed November 5, 2010).

4 names with each word. This reminds the viewer that they are in fact watching a film and it is about to begin. It also is in English, perhaps a direct homage to Hollywood cinema? Or is it a critic? Or both? The film begins in silence for about a second with the final title, “Une femme est une femme”, on top of what turns out to be the view of a busy Paris street seen from the window of a small café. Enter Angela. This is where Charles Aznavour’s tune, “Tu t'Laisses Aller”, is introduced for the first time. The audience only gets to hear the last thirty seconds of it but they get an idea of Angela and Émile’s relationship—although, this relationship is not immediately apparent nor is its symbolism. The lyrics are (with an English translation beside them and in parenthesis): Redeviens la petite fille (Become that little girl again) Qui m'a donné tant de bonheur (Who gave me so much happiness) Et parfois comm' par le passé (And sometimes like in the past) J'aim'rais que tout contre mon cœur (I would love that close to my heart) Tu l'laisses aller, Tu l'laisses aller (You let yourself go, you let yourself go)7 At first listen this tune seems to be part of what the audience understands as part of the score but this changes and becomes source music after Angela approaches the jukebox in the café near the end and begins the song again. Laurent Jullier proclaims that, “Godard was concerned not to deceive the spectator about the origins of sounds.”8 During the initial play Angela is heard greeting the barista and ordering a “coffee, very white” as a gentleman enters and also orders a coffee. This dialog is barely audible under
7

Frank van der Eeden, tu t'laisses aller, August 5, 2008, http://www.english-spanish-translator.org/frenchtranslation/4034-tu-tlaisses-aller.html (accessed November 6, 2010). 8 Laurent Jullier, "Sound in French Cinema, To Cut or Let Live: The Soundtrack According to Jean-Luc Godard," in Sound and Music in Film and Visual Media: a critical overview, ed. Graeme Harper, 352-362 (New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd., 2009), 358.

5 the tune. Is this suggesting that the song’s lyrics are more important at this point? Contrary to the classic Hollywood approach, Godard often keeps other sounds at the same level as the dialog track—whether it be music or background ambient tracks. Alan Williams writes, “as is typical in Godard’s ‘location’ recordings, the spectator strains to decipher [dialog], the characters seem better adapted to urban noise than the film audience is made to feel.”9 During Aznavour’s brief intermission Godard keeps the soundtrack incredibly sparse; only the foley of the gentleman’s coffee cup is audible. Angela is glancing at the gentleman while he takes his first sip and smiles at him. This near silence in the soundtrack could be signifying Angela’s pure interest in Man, his relation to her and the world around him. An idea that is backed up when hearing the opening lyrics to “Tu t'Laisses Aller” coming from the jukebox; “C'est drôle ce que t'es drôle à regarder (It’s funny how funny you are to look at).”10 Just as Angela’s jukebox selection begins anew she realizes she has “Gotta run.” These lyrics are all we hear of the tune when she turns and walks out of the café as she winks at the camera, acknowledging the audience for the first but certainly not the last time. Williams continues, “the sheer weight of this ‘natural’ sound is made […] more evident by what is […] the ultimate sound effect: silence, which when it arrives—abruptly, as do most of Godard’s sounds—is eerily soothing.”11 This abruptness is incredibly apparent in the next sequence of the film.

9

Alan Williams, "Godard's Use of Sound," in Film Sound: Theory and Practice, ed. Elisabeth Weis and John Belton, 332-345 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1985), 336. 10 Frank van der Eeden, tu t'laisses aller, August 5, 2008, http://www.english-spanish-translator.org/frenchtranslation/4034-tu-tlaisses-aller.html (accessed November 6, 2010). 11 Alan Williams, "Godard's Use of Sound," in Film Sound: Theory and Practice, ed. Elisabeth Weis and John Belton, 332-345 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1985), 336.

6 Here we see Angela outside the café in a wide shot from across the street. She crosses the busy city street with a multitude of people and automobiles surrounding her and yet only her footsteps are audible. Played at a very low level one must pay close attention to the soundtrack at this point. An indication of Angela’s feeling of isolation or her sense of disconnectedness with the world around her? The film cuts again as the audience sees Angela walking along the sidewalk in a sonically busy city street atmosphere in a medium shot. We hear not only the sounds of the city street but also the voice of a man selling some goods curbside with a friend. Angela turns her head as she passes, again acknowledging Man with a curious smile. As she passes out of frame the camera pans back to the men now smiling at the acknowledgment. Again, an abrupt cut to a high angle wide shot from across the street following Angela along the sidewalk but this time in complete silence for several seconds until Michel Legrand’s film’s score is brought in sharply which overlaps the next cut as Angela walks into a bookstore. This musical theme is introduced several times in the film and is reminiscent of a classically romantic Hollywood film score. As Angela browses the racks of books she glances over and Émile is revealed. This obvious connection between these two characters as lovers is expressed through Legrand’s romantic score. When one reflects on this opening sequence of Godard’s Une femme est une femme, Deleuze’s theories concerning cinema’s power to create thought and how it goes about it through a nooshock to form the “action-thought” is brought to mind. Deleuze explains: “Because the cinematographic image itself 'makes' movement, because it makes what the other arts are restricted to demanding (or to saying), it brings together what is essential in the other arts; it inherits it, it is as it were the directions for use

7 of the other images, it converts into potential what was only possibility. Automatic movement gives rise to a spiritual automaton in us, which reacts in turn on movement. The spiritual automaton no longer designates - as it does in classical philosophy - the logical or abstract possibility of formally deducing thoughts from each other, but the circuit into which they enter with the movement-image, the shared power of what forces thinking and what thinks under the shock; a nooshock.”12 Although many authors on Deleuze suggest that he was apposed to Edmund Husserl’s ideas, one cannot help but to find a connection here concerning the nooshock –for in 1913 Husserl wrote Ideen I. In it he addresses the de-individualized ego and the two poles or directions it can take; the noematic and the noetic. These words are derived from the Greek terms noema (what is thought) and noesis, (the act of thinking).13 It is important to note that Deleuze never claimed to be a film critic. He merely “used cinema to suit [his] particular intellectual needs.”14 For him, it was the human mind that creates this movement in cinema and “it is only when movement becomes automatic that the artistic essence of the image is realized.”15 Here we are concerned with the ‘sublime’ conception of cinema. For Deleuze, “what constitutes the sublime is that the imagination suffers a shock which pushes it to the limit and forces thought to think the whole as

12

Gilles Deleuze, Cinema 2: the time-image, ed. Hugh Tomlinson and Robert Galets (Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 2010), 156. 13 Marianne Sawicki, Edmund Husserl (1859-1938), July 6, 2005, http://www.iep.utm.edu/husserl/#H5 (accessed November 14, 2010). 14 Donato Totaro, "Part 1: Cinema 1: The Movement-Image; Gilles Deleuze's Bergsonian Film Project ," Off Screen, March 31, 1999, http://www.horschamp.qc.ca/9903/offscreen_essays/deleuze1.html (accessed November 6, 2010). 15 Gilles Deleuze, Cinema 2: the time-image, ed. Hugh Tomlinson and Robert Galets (Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 2010), 156.

8 intellectual totality which goes beyond the imagination.”16 For clarity, Deleuze turns to Russian filmmaker, Sergei Eisenstein. Eisenstein’s dialectical method of the sublime, according to Deleuze, allowed “him to decompose the nooshock into particularly welldetermined moments,”17 of these there are three: 1. The initial moment goes from the image to thought: percept to concept; the Whole. Here the shock takes the form of communication of movement in images and has an effect on the spirit. It forces the audience to think the Whole. This idea of the Whole is reliant on montage sequences and can only be thought, for it is “the indirect representation of time which follows from movement.”18 Deleuze goes on, “whether it is visual or of sound, the image already has harmonics which accompany the perceived dominant image, and enter in their own ways into suprasensory relations. […] This is the shock wave or the nervous vibration, which means that we can no longer say 'I see, I hear', but I FEEL, 'totally physiological sensation'. And it is the set of harmonics acting on the cortex which gives rise to thought, the cinematographic I THINK: […] ‘From the shock of two factors a concept is born’. […] The cinematographic image must have a shock effect on thought, and force thought to think itself as much as thinking the whole […] the very definition of the sublime.”19 Here Deleuze looks to Walter Benjamin; arguably, one of the first theorists to examine cinematic affect. Paul Gromley writes, “Benjamin’s primary project is to explain the cinema as art form specific to the age of modernity. Within this historical framework, he

16 17

Ibid, 157. Ibid. 18 Ibid, 158. 19 Ibid.

9 is concerned about ways in which cinema might potentially create a shock to the thought of the viewer.”20 When one considers the verisimilitude of sound to image, what role does sound play in the concept of the Whole? 2. The second moment moves from concept to affect. It returns from thought back to the image and is inseparable from the first moment; cannot tell which came first, montage or movement-image. It is a process that gives “emotional fullness” and “passion” back to the intellectual process, according to Deleuze. The whole as dynamic effect, here, for him, “is also the presupposition of its cause, the spiral. This is why Eisenstein continually reminds us that 'intellectual cinema' has as correlate 'sensory thought' or 'emotional intelligence', and is worthless without it.”21 In this moment, we tend to go from thinking of a whole that is presupposed and obscure to the distressed, muddled images that express it. This is an “internal monolog” that goes beyond the dream. Deleuze writes that Eisenstein, “develops a pathos-filled power of imagination which reaches the limits of the universe, an 'orgy of sensory representations.' […] Earlier, we went from the shock-image to the formal and conscious concept, but now from the unconscious concept to the material-image, the figure-image which embodies it and produces shock in turn.”22 3. The last moment is the actual identity of concept and image and is as prevalent as the previous two. Here the concept is in itself the image and vise versa. This moment is “action-thought” and “indicates the relation between man and the
20

Paul Gormley, The new-brutality film: race and affect in contemporary Hollywood cinema (Portland, Oregon: Intellect, Ltd. 2005), 16. 21 Gilles Deleuze, Cinema 2: the time-image, ed. Hugh Tomlinson and Robert Galets (Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 2010), 159. 22 Ibid.

10 world, between man and nature, the sensory-motor unity, but by raising it to a supreme power ('monism'). Cinema seems to have a real vocation in this respect,”23 according to Deleuze, and, for these moments, is better suited for showing the reaction of man on nature or the “externalization of man” than that of the theater. Deleuze proclaims that cinema is capable of achieving what theater and opera could never and points Jean-Luc Godard films as an example. For Deleuze, “Godard’s strength [lies] in making it a method which cinema must ponder at the same time as it uses it.”24 He continues on, “Godard has used every method of free indirect vision. Not that he has limited himself to borrowing and renewing; on the contrary, he created the original method which allowed him to make new synthesis, and in so doing to identify himself with modern cinema.”25 Cinema is able to reach the “Dividual”, that is, it is able to “individuate a mass instead of leaving it in a qualitative homogeneity or reducing it to a quantitive divisibility.”26 Simply put, Deleuze believes that Cinema is able to promote thought within the masses as a single unit. These relationships between thought and the cinema: “the relationship with a whole which can only be thought in a higher awareness, the relationship with a thought which can only be shaped in the subconscious unfolding of images, the sensory-motor relationship between world and man, nature and thought,”27 are constantly seen in Deleuze’s movement-image. Although Deleuze primarily writes here on the images of cinema, it seems as if these relationships could also relate to film sound; in its relations to itself, the special
23 24

Ibid, 161. Ibid, 179. 25 Ibid, 184. 26 Ibid, 162. 27 Ibid, 163.

11 relationships it has to the image, and perhaps most importantly these relations in relation to the audience. Deleuze alludes to this when writing about the interstice between images. Again he points to Godard: “Godard draws all the consequences from this when he declares that mixing ousts montage, it being understood that mixing does not just consist of a distribution of the different sound elements, [that is the job of the editor in the sound business] but the allocation of their differential relations with the visual elements.”28 All of these relations can be heard within the previously examined opening to Godard’s film, Une femme est une femme. The film’s opening credits paired with its sound elements acts as a cue for the viewers to prepare themselves for the film while creating a kind of anticipation. Edgardo Cozarinsky’s essay on the film claims that from this approach, “there is a festive excitement about [it]. But what is celebrated is not easy to recognize. Paris? […] A certain approach to the ménage a trios comedy? […] Anna Karina?”29 Karina’s opening voice-over brings this excitement to its climax just before the film begins. Here Godard exhibits, mostly through the soundtrack, Eisenstein’s first moment of the nooshock. By incorporating the orchestra warming up and the conductor’s voice, Godard prepares the viewer for the film and makes them aware that they are, in fact, watching a film. This is highlighted and enforced by Karina’s voice-over, “Lights, … camera, … ACTION!” Another instance of this initial moment is when the Legrand’s score begins and seems to beckon Angela into the bookstore. By Godard initially using Aznavour’s tune, “Tu t'Laisses Aller”, as what seems to be score music but then transforming it into source music the viewer is forced to ask themselves about the source of the preceding tune that
28 29

Ibid, 181. Edgardo Cozarinsky, "Une Femme Est Une Femme," in The Films of Jean-Luc Godard, ed. Ian Cameron, 26-31 (New York: November Books Limited, 1969), 26.

12 seems to initially emanate from the bookstore and beckon Angela into it. Is this music coming from the bookstore and is this why Angela decides to enter? It turns out that this music is part of the score and is used throughout the film as a theme to Angela and Émile’s relationship. Godard’s switching between source and score triggers the audience to continually ask where the music is coming from and what its intention’s are; bringing it from perception (the initial hearing it) to conception (why is it there?). Although Godard does eventually and consciously explain and show the source of all source music. His transformation between source and score creates a certain harmonic effect between the two which produces a shock and, as Deleuze puts it, forces “thought to think itself as much as thinking the whole”30; sublime. An instance of the second moment—that moment when the concept moves to affect, happens quite quickly and could be missed by the casual observer. When Godard’s title appears in the opening the sound of a bicycle’s bell is heard over the orchestra’s segment. As mentioned earlier, this is one of Godard’s favorite and often used sound effects. What is the meaning of this cue? It has no direct correlation to the title nor does it seem to fit in with the sounds of the orchestra. Perhaps it is meant solely to draw attention to Godard’s name, bringing his importance in the film, as director, to the forefront. The simple fact that one has to ask this question is enough to qualify it as fitting into this second moment from concept to affect. Aznavour’s tune also incorporates the second moment as described by Deleuze. After one processes the song’s lyrics in relation to the film certain correlations can be drawn between Angela and Émile. Depending on the point in the film that this tune is played

30

Gilles Deleuze, Cinema 2: the time-image, ed. Hugh Tomlinson and Robert Galets (Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 2010), 157.

13 the viewer is able to draw conclusions about Émile’s feeling toward Angela and, reversely, Angela’s feelings toward Émile. Jullier quotes J. Aumont, “by preventing the melody from developing, [Godard] draws attention to a different musical quality.”31 Godard’s skillful selection of lyrics from the tune at certain times allow for different interpretations of it throughout. When bringing selected lyrics of the song to the listener (presenting the conception) Godard is able to draw conclusions about its meaning, thus an affect is formed. Another instance of this is heard when Godard incorporates silence in the street sequence. By using this technique he is able to produce a shock on the listener which forces them to question the silence and its meaning, in this case, in relation to Angela. They are forced to ask questions such as the ones asked earlier. Des O’Rawe writes, “in Godard’s cinema, silence becomes an instrument of fragmentation, a base element that assists the processes of separation and reconciliation that are integral to Godard’s artistic principals and practices.”32 O’Rawe continues, “a Brechtian influence is undeniable, but it should not be misunderstood: Godard’s interruptions utilize the ‘Alienation-effect’ to transcend it. […] In such modernist films, the disruption of sound, like the diffusion of citations and rich coincidence of connections and disconnections, liberates the cinema from the prison-house of narrative and the banality of synchronicity.”33 For Jullier, Godard’s use of sound in this sequence acts as a type of manifesto: “Anna Karina walks on the Grand Boulevards like a flâneur; sometimes we only hear the ticking of her heels. Sometimes the ticking is masked by the noise of the
31

Laurent Jullier, "Sound in French Cinema, To Cut or Let Live: The Soundtrack According to Jean-Luc Godard," in Sound and Music in Film and Visual Media: a critical overview, ed. Graeme Harper, 352-362 (New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd., 2009), 357. 32 Des O'Rawe, "Silence: Film Sound and the Poetics of Silence," in Sound and Music in Film and Visual Media: a critical overview, ed. Graeme Harper, 87-99 (New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd, 2009), 96. 33 Ibid.

14 Grand Boulevards and sometimes it is replaced [by music]—each combination according to an unpredictable casual logic.”34 He continues, “to cut or to let live here becomes an equilibrated dilemma, when to let live was almost the only choice in the Golden Age of subtractive classicism”35; yet another example pointing to Godard’s importance in creating a type of modern film sound language. Godard’s abrupt sonic transitions between silence and ambient sounds also display characteristics of the third and final moment in its relation to each other. Douglas Morrey writes, “the unexpected cutting in and out of sound is a device designed to make us hear this noise as noise, to disrupt our comfortable association of it with what we see on screen.”36 This relationship between the silence and ambient sounds, what Morrey is calling noise, exemplifies this third moment. It is the moment of actionthought and “indicates the relation between man and the world, between man and nature, the sensory-motor unity, but by raising it to a supreme power ('monism')”37. Here Godard forces thought on the viewer through his interstices of silence within the film to great affect. One of the first and perhaps most important steps to understanding film sound is discussed in Michel Chion’s book Audio-Vision. In the introduction he suggests that there is no “natural and preexisting harmony between image and sound.”38 Patricia Pisters expands on this: “We relate images and sounds with our brain, and filmmakers

34

Laurent Jullier, "Sound in French Cinema, To Cut or Let Live: The Soundtrack According to Jean-Luc Godard," in Sound and Music in Film and Visual Media: a critical overview, ed. Graeme Harper, 352-362 (New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd., 2009), 356. 35 Ibid. 36 Douglas Morrey, "The Noise of Thoughts: The Turbulent (Sound-) Worlds of Jean-Luc Godard," Culture, Theory & Critique 46, no. 1 (2005), 62. 37 Gilles Deleuze, Cinema 2: the time-image, ed. Hugh Tomlinson and Robert Galets (Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 2010), 157. 38 Michel Chion, Audio-Vision (New York: Columbia University Press, 1994), xvii.

15 can experiment with these relations. […] Nevertheless, since the official introduction of sound film, the soundtrack has been constructed largely as a function of the representative realism effect.”39 Godard rejects these constructions and through his incorporation of silence in certain sequences with “natural” ambient sounds he is able to create a discontiguous sense of the world that causes the viewer to question their relation to the perceived natural order of the world; thus, creating action-thought. Another instance of this moment concerns Legrand’s score with the image. Once Angela is in the bookstore and Legrand’s theme is being played we see her peruse a book titled I’m Expecting A Baby. While she flips through the pages of this book the score of the film transitions to a kind of sexy jazzy feel hinting towards Angela’s femininity and sexuality that becomes more apparent later in the film. With this musical choice Godard shows, as Deleuze puts it, “the reaction of man on nature or the ‘externalization of man.’”40 It is important to point out that this is a reaction of and by the audience after seeing and hearing this shot. “Godard’s films attest to the desire to represent the complexity of human experience and to resist any discourse that would simplify or reify that complexity,”41 proclaims Morrey. The early films of Jean-Luc Godard helped to propel cinema into the modern age. His imaginative use of sound paired with unique ideas about the use of visuals and editing put him in a class that few were members and many desire—that of La Nouvelle Vague; the New Wave. His inventive film style parallels that of French philosopher Giles Deleuze.

39

Patricia Pisters, "(De)Territorializing Forces of the Sound Machine," in The matrix of visual culture: working with Deleuze in film theory, 175-215 (Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 2003), 178. 40 Gilles Deleuze, Cinema 2: the time-image, ed. Hugh Tomlinson and Robert Galets (Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 2010), 157. 41 Douglas Morrey, "The Noise of Thoughts: The Turbulent (Sound-) Worlds of Jean-Luc Godard," Culture, Theory & Critique 46, no. 1 (2005), 68.

16 Much like Deleuze was, Godard is in constant search of the new. On Deleuze’s ideas concerning the cinema, Gregg Lambert writes, “cinema behaves like an art when it allies itself with the force of chaos in order to form new visions and new sensations, which it uses in its struggles against the reestablished clichés and ready-made linkages of images and thought.”42 Jullier quotes Godard as saying in his film Histoire(s) du cinéma (part 4b) that his aim was to make “links between things that have never been linked before and do not seem to be disposed to be so.”43 Godard accomplished both of these ideas of Lambert and Jullier. Film theorists largely concern themselves with and concentrate on the image but it seems as if in this modern age of cinema sound plays just as important a role. Godard’s use of sound is worthy of closer investigation. Through his imaginative use of sound he was able to form new concepts and ideas of thought into cinema. Here we have examined parts of Gilles Deleuze’s ideas on cinema’s ability to create thought and then applied these ideas to the opening sequence of Jean-Luc Godard’s film Une femme est une femme. Thus, formed new insights about film sound’s abilities. Perhaps if one were to continue to turn a critical ear on Godard’s unique use of sound with a Deleuzian scholarship in mind new formulations about film sound would occur. This approach would then call for a deepening of existing concepts and then, perhaps, form new ones on it. Whether it be through Godard’s use of silence, his juxtaposition between what the audience hears and what they see, his dissected music scores, or his use of non42

Gregg Lambert, "Cinema and the Outside," in The brain is the screen: Deleuze and the philosophy of cinema, ed. Gregory Flaxman (Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 2000), 265. 43 Laurent Jullier, "Sound in French Cinema, To Cut or Let Live: The Soundtrack According to Jean-Luc Godard," in Sound and Music in Film and Visual Media: a critical overview, ed. Graeme Harper, 352-362 (New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd., 2009), 357.

17 synchronous sound, one is able to draw many conclusions and find many examples of a new type and usage of film sound—thus, is able to form new ideas and theories about it; a technique and approach to film sound not often examined. Jullier concludes his essay on Godard’s sound editing technique by writing: “Modernist sound cutting never convinced a great audience and remains weird to untutored ears. Despite old modernist claims, very few actually perceive unsynchronized sound and images in the way mass audiences now look at Van Gogh’s sunflowers and Monet’s cathedrals. It seems sonic experiment in film is success-proof: maybe we are too intimately bound up with vertical causality to like seeing it broken.”44 Godard’s creative use of sound in his film Une femme est une femme acts as a strong case study to draw examples and form new conceptual ideas about film sound when examined through Deleuze’s ideas about the cinema (which draw from numerous other theorists), specifically its ability to create thought through its ‘nooshock’; that is to say, the shared power of what forces thinking and what thinks under the shock within Deleuze’s movement-image. Here we have examined this idea of Deleuze’s in regards to Eisenstein’s dialectical method of the sublime. Which, according to Deleuze, allowed “him to decompose the nooshock into particularly well-determined moments.”45 These moments: “the relationship with a whole which can only be thought in a higher awareness, the relationship with a thought which can only be shaped in the subconscious unfolding of
44

Laurent Jullier, "Sound in French Cinema, To Cut or Let Live: The Soundtrack According to Jean-Luc Godard," in Sound and Music in Film and Visual Media: a critical overview, ed. Graeme Harper, 352-362 (New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd., 2009), 361. 45 Gilles Deleuze, Cinema 2: the time-image, ed. Hugh Tomlinson and Robert Galets (Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 2010), 157.

18 images, the sensory-motor relationship between world and man, nature and thought,”46 are constantly seen in Deleuze’s movement-image and, when translated into a film sound vernacular, can be heard in Godard’s opening sequence to his sophomore film, Une femme est une femme, as we have discussed. Many more correlations and connections can be made in regards to Deleuze’s thoughts on Thoughts and film sound that far outweigh the breadth of this essay. Presented here is merely an initial look into the possibilities of such correlations and connections. Much like Williams proclaims in the introduction to his examination of ‘Godard’s Use of Sound’: “Godard is one of the most able and original manipulators of recorded sound in the history of cinema, and merely to detail the broad outlines of his use of sound is a task that can only be begun here”47, this essay considers the possibilities of looking at his use of sound within the scope of Deleuzian Thought theories. To properly examine in totality of these ideas on thought as heard in Godard’s work would require a Master’s Thesis.

Bibliography
Chanan, Michael. "The Sound of Godard: Jean-Luc Godard, Nouvelle Vague, the soundtrack on CD." Vertigo 1, no. 7 (1997): 24-25. Chion, Michel. Audio-Vision. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.
46 47

Ibid, 163. Alan Williams, "Godard's Use of Sound," in Film Sound: Theory and Practice, ed. Elisabeth Weis and John Belton, 332-345 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1985), 332.

19

—. Film, A Sound Art. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009. Cozarinsky, Edgardo. "Une Femme Est Une Femme." In The Films of Jean-Luc Godard, edited by Ian Cameron, 26-31. New York: November Books Limited, 1969. Colebrook, Clair. Gilles Deleuze. New York: Routledge, 2005. Deleuze, Gilles. Cinema 1: the movement-image. Translated by Hugh Tomlinson and Barbara Habberjam. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 2009. —. Cinema 2: the time-image. Edited by Hugh Tomlinson and Robert Galets. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 2010. —. Francis Bacon: The Logic of Sensation. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 2003. Dixon, Wheeler W. The Films of Jean-Luc Godard. Albany, New York: State University of New York, 1997. Gormley, Paul. The new-brutality film: race and affect in contemporary Hollywood cinema. Portland, Oregon: Intellect Ltd, 2005. Hoberman, J. "A Woman is A Woman." The Criterion Collection. June 21, 2004. http://www.criterion.com/current/posts/330-a-woman-is-a-woman (accessed November 5, 2010). Jullier, Laurent. "Sound in French Cinema, To Cut or Let Live: The Soundtrack According to Jean-Luc Godard." In Sound and Music in Film and Visual Media: a critical overview, edited by Graeme Harper, 352-362. New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd., 2009. Une femme est une femme. Directed by Jean-Luc Godard. Performed by Karina, Brialy and Belmodo. 1961. Lambert, Gregg. "Cinema and the Outside." In The brain is the screen: Deleuze and the philosophy of cinema, edited by Gregory Flaxman. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 2000. Morrey, Douglas. Jean-Luc Godard. New York: Manchester University Press, 2005. —. "The Noise of Thoughts: The Turbulent (Sound-) Worlds of Jean-Luc Godard." Culture, Theory & Critique 46, no. 1 (2005): 61-74.

20 O'Rawe, Des. "Silence: Film Sound and the Poetics of Silence." In Sound and Music in Film and Visual Media: a critical overview, edited by Graeme Harper, 87-99. New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd, 2009. Pisters, Patricia. "(De)Territorializing Forces of the Sound Machine." In The matrix of visual culture: working with Deleuze in film theory, by Patricia Pisters, 175-215. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 2003. Sutton, Damian, and David Martin-Jones. Deleuze Reframed. New York: I. B. Tauris, 2008. Sawicki, Marianne. "Edmund Husserl (1859-1938)." Internet Encylopedia of Philosophy. July 6, 2005. http://www.iep.utm.edu/husserl/#H5 (accessed November 14, 2010). Rajchman, John. "Deleuze's Time, or How the Cinematic Changes Our Idea of Art." In Art and the Moving Image, edited by Tanya Leighton, 307-327. London: Tate Publishing, 2008. —. The Deleuze Connections. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2000. Roffe, Jon. Gilles Deleuze (1925-1995). July 12, 2005. http://www.iep.utm.edu/deleuze/#SSH8b.ii (accessed November 3, 2010). The Internet Movie Database. A Woman Is a Woman (1961). http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0055572/ (accessed November 3, 2010). Totaro, Donato. "Deleuzian Film Analysis: The Skin of the Film ." Off Screen. June 30, 2002. http://www.horschamp.qc.ca/new_offscreen/skin.html (accessed November 6, 2010). —. "Part 1: Cinema 1: The Movement-Image; Gilles Deleuze's Bergsonian Film Project." Off Screen. March 31, 1999. http://www.horschamp.qc.ca/9903/offscreen_essays/deleuze1.html (accessed November 6, 2010). —. "Part 2: Cinema 2: The Time-Image; Gilles Deleuze's Bergsonian Film Project ." Off Screen. March 31, 1999. http://www.horschamp.qc.ca/9903/offscreen_essays/deleuze2.html (accessedNovember 6, 2010). Williams, Alan. "Godard's Use of Sound." In Film Sound: Theory and Practice, edited by Elisabeth Weis and John Belton, 332-345. New York: Columbia University Press, 1985.

21 van der Eeden, Frank. tu t'laisses aller. August 5, 2008. http://www.english-spanish translator.org/french-translation/4034-tu-tlaisses-aller.html (accessed November 6, 2010).