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Web Resources and Film Preservation

1. Web Resources Preservation: According to a report by the US Library of Congress, 44% of
the site available on the internet in 1998 had vanished one year later. Web archiving is the
process of collecting portions of the World Wide Web and ensuring that the collection is
preserved in an archive, such as an archive site, for future researchers, historians, and the public.
The Internet Archive is a non-profit digital library with the stated mission of universal access to
all knowledge. It offers permanent storage and access to collections of digitized materials,
including websites, music, moving images, and books. The Internet Archive was founded by
Brewster Kahle in 1996.

2. Film Preservation: The film preservation, or film restoration, movement is an ongoing

project among film historians, archivists, museums, cinematheques, and non-profit organizations
to rescue decaying film stock and preserve the images contained therein. In the widest sense, its
aim is to assure that a movie will continue to exist, as close to its original form as possible. Films
are highly inflammable. So, necessary action should be taken so that in no case it comes in
contact with high temperature.
Like print, digital media, and film, the paintings, photographs, phonograph also demand some
special preservation techniques.

3. Let Us Sum Up: Prevention of deterioration measures significantly extends the usual life of
all types of documents and must need to be implemented. In doing so, the person concerned
should work with curators, recommending officers, and other preservation staff to make
decisions about binding, housing, and related matters.
Remedies against environmental damage of reading material include shielding from sunlight, air
conditioning and such others in all walk of the material such as in store, on display, or in transit.
The storage areas should be clean and clutter, dust, dirt etc should not be allowed to accumulate
within the storage areas. When the books are in the shelf, safe storage or use of proper storage
cabinet by way of keeping the valuable reading material in box and keeping documents in
between metal supporters provide protection against mechanical damage. It also helps the
document in being free from dust, dirt and direct exposure of light.
Insects, mold, rodents are dangerous for a document. Generally pests are attached by clutter and
the food remnants. So, eating, drinking etc should be prohibited in a place where collections are
kept. During cleanliness all necessary measures should be taken so that cleanliness itself does not
damage the fragile materials. In the library, disaster recovery plan should be put in place.
Repairing of document includes use of adhesive, repairing tears, etc. Tears in leaves can be
carefully aligned and repaired with the strips of Japanese paper and a starch paste or other
suitable adhesive that bears the quality of good conservative. This process should be followed by
binding. Generally library binding is considered good for many kinds of documents. The special
collection should be treated specially.
Because of the big volume of library material having chances of deteriorating widely,
diverse material and methods for preserving them involves considerable cost.

Web Directories
Web Directories: A web directory or link directory is a directory of Web sites by subject on the
World Wide Web which are most often created by humans. It specializes in linking to other web
sites and classifying and categorizing those links often with a description. Many large directories
include a keyword search option which usually eliminates the need to work through numerous
levels of topics and subtopics.
The earliest Subject Directory search engine which covered WWW sites worldwide was The
World Wide Web Virtual Library. It presented an alphabetical index of subjects and is based on
Library of Congress Classification System. The most successful subject directory as well as
subject directory search engine is probably Yahoo that was originated as a student run service,
but now a profitable commercial site. It uses its own classification system.
a) Types: A web directory can be a real web directory that deals with all resources in all types of
subject areas or it may only deal with the resources of a particular subject areas. In the latter case
it is more commonly known as subject directory.
i) Subject Directories: A subject directory is a catalogue of sites collected and organized by
humans in a specific subject only. Subject directories are often called subject "trees" because
they start with a few main categories and then branch out into subcategories, topics, and
ii) Subject Gateways: According to Place (2000), “Subject gateways are Internet- based services
designed to help the users locate high quality information that is available on the Internet. They
are, typically, data bases of detailed metadata (or catalogue) records which describes Internet
resources and offer a hyperlink to the resources.” Users can choose to either search the database
by keyword, or to browse the resources under subject headings”. Generally subject directory is
treated as a broader term than that of Subject Gateways.
b) Importance: Because humans organize the websites in subject directories and it covers only a
small fraction of the pages available on the web, one can often find a good starting point if the
topic is included. Directories are also useful for finding information on a topic when you don't
have a precise idea of what you need. They are also most effective for finding general
information on popular or scholarly subjects.
Subject directory search engines are trying to compete with search engines. Web directories such
as Yahoo and The Open Directory are, in a sense, the Internet equivalent of a public library and
differ from the search engine in its provision of browsing the resources by some categories.
c) Examples: The following are some of the popular web directories-
i) Yahoo! ( Yahoo! aims to be the biggest Internet directories, with a
high level of coverage and popular appeal as high priorities. It is an excellent site for finding
topics that appeal to the general public. Currently, a search in Yahoo is being passed to AltaVista.
However, people can still use its directory.
ii) Open Directory Project ( Open Directory lists scholarly and popular
websites. The Open Directory Project, also known as Directory Mozilla (DMOZ), relies on a
volunteer work force of editors who, by selecting, classifying and cataloguing resources, are
trying to build the largest library on the Internet. Mozilla was an early name for the Netscape
Navigator Web browser. DMOZ is owned by Netscape Communications, but the information and
database are freely available to other companies. The raw open-source directory is used by
Google, Netscape Search, AOL Search, Lycos, HotBot, and DirectHit.
iii) BUBL Link ( BUBL Link uses the Dewey Decimal Classification
system as the primary organization structure for its catalogue of Internet resources. It carefully
selected and accurately catalogued many LIS resources. It was developed by Centre for Digital
Library Research, Department of Computer and Information Sciences, University of Strathclyde,
Livingstone Tower, 26 Richmond Street, Glasgow G1 1XH, Scotland.
iv) At ( you’ll find a directory with a twist. Each
topic area has an assigned "Guide" responsible for writing articles and organizing links on the
The other web directories include Internet Public Library (, Librarians' Index
to the Internet (, WWW Virtual Library (, Google directory
(, Looksmart, etc..
The Internet Library for Librarians ( is a subject
directory. UNESCO, IFLA, etc also have subject directories. Besides, many individual especially
LIS professional also develop their subject directories, but because of space, we cannot do justice
to all such sites.

Web 2.0
Web 2.0: Web 2.0 is a set of technologies and service that allows people to contribute as much as
they consume. The term “Web 2.0” was officially coined in 2004 by Dale Dougherty, a vice-
president of O’Reilly Media Inc., during a team discussion on a potential future conference about
the Web.
The web 2.0 technologies rely on user generated content and support the provision of interaction
among them. Some of the web 2.0 technologies are
Blog: It is a web-based publication consisting primarily of periodic articles normally in reverse
chronological order with reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks provided by the writer.
Bookmarking: It allows users to create lists of “bookmarks” or “favourites”, to store these
centrally on a remote service (rather than within the client browser) and to share them with
other users of the system. Examples include digg,, Netvouz, furl, Connectedy and
Crowdsourcing: The term crowdsourcing was coined by Wired journalist Jeff Howe to
conceptualise a process of Web-based out-sourcing for the procurement of media content, small
tasks, even solutions to scientific problems from the crowd gathered on the Internet.
Folksonomy: The term folksonomy is generally acknowledged to have been coined by Thomas
Vander Wal. It is a collection of tags created by an individual for their own personal use.
Folksonomy is the result of personal free tagging of information and objects (anything with a
URL) for one’s own retrieval. Examples include for music and LibraryThing.
Mashup: A mashup is an element that combines information from multiple systems using Web
Services to provide an aggregate service. Personal home pages are an example of a mashup that
combines information from disparate sources to a single, personalized web page. Eg. iGoogle
Podcasts: Podcasts are audio recordings, usually in MP3 format, of talks, interviews and
lectures, which can be played either on a desktop computer or on a wide range of handheld
MP3 devices.
RSS Feed Aggregation Tool: RSS feed aggregation tools gather information from diverse
sources across the Web and publish in one place.
RSS: RSS is a family of formats which allow users to find out about updates to the content of
RSS-enabled websites, blogs or podcasts without actually having to go and visit the site.
Social Network: A social network or online community is a web based service focuses on
building online communities of people who share interests and / or activities by a variety of
ways. Example. YouTube (video) Flickr (photographs) and Odeo (podcasts), Myspace, and
Tagging: A tag is a keyword that is added to a digital object (e.g. a website, picture or video
clip) to describe it, but not as part of a formal classification system.
Wiki: A wiki is a type of editable website that allows users to add, remove, or otherwise edit
and change most content very quickly and easily, sometimes without the need for registration
by using relatively easy to use wiki syntax
virtual Library: Virtual Reality (VR) is an illusive environment for the eyes, ears and other
sense organs where user can experience the real world in an artificially created
environment by the computer system. It is a state of real sensational feeling in an imaginary
environment. The environment is so perfectly created and highly stimulated that one can
experience just like a real situation but with a full control over the environment.
a) Definition: Virtual Library refers to the scientifically managed collection of information
resources and services on site as well as off site that are available in a virtual reality
environment and accessible electronically through the internet at any time from any
geographical location.Such type of library only exists in the networked environment, without
the physical existence of books or journals on the shelves.
Kay Gapen’s 1994 defines the Virtual Library as The concept of remote access to
the content and services of libraries and other information resources combining an onsite
collection of current and heavily used material in both print and electronic form, with an
electronic network that provide access to and delivery from external World Wide library and
commercial information and knowledge sources.
Powell 1994 defines Virtual Library as It is a library with little or no physical
presence of books, periodicals, reading space or support staff, but are that disseminate
selective information directly to distribute library customers, usually electronically.
An electronic library may or may not be virtual. Eg. If the holding of a library is
available in CD ROM, DVD ROM, etc. and these resources only can be accessed through a
stand alone computer but not through the internet or WAN, then it is termed as electronic
library and not as virtual library. Further the VL set up should give an illusive environment
of the real library world.
b) Characteristic of Virtual Library: The main characteristics of Virtual Library are as
i) Information sources should be stored in 3 D format, electronically.
ii) Library staff should be able to work in the library from any geographical location.
iii) Library Services such as union catalogue, OPAC, CAS, SDI, etc should be available at the
user desktop, itself.
iv) All resources should be accessible over Internet with effective Searching, Browsing and
Navigation options.
v) The library should be integrated with Bulletin Board, Blog, Email, Voice Mail, E-List, Audio
Conferencing, Video Conferencing, etc services.
vi) Constant training and retraining must be imparted both to the library staff as well as library
user to talk with the newly emerging technologies.
vii) It may or may not have a physical existence.
Sherwell (1997) describes the characteristic of Virtual Library as-
i) There is no corresponding physical collection.
ii) Documents will be available in electronic format.
iii) Documents are not stored in any one location.
iv) Documents can be accessed from any workstation.
v) Documents are retrieved and delivered as and when required and
vi) Effective search and Browse facility are available.
c) Technology behind Virtual Library: Creation of Virtual Library involves use of highly
sophisticated technology that includes:
i) Use of multimedia material for information storage.
ii) Use of 3D sound, 3D Graphics, 3D Photo, etc.
iii) Use of Voice Message, Audio Conferencing, Video Conferencing, etc by the library staff as
well as library user.
iv) Origin and Development of PC with VR technologies attached.
d) Facilities in a Virtual Library Setup: The virtual library to be functional, following
facilities need to be extended to the Library Staff
i) Computer Resources: In case any library staff is not in a position to procure the computer
resources to work from their home, it will be the responsibility of the library to provide the same
to him/her.
ii) Office Stationary: The library should provide the office stationary i.e Calculators, staplers,
Directory of Phone numbers of Library staff, Job Manual, etc. to the library staff at their homes.
iii) Arrangement of Online Meeting: Arrangement of online meeting at fixed hour of the day by
using Voice Mail, Audio Conferencing, Video Conferencing, etc that helps in live, two way
communications. In the virtual library setup, the following facilities need to be extended to the
Library Users-
i) Access to Information: Access to all information resources from any geographical location.
ii) PC equipped with VR Technologies: If the VL is a part of any physical library then attempt
should be made to provide in the library itself the user with PC that are equipped with VR
technologies such as Head-tracked HMDs (Head Mounted Display), Data Gloves, Gesture,
Trackers, etc. The monitor, keyboard, speaker, joystick, etc should also be compatible to VR set
e) Advantages of Virtual Library: VL set up will help the administrative staff of the library to
appoint handicapped person, elderly and parents with young children, etc.
A virtual library setup will provide following advantages to the administrator-
i) Low Office Space: In VL setup the library staff hopes to work from their homes itself that will
eliminate the necessity of large office capacity, thereby reducing the cost involved in office rent
or library building or cost related to its future expansion.
ii) Reduce Work Stoppage: Holiday, different kind of bandh, storm, flood, hurricanes and like
other makes it impossible for the employees to travel to the workplace of the library resulting in
halt of every kind of library activities. The VL will eliminate such type of work stoppage. Even
in holiday, employees can spend their leisure time by working certain hours for the library.
The virtual library will have the following advantages for library staff-
i) No Physical Constraints of Workplace: The Library staff should be able to work from their
home or any other place convenient to them.
ii) Own Boss: Every one wants to be his/her own boss. VL will give the employees the freedom
to do their job according to their own method.
iii) Everything is Formal: VL will demand the instruction to be given by the boss or the librarian
in a formal way to his/her subordinate that hopes to achieve better management.
iv) Direct Communications: The direct communication through voice mail, video conferencing
helps to foster a sense of group belongingness among the library staff.
The library user will have the following advantages-
i) Distance Education: Individual member of the library can enter into the virtual mode and can
feel the real library environment i.e can see the reference librarian, can browse the card
catalogue, etc.
f) Disadvantages of Virtual Library: Some of the disadvantages of a virtual library are-
i) Sense of not Belongingness: In VL set up the employees will not come in direct contact with
their colleague, so they hope to lose the feeling of being an important part of the library.
ii) Fear of Job Loss: In VL set up; employees can easily sink in the idea that they are expandable
by thinking in mind that any body with a computer and modem can do their work. So, they will
hope to be the victim of fear of job loss.
iii) Low Moral: VL will not support the positive feed back that comes with face to face
interaction with superiors and peers.
iv) Demand more dedication from Library Staff: The employees of VL should be more sincere,
disciplined and dedicated than the employees of physical library set up as he/she must work
without any external supervision and motivation in most cases.
v) Family Tension: If family tension will find its entry into the life of telecommuters they will
not be able to escape from it at least for a few hours when they will be in the same environment,
resulting interruption will occur in the work. If the tension will be from spouse, then he/she may
also view the job as a working arrangement to avoid family responsibility.
vi) Hazardous Set Up: VL will give the environment where employees hope to be the sufferer of
eyesight loss, Arthritis, Nerve problem, etc.
Another disadvantage of VL is that any user with negative mind will be able to mislead the
library staff.
g) Conclusion: The word “Virtual Library” is displayed in different kinds of library websites,
but in reality a true VL is yet to be set up. But when it will be implemented it will help to extend
the sense so distantly that any one can do, learn or manipulate the things in reality. It will help us
to build a library environment that will be similar to our physical library but will be accessible
from distant location; one can just see the library just like using a microscope or telescope.
Verification of Bibliographic Details
Verification of Bibliographic Details: After entering the essential description in the book
selection card the description of the item should be verified by the library staff for its accuracy. If
the book selection card was filled in by the library staff, then this process is only to examine
where he/she correctly puts the details from the source document to the book selection card or
not. In case the book was recommended by the user the library staff can verify the details by the
following means
i) If any copy of the book is already available in the library, then the original copy can be
consulted for verification
ii) By consulting Bibliographies, Best Books Guides, Publisher’s Catalogues, Book
Reviewing periodicals.
iii) Verification of the details can also be done by consulting online citation analysis tools, online
databases, and other electronic resources like searching over Google search engine and so on.
After verification, the “verified” data should be included in the card.
1. Selection of Documents: Selection means taking into accounts the books that have been
identified and chosen by faculties or other library users. Out of these books the ones are
actually to be added to the collection(s) are selected. In this step, preliminary checking
should be done so that the items available in the library or those on order do not get
selected. The checking should be done with order tray, bills awaiting payment, public
catalogue (i.e OPAC), etc. If the sufficient number of copies of the book are already in
the available collection then these titles should be rejected. If the present budget cannot
accommodate the cost of the item, then the item may be deferred for acquisition or
otherwise it may be purchased.
In many libraries, there is a book selection committee that consists of the librarian, library
staff, subject experts, board of management, and representative from users, volunteers,
friends, and patrons of the library. The ultimate responsibility for book selection rests
with the librarian. The acquisition staff is there to help him/her.
2. Mode of Collection Development: The following mode of collection development may be
used by a library after the selection of the document-
i) Gift: A library may acquire material by gift. If serious efforts are made a library may succeed
in acquiring rare and special books from the individuals;
ii) Exchange: Certain materials are not available for purchase. Such materials may have to be
acquired by exchange with other institutional publications;
iii) Membership: Sometimes a library or its parent body becomes a member of society or
organization whereby it might be possible to get certain materials free of charge or at a cost
lower than the usual.
iv) Purchase: A document should be purchased if it cannot be acquired by exchange or gift or by
virtue of membership.
Universal Machine Readable Catalogue (UNIMARC)
Universal Machine Readable Catalogue (UNIMARC): There emerged a number of standard
bibliographic record formats such as UKMARC, INTERMARC, USMARC, etc whose paths
diverged owing to different national cataloguing practices and requirements. Since the early
1970s, an extended family of more than 20 MARC formats has grown up. To greater or lesser
degrees almost all formats are compatible but the differences in data content mean that editing is
required before records are exchanged. Recognizing that there is a need for the establishment of
international format for the exchange of bibliographic data, IFLA, the section on cataloguing and
mechanization, took the initiative to develop international MARC format which would accept the
record created in any MARC format. As a result, the first version of Universal Machine Readable
Catalogue (UNIMARC) appeared for monograph and serial in 1977 to facilitate the international
exchange of bibliographic data in machine readable form.
UNIMARC follows the ISO communication format ISO-2709 (1981).
Besides MARC family of formats, there are other formats, notable among them being
AGRIS, International Nuclear Information System (INIS), UNISIST Reference Manual,
UNESCO’s CCF as a universal exchange format for bibliographical record.
Every national organization producing MARC records will produce them in the national
standard for use within the country and will reformat them according to UNIMARC format for
international exchange. So, after the development of UNIMARC each national agency would
need to write only two programmes- one to convert into a UNIMARC and the other to convert
from UNIMARC, instead of one programme for each other MARC format. Eg. INTERMARC
to UKMARC, USMARC to UKMARC, and so on.
a) UNIMARC Format: The UNIMARC format like any other version of MARC involves
three elements of the bibliographic record. These are-
i) Record Structure: The record structure is designed to control the representation of
data by storing it in the form of strings of characters known as fields. By record structure
various elements in a record structure are identified.
ii) Content Designation: Certain conventions are followed in order to identify the data
element within records. Such elements which include author, title and subject access are
further characterized. This supports the manipulation of the data for a variety of purposes.
iii) Data Content: The content is the data which is stored in the fields within the record.
Data can be coded data or bibliographic data.
b) Functional Block of UNIMARC: The fields which are identified by three character
numeric tags are arranged in functional blocks. These blocks organize the data according
to its function in a traditional catalogue record. The data element and content of the
record have been functionally divided into 10 different types of block. These are shown
Block no Field tag Data Type Example
0 000-099 Identification Contains numbers that identify the
Block record.
Eg. 010 International Standard Book
1 100-199 Coded Contains fixed length data element
Information Block describing various aspect of the
record or data.
Eg. 101 Language of the work
2 200-299 Heading Block Contains the authority, reference or
general explanatory heading for
which records have been created.
Eg. 205 Edition statement

3 300-399 Information Note Contains note, intended for public

Block display that explain the relationship
between the record heading and other
4 400-499 See Reference Contains variant heading from which
Tracing Block a reference is to be made to see the
heading of the record.
Eg. 452 Edition in a different medium
5 500-599 See Also Contains related uniform heading
Reference Tracing from which a reference is to be made
Block to see also the heading of the record.
Eg. 516 Spine title
6 600-699 Classification Contains classification number that
Number Block are related to the heading of the
Eg. 676 Dewey Decimal
7 700-799 Linking Heading Contains a form of the record heading
Block in another language or script and links
to another record in which that form
is the heading.
Eg. 700 Personal name
8 800-899 Source Contains the source of the record and
Information Block catalogues notes about the data not
intended for public display.
Eg. 801 Originating Source
9 900-999 National use Contains data local to the originator
Block of the record.
It is anticipated that each national bibliographic agency will be responsible for the
conversion of authority record into UNIMARC / Authorities for transmission to other national
agencies and will receive machine readable record in the UNIMARC / Authorities format from
other national agencies. Despite much efforts of IFLA, UNIMARC failed to receive due
Union Catalogues
1. Definition: A union catalogue list in one sequence the holding or part of holdings of two or
more libraries. According to William A. Katz, a union catalogue is an “inventory common to
several libraries and listing some or all of their publications maintained in one or more orders of
arrangements.” Union catalogues generally uses some location symbol for each and every
libraries whose collection are included in the union catalogue for easy location of documents.
2. Types: We may recognize local, regional and national union catalogue. Further division may
be done on the basis of the kinds of material include i.e. book, periodical, film, etc.
3. Functions: The functions of union catalogues are
i) Union catalogue serves as a locating tool for the document.
ii) It helps in identifying a given document for which bibliographic information is provided.
iii) It helps in interlibrary loan.
iv) It helps in selection of documents.
v) It helps to achieve coordination in the acquisition and selection programme of a group of
libraries. It helps to avoid unnecessary duplication of material like periodicals, etc.

vi) It serve as a list of total document resource of libraries in a given geographical region.
4. Example: IndCat: Online Union Catalogue of Indian Universities, INFLIBNET, Available
UGC-Infonet E-journal Consortium
UGC-Infonet E-journal Consortium: UGC-Infonet is an ambitious programme of UGC to
interlink all the Universities in the country with state-of-art technology. The access to e-journal
consortia was started in October 1, 2003 when the users started getting access to these resources
on trial basis for three months. The UGC-Infonet E-journal consortium was formally launched on
the concluding day of UGC’s Golden Jubilee celebrations by his Excellency the President of
India, Dr. A P J Abdul Kalam at Vigyan Bhawan on 28th December 2003. Access to various e-
journals formally began on January 1, 2004. The programme was set up by the Chairman, UGC
and it was the result of an understanding and co-operation between UGC, ERNET, the inter
university centre, INFLIBNET, national and international publisher, etc. The programme is
wholly funded by UGC and monitored by INFLIBNET centre, Ahmedabad. The Network is
being switched to BSNL backbone w.e.f 1st April 2010 and renamed as UGC Infonet 2.0. ON the
new scheme 10 Mbps(1:1) Leased line is being established in 180 plus universities preferably by
using Fiber to provide Internet Services.
a) Organization: The whole programme has been implemented in different phases. The UGC is
providing funds for the programme which will be cost free for the universities. INFLIBNET
Centre, an IUC of UGC, will subscribe resources based on the recommendations of National
Negotiating Committee set up by UGC in the 10th plan period. The universities have been funded
for connectivity under UGC-Infonet and will have network connectivity. Individual universities
will then have unique IP address through which access is given by the publisher for which
subscription is made. However, the entire programme will be ministered, monitored and
maintained by the INFLIBNET centre.
c) Membership: The universities covered under UGC are the primary beneficiaries. However,
this scheme will be extended to colleges very soon. The scheme is likely to be open to other
institutions such as ICAR and others after signing MOU with UGC/INFLIBNET.
So far 100 universities out of 171 Indian universities under the purview of UGC have
been provided access to these journals and it is gradually entering to the affiliated colleges as
d) Functions and Activities: The consortium aims at covering all fields of learning of relevance
to various universities such as Arts, Humanities and Social Science to Computer and Pure
i) Access to Full text E-Resources: Under the consortium, about 4000 full text scholarly
electronic journals from 25 publishers across the globe can be accessed. The consortium provides
current as well as archival access to core and peer-reviewed journals in different disciplines. eg.
J-STOR (457) <>.
ii) Access to Bibliographic Database: It provides access to Analytical Abstracts, Biological
Abstracts, Catalysts & Catalysed Reactions, Chemical Abstracts Service, MathSciNet Database,
Royal Society of Chemistry, etc.
iii) Access to Portal: The gateway portals provides access to more than 10000 journals in the
area of Pure sciences, Social sciences and Humanities with contents and abstracts for major
collections. These gateway portals also provide customized solutions to access the full text for
the resources subscribed under UGC-Infonet to serve as “one stop shopping”. Examples of the
portal include Ingenta Gateway Portal <>, and J-Gate Gateway Portal
iv) Access to Open Access Resources: It provide access to BBS Prints Interactive Archive
<>, BioMed Central <>,
Citebase <>, Citeseer <>,
Cognitive Science <>, CogPrints <>,
Directory of Open Access Journals <>, archives
<>, Free Access Online Archives/ arXiv <>, General
List of Open access eprints <>, HighWire Press
Free <>, Networked Computer Science Technical
Reference Library <>, CERN Document Server (CDS)
<>, Public Library of Science <>, PubMed
Central (PMC) <>, The Economics network (RePEc)
<>, etc.
vi) Search and Browsing Facility: The list of journals covered in the scheme is updated
from time to time and is available on the INFLIBNET Centre’s website
<> under UGC-Infonet E-Journals Consortium category.
vii) Document Delivery Service: Though many journals are being considered for
subscription under consortium, copies of articles from many other titles which are not subscribed
under the consortium may be obtained from any participating library through Document Delivery
Service by sending the request.
The e-subscription initiative under UGC-Infonet is expected to trigger remarkable
increase in sharing of both print and electronic resources amongst the university libraries
through one of the gateway portals being identified. The gateway portals provide
customized solution not only to access the resources online but also access the resources
of other libraries participating in the consortium. The consortium headquarter
(INFLIBNET) is assigned to function as a resource centre with an aim to cater to the
needs of its members for resources not accessible to them in electronic media or are
available in print media. With subscribed resources accessible online in electronic format,
the member libraries would have less pressure on space requirement for storing and
managing print-based library resources. Moreover, all problems associated with print
media such as their wear and tear, location, shelving, binding, organizing, etc. would not
be an issue for electronic resources.
ICMR in the form of ICMR e-Consortia has been subscribing to the e-journals in a
consortia mode to all ICMR institutes. The Council also provides partial financial assistance for
organising Seminars/ Symposia/ Workshops.

Types of Research
Types of Research: The research can be categorized into the following types-
a) Basic Vs Applied: Fundamental research is also known as pure research, theoretical
research or basic research. It belongs to the domain of fundamental, intellectual, natural
problem and queries and hence is quite theoretical in nature and approach. According to
Pauline “gathering of knowledge for knowledge’s sake is termed pure or basic research”
i.e studies conducted to achieve a fuller understanding of a phenomena without
considering of how their findings will be applied belongs to basic research. Its major
preoccupation lies with designing the tools of analysis and with discovering universal
laws and theories. It may be note that the scope of the sphere of activity of basic research
is extraordinarily wide.
Research concerning some natural phenomena or relating to pure mathematics are
examples of fundamental research. Similarly research studies concerning human behavior
carried on with a view to make generalization about human behavior are also examples of
fundamental research. It is also widely used in the case of environment protection,
conflict resolution, crisis prevention, health pandemics, etc. Again basic research findings
can be subsequently used to enrich applied or strategic research.
“Basic research is necessary to develop and question concepts and theories and to bring
new perspectives into the development discourse”. It considers knowledge as an end in
itself, and the purpose is to discover the truth. There is no guarantee of short-term
practical gain from basic research that result in low rate of funding for basic research.
Applied research is pursued for some purpose outside of its own domain, either for an
immediate distinct utility or as an aid to the development of some other subject. Thus the
central aim of applied research is to discover a solution for some pressing practical
Applied research aims to provide knowledge on which the best decisions can be made
regarding the problem associated with serious risks which otherwise can cause disaster.
The objective of applied social research is to use data so that decisions can be made. Its
purpose is to understand the nature and sources of human and social problems. The
marketing research or evolution researches are examples of applied research.
b) Descriptive Vs. Analytical Research: Descriptive research includes surveys and fact
findings enquiries of different kind. It provides description of the conditions / existing
relationship / opinions held / process going on / effects evident / trend developing on the
present cases / event with relation to the past. In other words, descriptive studies are the
one whose purpose is to describe accurately the characteristic of a group. The major
purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affair as it exists at present.
The main characteristic of this method is that the researcher has no control over the
variables. He can only report what happened or what is happening.
Descriptive Studies is used in the following cases-
i) While gathering empirical data regarding certain phenomena so as to interpret them in
a broader perspective of generalization;
ii) To study psychological phenomena of a group of individuals;
iii) To study relationship between variables under uncontrolled observation.
In analytical research, the researcher has to use facts or information already available and
analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the material.
b) Quantitative Vs. Qualitative Research: Quantitative research is based on the
measurement of quantity or amount. It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed
in terms of quantity.
Qualitative research on the other hand is concerned with qualitative phenomena i.e. phenomena
relating to or involving quality or kind. Research design to find out, how people feel or what they
think about a particular subject or institution is a qualitative research. To apply qualitative
research in practice is relatively a difficult job and therefore one should seek guidance for
experimental psychologists.
c) Conceptual Vs. Empirical Research: Conceptual research is that related to some
abstract ideas or theory. It is generally used by philosopher and thinker to develop new concepts
or to reinterpret existing ones.
d) Empirical research relies on experience or observation alone, often without due respect
for system and theory. It is data based research coming up with conclusions which are capable of
being verified by observation or experiment.
e) Diagnostic Studies: The diagnostic study is concerned with the discovering and
testing certain variables with respect to their association or disassociation. It enquires into the
basic nature and cause of an existing problem. In its broadest sense, the diagnosis corresponds to
the fact finding aspect of the clinical practice.
Diagnostic Studies is applicable to the instances like solution of a specific problem by the
discovery of the relevant variables, discovering or analyzing a specific problem.
f) Explanatory Research: It structures and identifies new problems. Exploratory research
is a type of research conducted because a problem has not been clearly defined.
Exploratory research helps determine the best research design, data collection method
and selection of subjects. Given its fundamental nature, exploratory research often
concludes that a perceived problem does not actually exist. The objective of explanatory
research is the development of hypothesis rather than their testing.
Exploratory research often relies on secondary research such as reviewing available
literature and/or data, or qualitative approaches such as informal discussions with
consumers, employees, management or competitors, and more formal approaches through
in-depth interviews, focus groups, projective methods, case studies or pilot studies. The
Internet allows for research methods that are more interactive in nature: E.g., RSS feeds
efficiently supply researchers with up-to-date information; major search engine search
results may be sent by email to researchers by services such as Google Alerts;
comprehensive search results are tracked over lengthy periods of time by services such as
Google Trends; and Web sites may be created to attract worldwide feedback on any
g) Historical Research: Historical research is that which utilizes historical sources like
documents remains, etc. to study event or ideas of the past including the philosophy of
the person and groups at any remote point of time.
h) Action Research: Action research is a reflective process of progressive problem solving led
by individuals working with others in teams or as part of a "community of practice" to improve
the way they address issues and solve problems. Action research can also be undertaken by larger
organizations or institutions, assisted or guided by professional researchers, with the aim of
improving their strategies, practices, and knowledge of the environments within which they
Kurt Lewin, then a professor at MIT, first coined the term “action research” in about 1944, and it
appears in his 1946 paper “Action Research and Minority Problems”. In that paper, he described
action research as “a comparative research on the conditions and effects of various forms of
social action and research leading to social action” that uses “a spiral of steps, each of which is
composed of a circle of planning, action, and fact-finding about the result of the action”.
Types of Reference and Information Service
Types of Reference and Information Service: The emergence of the internet extends the
reference librarian's ability to provide diverse and complex services and potentiality to show
their real professional expertise to meet the demand put on them.
a) James I Wyer Theories: In considering the scope of reference services, James I Wyer
proposed three theories of reference service i.e conservative, moderate and liberal. Samuel
Rothstein called them minimum, middling, and maximum.
i) Conservative: It includes giving occasional personal assistance to the inexperienced and
bewildered reader. It limits the help to pointing the way only and so it is traditional in nature.
ii) Moderate: The moderate reference service goes beyond providing mere instruction to actually
helping the reader in using the book or finding the document and facts, etc.
ii) Liberal: It includes the provision of the full and direct supply of reliable information to the
b) Edward B. Reeve’s Categories: Edward B. Reeve and others have categorized the activities
of reference staff into the following five categories on the basis of related functions.
i) Instructional Activities: These are characterized by explicit teaching function.
ii) Skill Maintenance Activities: These are related to up-dating the knowledge of reference tools.
iii) Patron Service Activities: This deals with providing information to the users of the reference
iv) Maintenance Activities: These are house keeping activities.
v) Surrogate Activities: These are those activities which the reference staff perform on behalf of
the other departments / sections of the library.
c) Dr. S. R. Ranganathan’s Classification: Dr. S. R. Ranganathan identified two aspects of
reference work - Ready reference service and Long range reference service.
i) Ready Reference Service: Most of the ready reference services are of the nature of fact finding
types that can be finished in a very short time – in a moment if possible. The librarian generally
uses reference book for providing such kind of services. The need of ready reference services
arises from the fact of the complex nature of a reference book, its artificiality, and arrangement
of information. The eminent person, foreign dignitaries or scholars generally approach for such
type of services. Sometimes some regular customers also need the fact finding reference service
because of shortage of time on their part.
ii) Long Range Reference Service: The long range Reference Service is based on consulting
every possible source of information to arrive at the required information; as such, it is not
possible to render this type of service immediately. The time needed may range from half an hour
to weeks. The search in the long range reference service starts at the reference books and then
goes to the ordinary books, pamphlets, reports, articles in periodicals, etc. If the information is
not available in the library then the search can even go to other local libraries and occasionally to
the other libraries in the country. The long range reference service provided today can become
the ready reference service tomorrow, as by this time the reference librarian will be able to locate
the material quickly from his past experience. Slowly, the scope of long range reference service
started expanding. Now bibliographical service, referral service, translation service, etc are
considered long range reference services.
d) American Library Association’s Categorization: In 1942, the American Library Association
undertook a series of library job analysis. This association has stated the following six functions
of Reference Service
i) Supervision Function: This function consists of the proper organization of facilities, reference
section, selection of reference materials, direction of personnel, and study of the library clientele.
ii) Information Function: There should be an Information Desk where enquiries are received
and routed to proper section. The Reference Librarians should be prepared to answer all types of
questions and should be able to produce the sources that would answer the questions.
iii) Guidance Function: The Reference librarian should be able to recommend a good book for
respective fields. He should be able to give guidance to the readers regarding higher education,
career related information or profession or vocation. He can also give guidance to the readers in
the location of the document, in the choice of books and other reading materials.
iv) Instruction Function: The Reference librarian should instruct the readers about the working
of the library, the location of the material, the use of the catalogue card, the reference book, etc.
An initiation or orientation programme should be arranged to familiarize the readers with the
library practices and procedures.
v) Bibliographic Function: There should be a preparation of bibliographies of interest to the
readers so that they are able to know about the books and other reading materials required for
their respective subjects.
vi) Appraisal Function: The libraries should possess the right kind of materials and reference
collections and the staff should be able to get the most out of it.
1. General Categorization of Reference and Information Service: The focal point of
Reference Service is answering questions posed by the library user. Based on the activity that are
performed to meet the user demand, the Reference and Information service can be categorised as
a) Instructional: Instruction in using the library and library resources (bibliography,
encyclopaedia, OPAC), assisting the end user to locate the appropriate material within and
outside the library, etc. are an important function associated with the Reference and Information
Service of a library. Questions that range from as simple as "Where are the bound volume?" or
"Where is the catalog?" to research questions that may take hours or even days to properly
answer are to be dealt with in this section.
b) Referral Service: It directs enquirers to a source of information which may be an
organization or an individual expert. Generally, when a library or information centre does not
have the material and cannot obtain it from the sources but it knows the exact location of the
document / information, then it can refer the user to the sources of information.
c) Information Scouting: Information scouting service consists of keeping abreast of who has
what information and where. Then it can refer the request to the appropriate person and place in
the organization or outside it or both. Information scouting is an extended form of referral
d) Citation Verification Service: Citation Verification Service is intended to verify the
citations/references and authentication of bibliographical details of books, articles, reports, theses
and other published materials obtained from sources other than the authoritative indexing and
abstracting services offered by reputed publishers and licensed database producers. The library
patrons need this type of service for the preparation of assignments, dissertations, theses, and
project proposals.
e) Literature Search / Bibliographical Survey: Literature search may be defined as a
systematic search for literature in any form on a particular topic. It forms the very first step of a
research pursuit. Otherwise, if a research work is duplicated the valuable time, money and labour
of the researcher will be wasted. The literature search is also needed to present the latest
available facts in writing articles or topic on any theme. Special library and information centres
generally provide literature search facilities to its patrons on demand. Later, the result of the
literature search is circulated to the enquirers. A sub type of this service is also known as
Database Search Service (DBSS), which intends to obtain information critical to the proposed or
ongoing dissertations, theses, post-doctoral research and other project work by consulting
different online and offline data bases.
f) Preparation of Bibliographies, Indexes and Abstracts on Certain Minute Subject: If
demands come from the research scholar or a research team member of the parent organization,
the library prepares the bibliographies, indexes and abstract for him/her to meet the demand. It
offers the bibliographies or reading lists on diverse topics relevant to the proposed or ongoing
dissertation work, doctoral and post-doctoral research. The compilation of bibliographies is the
end product of a literature search. From the bibliographies, the users can find out all the materials
on a given subject at a time. It helps the user in selecting the required information by saving
g) Translation Service: Translation is a process of transforming precisely the information
contents of the text in one language into another language. The former is called the Source
language and the latter is called as the Text language. Translation service helps overcome the
language barrier.
In the field of science and technology, the National Translation Centre, Chicago,
America, International Translation Centre, Delft, Netherlands, British Library Lending Division,
Boston and in India, INSDOC, New Delhi have foreign language translation service for all the
individuals and organizations, who cannot afford the expensive in-house translation facilities. In
case of online, whenever a search result lists a relevant resource in another language, one can
check out AltaVista's translation feature. With this service, French, German, Italian, Spanish, and
Portuguese websites are translated to English (and vice versa). One can also try with Google
Translation to meet this purpose.
h) Interlibrary Loan Request: Interlibrary loan (ILL) is a cooperative activity and a
narrower form of interlibrary loan service. In theory, it is capable of expanding the walls of the
library to encompass all the world's library collections. The ILL concept is expanded by
UNESCO's Universal Availability Publications Program (often called UAP). UAP has the goal of
making any publication available to any person anywhere in the world. ILL has practical limits
that make its scope smaller but still its potential of expanding customers' access to other libraries'
collections is great. The material obtained from ILL may be delivered through different means
and avenue (physically, making photocopy or printing, scanning) based on the need of the user.
Processing interlibrary loan request from other library and delivering the material through
email / fax / speed post is another duty of the library reference staff.
i) Consultancy Service: Consultant can be defined as “an expert who gives professional advice
usually on payment basis” and consultancy can be defined as “an organization that provides
professional or organization expert advice on payment basis”. In the industrial sector the
consultants play a vital role by providing information & advice on production, export, import etc.
“Information Consultant” is a term used for those persons or firms involved in various activities
including library or information centre design, database design, records management, hardware
& software selection & training, etc. The library and information science professionals can
effectively discharge their duties as information consultants for various organizations as well as
individuals but to perform this duty they should have vast practical experience and in-depth
subject knowledge. In this connection the following points are to be noted:
i) Tools: Information consultants have their own unique set of tools, e.g. bibliographies, search
and meta search engines, databases, reference collection, etc. The consultants get their work done
with the help of these sets of tools, a particular combination & configuration of specialized
equipment technique & style in addition to their knowledge base as the organizer of world
information to get their job done.
ii) Benefits from Information Consultant: The importance of information consulting profession
is directly related with the advancement in micro-computer technology and information
explosion in print as well as digital environment. Consulting the information consultant can give
four benefits to the clients. These are-
* It provides objective independent advice in regard to political, religious and other matter;
* To take the help of consultants can be highly cost-effective because money can be saved by not
going through the vast number of documents and by procuring them and getting the required
* The consultant has the necessary knowledge and skill;
* They are easy and convenient but the funding of the organization makes it difficult to employ
them for a long or short term basis in the organization.
iii) Services: Services rendered by consultants and consulting organization mostly fall within the
scope of technical enquiry service, feasibility studies, reviewing some technologies, software,
evaluating technologies, marketing of the products, market survey, designing new databases,
software to be used in information processing, storage or retrieval, system analysis &
management, advice on collection development, doing cataloguing, editorial services like
indexing, abstracting, etc.
j) Information Broker Service: An information broker (IB) is “an individual or organization
who on demand seeks to answer questions using all sources and who is in business for a profit”.
They are those individuals or firms who are so professional and experienced enough in their lines
that they can gather the requested information with a computer and a telephone within a few
minutes or hours. An IB may not simply be a librarian, or simply one who "goes online" and
searches for the answers to questions and problems of the patron; or he isn't someone who "has
all the answers".
The Association of Independent Information Professionals, the first professional
association devoted to information brokers, was formed in Milwaukee in 1987. The profession
has its roots in 1937 when librarians and other information professionals formed an organization
called the American Society for Information Science and Technology in an attempt to establish
their professional identity separate from public libraries.
i) Tools: IBs use a combination of online, offline, and physical search techniques depending
on the clients' needs. Every assignment is different and the IB determines the
appropriate method of obtaining the clients' requested information, while remaining
within the clients' budget. Once all the required information is located and retrieved,
the IB then cleans up the raw information and presents it in the manner most
appropriate for his/her client. This may mean summarizing the information or
verifying the correctness of it.
ii) Importance: If anyone had a major health problem they would not attempt themselves to
solve it. They would seek the services of the appropriate professional (a doctor in this case). So,
just a person would use an attorney for legal work or a doctor for medical work, they use an
Information Broker for access to the needed information. A great impetus for the growth of
information broker has come from the recognition that knowledge is a business and information
is a commodity and the fact that many people simply are not aware of many of the avenues
available to find the needed information. People can locate information in many cases, but it is
the experienced IB that knows and has access to more avenues of information retrieval than the
average individual or firm. After all, this is the IBs' specialty.
iii) Services: Information broker helps in getting the appropriate information by the end
users. It is a cost effective and time saving mechanism. The common uses for the information
brokers include market research, patent searches, and any other type of information research,
preparation of report on any subject, and so on.
2. Let Us Sum Up: Previously, personal assistance was provided on a part-time and
occasional basis. Increased demand for the services resulted in reference work becoming
a specialized function. It eventually gained the status of a separate department in
libraries. Personal contact with the client and explaining the policies and services of the
library can create a great interest of the reader for the library. Personal appearance of the
member of the library staff in front of the groups and individual is also helpful in this
Currently, reference departments in public, academic, and school libraries attempt to offer
at least moderate levels of reference and information service in all areas of its scope. It
helps the users find information for them, teach and instruct them how to use library
resources and how to do library research and by this way increase the popularity of the
library and its support by the library users. Departmental, professional school and
research institute libraries now tend to offer reference and information service of such a
quality and depth that it approaches that of a special library.
The Reference librarian is well aware of the vastness of the world of knowledge and the
varieties of intricacies of the information required by the reader at different level. So, he
can do much more for his reader. He can set the information seekers in the right track.

Types of Library Software Packages

Types of Library Software Packages: The computer cannot do anything without some
programme or instruction or software. Unlike the hardware, software cannot be touched but it
instructs the computer what to do in a particular situation. Any type of computer programme
designed to perform some kind of library activities is known as library software. It may be a
simple programme to perform the job of acquisition or cataloguing or integrated library
management software that will perform the job of acquisition, cataloguing, circulation, serial
control and others. It may also be digital library management software which will manage the
digital resources of the library or some other types, say a Learning Management System or
Content Management System, etc.
There are different library software packages, and each of them has different functionability. The
amalgamation of features adds a lot of difficulties in categorizing the library software packages.
However for the purpose of our study, an attempt is made to categorize the library software
packages into the following:
A) Based on Function Performed
a) Database Creation Software (E.g CDS/ISIS)
b) Library House Keeping / Management Software Packages (Libsys, OASIS, Sanjay, SLIM,
c) Institutional Repository Software Packages (CDSWare, Dspace, E-prints, Fedora, Ganesha
digital library, Greenstone)
B) Based on Source Code Availability
a) Proprietary software (SOUL)
b) Open Source Software Packages (Koha)
C) Based on Cost Factor
a) Completely Commercial (LibSys)
b) In-house Developed;
c) Shareware
d) Freeware (Gratis / Libre software)
e) Open Source Software
The following paragraphs will describe each and every aspect of the library software packages.
Due attention is given to list the free software packages (open source and proprietary) that can be
implemented without giving much stress on library finance. Sometimes a few commercial
software packages that are also well proven also listed out to have a comparative study of the
trend of available functionality in both categories.
Types of Computers
Types of Computers: Computers can be classified in many different ways; some of them are
discussed bellow
A) Based On Purpose and Use: Depending upon the purpose for which computers are used, it
can be classified as follows
a) General Purpose Computer: This type of computer is so designed that it can be used to
solve many kinds of problem or which permits the development of different stimulated models as
needed. Eg. Model EA1-2000 (Electronic Association Inc).
b) Special Purpose Computer: It has a fixed programme with a few or no permitted adjustment.
It is generally built into or appended to the physical system it serves. Examples: Special Purpose
Pneumatic Analog Computer, Model Foxboro 516 (Foxboro Co.).
B) Based On Interconnection: Based on interconnection computer can be Distributed and
Parallel computer.
a) Distributed Computer: A configuration in which several workstation / PC are interconnected
by a communication network is called a distributed computer system. A common use of
distributed computer is the so called client server computing.
b) Parallel Computer: A set of computers connected together by a high speed communication
network and programmed in such a way that they corporate to solve a single large problem is
called a parallel computer. It can again be classified into two categories i.e Shared Memory
Parallel Computer and Distributed Memory Parallel Computer.
C) Based on Programme: Based on programme computer can be-
a) Embedded Computer: Embedded computers are small, simple devices that are used to
control other devices. These are embedded within the circuitry of appliances such as fighter
aircraft, industrial robots, digital cameras, children's toys, washing machines, wrist watches, etc.
These computers are typically preprogrammed for a specific task.
b) Programmable Computer: The user can create a new program for his/her specific purpose in
these types of computers. It can be used as notepads, scheduling system and address books. If
equipped with a cellular phone it can also be connected to World Wide computer networks for
exchanging information regardless of location.
D) Based On Technology / Design: Based on technology computer can of the following types-
a) Analog Computer: An analog computer receives inputs that are instantaneous representation
of variable quantities and produce output results dynamically to a graphical display device, a
virtual display device or, in case of a control system, a device which causes mechanical motion.
b) Digital Computer: The digital computer works with numbers, words, and symbols expressed
as digits which it manipulates and counts discretely.
c) Hybrid Computer: The flexibility of the electronic analog computer has allowed it to be
augmented with interface channels to the electronic digital computer, so that during 1960s a third
type of general computer i.e. the hybrid computer came into being. The hybrid computers
combine the features of the other two types and utilize both analog and discrete representation of
A few more computers are being made all over the world, which are in their
developmental stages. They include
d) Optical Computer: Today's computers use the movement of electrons in-and-out of
transistors to do logic. Photonic computing is intended to use photons or light particles, produced
by lasers, in place of electrons. Compared to electrons, photons are much faster – light travels
about 30 cm, or one foot, in a nanosecond – and have a higher bandwidth.
A completely optical computer (or photonic computer) requires that one light beam can turn
another on and off. This was first achieved with the photonic transistor, invented in 1989 at the
Rocky Mountain Research Center. This demonstration eventually created a growing interest in
making photonic logic componentry utilizing light interference.
e) Atomic Computer or Molecular Computer: Molecular computers, also called DNA
computer, are massively parallel computers taking advantage of the computational power of
molecules (specifically biological). Molectronics specifically refers to the sub-field of physics
which addresses the computational potential of atomic arrangements.
f) Biological Computer: DNA computing is a form of computing which uses DNA,
biochemistry and molecular biology, instead of the traditional silicon-based computer
technologies. DNA computing, or, more generally, molecular computing, is a fast developing
interdisciplinary area.
g) Chemical Computer: A chemical computer, also called reaction-diffusion computer, BZ
computer or gooware computer, is an unconventional computer based on a semi-solid chemical
"soup" where the data is represented by varying concentrations of chemicals. The computations
are performed by naturally occurring chemical reactions. So far it is still in a very early
experimental stage, but may have great potential for the computer industry.
h) Quantum Computer: A quantum computer is a device for computation that makes direct use
of quantum mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform
operations on data. The basic principle behind quantum computation is that quantum properties
can be used to represent data and perform operations on these data.
E) Based On Memory (Physical Size): Modern computer system varies in physical size from
those that used to fill a room to those with CPUs that can rest on the nail of a person’s little
finger. Generally the larger the systems the greater are its processing speed, storage capacity, cost
and ability to handle large number of powerful input and output devices.
a) Micro Computer: Micro computers are popularly known as Desktop computer.
Microcomputers are the smallest unit. They may be tiny, special purpose devices dedicated to
carrying out a single task or they may be the more visible and familiar personal computer
ranging from note book size to desktop size that we can use in countless ways. The performance
of some newer micros surpasses the capabilities of some older minis. Memory capacity upto 4
MB, now upto 64 MB. Eg. Acer’s, Aspire, Compaq, etc.
b) Mini Computer: They are generally more powerful and more expensive than Micros.
Memory Capacity ranges from 4-24MB, but now obsolete. In physical size mini computers vary
from desktop models to unit that has the size of a small cabinet. Eg. IBM-6000 model 580, CDC
4360, etc.
c) Mainframe Computer: Mainframe computers are the system that offers faster processing
speeds and greater storage capacity than a typical mini. A whole series of mainframe models
ranging from small to very large are usually lumped together under a family designation by
mainframe vendors. Memory capacity 10 MB – 128 MB. Eg. CDC 2000, IBM ES-2, etc.
d) Super Computer: These are the largest, fastest and more expensive system in the world.
Super computer is designed to process complex scientific jobs, to analyze large commercial
databases, produce animated movies and play games such as Chess. Memory capacity is 256 MB
onwards. A super computer is very expensive, prices range from about $ 4 million to over $ 17
million. Eg. Cray -1, Cray-2, Cray-3, ETA-10, X-MP, etc.
The above classifications are arbitrary. The fact is that the size, cost, and performance
capabilities of machines in different classifications are likely to overlap.
E) Based On Nature Of Use: All the above classifications are no longer relevant. Computers
can only be classified as based on its use.
a) Home Computer / Personal Computer: Home computer was a class of personal computer
entering the market in 1977 and becoming common during the 1980s. They were marketed to
consumers as accessible personal computers, more capable than video game consoles. These
computers typically cost much less than business, scientific or engineering-oriented desktop
personal computers of the time, and were generally less powerful in terms of memory and
expandability. Personal computers, in various forms, are icons of the Information Age and are
what most people think of as "a computer"; however, the most common form of computer in use
today is the embedded computer.
A personal computer (PC) is any general-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and
original sales price make it useful for individuals, and which is intended to be operated directly
by an end user, with no intervening computer operator. A personal computer may be a desktop
computer, a laptop computer or a tablet computer.
i) Desktop Computer: A desktop computer is a personal computer (PC) in a form intended for
regular use at a single location, as opposed to a mobile laptop or portable computer. It can
indicate a horizontally-oriented computer case usually intended to have the display screen placed
on top to save space on the desk top. Most modern desktop computers have separate screens and
ii) Laptop Computer: Also known as Notebook Computer or Portable computer. A laptop is a
personal computer designed for mobile use and is small enough to sit on one's lap. A laptop
integrates most of the typical components of a desktop computer, including a display, a
keyboard, a pointing device (a touchpad, also known as a trackpad, and/or a pointing stick),
speakers, and often including a battery, into a single small and light unit.
iii) Handheld Computer: A handheld computer is a pocket-sized computing device, typically
having a display screen with touch input or a miniature keyboard.
iv) Personal Digital Assistance (PDA): A personal digital assistant (PDA) is a handheld
computer, also known as a palmtop computer. Newer PDAs commonly have color screens and
audio capabilities, enabling them to be used as mobile phones (smartphones), web browsers, or
portable media players.
b) Work Station: The distinction between PC and Work station in the recent day concept is
blurring. The principal reason is that microprocessor used in PCs are nowadays as powerful as
many of those used in work stations.
Total Quality Management (TQM)
Total Quality Management (TQM): Quality means conforming to specification and standard.
It means customer satisfaction, competitive cost, timely delivery, etc. The quality means it
functions well. It not only meets our expectation but even exceeds them by providing it,
attractively, employing friendly means in a welcoming atmosphere.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO-8420-1994) defines quality as
“the total feature and characteristic of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated
or implied needs.
The concept of TQM has developed by U. S. Department of Defence. They develop some
principles of TQM, which have been adopted by industries world wide for gaining and
maintaining the qualities of their product.
The International Organization for Standardization defined the TQM as “management approach
of an organization centered on quality based on the participation of all its member and aiming at
long term success through customer satisfaction and benefits to all members of the organization
and to society”.
According to Ross, “TQM is the integration of all function and processes within an
organization in order to achieve continuous improvement of the quality of goods and services”.
The goal is customer satisfaction.
In other words, TQM is basically a philosophy or concept or approach aiming of
satisfying customer / user need on a continuous basis (quality first time, every time, all the time)
by involving each and every (total) in the system and a lower cost (management).
a) TQM in Library and Information Science: Library and Information Science Centres
generally exist in relation to their parent organization. They are viewed as a subsystem of the
main system. Hence TQM will find its way in the subsystem only when there is such an
orientation in the main systems itself. Within the subsystem, the approach has to be accepted by
all the Library and Information Science staff involved rather than leaving it to the domain of any
public relation staff like circulation and reference.
b) Need of TQM: The need of TQM is felt due to the following reasons-
i) User expectation from library is rising constantly which demands for even more sophisticated
high quality information product and services.
ii) Library and Information Science professionals are facing stiff challenges from the increasing
information industry.
iii) Library and Information Science are now asked to become self sufficient if they are to
survive in cost-conscious and competition oriented social environmental setup.
c) Areas of Application of TQM in Library: The Library and Information Centres are basically
service organization. So, they can effectively apply the TQM concept in each and every field.
Some of the possible areas are-
i) Laws of Library Science: Five laws of library science have so many implications similar to
what is advocated in TQM that it is often advocated as a refined and modern version of five laws
of library science. The first law advocated changing the conservative attitude of the LIS
personnel. The second law and third law indicate the marketing approach underlying in TQM. It
advocated for the survey of and feedback from the user and to design and render library services
so that it meets their actual need. Fourth law points out that information should be pin-pointed,
exhaustive and expeditions. Organization and retrieval of information is what the sum and
substance of the TQM approach is.
ii) Library Services: TQM can be effectively used in providing services to user. In rendering
CAS / SDI, interlibrary loan, access to national and international databases through internet or
other network, attending reference queries and reference service over phone, fax or personal
contact, etc.
iii) Library Products: Library and Information Centres produce catalogue card, indexing and
abstracting periodicals, newsletter, database of their collection, subject bibliographies, etc, all of
which can be enrich by TQM.
iv) Marketing of Library Services and Products: TQM can be used in creating information
awareness and consciousness among the user and reaching out to the potential users. It can be
used in identification of the user group, determination of needs, wants and demand of each user
group, fulfillment of the same through designing and delivering appropriate information product
and services.
d) Ways of Achieving the TQM: TQM can be achieved by way of the following-
i) Competence: The employees must possess the required skill and knowledge about the product
and services.
ii) Credibility: The organization and employees must be trustworthy.
iv) Responsiveness: The employee must respond quickly and creatively to customer request
and problem. The employee should make an effort to understand the customer need
and provide individual attention.
v) Communication: The service or product should be described accurately in customer
v) Courtesy: The employees should be friendly, respectful and considerate.
vi) Tangible: The service and product should correctly project the quality on readers centered.
vii) Reliable: The service and product should be reliable and performance should be consistence.
viii) Security: The service and product should be free from danger, risk, and doubt.
ix) Access: The service or product and the library staff should be accessible in convenient
location, at convenient times with little or no waiting period.
x) Feedback: There should be a continuous policy to collect the feedback from the users.
xi) Evaluation: The service and product should be continuously evaluated to meet the changing
Tools and Techniques of Data or Information Collection
Data Collection: Collection of data constitutes the first step in a statistical investigation. Utmost
care must be exercised in collecting data as because they form the foundation of statistical
method. If data are faulty, the conclusion drawn can never be reliable.
1. Types of Data: Generally data are of two types-
a) Primary Data: The data which are originally collected by an agency for the first time for any
statistical investigation are said to be primary data.
b) Secondary Data: The data which have already been collected by some agency and taken over
from there and used by any other agency for their statistical work are termed as secondary data.
So in simple if a primary data collected for a statistical investigation are used in other statistical
investigation then those data are called as secondary data.
2. Tools and Techniques of Data or Information Collection: The primary data or information
can be collected by the following means-
a) Observing Behaviors of Participants: This method specifies the conditions and methods at
making observation. In this method, the information is sought by way of investigator’s own
direct observation without asking from the respondent. The main advantage of this method is that
subjective bias is eliminated, if observations are done accurately. It is the most commonly used
method especially in studies relating to behavioral science.
b) Questionnaire Method: Under this method, a list of questions pertaining to the survey
(known as questionnaire) is prepared and sent to the various informants by post. The
questionnaire contains questions and provides space for answer. A request is made to the
informants through a covering letter to fill up the questionnaire and sent it back within a
specified time. The respondents have to answer the questions on their own. The questionnaire
can be delivered directly hand by hand, through surface post or as an electronic questionnaire.
In preparing a research questionnaire general question, question wording to collect personal
information, use of unfamiliar terms and jargon, etc. should be avoided. Further, before
distribution of a research questionnaire at least two pre-tests should be conducted and it is very
much needed.
c) Interview Method: This involves listening to or integrating informants. The interview method
of collecting data involves presentation of oral-verbal stimuli and reply in terms of oral – verbal
responses. So, under this method of collecting data, there is a face to face contact with the
persons from whom the information is to be collected. The interviewer asks them question
pertaining to the survey and collects the desired information. This method can be used through
personal interview, telephone interview, Chat, Audio Conferencing, Video Conferencing, etc. The
interview can be structured, semi structured or open interview.
d) Schedules Method: In this method of data collection, the ennumerator or interviewers who
are specially appointed for the purpose along with schedules, go to the respondents, put to them
the questions from the Performa in the order the questionnaire are listed and record the replies in
the space meant for the same in the Performa. In certain situation, schedules may be handed over
to respondents and ennumerators may help them in recording their answer to various questions in
the said schedules. Ennumerator explains the aims and objectives of the investigation and also
removes the difficulties which respondents may feel in relation to understanding the implication
of a particular question or a definition or concept of difficult term. This method has the
advantage over the questionnaire method in the sense that the respondents have no scope to
misunderstand any question and thereby putting irrelevant answer.
e) Information from Correspondents: Under this method, the investigator appoints local agent
or correspondents in different places to collect information. These correspondents collect and
transmit information to the central office where the data are processed. The special advantage of
this method is that it is cheap and appropriate for extensive investigation. However, it may not
always ensure accurate results because of the personal prejudice and bias of the correspondents.
Newspaper agencies generally adopt this method.
Besides the above methods, nowadays many big companies also follow some other
method for primary data collection like warranty card, Distributor or Store Audit, Consumer
Panels, Projective Techniques, Depth Interview, Content analysis, etc.
In most of the studies the investigator finds it impracticable to collect first hand
information on all related issues and as such he/she makes use of the data collected by others.
The secondary data can be collected by way of examining historical and other records, literature
and proverbs. If data available in secondary sources are reliable, suitable and adequate then only
the secondary data should be collected.
Thesaurus: The word thesaurus more commonly means a listing of words with similar, related,
or opposite meanings. It is designed for drawing distinctions between similar words and assisting
in choosing exactly the right word. A formal definition of a thesaurus designed for indexing is: a
list of every important term (single-word or multi-word) in a given domain of knowledge
arranged in a systematic order and manifesting various types of relationship existing between the
terms; and a set of related terms for each term in the list. Some examples of thesaurus are
Thesaurus of English Words & Phrases (ed. P. Roget); The Synonym Finder (ed. J. I. Rodale);
Webster's New World Thesaurus (ed. C. Laird); etc.
The thesaurus consists of descriptors and non-descriptors. Descriptors are indexing terms
consisting of one or more words, and representing always one and the same concept. Non-
descriptors are terms which help the user to find the appropriate descriptor(s). They appear
followed by a reference (USE operator) to the descriptor, which is the preferred term, and the
only one which may be used for indexing. When a term is ambiguous, a “scope note” can be
added to ensure consistency, and give direction on how to interpret the term. Naturally, not every
term needs a scope note, but their presence is of considerable help in using a thesaurus correctly
and reaching a correct understanding of the given field of knowledge.
Term relationships are links between terms that often describe synonyms, near-synonyms, or
hierarchical relations. Hierarchical relationships are used to indicate terms which are narrower
and broader in scope.
i) Related Term (RT): Synonyms and near-synonyms are indicated by a Related Term (RT).
The way the term "Cybernetics" is related to the term "Computers" is an example of
such a relationship.
ii) Broader Term (BT): A Broader Term (BT) is a more general term, e.g. “Apparatus” is a
generalization of “Computers”.
iii) Narrower Term (NT): A Narrower Term (NT) is a more specific term, e.g.
“Digital Computer” is a specialization of “Computer”.
iv) BT and NT are reciprocals; a broader term necessarily implies at least one other
term which is narrower. Thesaurus designers are generally careful to ensure that BT and NT
indicate class relationships, as distinguished from part-whole relationships. Some thesauri also
include Use (USE) and Used For (UF) indicators when an authorized term is to be used for
another, unauthorized, term; for example the entry for the authorized term "Bird" could have the
indicator "UF Aves". Reciprocally, the entry for the unauthorized term "Aves" would have the
indicator "USE Bird".
Symbol Meaning Type
BT Broader Term Descriptor
NT Narrower Term Descriptor
RT Related Term Descriptor
USE Use Non-descriptor
UF Used For Descriptor
Table 1: Symbols used in the word blocks of descriptors and non-descriptors
Theories of Information
Theories of Information: At different times, different people in different context propose
various theories of information. Some of them are listed below:
a) Communication: The communication process requires at least three elements - source,
message and destination.
i) Mathematical Theory: According to Shannon and Weaver the amount of information in a
message is related to the size of the vocabulary. If one is restricted to “yes” or “no” then the
recipient has the fifty percent chance of guessing correctly. If the vocabulary has ten signals then
the recipient has less chance of guessing and so amount of information in a message is increased.
ii) Semantic Theory: Fairthorne proposed the “phlogiston theory of information”. According to
this theory, information is something that can be squeezed out like water from a sponge.
Information will obviously be affected by the prior state of knowledge of the recipient.
As an alternative to the above theory Y. Barttiller and R. Carnap came out with semantic
information theory. They suggested that a prior knowledge may increase information from a
message (how precisely do the transmitted symbols convey the desired meaning).
iii) Information for Decision Making: M. C. Yovits proposed that “information is data of value
to decision making”. Information involves reduction of uncertainty that is what the decision
makers accept from the information system.
b) Commodity: Information is a commodity that is needed to do a job and so acquiring, storing
and retrieving objects identified as information are important for our jobs and daily life.
i) Zipf’s Law: George Kingsely Zipf proposes a relationship that exists between the frequency
in the use of words and their distribution in books, reports, documents and other printed matter.
The Zipf’s law was published in the book Psycho-biology of Language: An Introduction to
Dynamic Philosophy, Cambridge, Mass MIT press, 1935. According to this law if the number of
different words occurring once in a given sample is taken as X, the number of different words
occurring twice, three times, four times, n times in the sample is respectively 1/2., 1/3, 1/4, 1/n of
n upto, though not including, few most frequently used words.
ii) Bradfords Law: Samuel Clement Bradford in 1948 proposed another law. According to him
if scientific journals are arranged in order of decreasing productivity of articles on a given
subject they may be divided into a nucleus of periodicals, more particularly devoted to the
subject and several groups of zones containing the same number of articles as the nucleus. When
the number of periodicals in the nucleus and successive zones will be as 1:n:n2 where n=5, that
is, the second zones has five times the number of journals of the first zone and the third zones
has 52 or twenty five times the number of journals in the first or nucleus zone. This law was
extended by many, notably B. C. Vikery, F. Leimkuhler and B. C. Brookes.
iii) Lotka’s Law: Alfred J. Lotka produced his law in 1926. Lotka’s law states that there is an
exponential relationship between the number of items contributed to the literature and the total
contribution by those who contributed two, three or more papers. Lotka developed a general
formula for the relationship between the frequency of y persons making n contribution as
xny=constant. Finding the value of constant when n=2, he observed that “the number of persons
making 2 contribution is about one fourth of those making one (1/22), the number making 3
contribution is about (1/32) of those making one. The number making n contribution is bout 1/42
of those making one, etc.
iv) Law of Economics: According to the followers of this theory, information is analogous to
energy (Meta energy). So it is also a resource that can be handled as a utility. It can be packaged,
stored and distributed in various forms. In this sense information has value and the laws of
economics can be applied to it.
c) State of Process: Information represents the state of an organism following the reception of
energy from the environment in the form of a symbol or datum. Information reaches the highest
known competence in the human being through the activities of the central nervous system and
electronics devices such as computer extends these capabilities.
d) Cognitive Process: Much of the human behaviour can be seen as information processing.
Thinking, memory, learning and perception are in fact the function of processing information. A.
Turing proposed automata theory. Scholars have applied this theory to the study of behavior.
According to these studies, information can be considered as a process intrinsic to all organism
activities and can be replicated by machines.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO): The
representatives of 37 countries mt in London to sign UNESCO’s Constitution which came into
force on November 4, 1946 after ratification by 20 signatories. It is an inter-governmental
specialized agency of the United Nations. The UNESCO’s permanent Headquarters is in Paris,
France. UNESCO’s website can be found over <>
a) Objectives: UNESCO deploys its action in the fields of Education, Natural Sciences,
Social and Human Sciences, Culture, Communication and Information. UNESCO works
on a number of priorities that require a trans-disciplinary approach alongside the
traditional focus of its five programme sectors. Here in this discussion we will only deal
with Communication and Information.
b) The main objective for UNESCO is to build a knowledge society based on the sharing of
knowledge and incorporating all the socio-cultural and ethical dimensions of sustainable
development. UNESCO’s priorities in the field of Communication and Information include:
i) Empowering people through access to information and knowledge with special emphasis on
freedom of expression;
ii) Promoting communication development;
iii) Advancing the use of ICTs for education, science and culture.
b) Organization: The General Conference consists of the representatives of the Member states
of the Organization. It meets every two years, and is attended by Member States and Associate
Members, together with observers for non-Member-States, intergovernmental organizations and
non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Each country has one vote, irrespective of its size or
the extent of its contribution to the budget.
The Executive Board, in a sense, assures the overall management of UNESCO. It
prepares the work of the General Conference and sees that its decisions are properly carried out.
The Secretariat consists of the Director-General and the Staff appointed by him. As of January
2007, the Secretariat employed around 2,100 civil servants from some 170 countries. The staff is
divided into Professional and General Service categories. Under a recent decentralization policy,
more than 700 staff members work in UNESCO's 58 field offices around the world.
c) Membership: In short, UNESCO promotes international co-operation among its 193
(As of October 2009) Member States and six Associate Members in the fields of education,
science, culture, and communication.
d) Functions and Activities: The aim of UNESCO in the field of Communication and
Information is to Empower people through the free flow of ideas by word and image, and by
access to information and knowledge. The Communication and Information Sector (CI) was
established in its present form in 1990.
i) UNISIST: It is an international project sponsored by UNESCO to foster and coordinate
international bibliographical services being provided by various organizations. It is an inter-
governmental programme to encourage and guide voluntary cooperation in the exchange of
information at national, regional and international levels.
ii) National Information System (NATIS): NATIS is a brain-child of UNESCO. It implies that
governments at different levels (national, state and local) should maximize the availability of all
relevant information.
iii) General Information Programme (PGI): PGI is the initials of its French name Program
General d’ Information. It was established in 1976 combining both the NATIS and UNISIST
programmes. The primary role of PGI is to promote computer application and communication
technologies in library and information services, information network and provision of on line
facilities for sharing and exchanging information between different countries all over the world.
iv) Universal Bibliographic Control (UBC): For compilation of bibliographies UNESCO has
launched an ambitious project in cooperation with IFLA known as UBC.
v) ASTINFO and APINESS: In 1984 UNESCO established Regional Network for Exchange of
Information and Experience in Science and Technology in Asia and Pacific (ASTINFO) to
promote regional cooperation, better understanding and socio-economic development in Asia and
Pacific region. Later in 1986 another network called Asia Pacific Information Network in Social
Sciences (APINESS) was established.
vi) Others: New World Information and Communication Order (NWICO), Intergovernmental
Programmes for the Development of Communication (IDDC), International System in Research
in Documentation (ISORID), Science and Technology Policies Information Exchange System
(SPINES), Data Retrieval System for Documentation in the Social and Human Sciences
(DARE), International Bureau of Education Documentation and Information System (IBEDOC)
are some other programmes of the UNESCO. The ISORID was established for collection and
dissemination of information on research activities in documentation, libraries and archives.
vii) Publication: In 1980 the first two volumes of UNESCO’s General History of Africa was
published. UNESCO also brought out a publication namely “Public Library Manifesto” 1949,
revised in 1972, which gives a new image and a wider scope to the principles upon which the
documentation and library services are based. Other publications include UNESCO Courier
(monthly), Copyright Bulleting (Quarterly), Impact of Science in Society, Index Treanslationum,
World guide to Library Schools and Training courses in Documentation, 1981. Public Libraries
and their mission (1961) by Andre Maurios etc.
viii) Seminars, Conference and Workshop: UNESCO has supported library conferences,
seminars and meetings. In 1952 an intergovernmental conference convened by UNESCO
adopted the Universal Copyright Convention. In the decades following World War II, the
Convention served to extend copyright protection to numerous states.
ix) Fellowships, Funds and Grants: The UNESCO Fellowships Programme, through the award
and administration of fellowships, study and travel grants provide various opportunities for
librarians. UNESCO is also responsible for sending a large number of experts as consultants and
advisors to developing countries for the purpose of initiating and expanding library services.
UNESCO also helps its member states to rebuild their libraries during the Second World War. It
also gives a huge grant to IFLA and FID (it was dissolved in 2002). UNESCO initiated the pilot
public libraries at New Delhi (India), Enugu (Nigeria) and Medellin (Colombia) which
demonstrates UNESCO’s Faith in public libraries. UNESCO also sponsored research on
librarianship especially for the developing countries.
x) Cooperation: UNESCO maintains healthy cooperation with IFLA, International Council on
Archives (ICA), Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CoDATA) established by
International Council of Scientific Union (ICSU), etc.
xi) Standardization: The Common Communication Format (CCF) was published by UNESCO
in 1984 and a second edition was published in 1988. CCF is a structure format for creating
bibliographical record and exchange of records between groups of information agency and
xii) Mailing Lists and Forum: The WebWorld Portals Discussion forum is the place to discuss
various topics related to Libraries, Archives, Information Society, Free and Open Source
Software. It also provides feedback on and discusses all aspects of WebWorld Portals.
WebWorld, the website of UNESCO's Communication and Information Sector, offers a daily
news service to its users. The news articles mainly cover UNESCO's activities in the area of
communication and information, both at UNESCO's Headquarters and its field offices.
The UNESCO Libraries Portal gives access to websites of library institutions around the
world. It serves as an international gateway to information for librarians and library users and
international co-operation in this area. The UNESCO Archives Portal gives access to websites of
archival institutions around the world. It is also a gateway to resources related to records and
archives management and international co-operation in the area. The Observatory on the
Information Society monitors the impact of globalization on knowledge societies through the
collection of pertinent information and by observing the trends. The UNESCO Free Software
Portal gives access to documents and websites which are references for the Free Software/Open
Source Technology movement. It is also a gateway to resources related to Free Software.
India became a member of UNESCO on 4 November 1946. UNESCO for the first time
started the first pilot project in library in India by establishing the Delhi Public Library in
October 1951. This later on developed into Delhi Public Library. The main aim of this project
was to provide information on the problem of public library service for the parts of India in
particular and for Asia in general.
The Indian National Scientific Documentation Centre (INSDOC) was set up in 1952 by
the government of India with technical assistance from UNESCO. In 1964 UNESCO assisted
INSDOC, again, in setting up its regional centre in Bangalore. Now Indian National Scientific
Documentation Centre (INSDOC) has merged with National Institute of Science Communication
(NISCOM) to form National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources
(NISCAIR) on 30 September 2002.
The Indian national commission is the official agency of UNESCO and National
Information System for Science and Technology (NISSAT) in the Department of Scientific and
Industrial Research (DSIR) is the focal point for UNISIST (PGI) and is also the coordinating
centre for ASTINFO programme. NASSDOC of ICSSR is the focal point for UNESCO
supporting APINESS programme.
Besides the above, the UNESCO honoured the Indian librarians by inviting them to
advise upon various library projects meant for the member country. The prominent among them
were Dr. S. R. Ranganathan, B. S. Kesavan, S. S. Saith and a few others.
India also organized a few conferences and regional seminars of UNESCO. Notable
among them are Seminar of the development of public libraries in Asia held at Delhi from
October 6-26, 1955; Ninth General conference at Delhi in 1956; Regional seminar on library
development in South Asia, University of Delhi library, 3-14 October, 1960; Seminar on
Handling and Retrieval of Chemical Information, Delhi, 1986.
The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA)
The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA): IFLA is an
independent association that represents libraries and library associations around the world. At an
international conference of librarians and booklovers in Prague in 1926 a proposal to set up an
international committee with representatives of national library associations was accepted. This
was acted upon during the British Library Association conference in Edinburgh, Scotland in
1927, when an international library and bibliographic committee was created by the
representative associations from fifteen countries. IFLA was registered in the Netherlands in
1971. The name was changed to International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions
in 1976. Its headquarter is located at The Royal Library, the national library of the Netherlands,
in The Hague. IFLA’s website, formerly known as IFLANET is available over web at
a) Objectives: The federation is an independent non-governmental and non profit making
professional organization. In 2004, the Governing Board decided to endorse a new model for
IFLA's operations, the three pillars that are supported by the infrastructure offered by the
Federation's governance structures, its website and its Headquarters (HQ) in The Hague. These
three pillars are- Society Pillar, Professional Pillar, and the Members’ Pillar.
i) The Society Pillar: It focuses on the role and impact of libraries and information services in
society and the contextual issues that condition and constrain the environment in which they
operate across the world. Those issues are addressed currently through FAIFE, CLM, Blue
Shield, and the advocacy in the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) and other
ii) The Profession Pillar: It focuses on the issues covered by the long established Core
Activities - ALP, ICADS (webmaster: formerly known as ICABS), PAC, UNIMARC - and the
Sections and Divisions. They lie at the core of our professional practice and help libraries and
information services to fulfil their purposes and to shape responses to the needs of the clients in a
rapidly changing global environment.
iii) The Members Pillar: It is of course central to IFLA. It includes the services they offer to
members, management of their membership of IFLA, conferences and publications. We must
work together to make IFLA more vibrant and attractive and beneficial for members throughout
the world.
b) Organization: The governing structure of IFLA has been revised and came into force in
2001. The General Council of Members is the supreme governing body, consisting of delegates
of voting Members. It normally meets every year during the annual conference. The Governing
Board is responsible for the managerial and professional direction of IFLA within guidelines
approved by Council. The Governing Board meets at least twice every year, once at the time and
place of the annual World Library and Information Congress. The Executive Committee has
executive responsibility delegated by the Governing Board to oversee the direction of IFLA
between meetings of this Board within the policies established by the Board. It is the duty of the
Professional Committee to ensure coordination of the work of all the IFLA units responsible for
professional activities, policies and programmes (Sections, Core Activities, Special Interest
c) Membership: Till 2009 IFLA have 1600 Members approximately in 150 countries around the
world. IFLA has two main categories of voting members: Association Members and Institutional
Members. Besides these, it has also Honorary Members (Honorary Presidents, Honorary
Fellows, IFLA Medal). Over the years the membership has been expanded to include individual
libraries, library schools and other appropriate institutions as well as personal affiliates.
d) Functions and Activities: The issues common to library and information services around the
world are the concern of the IFLA Core Activities. Directed by the Professional Committee, the
objectives and projects of the Core Activities relate to the Federation's Programme and the
priorities of the Divisions and Sections. Some of the major core programmes are given below.
i) Action for Development through Libraries Programme (ALP): The ALP Programme was
launched in 1984 at the IFLA Conference in Nairobi, Kenya, and was the subject of intensive
discussion between 1987 and 1989. It was further developed and defined during 1990 and 1991
as a special project and is fully operational ever since. The name of the Programme was
originally "Advancement of Librarianship Programme", but in 2004 it was changed to "Action
for Development through Libraries Programme". However, the acronym still remains as "ALP".
The mission of ALP is to further the library profession, library institutions and library and
information services in the developing countries of Africa, Asia and Oceania, Latin America and
the Caribbean.
ii) Preservation and Conservation (PAC): IFLA Core Activity on Preservation and Conservation
(PAC) was officially created during the IFLA annual conference in Nairobi in 1984 to focus
efforts on issues of preservation and to initiate worldwide cooperation for the preservation of
library materials. The PAC programme was effectively launched in Vienna during the 1986
Conference on the Preservation of Library Materials co-organized by the Conference of the
Directors of National Libraries, IFLA and UNESCO.
iii) IFLA-CDNL Alliance for Digital Strategies (ICADS): ICADS is a joint alliance of IFLA and
the Conference of Directors of National Libraries (CDNL). The alliance was established in
August 2008 as a successor to ICABS (IFLA-CDNL Alliance for Bibliographic Standards) which
was established as a national libraries initiative in 2003.
iv) IFLA UNIMARC: Succeeding to the IFLA UBCIM Core Activity, the IFLA UNIMARC Core
Activity (UCA) was established in 2003 with the responsibility for the maintenance and
development of the Universal MARC format (UNIMARC).
IFLA’s previous programme includes Universal Bibliographic Control (UBC) launched in
1973, International MARC Programme (IMP) established officially in 1983, Universal
Availability of Publication (UAP) taken up in 1973, etc. Some other programmes and activities
of IFLA are:
v) Publication: Each issue of IFLA Journal (Quarterly) covers news of current IFLA
activities and articles, selected to reflect the variety of the international information
profession, ranging from freedom of information, preservation, services to the
visually impaired and intellectual property.
Council Report (biennial) records IFLA's achievements in five key areas: access to
information, the electronic environment, preservation and conservation, services and
standards and professional development. The IFLA publications series include such
titles as Intelligent library buildings, and adapting marketing to libraries in a changing
worldwide environment. The IFLA Professional Reports series feature reports of
professional meetings and guidelines to best practice. Recent reports include
Proceedings of the IFLA/UNESCO pre-conference seminar on public libraries and
Guidelines for easy-to-read materials.
Besides the above, many IFLA groups (Divisions, Core Activities, Sections and
Special Interest Groups) have their own newsletters. Some are produced regularly,
others only appear sporadically. Each year the proceedings of the World Library and
Information Congress, IFLA General Conference and Assembly are made available
on the IFLA website. It also publishes International Cataloguing and Bibliographic
Control (ICBC) Journal, IFLA Directory, International cataloguing, world directory of
administrative libraries, world directory of map collection, LIBRI- Library
vi) Seminars, Conference and Workshop: IFLA regularly holds “World Library and
Information Congress: IFLA General Conference and Assembly” and Regional
Meetings. IFLA’s general conferences are large scale conference. In 1961 IFLA holds
the international conference on cataloguing principles in Paris.
vii) Fellowships, Funds and Grants: IFLA administers a number of Grants and
Scholarships to enable the aspiring library and information professionals from all
over the world to enhance their training and to provide funding for new and exciting
projects in the field of librarianship. Such programmes include Guust Van Wesemael
Literacy Prize, IFLA International Marketing Award, Jay Jordan IFLA/OCLC Early
Career Development Fellowship, Margreet Wijnstroom Fund, Dr Shawky Salem
Conference Grant (SSCG), etc
vii) Cooperation: IFLA is now quite an active international organization. It has Formal
Associate Relations with UNESCO, observer status with the United Nations,
associate status with the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) and
observer status with the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and the
International Organization for Standardization (ISO). In 1999, it established observer
status with the World Trade Organization (WTO). It has also offered consultative
status to a number of non-governmental organizations operating in related fields,
including the International Publishers Association (IPA). It is also a member of the
International Council on Archives (ICA), International Council of Museums (ICOM),
the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), and the International
Committee of the Blue Shield (ICBS). Again, till 2009 more than 25 corporations in
the information industry have formed a working relationship with IFLA under its
Corporate Partners scheme.
viii) Standardization: IFLA has standardized international loan request form in 1935 and has
been progressively revising it since then. IFLA developed and published in 1974 the
International Standard Bibliographic Description for Monographic Publication [ISBD(M)] as the
basis for rules of description of monographic material in AACR-II. In 1975 IFLA and the Joint
Steering Committee for the revision of AACR - (JSC/AACR) jointly developed General
International Standard Bibliographic Description [ISBD(G)]. It serves as a framework for the
description of all types of publication.
ix) Mailing Lists and Forum: Sympa software provides web access to IFLA’s lot of mailing
lists. IFLA also serves as an international forum for librarians and advises international bodies
relating to library and information science. It provides expert advice and assistance in the
planning and development of library services.
x) IFLA advises libraries on matters such as interlibrary loan practices, copyright
laws, library building design, and development of legal deposit regulations that entitle national
libraries to receive copies of every work registered for copyright in their respective countries. It
also stimulates cooperation among writers, scholars, publishers, and libraries, and it assists
librarians in promoting literacy and universal access to knowledge. In addition, IFLA advocates
the formation of a worldwide information network.
xi) India is represented in the Executive Board of IFLA. In October, 1985 ILA
organised the IFLA’s regional seminar on UAP in New Delhi. ILA also hosted 58th General
Conference of IFLA in New Delhi from August 30-Septermber 5, 1992.
System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
System Development Life Cycle (SDLC): The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a
conceptual model used in project management that describes the stages involved in an
information system development project, from an initial feasibility study through maintenance of
the completed application.
The SDLC is used by a systems analyst to develop an information system, including
requirements, validation, training, and user ownership through investigation, analysis, design,
implementation, and maintenance. SDLC is also known as information systems development or
application development. An SDLC should result in a high quality system that meets or exceeds
customer expectations, within time and cost estimates, works effectively and efficiently in the
current and planned information technology infrastructure, and is cheap to maintain and cost-
effective to enhance. SDLC is a systematic approach to problem solving and is composed of
several phases, each comprising multiple steps.
a) Definition: Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) or sometimes just (SLC) is defined by
the U.S. Department of Justice (DoJ) as a software development process, although it is also a
distinct process independent of software or other Information Technology considerations.
b) SDLC Methodologies: Various SDLC methodologies have been developed to guide the
processes involved, including the following:
i) Waterfall model (which was the original SDLC method);
ii) Rapid Application Development (RAD);
iii) Joint Application Development (JAD);
iv) The fountain model;
vi) The spiral model;
vii) Build and fix;
viii) Synchronize-and-stabilize.
Frequently, several models are combined into some sort of hybrid methodology.
Documentation is crucial regardless of the type of model chosen or devised for any
application, and is usually done in parallel with the development process. Some
methods work better for specific types of projects, but in the final analysis, the most
important factor for the success of a project may be how closely the particular plan
was followed.
c) The Systems Life Cycle (UK Version): The SDLC is referred to as the Systems
Life Cycle (SLC) in the United Kingdom, whereby the following names are used for
each stage:
i) Terms of Reference: The management will decide what capabilities and objectives
they wish in the new system to incorporate;
ii) Feasibility Study: Asks whether the managements' concept of their desired new
system is actually an achievable, realistic goal, in-terms of money, time and end result
difference to the original system. Often, it may be decided to simply update an
existing system, rather than to completely replace one;
iii) Fact Finding and Recording: How is the current system used? Often
questionnaires are used here, but also just monitoring (watching) the staff to see how
they work is better, as people will often be reluctant to be entirely honest through
embarrassment about the parts of the existing system they have trouble with and find
difficult if merely asked.
iv) Analysis: Free from any cost or unrealistic constraints, this stage lets minds run
wild as “wonder systems” can be thought-up, though all must incorporate everything
asked for by the management in the terms of reference section.
v) Design: Designers will produce one or more “models” of what they see a system
eventually look like, with ideas from the analysis section either used or discarded. A
document will be produced with a description of the system, but nothing is specific -
they might say “touchscreen” or “GUI operating system”, but not mention any
specific brands.
vi) System Specification: Having generically decided on which software packages to
use and hardware to incorporate, you now have to be very specific, choosing exact
models, brands and suppliers for each software application and hardware device.
viii) Implementation and Review: Set-up and install the new system (including writing
any custom (bespoke) code required}, train staff to use it and then monitor how it
operates for initial problems, and then regularly maintain thereafter. During this stage,
any old system that was in-use will usually be discarded once the new one has proved
it is reliable and as usable.
Structure of Subjects
Structure of Subjects: The structure of subjects can be viewed from the following angles-
a) Dichotomy: Dichotomy refers to a division into two. This is also referred to as binary
classification. In this system of divisions, the subjects are divided into two broad categories, each
broad category are again divided into two sub categories, and so on. Immanuel Kant gave a
dichotomous picture of the entire universe of subjects; however dichotomy is insufficient for
designing a scheme of classification for the existing universe of subjects. “Tree of Porphyry” is a
schematic representation of dichotomy.
b) Decachotomy: Decachotomy refers to a division into ten. Melvil Dewey Classification is the
best example of this kind of division. Dewey divided the field of knowledge into nine main
classes and tenth class was formed for general documents not belonging to any of the main
classes. This process of division into ten at each stage is continued until the required subdivisions
have been obtained. From the point of nature of growth and development of knowledge it is
unrealistic to bind the universe of subjects to a decachotomy, because it grows in different
directions and at different stages.
c) Polychotomy: Polychotomy refers to a division into many. In 1893 C. A. Cutter in Expansive
Classification introduced polychotomy in a limited way by stipulating the number of division (at
each stage of division) to be 24. But the restriction to 24, by the middle of twentieth century was
found to be an impediment. The lesson is that the number of division to be incorporated at a
given stage of division should not be predetermined.
d) Proliferation: It is not possible to predict the maximum number of division to be provided for
in a particular array or stage of division, because various are the ways in which the universe of
subjects gets proliferated. The extensive proliferation creates problems for the designers of
schemes of classification
Statistical Inference
Statistical Inference: Statistical Inference is concerned with the various tests of significance for
testing hypothesis in order to determine with what validity data can be said to indicate some
conclusion or conclusions. It is also concerned with the estimation of values. It is mainly on the
basis of inferential analysis that the task of interpretation is performed.
In modern times, with the availability of computer facilities, there has been a rapid development
of multivariate analysis which may be defined as all statistical methods which simultaneously
analyze more than two variables on a sample of observations. Usually the following analyses are
involved when we make a reference of multivariate analysis:
i) Multiple Regression Analysis
ii) Multiple Discriminant Analysis
iii) Multivariate Analysis of Variance
iv) Canonical Analysis
v) a) Chi-Square Test: The chi-square test is an important test amongst the several tests of
significance developed by statisticians. Chi-square, symbolically written as X2 is a statistical
measure used in the context of sampling analysis for comparing variance to a theoretical
variance. As a “non-paramatric test”, it can be used to determine if categorical data shows
dependency or the two classifications are independent. It can also be used to make comparisons
between theoretical population and actual data when categories are used. Thus Chi square is
applicable in large number of problems.
Standard Citation Styles
Standard Citation Styles: A citation or bibliographic citation is a reference to a book, article,
web page, or other published item, with sufficient detail to allow a reader to locate it. The
citation style refers to the rules and conventions established by the authoritative body for
documenting sources of information used in write-up of any kind. The citation identifies and
credits the sources that are used in writing a paper and allow the reader of the article to further
verify and access the cited work. The citation is a list of sources used in writing a work (article)
that are alphabetically arranged by author surname, works without authors are arranged
alphabetically by title [omitting the article (a, an, the)] within the same list giving essential
general information to trace the sources. Citations Styles are also known as Citation Formats or
Style Guide.
To maintain the honesty in academic pursuit it is important to cite the works of others,
otherwise knowingly representing the work of others as one’s own is treated as demanding the
work as his/her own. Failure to give credit for quotes or unique ideas will result in a null in a
research as well as other disciplinary actions. So, to avoid such disciplinary action always credit
should be given to the original author of information that is not generally known, unique, or
research data.
1. Types of Citation: All citation styles require two types of citation elements for citing
consulted work. They are - citing sources in the text and citing sources in bibliography or
a) Citing Sources in the Text: In citing sources in the text, citations to sources are placed in the
text of the work i.e within sentences and paragraphs in order to briefly identify sources by the
readers so that they can enable them to locate it in the Reference or Bibliography portion. In
general, citing sources in the text, citations are placed within parentheses. This type of citation
helps to know whose sentences or words are quoted.
b) Citing Sources in References or Bibliography: References are the cited work in the text,
and the Bibliography is the list of sources not cited in the text but which are relevant to the
subject with which the article or work deals with. References cited in the text of a research paper
also appear at the end of the paper that are arranged in alphabetical order by authors’ surname,
works without authors are arranged alphabetically by title (omitting the articles) within the same
list. This list provides the information necessary to identify and retrieve the particular document.
Citation to consulted online works generally demands detailed information than that of
print sources of information. Again, in case of online sources, currently few standards are there,
governing the organization and presentation of it. In addition to the above points, in citing online
sources the following are considered important
i) Whenever possible attempt should be made to identify the author(s) of the document.
ii) The citation should direct the readers to the information sources immediately. So if possible
citation to the specific webpage [Uniform Resource Locator (URL)] should be made rather than
home or menu pages.
iii) One should try to mention the “date” (i.e the dates of publication, update, or date of
2. Types of Author: In studying the citation behavior, authors can be divided into three groups
based upon their expertise and qualification in citing sources.
i) Academician: It includes Lecturer, Reader and Professor of different academic and research
departments. They are generally treated as well qualified in citing sources and sometimes also
teaches the student about it. So, any kind of deviation in citing sources on their part is treated as
gross negligence towards their work.
b) Researcher: It includes those persons who acquire the Doctorate degree but do not come
within the perview of the first category or those who are doing Ph.D. under different universities
and research institutions. The researchers are generally aware of citing sources within their
papers, so any kind of deviation in citing sources are also not acceptable on their part.
c) Others: It includes those persons who are neither Ph. D. holders nor teaching staff and
generally lack the knowledge of citing sources. Deviations in citing sources in their papers are
the result of their lack of knowledge. So, if any kind of deviation is there in their papers, it is the
duty of the editors, compilers, etc. to decide whether the articles are considered for publication
and to correct the deviation in citing sources in consultation with the authors. In due course, the
editors can also take the responsibility to educate the authors in citing sources and the authors
should also come forward to learn this.
3. Deviation in Citing Sources: Deviation is a term used to describe the incorrectness. It is often
used interchangeably with error. It means the amount of error or variation in comparison to the
standard or expectation.
The expertise of the author(s) are wrongly justified by the number of publications in
many cases and so the authors give more emphasis in producing a mass volume of work by
ignoring its quality. The origin and development of Internet helps them in this regard. Some
times, some authors even produce an article within a day itself. If it is so, one can imagine what
its quality will be? It will be nothing but cut and paste. Not to speak about general writing, even
many seminar and conference proceedings are nowadays full of such type of works (deviation in
quality as well as citing sources).
a) Common Deviation Types: The common types of deviation in citing sources fall into the
following types-
i) Deviation in Alphabetical Arrangement: The cited works are generally not arranged
ii) Deviation in Maintaining Consistency: If in one reference ‘and’ is used in the other ‘&’ is
used; If in one abbreviation ‘p.’ is used in the other ‘pp.’ is used to designate page numbers of
articles; deviation in maintaining italics and underlining for titles of books and journals is also
common in many articles. In case of online sources, if in one source the date of access is there in
the other source it is absent; if in one source the home page is cited in another the complete URL
is cited.
iii) Citing Irrelevant Sources of Information: Some authors cite the search engine URL but not
the actual information sources, which they have consulted.
iv) Duplication in Citing Sources: Some authors cite even a single work in two places, in one
case starts with “http://” and in the other case it starts with “www” (in place of http://www.).
v) Exclusion of Sources Used: Some authors do not cite the original sources that they consulted
as they cut and paste major portion from the work.
b) Why Deviation: The deviation in citing sources mainly occurs due to the following-
i) Lack of Any Standard Format: In most cases the editorial body of any journal, seminar or
conference proceedings does not ask the author to cite his /her consulted work according to any
standard format, and so in the absence of it, the authors are forced to follow their own format.
Even many Ph.D and M.Phil offering Indian universities do bother to follow any such standard
ii) Wrong Point of Justification: Generally, people think the bigger the volume of seminar or
conference preceding, the more it will be treated as a successful one. Such type of wrong
thinking pushes the editorial body to accept articles that are otherwise not appropriate for
inclusion in the proceeding.
iii) Lack of Time: Lack of time from the author and editorial body is another point to be
considered. Authors are justified by volume of information they produce, so they give more
emphasis in volume rather than its quality. Many authors are also very busy with their routine
work so they cannot devote much time towards their papers. Lack of time to recheck the work is
another reason on their part to be considered. Deviation in maintaining consistency arises due to
this factor.
iv) Lack of Knowledge about Citation Style: Many authors and editors are not aware about
different types of citation styles and how these need to be followed.
v) Lack of Knowledge about Different Types of Sources: There are different types of online
sources over internet like website, blog, wiki, etc. and many authors and editors are not aware
about it and cannot differentiate one from another. Even some authors thought that if they found
any sources of information relevant to their query by consulting some search engine then the
search engine itself should be cited.
vi) Gross Negligence towards the Work: Those authors who are well qualified in citing sources
as well as about different types of online sources, deviation in maintaining consistency and
alphabetical arrangement on their part arises due to the gross negligence towards their work.
vii) Wrong Personal Psychology: Many authors think that they are more intelligent and
computer savvy than the others and so if they cut and paste some portion of the online sources or
other work without citing them then the editorial body or reader will not be able to trace them
out. So, they are quite unaware of the fact that tracing the plagiarized text in any article is just a
matter of single minutes job and even less so for an internet savvy person, as many online tools
are available that perform such activities. Such type of personal psychology results in the
omission of the consulted sources from the reference and bibliography page of the work and also
degrades the quality of the paper as well.
c) How Deviation in Citing Sources can be Avoided: Some of the ways by which deviation in
citing sources can be avoided are-
i) Chapter on Citation Should be included in the Course Curriculum: The Knowledge about
citing sources should be treated as essential for all types of students and attempts should be made
by the concerning body for its inclusion in the course curriculum itself. If we can achieve it in
the grass root level itself, we can think of achieving a truly knowledge culture society, thereof.
ii) Universities and Colleges Should Adopt one Standard Format: The Universities and
Colleges can think of adopting one specific type of citation style and attempt should be made
accordingly to follow this format in the journals, magazines published from that institution. The
students and faculties should be encouraged to follow the adopted format in their writing that
may be a thesis and dissertations work or even in case of assignment, report, etc.
iii) Library and Information Science (LIS) Professional Should Transfer Their Knowledge
to Others: In the field of Library and Information Science, citing consulted sources has been
taught rigorously, and so the professionals are generally treated as academically or professionally
well qualified in this regard. As an expert in the subject, it is their duty to take initiative in
making their expertise accessible to others students and authors from different field.
iv) Editorial and Publishing Body Should Adopt One Specific Standard Citation Format:
Every Seminar, Conference organized by different institutions should ask the authors to prepare
their article by following a specific citation style. The articles, whose citation are not in the
specified format must be rejected or if no preference is specified, it is the duty of the editorial
body to use one specific citation style and rearrangement and preparation of the cited works in all
papers accordingly (consistently and accurately).
v) Knowledge About Citation Should be Made Mandatory for Research Scholar:
Knowledge about major type of citation styles should be made mandatory for all types of
Research Scholars, after all they are the pillar for the subsequent development of the society.
vi) Research Guide Should Recommend the Researcher: It is the duty of the research guides
to recommend the preferred citation format for the thesis and dissertation and communication of
the same with the researchers.
vii) Authors Should be Very Careful in Citing Sources: In the absence of any of the above, the
research scholar or the authors can ask reference staff of the library or the faculties and students
of the Library and Information Science Schools for the assistance or he/she can think of logging
on to the internet for the major type of citation styles.
viii) Organizing Seminars, Conferences and Workshops in Citing Sources: The Library and
Information Science Schools of different universities can think of organizing workshops and
seminars in citing sources to educate all types of authors and peoples in general. Other bodies in
consultation with Library and Information Science Professional can also think in this regard.
4. Different Citation Styles: Different organizations or institutions develop their own citation
styles to fit their individual needs. Though, there is a considerable overlap in different citation
styles, individual publishers have their own in-house variations. In general, all citation styles can
be divided into two broad categories, i.e. the Humanities and the Sciences. Some important
citation styles from both the categories are listed below.
i) The American Chemical Society (ACS) style: The ACS style is developed by the American
Chemical Society (ACS). It is often used in chemical literature.
ii) The American Institute of Physics (AIP) style: American Institute of Physics, references is
most commonly used in physics journals. It is devised by the American Institute of Physics.
iii) The American Mathematical Society (AMS) styles: The American Mathematical Society
AMS styles (e.g., AMS-LaTeX) are styles developed for the American Mathematical Society
(AMS). It is typically implemented by using the BibTeX tool in the LaTeX typesetting
environment. Brackets with author’s initials and year are inserted in the text and at the beginning
of the reference. Typical citations are listed in-line with alphabetic-label format, e.g., [AB79].
iv) American Psychological Association (APA) Citation Style: APA citation style is established
by the American Psychological Association. It is mainly used for psychology, education, and
social science bibliographies. APA style specifies the names and order of headings, formatting,
and organization of citations and references, and the arrangement of tables, figures, footnotes,
and appendices, as well as other manuscript and documentation features. It uses parenthetical
citation within the text, listing the author’s surname and the year of publication of the work,
which is more or less same as that of MLA style’s parenthetical citations. It lists sources at the
end of the paper, on a References Page. Listing electronic sources of information is more detailed
in APA style than in MLA style. APA style uses Harvard referencing, also known as the author-
date system of citations and parenthetical referencing, keyed to a subsequent list of References.
v) American Sociological Association (ASA) style: The American Sociological Association
Citation Style is mainly used in sociological publications.
vi) The Associated Press (AP) Stylebook: The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on
Media Law, is a style and usage guide for the newspapers and in journalism classes in the United
vii) Bluebook: The Bluebook (or similar systems derived from it) is a citation system
traditionally used in American academic legal writing.
viii) Chicago Manual of Style Citation Guide: The Chicago Manual of Style (abbreviated as
CMS or CMOS, or verbally as Chicago) is a style guide for American English published by the
University of Chicago Press. The CMS deals with all aspects of editorial practice, from
American English grammar and usage to document preparation. It is used for all subjects. Some
social sciences and humanities scholars prefer to use the nearly identical Turabian style instead
of it.
ix) Columbia Guide to Online Style: The Columbia Style was made by Janice R. Walker and
Todd Taylor to give detailed guidelines for citing internet sources. It offers models for both the
humanities and the sciences.
x) Hart’s Rules for the 21st Century: Hart's Rules for Compositors and Readers at the
University Press, Oxford is a reference book and style guide first published in England by
Oxford University Press in 1893. It is renamed as ‘The Oxford Guide to Style (OGS)’, in 2002,
then from 2005 it came to be known as ‘New Hart’s Rules: The Handbook of Style for Writers
and Editors’ and has been promoted as ‘Hart's Rules for the 21st Century’.
xi) Harvard Citation Style: The Harvard Style (or author-date system) is recommended by the
British Standards Institution and involves a short reference [e.g (Barman, 2007)] being inserted
after the cited text in parenthesis and the full reference being listed at the end of the article. It is
mainly used for social science bibliographies.
xii) ISO 690: ISO 690 is an ISO standard for bibliographic referencing in documents of all sorts.
It includes electronic documents as well as other published documents, and specifies the
elements to be included in references, and the order in which the elements of the reference
should be stated.
xiii) Modern Humanities Research Association (MHRA) Style Guide: The MHRA Style
Guide (formerly the MHRA Style Book) is the Modern Humanities Research Association style
format and is most often used in the arts and humanities, particularly in the United Kingdom
where the MHRA is based. It is fairly similar to the MLA style, but with some differences. The
style guide uses footnotes that fully reference a citation and has a bibliography at the end. Its
major advantage is that a reader does not need to consult the bibliography to find a reference as
the footnote provides all the details.
xiv) Modern Language Association (MLA) Citation Style: MLA style was developed by The
Modern Language Association and is most often used in English studies, comparative literature,
foreign-language literary criticism, media studies, cultural studies, and some other fields in the
humanities. It uses a Works Cited Page to list works at the end of the paper, brief parenthetical
citations, which include an author and page (if applicable), are used within the text. These direct
readers to the work of the author on the list of works cited, and the page of the work where the
information is located [e.g. (Barman 98) refers the reader to page 98 of the work made by
someone with surname “Barman”).
xv) The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage: The New York Times Manual of Style
and Usage is a style guide by Allan M. Siegal and William G. Connolly. Although it was written
for The New York Times journalists, it has also been published for use by others and much of the
information is specific to neither ‘The Times’ nor ‘New York’.
xvi) Style Manual for Political Science: ‘Style Manual for Political Science’ is the publication
on citing by The American Political Science Association (APSA). It is often used by political
science scholars and historians and is largely based on that of the Chicago Manual of Style.
xvii) Turabian Citation Style: Turabian Citation Style is based on the Chicago Manual of Style.
It offers the authors and writers of all subjects the option of using an author-date system with
notes and parenthetical references.
xviii) Vancouver System: The Vancouver system, recommended by the Council of Science
Editors, is used in medical and scientific papers and research. In one of its major variant, citation
numbers are included in the text in square brackets rather than as superscripts. All
bibliographical information is exclusively included in the list of references at the end of the
document, next to the respective citation number.
5. Achieving Proper Citation: Two methods are available for citing consulted works. They are
a) Manual Citation: It is the process in which the researcher or academician or authors prepare
their citation by manual means in consultation with the standard format or handbook.
b) Automatic Citation: Nowadays there are many bibliographic citation management program
available that automatically generate citations in appropriate citation style. They allow one to
create a bibliography, or list of references, by importing references from text files or online
databases and automatically formatting it in a preferred style. Such types of packages are also
known as “Reference Management Software”. Example includes: Refworks, EndNote Web, etc.
6. Conclusion: In the event of different citation style, it will be better not to think of designing
and developing any new standard format, rather if deviations are there in already established
format attempt should be made to correct it, since in many cases scope is there.
The human being is in the present position only due to the fact that it is able to learn from
the knowledge base of past generation and during his/her life time he/she shifts it to another new
dimension that form the base for the next generation. Unlike other animals every time, every
generation doesn’t start from the knowledge base with zero. But, during our progress in stream
line we should not forget the contribution of the people that some times devote their entire life to
build our own knowledge base. Whenever we take help from the knowledge base of others we
must acknowledge them in the form of citing their work in our own work (papers). After all why
should not we, since it costs nothing, rather it gives an authoritative look to our own work.
Standard Bibliographic Format
Standard Bibliographic Format: Standardization is the process of formulating and applying
rules for an orderly approach to a specific activity for the benefit of all taking due account of the
functional conditions and safety requirements.
The needs for standardization of bibliographic description are as follows
i) To bring uniformity and order in the description of library materials of different kinds;
ii) For handling of data in an automated computer aided machine;
iii) To produce a centralized database;
iv) To exchange bibliographic information between and among different countries;
v) To overcome the problem of language barrier;
vi) To economise on time, space, effort, material, manpower and money.
Let Us Sum Up: The different bibliographic standards are helpful in maintaining uniformity in
the data so that exchange and compilation can be done easily. The ISBD (G) serves as a single
framework for the description of all types of publications in all types of media. Later on, IFLA
brought out different ISBDs on the basis of ISBD (G). The ISBD (G) is incorporated into AACR
II as a general framework for bibliographic description.
MARC format has become a generic term to all MARC formats including UKMARC,
CANMARC, InterMARC and is used for the identification, arrangement of bibliographical data
for handling by computer. The USMARC format became the U. S. National Standard in 1971
(ANSI Z39.2) and an International Standard in 1973 (ISO 2709). To solve the problem of
incompatible nature among different countries, IFLA launched a programme known as
UNIMARC. UNIMARC followed the ISO communication format ISO-2709 (1981), but it failed.
The UNESCO also came up with CCF, which is the implementation of ISO-2709 to solve the
problem of incompatibility. Several countries have adopted this standard for exchange and
creation of bibliographic record at national level. The MARC 21 is a new name of harmonization
of CANMARC and USMARC in a single edition. It uses the standard AACR II, LCSH, DDC,
ISO 2709 and ANSI/NISO Z39.2. Till now, MARC 21 remains the standard one which is widely
accepted in different library softwares and also in different countries.

Staffing Pattern of the Library

Staffing Pattern of the Library: The staffing is an assessment of the staff which is meant to
give the library a competent staff in all the different categories and to get the best out of them.
According to Evans, “staffing is the function by which a manager builds an organization through
the recruitment, selection and development of individuals as capable employees. The staffing in
libraries consists of the different categories of person with experience and expertise. The library
staffs provide materials, they also provide the services of specialists who are experts in finding,
organizing and interpreting information needs.
a) Basic Qualities of Library Staff: The librarian should try to find out the aptitudes of the
prospective employees because unless the library work suits their tastes proper output service
cannot be saved. Care also should be taken that persons with appropriate qualifications required
for particular posts are selected for particular job. If highly qualified young and ambitious
persons are appointed for lower category post, they may not stick to such posts. Some other
points to be noted are as follows
i) The prospective employee should be adequately qualified and experienced one to perform the
necessary jobs.
ii) The prospective employee should have love for books.
iii) He/she should regularly read some books for acquiring knowledge and pleasure.
iv) The prospective employee should have love for humanity.
v) He/she should deal with the readers in a sympathetic way and try to help them and remove
their difficulties.
b) Types of LIS Professional: There are various types of LIS professional in general which can
be grouped into the following:
i) Professional: Professional consists of those who are employed on professional job and who
possess degree in library and information science as well as in some other discipline.
Professionals are employed at higher level and middle level and are responsible for
administration and managerial and professional job. Usually Librarian, Deputy Librarian,
Assistant Librarian and Senior Library Assistants, whatever may be their designation, are
included in this category.
ii) Para Professional / Semi Professionals: They are with diploma or certificate in LIS. Their
designation may be library assistant, technical or professional assistant, junior cataloguer or
equivalent. They usually perform the routine professional and technical job.
iii) Unskilled / Supporting Staff: They are with the minimum educational background and are
adequately experienced in doing a particular job or trade and usually have a non-library degree.
The designation may be reprographic assistant, book arranger, book binder, conversation
assistant, typist and equivalent.
Besides the above categories of staff, some other staffs are also necessary. They include
attendant, cleaner, peon, gardener, and sweeper.
The quantum of the staff depends on the total service area of the library, the number of
departments / branch and other organized unit, the hours of opening, population and size of
library users, amount of circulation and demand for reference service, and the financial support
c) Activities of LIS Professionals: The different categories of library personnel are assigned
specific public service activities, some of the functions may overlap while some of these can
vary from library to library but in general these are of the following types
i) Activities of a Professional
* General Activities: Establishes operating policy, assigns the personnel, public relations, general
supervision, work with faculty.
* Professional: Book selection, performing the book order; do classification and cataloguing,
indexing, etc. Selection of circulation system, non-routine registration, schedule staff. In case of
Interlibrary Loan determine interlibrary loan code.
* Reference: Initial patron contact at the Reference Desk or Information Desk, gives general
information and answers directional questions, interviews patrons and answers reference
questions, searches computer databases, compiles bibliographies, explains the use of library
catalogues and periodical indexes, recommends material for purchase.
* Miscellaneous Activities: Establishes subject headings for vertical files, works on displays,
bulletin boards and exhibits.
ii) Activities of a Paraprofessional
* General: Assigns personnel, public relations, general supervision, and work with faculty.
* Professional: Their job includes book ordering, accessioning and preparation of books for the
shelves, physical verification of books, membership registration, to maintain files, deal with
disputed fines. Supervise collection and catalogue maintenance, circulation, stock verification,
charge out and check in materials, accepting interlibrary loan requests, and bibliographic and
location search, to identify overdue and carry out overdue procedures, collecting fines, re
shelving, shelf reading, shifting materials on shelves, inventory.
* Reference: Initial patron contact at Reference Desk or Information Desk, to answer general
information and directional questions, answer simple reference questions within limits
established by the library, to interview patrons and answer reference questions, compile
bibliographies, explain the use of library catalogues and periodical indexes, bibliographic work
under librarian's direction, recommend material for purchase.
* Miscellaneous Activities: Establishes subject headings for vertical files, upkeep of files and
assign subject headings under librarian's direction, work on displays, bulletin boards, exhibits,
demonstrates the use of audiovisual equipment and compiles statistics.
iii) Activities of an Unskilled / Supporting Staff
* General: Public relations.
* Professional: Typing and other clerical work, book binding, maintaining files, to receive and
return different types of material other than document, reprography, micrography, operation of
different types of equipment, maintenance of fumigation chambers, de-acidification, lamination
and other conservation processes.
* Reference: Initial patron contact at the Reference Desk or Information Desk, answering general
information and directional questions, answering simple reference questions within limits
established by the library, typing and other clerical work.
* Miscellaneous Activities: Compiling statistics, upkeep of files and assigning subject headings
under librarian's direction, work on displays, bulletin boards, museum exhibits, demonstrating
the use of audiovisual equipment.
Special Library
Special Library: The libraries that are run by private businesses and public organizations,
including hospitals, museums, research laboratories, law firms, and many government
departments and agencies, fall into this category. Branches of a large academic or research
libraries dealing with particular subjects are also usually called "special libraries": they are
generally associated with one or more academic departments.
a) Definition: The special library is concerned with the literature of a particular subject or group
of subjects. According to R. Astall, “special libraries serve a specialist clientele, located within a
single establishment or group, and all engaged in working towards one common purpose”. The
Association of Special Libraries and Information Bureau (ASLIB) defined special library as “a
department/ faculty responsible for the acquisition, indexing, and distribution (dissemination) of
recorded knowledge directly concerned with the work of a specialized organization or a special
group of users”.
In simple, a special library exists as a service unit within an organization having non-
library objectives. Special libraries may be designated in different ways such as scientific library,
technical library, etc. It may also be designated by subject as agriculture library, medical library,
etc in relation to its parent institution as research organization, government agency and similar
b) Objectives: The objectives of the special library in general are determined by those of the
parent organizations which established it. Mainly it is “putting knowledge to work” and it exists
to serve its parent organization. Therefore the aim of a special library is to further the interests of
its parent body by means of the following-
i) Provides information service, which enable the members of the organization to keep track of
the significant developments in their field of interest;
ii) The librarian searches literature exhaustively and brings it to the notice of the organization;
iii) Provides information pin pointedly, exhaustively and promptly, thereby saving time of the
iv) Provides inspiration and stimulation to users by means of balanced collections and fine
c) Collections: Collections of the special libraries are developed to support their information
services, both current and retrospective. It contains collections of unique materials to support the
needs of advanced and highly specialized scholarship including internally generated information
and information available from sources outside the parent organization. These collections may
include rare manuscripts, pamphlets and books, scientific documents, important printings of
literary works, regional histories, original musical scores, journals, technical and research
reports, translations, dissertations, patents, abstracts, directories, or other distinctive scholarly
d) Services: As the collection of special libraries may contain many rare and valuable materials,
their use is typically confined to the library buildings. It also may or may not be accessible to
some identified part of the general public. Special libraries also often publish scholarly materials
in their collections, sponsored lectures, colloquia, and arrange exhibitions of their most important
holdings. Information service is an integral part of the special libraries. The nature and extent of
information services offered by the individual special libraries varies according to the need of its
primary users and according to its own resources in staff and collections. At the minimal level of
information service it disseminates information and materials; answers reference questions,
directs users to appropriate sources, and deals with such simple current awareness services as
periodical routing. At the intermediate level, it offers literature searches, prepares bibliographies,
selects and transmits research materials and provides current awareness services such as
acquisition bulletins. At the maximums level it offers evaluative and comprehensive literature
searches and more complex current awareness services such as Selective Dissemination of
Information (SDI) services.
Many institutions make a distinction between circulating libraries (where materials are
expected and intended to be loaned to patrons, institutions, or other libraries) and collecting
libraries (where the materials are selected on a basis of their nature or subject matter). Many
modern libraries are a mixture of both, as they contain a general collection for circulation, and a
reference collection which is often more specialized, as well as restricted to the library premises.
In addition to providing materials, libraries also provide the services of librarians who are
experts at finding and organizing information and at interpreting information needs.
Sources of Documentary Information
Sources of Documentary Information: A document constitutes embodied thought which is a
record of work on paper or other material fit for physical handling, transport across space and
preservation through time. It may include manuscripts, handwritten and engraved materials
including printed books, periodical, microform, photograph, gramophone records, tape records,
etc. The recent advances in science and technology helps originate another kind of document i.e.
computer readable forms that includes C.D., DVD, pen drive, hard disk, web resources etc. All
documents are the records of human observation and thought and in its creation direct human
intervention is necessary. They provide some information to its readers or users. A library as a
gateway of knowledge provides access to a variety of such documentary sources of information.
The sources of documentary information can also be termed as an information product. It
is generated out of a service to be provided to the user. It is a kind of consolidation and
presentation process giving tangibility to information.
1. Classification of Documentary Sources of Information: Different authors classified the
documentary sources of information into different categories. Some popular classifications are
listed bellow
a) C. W. Hanson Classification: C. W. Hanson (1971) in the article “Introduction to science
Information work” published in ASLIB (previously Association of Special Libraries
and Information Bureau but now known as Association for Information Management) divides
documentary sources of information into two categories i.e. primary and secondary.
i) Primary: The primary documents exist of their own and usually contain original information
on the first formulation of any new observation, experiment, ideas, etc. Thus, according to C. W.
Hanson, a monograph, an article in periodical, text book, and encyclopaedia are all primary
documents. An article in encyclopedia or text book may not contain any new information on the
subject but it presents the information in the particular form for the first time. The articles
concerned are not a condensation or rewriting in any way of any existing document but has been
written specifically for the text book or the encyclopedia.
ii) Secondary: All secondary publications present the contents of primary document in a
condensed form or list them in a helpful way so that the existence of a primary document can be
known and access to it can be made.
iii) Primary / Secondary Sources of Information: Conference proceedings, theses and
dissertations, monographs, etc. have the characteristics of both primary and secondary sources of
information. Those of documents representing new facts can be regarded as primary publication
and those having the character of reviews can be grouped as secondary publication. As a result of
such mixing of primary and secondary sources of information some expert doesn’t consider this
division to be much practical utility.
b) Denis Grogan Classification: Denis Grogan, on the basis of level of reorganization, has
classified the documents into three categories. They are: primary, secondary and tertiary.
i) Primary Sources: Primary publications are those in which the author for the first time
supplies evidence, describes a discovery, makes or drives a new proposition or brings forward
new evidence about previous proposition. It was created at or near the time being studied, often
by the people being studied. It is a fundamental, authoritative document related to a subject of
inquiry, used in the preparation of a later derivative work. Thus, the primary sources of
information are basic sources of new information which are not passed through any filtering
mechanism like condensation, interpretation or evaluation and are the original work of the
UNESCO (1968) defines a primary publication as “original scientific paper describing new
research, techniques or apparatus.” Primary does not mean superior. It refers to the creation by
the primary players, and is distinguished from a secondary source, which is a historical work,
like a scholarly book or article, built up from primary sources.
Primary sources may include periodicals, patent, standard, report, reprint, trade journal,
classic book, letters, diaries, and other personal papers, photographs, interviews and transcripts,
government and historical records, newspaper clippings, and other original sources. The
significance of primary publications is as follows:
a) A subject becomes a discipline in its own right when independent primary sources begin to be
produced in that area. The progress and development of a country directly depend on the primary
literature that reports a new discovery.
b) The information published in primary sources are newly generated, recent, current, full and
up-to-date for all other investigators working in the same field.
c) When any research or investigation or its any concept is first published in primary sources
only it becomes the basic and original sources of communication of information and reports
quickly to be used by other users.
d) Publication of primary sources of information avoids doubling and duplication in the research,
thus saves time, money and labour to be spent on it. It also acts as a guide to the researcher
engaged in the same field by pointing out what has been done? And up to what level? etc.
e) The primary sources of information help in the compilation of secondary and tertiary sources
of information. Often primary sources of information may be the only sources of information in
There are certain primary sources of information, which remain unpublished. Very often
these may be consulted for historical interest. Such materials include laboratory note book,
memoranda, diaries, letters to and from a particular individual, company, etc. The library also
tries to procure such type of material if it comes within its scope of area or is relevant to its
ii) Secondary Sources: A document concerning a particular subject of inquiry which is derived
from or based on the study and analysis of the primary source of information is called the
secondary source of information. In the secondary source of information the original information
is selected, modified and arranged in a suitable format for the purpose of easy location by the
user. The secondary sources of information thus provide digested information and also serve as
bibliographical key to primary sources of information. Secondary publication includes text book,
reference book, review of the literature, etc.
iii) Tertiary Sources: The tertiary sources of information are last to appear and mostly do not
contain subject knowledge. It is designed to provide information about information and so acts as
a guide to the primary and secondary sources of information. The main function of tertiary
sources is to aid the user in using primary and secondary sources of information. The tertiary
sources of information are bibliography of bibliographies, guides to libraries, other
organizations, indexing and abstracting periodicals, list of accession, list of research in progress,
directories, etc.
Eventually there is no rigid line of demarcation between primary, secondary and tertiary
sources of information.
c) S. R. Ranganathan Classification: Based on the physical characteristics of documents S. R.
Ranganathan classified documentary sources of information into four categories. These also
reflect the chronological order of their development. They are:
i) Conventional: Books, periodicals, Map etc.;
ii) Neo Conventional: Standards, specification, patent etc.;
iii) Non Conventional: Audio visual, microcopy etc.;
iv) Meta Document: Direct records unmediated by human mind.
2. Types of Documentary Sources of Information: The documentary sources of information
can be of the following types
a) Newspaper: Newspapers are usually published as dailies or weeklies. The type of paper they
are printed on, called newsprint is not meant to last. They are usually preserved on microfilm for
this reason. Libraries usually keep paper copies of newspapers until the microfilm copies arrive.
Nowadays many newspapers are available on the Internet, some for free, and others by
b) Periodical: Periodicals are issued at intervals and numbered consecutively. They are given
volume designations, several issues making up a volume. Periodicals include journals and
i) Journal: Journal is a scholarly publication devoted to disseminating current information about
research and developments in a specific field or subfield of human knowledge. Journal is usually
regularly published at interval. Most journal articles are long and include a paragraph at the
beginning, called an abstract which summarizes the main points of the article and at the end a
bibliography or list of works cited. The writings of the journals are most often peer-reviewed.
ii) Magazine: The magazine usually refers to the non-scholarly publications written for an
educated audience and contains popular reading.
c) Reprint: Once an article is published in a journal additional copies are taken out separately
and provided to the author. A fixed number is generally supplied free of charge. Additional
copies are supplied at a cost; these copies are known as reprints and used for exchange with other
scientists working in the same field.
d) House Journal: It is a publication issued by an organization to inform the public of its
performance and style of function and also to know the reaction, opinions of its public. Generally
house journals are of two types:
i) External House Journals: The external house journal is meant for the external audience of an
organization. The external audience of an organization refers to those who do not work under the
roof of the organization, but are interested in it.
ii) Internal House Journal: Internal house journals are meant for the employees under the roof
of an organization. Broadly speaking, it aims to inform and educate the employees of all levels
about the organization’s activities, functions, etc.
e) Newsletter: Newsletter is a publication issued by an organization often simple in format and
crisp in style to provide speedy information for a definite audience. Newsletters are always
issued regularly and have a short life span. It is a modest publication containing limited pages
say four to eight and a few pictures and illustrations. Generally, the organizations that do not go
for house journals find a good substitute in newsletters. While some newsletters are intended for
the employees, others are meant for the external public.
f) Patents: A patent presents a detailed account of a new manufacturing process or improvement
of an existing process, a new product, a new method of testing and control etc. Generally, when
some kind of invention is made the manufacturer wants to protect his invention and the patent
offices in various countries on the request of the manufacturer generally issue the patent, which
provides an exclusive right to the manufacturer on the invention. It takes the form of an official
document having the seal of the government attached to it, which confesses an exclusive
privilege or right over a period of time to the proceeds of an invention.
g) Standards: Standards are units or measures in terms of weight, size, length, quality,
composition, process of production, etc., established by National and International
Organizations. Standards are often finalized through testing, research, and study and prescribe
the accepted quality or performance value of a product.
h) Research Report: Research reports are published as part of the annual report of an
organization or as a separate report published at periodical intervals by individual and agencies
that obtain research grants and have to produce them as a condition of such grants. The research
reports are generally produced in limited number of copies and the distribution is also restricted
and controlled.
i) Trade and Product Bulletin / Journal: Trade journals contain primary articles but of the
nature of applied research. It contains the particulars of goods manufactured by or sold by a firm.
Frequently illustrated and containing prices, it also often contains application oriented
description rather than theoretical description. These are published by Research and
Development Organizations, Trade Associations etc. The original objectives of all trade journals
are product advertisement. The complete description, principles and working of a newly
developed and highly sophisticated instrument may for quite time be available only in the
manufacturer trade journals. Eg.: International Product Finder. Bombay: Business press.
j) Conference Proceedings: Many conference proceedings present new findings or results of
work for the first time or at least months before they are published in scientific journals. Some
times, conference proceedings also include questions from participants and answers and
clarifications from the authors of the papers. The conference proceedings generally contain the
statement of objectives, opening address or presidential address, list of participants or
conference’s who’s who, resolutions or recommendations, etc.
k) Thesis and Dissertation: Thesis and dissertation are the results of purely academic pursuit. It
reports some original work in a specific field. Among all the primary sources of information
thesis and dissertation are probably least used mainly because their existence is not known in
many cases and also due to the limited number of copies of the document.
l) Treatise: A treatise provides an exhaustive treatment of a broad subject. It is encyclopaedic in
coverage of the subject but different in its treatment. It presents in a systematic and consolidated
manner the result of work and research in the field with full reference to the primary sources.
m) Monograph: The scope of a monograph is narrower than that of a treatise. Monograph is on
a single topic whereas a treatise is on a broad subject. Research monographs are separately
published reports on an original research that is too long, too specialized or otherwise unsuitable
for publication in one of the standard journals. Each monograph is self contained which
frequently summarizes the particular existing theory or practice along with the author’s original
n) Review: A review is actually a narrative account or critical synthesis of the progress of a
particular field of study prepared by an expert in the field. It shifts, evaluates and puts each
significant contribution into its proper perspective. It indicates interrelationship of ideas,
significance and possible areas of application and so on, so that one can easily get an expert view
of the subject without having to go through the mass of literature.
o) Text Book: A text book is made of continuous exposition, sentences mount into paragraph,
paragraphs into chapter, chapters get woven into a single swelling exposition in the continuous
pursuit of a single idea, simple or complex, and text books are read consecutively for inspiration,
enjoyment or information. There is a link at each stage. There is an element of continuity.
According to Grogan, “a text book is a teaching instrument; its primary aim is not to import
information about its subject but to develop understanding of it. It concentrates on demonstrating
principles rather than recounting detail”.
p) State of the Art Report: These are types of reviews which do not have all embracing scope
and historical orientation. These present information assembled from various sources and
subjects to the operation of analysis, consolidation, extraction and evaluation in a formal
presentation representing the most advanced degree of technical achievement in its field at the
present time. Some owe their existence to a specific query while others are issued on a regular
basis, in many cases once in a year. State of the Art report emphasizes on the recent and up-to-
date ideas.
q) Trend Report: Trend report gives an account of the general direction of research in the
subject based on a review of the documents on current development.
r) Technical Digests: A digest service is directed to executives, engineers, technical worker, etc.
working in industries. It provides up to date technical information. It presents descriptive text of
information in a condensed form and on the core ideas in brief and orderly form.
Social Network
Social Network: A social network or online community is a web based service that focuses on
building online communities of people who share interests and / or activities by a variety of
ways. It is a social structure made of nodes (which are generally individuals or organizations)
that are tied by one or more specific types of interdependency, such as values, visions, ideas,
financial exchange, friendship, sexual relationships, kinship, dislike, conflict or trade, etc.
Few social networks currently charge money for membership to run the site. Companies
such as MySpace and Facebook sell online advertising on their site for the same purpose.
There are generally two types of social networks. These are-
i) Internal Social Networking (ISN): An ISN is a closed / private community that consists of a
group of people within a company, association, society, education provider and organization or
even an “invite only” group created by a user.
ii) External Social Networking (ESN): An ESN is open / public and available to all web users
to communicate and is designed to attract advertisers. Eg. MySpace, Facebook, Twitter and
a) Characteristics: Social network service provides the following ways for the users to interact
with others.
i) My Profile: Set up and customization facility for profile;
ii) Search: Can search for friends and others;
iii) Making Friends: One can invite others as friend. In most social networking services, both
users must confirm that they are friends before they are linked. Some social networking sites
have a “favorites” feature that does not need approval from the other user.
iv) E-mail: Can send or receive e-mail from others.
v) Instant messaging services (Chat): Can send chat message to online friends.
vi) Scrapbook: Can append short message in the profiles of the friends/network members.
vii) Calendars (Events): Can create calendars or events.
viii) Articles: Can upload, download and share write-up.
ix) Notes: Can create and view the notes created by others.
x) Blogs: Can post personal write up.
xi) Groups: Can create groups and join other group, post replied to, and so on.
xii) Forums: Can create forum and join forum created by other people, post replied to, and so
xiii) Music: Listen, download and upload music.
xiv) Photos: Download, view and upload photos.
xv) Videos: Download, view and upload personal videos.
xvi) Games: Play online games, sometimes even can download.
xvii) Social Apps or Gadgets: Facility to incorporate others online social apps and gadgets.
xviii) Notifications on Websites: Social networks generally send notifications to users when
they are removed from a person’s friends list, some one comments on their profile page, send
email and for such other things.
xix) Privacy Settings: Helps in finding regular control of who sees what. Ability to block an
unwanted member, and so on.
b) Issues: Issues related to social network can be of the following types
i) Duplicate Entries: One has to enter and fill up the profile page of each of the social
networking services individually. There is a need to standardize these services to avoid the need
of duplicate entries of friends and interests.
Solution in the Line: The Open Source Initiative ( emerges due to
this issue. The Friend of a Friend (FOAF) ( project is creating a
Web of machine-readable pages describing people, the links between them and the things they
create and do, so that people can easily share and use information about them and their activities
(eg. photos, calendars, weblogs), and can transfer them between Web sites and automatically
extend, merge and re-use it online. “FOAF is a small but shapely piece of the wider Semantic
Web project” ( But, all theses have led to some concerns
about privacy. There is also a trend for more interoperability between social networks led by
technologies such as OpenID ( and OpenSocial (
“OpenID is a free and easy way to use a single digital identity across the Internet”. With one
OpenID one can log in to all their favorite websites by logging in to a single site. OpenSocial
helps the sites to share their social data with the web. “Applications that use the OpenSocial APIs
can be embedded within a social network itself, or access a site’s social data from anywhere on
the web”.
ii) Identity: In a social network service, any people can create a profile in the name of others. It
has caused concern regarding its potential misuse by individual patrons for bullying purposes
Solution in the Line: Some social networks are trying to use mobile phone to authenticate the
iii) Privacy: The social networking service sites often contain a great deal of data that is hard to
obtain via traditional means, that is, a user giving out too much personal information in their
profile page which lead to growing concerns or threat about the data stolen by others. Even
though the data are public, republishing it in a research paper or for the sake of others might be
considered invasion of privacy. Furthermore, there is an issue over the control of information
being altered or removed by the user that may in fact be retained and / or passed to 3rd parties.
There are also examples when a social network service harvested e-mail addresses from user’ e-
mail accounts to use in a spamming operation.
Social network services are being increasingly used in legal and criminal investigations.
Information posted on sites such as MySpace and Facebook has been used by police (forensic
profiling), probation, and university officials to prosecute the users of the said sites. In some
situations, the content posted on MySpace has been used in court. All these are creating problems
for the user to be social.
Solution in the Line: In many social networks people are now able to completely control the
information they provide; the photos they include, and the friends they make. People are
therefore, now able to control their personal information and their desired social status. Many
social networking services, such as Facebook, provide the user with a choice of who can view
their profile. This prevents unauthorized user(s) from accessing their information. To edit
information on a certain social networking service account, the social networking sites require to
login or provide an access code. This prevents unauthorized user(s) from adding, changing, or
removing personal information, pictures, and/or other data.
iv) Sexual Predators: Citizens and governments have been concerned about the misuse by
children and teenagers of social network services, particularly in relation to online sexual
Solution in the Line: Many social networks do not permit people below the age of 15 or 18 to
enter into the social network.
The other issues include the viruses, which is a problem common to most of the internet
based services.
c) Importance: Social network is daily used by billions of people. It is a spontaneous movement
of people using online tools to connect, take charge of their own experience, and get what they
need - information, support, ideas, products, and bargaining power--from each other. It can also
be used to build personal / institutional network and as a means of e-learning and social capital.
The importance of social network can be seen in regards to-
i) Advertisement: Formation and displaying profile page information that’s publicly available
can be used as advertisement. In this way one can find and be introduced to potential clients,
business opportunities, service providers, and subject experts and find potential partners.
According to Jody Nimetz, author of Marketing Jive, there are five major uses for businesses and
social media: to create brand awareness, as an online reputation management tool, for recruiting,
to learn about new technologies and competitors, and as a lead gen tool to intercept potential
prospects. The companies in this way will be able to drive traffic to their own online sites while
encouraging their consumers and clients to have discussions on how to improve or change
products or services.
ii) Communication: Through social network one can create projects, post and distribute
institutional information. Many social networks also have the facility to incorporate self-
description pages (profile) including hobbies and interests rather than developing website for


1) Join in the Orkut community

and interact with your friend
through message, scrap, and
iii) Sharing Information Data, Files: Social networks extend the possibility for sharing
information and knowledge with one another. In this way one will be able to increase both their
learning and their flexibility in ways that would not be possible within a self-contained
hierarchical organization.
iv) Collaboration: Can build collaboration in different kind of projects. Participants can talk
v) Problem Solving: Can be used to gain new insights from discussions with likeminded
vi) Connects People: It is a means to connect with those people those who share similar interest
(classmates, friends, families, business people and co-workers, people looking for long lost
friends). Also it can be used as matrimonial site
d) Examples: Out of the following list of social network, we recommend you to have a look on
Facebook, LinkedIn, MySpace, Ning, Orkut, Twitter, and YouTube. They are grabbing the world
of social network with their special features.
Sl. No. Site Name Site URL
1) Bebo (

2) Climateculture (

3) Cyworld (

4) dol2day (

5) Facebook (

6) Friendster (

7) Hi5 (

8) LinkedIn (

9) Multiply (

10) MySpace (

11) Nexopia (

12) Ning (

13) Orkut (

14) Skyrock (

15) Tagged (

16) Twitter (

17) Wretch (

18) Xiaonei (

19) XING (

20) YouTube (

Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan

Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan: Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan was born on 12th August
1892 in the rural village of Shiyali (also known as Sirkazhi), in the state of Tamil Nadu in South
India. He was an innovative mathematician and librarian from India. His most notable
contributions to the field were his five laws of library science (1931) and the development of the
first major analytico-synthetic classification system, the Colon classification (1933). He helped
to found the Madras Library Association, and lobbied actively for the establishment of free
public libraries throughout India and for the creation of a comprehensive national library.
Ranganathan's another major achievement was the establishment of the Documentation Research
and Training Centre at Bangalore in 1962.
Ranganthan was considered by many to be a workaholic. During his two decades in Madras, he
consistently worked 13-hour a days, seven days a week, without taking a vacation for the entire
time. He is considered to be the father of library science in India. The Government of India
awarded padmashree to Dr. S. R. Ranganathan for valuable contribution in Library Science. In
1965, he was honored by the Indian government for his contributions to the field with the title of
"National Research Professor." On September 27, 1972 at Bangalore, he died of complications
from bronchitis. Upon the centenary of his birth in 1992, several autobiographical volumes and
collections of essays on Ranganathan's influence were published in his honor. Ranganathan's
autobiography, published serially during his life, is titled A Librarian Looks Back.

Selection of Vendor
Selection of Vendor: Before placing the book for order the librarians should consider whether
the particular title can be acquired by gift, donation, by virtue of membership and so on. If not,
then only should it be considered for acquisition by way of purchase.
The vendor to be selected should be the one that is known to provide prompt and
satisfactory service. He should be honest in his dealings and must have a good reputation. In case
of titles published by learned societies, organizations, and institutions, it is often preferable to
place order directly to them for availing huge discounts.
The Good Offices Committee (GOC), New Delhi is a voluntary organization formed by
representatives of the book trade and libraries to standardize and introduce uniform terms of
book and periodical supplies to libraries. The committee meets at regular intervals and after
taking into consideration the fluctuations in currency rates it decides the rates conversion. It has
also laid down discount rates for different categories of books and periodical publications as well
as other terms for the book suppliers. As a result, there should be ordinarily no necessity for
calling for tenders and quotations, etc. for purchase of books and periodicals from Indian
vendors. A library should agree to abide by the terms laid down by the Good Offices Committee
and place order with the vendor who agrees to these terms.
The different practices followed by libraries in the choice of the supplier are:
i) Tender Method: In tender method, every book list of finally selected items is circulated among
a number of booksellers who are invited to quote their lowest prices for each item. The order is
placed for each item with the firm offering the lowest price.
ii) Quotation Method: In this method, quotations are invited for various categories of documents
along with trade discounts admissible in each case. This is done usually prior to the beginning of
the financial year. The supplier for each category is fixed finally on the basis of the most
economic terms offered.
iii) Standing Vendor Method: A standing vendor is one who is appointed as the authorized
supplier to library for a specified time, generally for a year or two, under prescribed terms and
conditions of supply.
iv) Books – on – Approval Method: In this case reputed publishers will be sending their new titles
as and when published to the library directly. These items are accepted after due process of
selection. The formal order will be placed with the local bookseller named by each publisher.
Sometimes the local booksellers, at frequent intervals, bring some recent publications for
approval and ordering. The selected items are included in a formal order and accepted while the
others are returned.
v) Open Purchase: Purchasing from the book fairs and buying from any bookseller from the
open market comes under this method.
vi) Direct Ordering with Publisher: Direct ordering with publishers or their representatives is
done by some libraries.
Search Engines
Search Engines: A search engine is a program or information retrieval system designed to help
one in retrieving a list of references or information, meeting a specific criterion from its own
databases that are stored on a computer. The computer may be a public server on the World Wide
Web, a computer inside a corporate or proprietary network, or a personal computer.
The earliest Internet search engine was Archie, which was created in 1990 by Alan
Emtage a student at Mc Gill University in Montreal for anonymous FTP sites. This is the
grandfather of all search engines. In 1993, the University of Navada System Computing Service
group developed Veronica, which was created as a type of searching device similar to Archie but
for gopher files. This is treated as the grandmother of search engines.
In June 1993, Matthew Gray, then at MIT, produced what was probably the first web
robot, the Perl-based World Wide Web Wanderer, and used it to generate an index called
“Wandex”. The purpose of the Wanderer was to measure the size of the World Wide Web, which
it did until late 1995. The web's second search engine Archie-Like Indexing on the Web (Aliweb)
appeared in November 1993 due to the effort of Martgn Koster. Aliweb did not use a web robot,
but instead depended on being notified by website administrators of the existence at each site of
an index file in a particular format. ALIWEB is no longer maintained.
In December 2003, Orase
( published the first version of its
new real time search technology. It comes with many new functions and the performance
increased a lot.
a) Component of a Search Engine: A general search engine typically functions by considering
three components.
i) Crawler / Spider / robots: Web crawling is the process of locating, fetching, and storing Web
pages. The Web crawler or spider or robot is a computer program. It starts from a seed pages to
locate new pages by parsing the downloaded pages and extracting the hyperlinks within.
Extracted hyperlinks are stored in a FIFO fetch queue for further retrieval. Crawling continues
until the fetch queue gets empty or a satisfactory number of pages are downloaded. Each time a
spider visits a web page it scans all the text and follows every link it sees.
Some search engines such as Google store all the scan pages but some like Altavista store
only the words of the scan pages in an ever increasing databases. Theses store pages are known
as cached pages. The contents of each page are then analyzed and it catalogues the URL and a
list of words in an index database for use in later queries.
ii) Indexer: The downloaded content is concurrently parsed by an indexer and transformed into
an inverted index. It represents the downloaded collection in a compact and efficiently queryable
form. The indexes are regularly updated to operate quickly and efficiently. The database of
search engine is most often created by spiders or robots automatically.
iii) Query Processor: The query processor is responsible for evaluating user queries and
returning to the users the pages relevant to their query. The search engine allows one to ask for
content meeting specific criteria (typically those containing a given word or phrase) into a search
“box”. When a user makes a query typically by giving keywords the engine looks up the index
and provides a listing of the best matching web page according to its criteria, usually with a short
summary containing the document’s title and sometimes a part of the text. The list is often sorted
with respect to some measure of relevance of the results. Because these databases are very large,
search engines often return thousands of results.
b) Ranking of Site at Search Engine: Best matches and what order the results should be shown
in, varies widely from one search engine to another. The method also changes over time as
internet usage changes and new techniques evolve but people at large accepted Google to be
more useful in this regard. But, researchers at NEC Research Institute claim to have improved
upon Google’s patented page rank technology by using web crawler to find Communities of
website. This technology instead of ranking pages uses an algorithm that follows link on a
webpage to find other pages that link back to the first one and so on from page to page. The
algorithms remember where it has been and index the number of cross links and relate these
into grouping. In this way virtual communities of web pages are found.
c) Types of Search Engine: Configurable Unified Search Index (CUSI) search engines, like All-
in One Search Page and W3 Search Engines are pages which list search engines.
The search engines can be categorized based on the coverage as-
i) Web Search Engine: It searches for information on the public Web.
ii) Enterprise Search Engines: They search on intranets.
iii) Personal Search Engines: It searches individual personal computers.
iv) Custom Search Engine: Search within the contents defined by the user(s).
v) Meta Search Engine: The content of search engines indexes and databases will vary. So if the
same query is typed into several search engines it is likely to produce different results, Because
of this in searching a topic a user often wants to see results from various sources. One way to
compare the results of several search engines is to type and retype a query into individual search
engines one at a time. However, this can be very time consuming. A Meta searcher helps to make
this task more efficient by providing a central location where the query is typed in once and the
result can be obtained from multiple search engines. Meta Crawler, Search.Com
(, etc. are examples of Meta search engines.
Based on the contents that are considered for search, search engine can be-
i) Web Search Engine: Search all types of contents over the web. Eg. Google
ii) Discussion Group Search Engine: Search only discussion groups. For example Google
groups (, Yahoo groups (
iii) Blog Search Engines: Search only Blogs. For example, Google blogs
(, etc
iv) Image Search Engine: For example, Google images (, etc.
v) Maps Search Engine: For example, Google maps (, etc.
vi) Video Search Engine: For example, blinkx (, fooooo
(, Truveo (, Google videos
(, etc.
vii) Hypermail Search Engine: It searches for mailing lists.
viii) Hypernews Search Engine: It searches for USENET newsgroups.
ix) News Search Engine: For example, Google news (
x) Books Search Engine: For example, Google books (
xi) Subject Directory Search Engine: They search Web directories which are maintained by
human editors. They include a keyword search option which usually eliminates the need to work
through numerous levels of topics and subtopics. For example,, Yahoo!
(, Looksmart (, etc.
Some other types of search engines are-
i) Crawler based Search Engine: WebCrawler that was launched in April 1994 was the first
“robot” keyword search engine. Its robot program indexes the entire content of pages retrieved
but not URLs embedded in those pages. WebCrawler acquired by America Online in June 1995.
World Wide Web Word was also a robot based search engine; it indexes only HTML document
titles, text explaining page links and URL’s.
ii) Human-Powered Search Engines: The Human-Powered Search engines search the pages or
websites that are collected for index by the human. The examples of such type of search engine
include: Anoox <>, ChaCha <>, Collarity
<>, Earthfrisk <>, iRazoo
<>, Mahalo <>, Sproose
<>, Wikia Search <>, etc.
iii) Mobile Search Engines: For example, Google mobile (
iv) Simultaneous Unified Search Engine (SUSI): The WebCompass acts as a personal SUSI
search engine, where the user defines a set of search engines in a local database, defines a
concept map of terms with associated search word, and then configure WebCompass to keyword
search. A personal edition of WebCompass and other shareware packaged with similar
capabilities are freely available. Other SUSI based services like SavvySearch or MetaCrawler
search a range of search engines at a time. The drawback of SUSI is that their response time is
v) Personalized Web Search: Google developed a personalized web search whereby the user can
set up a profile and retrieve the results based on their interests.
vi) Grid Search Engine: A grid search engine can be defined as “a type of a parallel and
distributed system that enables sharing, selection, and aggregation of geographically distributed
autonomous resources dynamically at runtime depending on their availability, capability,
performance, cost, and users’ quality-of-service requirements”. In a grid search engine, for each
user query an individual crawl is started over the fresh copies of the Web document i.e the
original one but not the cached one, and the relevant pages are selected. In this way, up-to date
versions of the pages are evaluated and accuracy of the resulting answer set of pages is enforced.
The grid search engines are sometimes known as Real Time Search Engine. For example, in
December 2003, Orase published the first version of its new real time search technology.
vii) Natural Language Queries (Index Crawling): For example, Altavista, Ask Jeevas.
viii) Freeware Search Software: Freeware Search Softwares are used via a WWW servers CGI,
like freeways, Glimpse and SWISH (Simple Web Indexing System for Humans).
In near future it is no doubt that some subject search engines will come out to overcome
the problem of general search engines.
d) Importance of Search Engine: Search engines are the most popular destination on the
internet. Again, the cached pages maintained by some search engines are very useful when the
content of the web page has been updated and the search terms are no longer in it, or the web
page is no longer available or the site’s server is down. So, in such cases when a particular
website is withdrawn one can search for cached pages for the data that may no longer be
available elsewhere.
Without search engine, to try to find what you need can be like finding a needle in a
haystack. To use search engines effectively, it is essential to apply techniques that narrow the
results and push the most relevant pages to the top of the results list.
e) Examples of Search Engine: Nowadays, we have thousands of search engines for searching
over internet. Each of the search engines makes an appearance over the web; continues for some
time, then the new one emerges and the old one falls to decay and disuse. Some of the popular
types of search engines, which create new milestone in the origin and development of search
engines, are discussed below
i) Lycos: Lycos ( was started at Carnegi Mellon University as a research
project in 1994 and it was one of the first engines. It ceases crawling the web for its own listing
in April 1999 and instead uses crawler based results provided by Fast i.e All the Now
it is owned by Terra Lycos, a company formed with Lycos and Terra Networks merged in
October 2000.
ii) Altavista: Altavista ( was originated in 1995. It was the first search
engine to use natural language queries (index crawling), meaning a user could type in a sentence
like “Who is the Prime Minister of India” and does not get a million pages containing the word
“Who”. AltaVista also offers a number of powerful search features not found elsewhere. One
very effective tool available on the Advanced Search page is the NEAR search. A NEAR search
limits the results to pages where the keywords appear within 10 words of each other. This can be
extremely helpful in situations where an AND search produces too many results and a phrase
search (" ") produces too few results. Altavista also provides news and multimedia which was
owned by Digital Equipment Corporation.
iii) Ask Jeevas: Ask Jeevas ( initially gained fame in 1998 and 1999 as
being the natural language search engine that lets one to search by asking questions and being
responded with what seemed to be the right answer to everything. i.e it can be said that it delivers
search results based on one’s question.


1) Search over Google for the

term “LIS Links” without
quotes and check all the first ten
links it retrieves.
iv) Google: Google ( was originally a Stanford University project by
student Larry Page and Sergey Brain called Back Rub. In 1998 the name had been changed to
Google and the project jumped off campus and became private company. In around 2001 the
Google search engines rose to prominence. Its success was based in part on the concept of link
popularity and page rank which is very adept at returning the relevant results. Page rank is based
on citation analysis that was developed in the 1950s by Dr. Eugene Garfield at the University of
Pennsylvania. The page rank takes into consideration how many other websites and web page
linking pages and the number of links on theses pages contribute to the page rank of the linked
page. This makes it possible for Google to order its results by how many website links to each
found page. Finally, unlike other search engines, Google offers a cached copy of each result.
v) Yahoo: Yahoo (, the huge subject tree was started by two Stanford
graduate students David Flo and Jerry Yang. They created a list of their favorite site. The list
grew bigger and bigger and in time has become the Yahoo. In 2002, Yahoo acquired Inktomi and
in 2003 Overtune, which owned All the web and Altavista. In 2004 Yahoo launched its own
search engines based on the combined technologies of its acquisition and providing a service that
gave pre-eminence to the web search engine over the directory.
The other popular search engines include All the Web (,
HotBot (, Excite (, etc.
Scientific Method
Scientific Method: The term Scientific Method can be understood from the two words
"Science" and "Method". The term Science has been used as an accumulation of systematic
knowledge, where knowledge refers to the goal of science and systematic refers to the method
that is used in reaching that goal.
a) Definition: According to Karl Pearson, scientific method is the pursuit of truth as determined
by logical consideration. The idea of science is to achieve a systematic interaction of facts.
Scientific methods attempts to achieve this idea by experimentation, observation, logical
arguments from accepted postulates and a combination of these three in varying proportion.
A scientific method is the way in which one can test opinion, impression or guess by
examining the available evidence both for and against them. It is simply pursuit of truth which is
determined by logical consideration.
To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry must be based on gathering observable,
empirical and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning. A scientific
method consists of the collection of data through observation and experimentation, and the
formulation and testing of hypotheses.
b) Role of Scientific Method in Research: The Scientific Method plays the following role in
the conduct of organized research
i) Verifiability: The conclusion drawn in research through a scientific method is subject to
verification at any time. Verifiability presupposes that the phenomenon must be capable of being
observed and measured. This will bring greater accuracy to the conclusion being reached in
ii) Generality: Scientific laws are universal in their application. So, the conclusion drawn from
scientific methods should be universal i.e. it should be applicable to the whole group.
iii) Predictability: The role of scientific method is that the results to be determined in research
can be predicted with sufficient accuracy. Thus predictability depends on one hand upon the
phenomenon observed in the given research and on the other hand upon the application of
various scientific methods.
iv) Objectivity: Objectivity is fundamental to all research as the very purpose of research is to
arrive at the truth. The results of scientific method should not be affected by observer’s own
views i.e. it should be unbiased by personal feelings. The main criterion of objectivity is that all
people should arrive at the same conclusion about the phenomena. Eg. Coal is black but not like
sentences like coal is the most useful material, as because for some other person there may be
some other material which are most useful.
v) System: The scientific mode of investigation should be followed from the first step to the last
step of scientific investigation, because the results arrived at by haphazard method even if true
cannot be called scientific because their accuracy is purely accidental. Scientific Method helps a
researcher to do his research in a systematic manner. It saves the researcher from going to non-
directional path in course of his research.
According to Cohen and Manion (1994) there are five major assumptions underlying
scientific method.
i) Order: There is some kind of order in the universe. So the researcher has to make an idea to
determine it.
ii) External Reality
iii) Reliability: Human perceptions and intellect can be reliable despite the many ways in which
it can be tricked.
iv) Parsimony: Phenomena should be explained in an economic manner.
v) Generality: There can be valid relationships between what is achieved and general situation in
the world.
c) Benefits from Scientific Method: Scientific method in research ensures systematic
investigation of subject. It makes possible an orderly process of investigation, the exercise of
analytical thinking and a critical approach to the study and development of a subject. So it can be
said that the Scientific Method helps in the systematic and orderly conduct of research. It helps
to arrive at truth without any kind of fallacy in the process of deduction of truth while conducting
the research.
d) Limitation of Scientific Methods in Research: Scientific method is never complete. At
every stage there are some basic principles which remain unexplained. Further, scientific method
involves abstraction. Again, science has a limited scope. Each science is concerned with a
particular area and is based on certain assumptions.

School Library
School Library: The school library is a part and parcel of a school set up. It exists to serve the
objectives of its parent institution. The school library awakens and fosters reading habits among
children and young students and enlightens their imaginative minds.
a) Definition: School libraries serve elementary schools, middle schools, high schools and
higher secondary schools.
b) Objectives: The primary school library aims to create a love for books, generate interest in
reading them and slowly develop the habit of reading. The secondary and higher secondary
school libraries maintain their identity fulfilling all the requirements of the young students for
learning and the teachers for teaching. The main function of a school library is to support various
educational programs and to develop students’ skills in locating and using information to
perform their class work. Teachers use school libraries to access information needed to develop
and support their classroom instruction.
c) Collections: School libraries usually maintain collections in a variety of media. In addition to
books, magazines, and newspapers they also contain photographs, films, sound and video
recordings, computers, CD-ROMs, games, maps etc. As such, they are sometimes also called
library media centers. Most school libraries further enhance their collections by becoming
members of school library networks; this allows them to share resources with libraries in other
i) Elementary School Libraries: The elementary school libraries should build up a good stock
of books and other learning and teaching materials. Collections should include picture books,
biographies of great men and women, books of travel and humor, folk tales, stories of animals
and birds, reference books for children, children’s magazines, audio-visual aids like motion
films, video-cassettes, models, charts, photographs and toys.
These libraries generally feature children’s illustrated storybooks, colouring books, and
audio visual materials. Some elementary school libraries feature computers with children’s
educational software.
ii) Middle School and Junior High School Libraries: It should develop an excellent stock of
text books, general books on popular science, biographies, travel books, books on sports and
games, fiction, short stories, conventional reference books such as dictionaries, encyclopedias,
year books, directories, etc., periodicals, audio-visual material and so on.
iii) High School Libraries: Libraries at the high school level (typically Class 8 to 12) have
larger and more advanced collections than the lower grade libraries.
d) Services: The service rendered by different types of libraries is as follows-
i) Elementary School Libraries: Elementary school libraries play a central role in early
childhood education by offering the young children some of their earliest encounters with books
and other resources. The librarian helps the students to cultivate the habit of using library, not
only with reference to their reading for course requirements but also for reading for pleasure,
general knowledge and recreation.
ii) Middle School and Junior High School Libraries: Libraries at the middle school or junior
high school level (typically Class six and seven) concentrate on maintaining students’ interest in
gaining information and developing ideas. To adequately support classroom assignments, middle
school and junior high school libraries usually offer larger and more varied collections than those
at the elementary level. They also often supplement these collections with computer databases
and more sophisticated bibliographic tools. Most school libraries also contain reference materials
such as encyclopedias as well as fiction and nonfiction books. They also give proper orientation
to search through the school library’s catalogue, find a book on the shelves, and check out the
book from the circulation desk. A growing number of schools at this stage encourage students to
come to the library throughout the day to complete the class assignments, to read for pleasure,
and to meet and work with their peers. This flexible scheduling allows schools to integrate
library resources into daily classroom instruction. It helps the parent organization in the
achievement of the educational programmes by providing materials to supplement and enrich the
subjects taught in the class-room. It suggests readings, supplies materials, and stimulates
iii) High School Libraries: These libraries are of larger type to accommodate at least 15-25
percent of the entire student body at any given time. The best-equipped high school libraries
feature reference collection, computer labs, the reading room, well equipped seminar or
conference hall etc. Most high school libraries also include separate areas devoted to college or
vocational preparation. These areas typically contain information on individual colleges,
examples of college applications, vocational aptitude tests, and other materials designed to
provide guidance for graduating high school students.
Sampling Technique
Sampling Technique: Survey is an important research method used to acquire knowledge
systematically from a context of human experience. But the entire context, i.e. the entire
population of interest cannot be acquired always as because one can neither afford money or time
nor resources for scientifically covering the entire universe. Hence a sample is chosen from the
entire population to project the result of the sample surveyed to its universe. The method through
which a sample is chosen from a population is known as “Sampling Technique”.
a) Definition: Sampling is a technique where the sampler selects some of the elements with the
intention of finding out a conclusion about the total population from which they are taken. It may
be defined as the selection of some part of an aggregate or totality on the basis of which a
judgment about the aggregate or totality is made. In other words, it is the process of obtaining
information about an entire population by examining only a part of it.
b) Need for Sampling: The need for sampling is felt due to the following reasons-
i) It is generally more economical in time, effort and money to use sampling;
ii) If sampling is conducted by trained and experienced investigators then sampling may enable
more accurate measurements for a sample study.
iii) Sampling remains the only way when population contains infinitely many numbers.
iv) Sampling remains the only choice when a test involves the destruction of the item under
v) Sampling usually enables to estimate the sampling error and thus, assists in obtaining
information concerning some characteristic of the population.
c) Characteristic of Good Sampling: If the sample results are to have any worth while
meaning, it is necessary that a sample possesses the following essentials characteristics.
i) Representativeness;
ii) Adequate;
iii) Independence;
iv) Homogeneity.
d) Types of Sampling: Sampling can be categorized into the following-
i) Nonprobability Sampling: Non probability sampling methods are those which do not provide
every item in the universe with a known chance of being included in the sample. The selection
process is at least partially subjective. Nonprobability sampling again can be categorized into the
following types
* Convenient Sampling: A convenience sample is obtained by selecting “convenient” population
units i.e. the peoples who are convenient to response.
* Judgment Sampling or Purposive Sampling: In this method of sampling the choice of sample
items depends exclusively on the judgment of the investigator. In other words, the investigator
exercises his judgment in the choice and includes those items in the sample which he thinks are
most typical of the universe with regard to the characteristic under investigation.
* Quota Sampling: In a quota sampling, quotas are set up according to some specified
characteristic such as based on income, age, political or religious affiliations and so on. In the
next step within each quota the selection of sample items depends on personal judgment of the
researcher. It is the most commonly used sampling technique in non probability category.
* Snowball Sampling: It is a technique in which an initial group of respondent is selected
randomly, and then subsequent respondent are identified based on the referrals provided by the
initial respondents.
ii) Probability Sampling: Probability sampling methods are those in which every item in the
universe has a known chance or probability of being chosen for the sample. This implies that the
selection of sample item is independent of the person making the study that is the sampling
operation is controlled so objectively that the items will be chosen strictly at random. Probability
sampling can be grouped into the following
* Simple or Unrestricted Random Sampling: Simple random sampling refers to that sampling
technique in which each and every unit of the population has an equal opportunity of being
selected in the sample. In simple random sampling which item gets selected in the sample is just
a matter of chance – personal bias of the investigator does not influence the selection. To ensure
randomness of selection one may adopt either the lottery method or consult table of random
numbers. The advantages of simple random sampling includes-
- It requires only a minimum of knowledge of the population in advance;
- It is more representative of the population as compared to judgment sampling;
- It is free from personal bias and prejudice;
- The method is simple to use;
- The analyst can easily assess the accuracy of this estimate because sampling errors follow the
principle of chance.
* Systematic Sampling: If a population can be accurately listed or is finite, systematic sampling
technique can be used. The lists are firstly prepared in alphabetical, geographical, numerical or
some other order. The items are then serially numbered. The first item is selected at random
generally by following the lottery method. Subsequent items are selected by taking every nth item
from the list.
* Stratified Sampling: In stratified sampling the population of the universe is divided into smaller
homogeneous groups, or strata by some characteristic and form and from each of these similar
homogeneous groups draw at random a predetermined number of units. The usual stratification
factors are sex, age, socio, economic status, educational background, residence (urban or rural),
occupation, etc. In the standardization of test and public opinion polls, the method of
stratification is necessary.
* Cluster Sampling: In multi-stage or cluster sampling, the random selection is made of primary,
intermediate and final (or the ultimate) units from a given population or stratum. There are
several stages in which the sampling process is carried out. At first, the first stage units are
sampled by some suitable method, and then a sample of second stage unit is selected from each
of the selected first stage unit, again by some suitable method, which may or may not be the
same as that of the first method. Further stages may be added as required.
e) Limitations of the Sampling: Despite the various advantages of sampling, it is not
completely free from limitations. Some of the difficulties involved in sampling are stated as
i) A sample survey must be carefully planned and executed otherwise the results obtained may be
inaccurate and misleading.
ii) If sampling is not conducted by qualified and experienced persons, the information obtained
from sample survey cannot be relied upon.
iii) If the information is required for each and every unit in the domain of study a complete
enumeration survey is necessary.

Role of Information
Role of Information: From the primitive days of human civilization to the present day
information has always been a component of growth and development and improvement of the
living standard. Nowadays, the information has come to occupy the central position to be
reckoned as the driving force for all human development. It is clearly interlinked with the growth
and development in economic, political, social, occupational, cultural and other sectors of the
society. Information and knowledge have become the principal generator of wealth in the form of
educational institutions, research and development establishment, scientific and technological
centres and other similar knowledge oriented bodies.
The impact of information and knowledge is seen in a number of human activities
centering on information. Some of these which will give a cursory account of societal changes
taking place in a few sectors are as follows:
a) Education: Education is the process of acquiring general and specialized knowledge by
means of study and learning that develop intellectual power of reasoning and judgment. At no
point of time in the life of a person does education really terminate and in real sense it is a
continuous process. While IT provides easy and effective access to the different types of
educational kits, information is the life blood of education. It is the essential ingredient in new
ideas, in course content and curriculum development, and in the creation of material and methods
of technology and learning. Students need information for pursuing academic studies; teachers
need information for teaching their students.
b) Research and Development: Research is a never ending spiral activity. It aims to provide
solution to problems. The inputs as well as the output of research are information. So
information is the life blood for research and development. The quality of information content
alone will determine the success or growth and development of research. Researchers need
information on a continuous basis for conducting research works.
c) Management and Decision Making: We are living in a world of change. We face
complexities, uncertainties and risks unknown to our predecessors. The list of activities in our
private life and its associated problems are virtually endless. In each of these personal activities
decisions are required to be taken and information is needed to support the decision. People need
information to make the best possible decision. People with information are likely to have better
career opportunities and to be better equipped to make personal decision.
Information provides a means of improving the management of enterprises and services
of all kinds. Information is needed by the decision makers in organizations. A common need
basic to all decision makers is an understanding of the purpose of the organization, that is, its
policies, programmes, plans and goals. The decisions to be made in an organization do vary and
the information needs also vary. A manager needs information to choose the possible alternatives
presented in terms of ranges of values of particular attributes. Information provides a wider
knowledge base for the solution of any problem; it gives new alternatives and approaches to the
solution of technical problems and opinions for minimizing future fault. It improves
effectiveness and efficiency of technical activities in the production and service sector. So
information is used for better decision making in all sectors and at all levels of responsibilities.
Governmental officials of different levels need information for decision making. They
need census, weather and other related information. Legislators need information of different
types to argue a point on the floor of the legislature.
d) Daily Life of a Person: Naturally, living today is quite different from what life was about a
generation ago. Nowadays people in different situations require information on a subject in
different forms and with different emphasis and different depth of explanation. An ordinary
person in his daily life needs to have access to information on many of his daily activities. It may
pertain to the quality, availability or cost of a number of things like articles of foods, health care,
education, entertainment, travel, social security, etc. One may need information on cooking,
gardening, house decoration and maintenance, and a host of other subjects. In private life one
needs information to organize vacation activities, to make intelligent purchases, fertilize a lawn,
soup up an engine, prune a shrub, groom a pet, select a garment, vote for a candidate, choose a
doctor or lawyer, protest a tax increase, evaluate career opportunities, pick an investment, select
a course, make a trip, plan meals and so on. The list of activities in a private life is virtually
e) Business and Industry: Information and knowledge are getting their appropriate place in
enterprises that are not static, because it is increasingly being recognized today that external
information on market, competitors, social and political environment, government regulations
and trade and tariffs etc. are invaluable if an enterprise is to thrive. It is only due to the central
role of information that business and industries are day by day inclined to invest in R & D to
generate new knowledge which would ultimately provide them an edge over their competitors.
In business sector, information helps in telemarketing, better financial management,
customer service, training, sales, product development, market intelligence, looking for
customers, etc.
In industry, the types of information needed are not limited to production, but cover all
aspects of industrial activity. The major types are: identification of product, determination of
technical and economic feasibility including the potential for use of indigenous resources; outlets
for disposal of waste either as saleable by-products or for further processing, market or
marketing, etc.
f) Scientific Development: The increase in population has resulted in mounting social pressure
for increased production, but as population increases, natural and near natural commodities start
depleting. So there is an urgent need for exploitation of new resources, creation of artificial
commodities. All these developments are impossible without the use of proper information and
immediate use of new scientific discoveries.
Air transportation, the concept of global village, satellite communication, nuclear energy,
exploitation of outer space, improvement in agriculture, health, environment, etc are some of the
results due to exclusive use of information in the field of science and technology.
g) Government: Information improves the capacity of a country to take advantage of the
existing knowledge and “know how” to achieve success in various fields. So, the governments of
almost all the countries of the world are the largest consumers of information and knowledge. In
their commitment and responsibility to create a welfare state, they need information and
knowledge on every conceivable subject. They collect, organize and disseminate statistical data
on all its activities which constitute the most important and vital information resources for their
planning and later implementation and execution.
All ministries of the government need up to date and timely information on the overall
management of the country’s resources and general administration. Management Information
System (MIS), Decision Support System (DDS) are widely used in planning and policy making.
h) Socio-Economic Development: The role of information in socio-economic development can
be viewed from the following angles
i) Entertainment: With the viewer’s complete control over programmes, interactive television
(watch a missed TV show).
ii) Health Care: With information sharing and even diagnosis and treatment by means of
interactive video link-up.
iii) News: With consumers able to point and click to select information for personally tailored
news items.
iv) Home Shopping: With a 24 hours a day, virtual global mall accessed by two way video and
digitized sales.
v) Security: Electronic fingerprint, retina scanning, voice recognition, DNA finger print,
signature dynamics.
Today, information has become a great source of power as a principal driving force for
the acquisition of wealth, political strength and more knowledge etc. Information-rich countries
of today are becoming even more powerful than the colonial powers of the nineteenth and early
twentieth centuries, on account of their expertise in creating new information and knowledge and
exploiting them for their advantage. Information is not only the source of power but also an
effective power in itself if released in appropriate time.
Retrospective Conversion
Retrospective Conversion: Retrospective conversion is the process of turning a library’s
existing paper catalog record into a machine readable form. Retrospective conversion usually
entails using catalog cards (with a minimum of data like call number, author, title, ISBN and / or
LCCN information) to find or create bibliographic record in a database of machine readable
record such as OCLC (World Cat) and brining those records into the existing local database.
Usually retrospective conversion is done to obtain the full MARC records on each item. A full
MARC record contains valuable information such as summary information that can be key-
worded and searched using the electronic catalogue. MARC records are a standard format that
allows exchange of data between various sites or systems. The local database then allows
electronic access to the catalogue and automated circulation using patron and item bar codes.
a) History: In 1968, with the financial support of the council on library resources, the Library of
Congress conducted a study by a task force for retrospective conversion of the library holding. It
was known as Retrospective Conversion (RECON). The report of the task force was published in
1969. In August 1969, the RECON pilot project was initiated. The pilot project of RECON
continued for two years and approximately 58,000 records were converted during the pilot
project and the work is still continuing. The retrospective catalogue conversion made by the
British Library is held in the BNB/LASER file. It was built up by the British National
Bibliography (BNB) and the London and South Eastern Library Region (LASER).
b) Problem in Retrospective Conversion: Retrospective conversion solves the problem of
entering the data on each item in the library into a computer system. But though it has many
advantages, it has also some limitations. Some of the disadvantages are mentioned bellow:
i) Lack of standardization among the national MARC format in assigning content designators to
elements of information in the machine readable record.
ii) Diverse functions of bibliographic agencies;
iii) Lack of an internationally accepted cataloguing code for machine readable cataloguing
iv) Lack of agreement among different bibliographical communities in organizing data contents
in machine readable record.
v) Lack of agreement as to the function of content designators.
vi) Lack of money by a small library creates problem in retrospective conversion.
vii) Lack of expertise required to meet the standard for retrospective conversion.
viii) Retrospective conversion always demands standardization of bibliographic content and
machine format.
ix) Incomplete or incorrect bibliographic information makes it impossible to match the shelf list
cards with the correct MARC records. The result is the addition of an incorrect record to the
database or the need to return the title to you for additional information.
Today, the computers have entered each and every area of a library. The library automation is
the application of modern technologies including the application of computer hardware and
software, different storage medias, telecommunications, etc. which help the mechanization of
any activity in the library. To implement the computer in the library, the selection of proper
hardware and software forms an essential part. If proper software is selected, it will
automatically generate or create OPAC which will replace the traditional card catalogue of the
library. The feature-rich software will also have the provision of retrospective conversion. It will
help the library to enter minimum of details about the document in their collection in the
database of some other libraries and will help in getting the full bibliographic record of the
document that can be embedded in the local database.
There are different software packages available for different activities of a library.
Sometime they are bundled together with lots of cool features to form integrated library
management software.
The open source softwares are gaining importance day by day. They provide a free
licence with the additional facility of extensive customization to meet the local need. In case of
commercial proprietary library management software SOUL 2.0, and LibSys 7 are popular in
India. In case of free proprietary software, the E-Granthalaya of NIC is gaining importance and
in case of Open Source software, Koha is day by day heading to win the race.
In case of Institutional Repository Software Packages, the Green Stone Digital Library
software (GSDL), EPrints, and Dspace are deployed in different institutions in India. In the
category of Content Management System (CMC), Drupal, Joomla, and MediaWiki is used where
as from the category of Learning Management System (LMS), Moodle are favoring by large
number of institutes.

Resource Description and Access (RDA)

Resource Description and Access (RDA): In June, 2010, the Resource Description and Access
(RDA) was published, which will completely take over the place of AACR-2. RDA is built on
the foundations established by the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR). Instructions
derived from AACR have been reworked to produce RDA which is easier to use, more adaptable,
and more cost-efficient in its application. The RDA has been developed to replace AACR. It has
flexible and extensible framework for the description of digital and non-digital resources. The
AACR-2 was mainly for the non-digital resources. RDA uses MARC 21 as encoding standard
(Format for Bibliographic Data, and Format for Authority Data) and International Standard
Bibliographic Description (ISBD) as display standard. ISBD is also used by AACR-2 for display
of record. The RDA element set is compatible with ISBD, MARC 21, and Dublin Core.
A key element in the design of RDA is its alignment with the conceptual models for
bibliographic and authority data [Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR),
and Functional Requirements for Authority Data (FRAD)] developed by the International
Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA).
The Joint Steering Committee for Development of RDA (JSC) is responsible for
maintaining “RDA: Resource Description and Access”. JSC was previously responsible for
maintenance of the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR). The constituent organizations
represented on the Joint Steering Committee are The American Library Association, The
Australian Committee on Cataloguing, The British Library, The Canadian Committee on
Cataloguing, CILIP: Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals, and The
Library of Congress. The current Chair of JSC is Alan Danskin, the British Library
representative. RDA is published by: The American Library Association, The Canadian Library
Association, and CILIP: Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals.
The RDA is now available over the RDA Toolkit Web site ( It
will help you navigate from AACR2 to RDA at no charge.
Research Supervisors / Monitoring and Evaluation
a) Research Supervisor: “Although supervisors want their students to succeed, there are clearly
limits to the amount of help which they may provide for their students”. (Oliver, 2004, p. 52).
Supervisors’ role includes:-
i) Tutorial about research work in general;
ii) Advice on research methodology and design;
iii) Advice on structuring the thesis;
iv) Reading the thesis and finding out its pitfall;
Supervisors also have the experience of examining other thesis as well, so he/she can
have a fair idea about the possible questions regarding the thesis, and will communicate the same
to the scholar, so that he / she can prepare for it in advance.
If a supervisor disagrees about some content in the research report, only a little scope is
left in the hands of the researcher to discuss it in length to arrive at a definite answer. If such a
thing happens it would be better if the researcher tries to explain his/her position in front of the
b) Research Monitoring Agency: Monitoring means keeping track with the overall progress
and achievement of objectives of the ongoing research work and progress in the use of allocated
fund to support the management task and timely decision making
c) Evaluation of Research Report: In case of any research work, evaluation is a process of
determining the worth or significance or value of the work in regards to the objectives, the
efficacy of design, resource use and the sustainability of results. It should also enable the
incorporation of lessons learned, credible and useful thought to help the funding agencies to
make correct judgment. Evaluation leads to decision-making process and probable
implementation of the research result. The supervisor(s) are not normally involved in the
approval process of a thesis. There will usually be both two or three examiners, and at least one
from other institutes / organizations to which the thesis was submitted.
The role of research evaluator includes the following-
i) Social Engineer: The evaluator is a social engineer, and is neutral;
ii) Controller: They attempt to hold the implementing agencies responsible for their decision and
iii) Advisor: He/She is the advisor to the researcher;
iv) Mediator: The research evaluator is the mediator between the research findings and its
applicability, between the researcher and the implementer.
v) Facilitator: By way of supporting the results.
The evaluator in general judges the value of the thesis in regard to the following.
i) Inputs: Human, physical and financial resource that are used to undertake the research;
ii) Outcome: Consequence / results of an intervention;
iii) Output: Results for implementation;
iv) Performance: Whether the results are justified in comparison to different performance
Before the oral interview, the researcher should read the thesis fully; anticipate the
question that may be asked. Once the thesis is approved by the examiners, a copy of the thesis is
usually sent to the university / college library.
In case of thesis, it is good to see that only two options are left in the hands of the
examiners, either he / she have to accept it or otherwise reject it. The degree is only offered to the
candidate, who have critically investigated and evaluated an approved topic by using the research
methods appropriate to the chosen field, and makes an independent and original contribution to
the existing knowledge base and has presented and defended the research work in the oral and
verbal examination to the satisfaction of the examiner(s).
Research Report
Research Report: Research report is the written description of research providing information
about its aim and objectives, scope, limitation, methodologies, source of information used,
equipments, findings and all such necessary information. The writing of the research report is the
last and final steps of the research work done by a researcher without which his/her work remain
a) Objectives of Research Report: The result of every research needs communication to others,
who actually needs it. This can only be done by writing the research report. The main objectives
of the research report are:
i) A Permanent Record of the Research: The written report is a permanent record of the research
done by the researcher for the coming generation.
ii) Increase Knowledge Stock: The aim of research report is to make the people aware of the new
information, new standards and new interpretation received from the research. Knowledge of
human being increases if it is in the form which can be communicated to others.
iii) Useful for Researcher: With the help of research report, many other small subjects of
research can be arranged systematically and a definite principle can be formulated. Thus, the
report should be written in such a way that it may help in the formulation of new principles for
other researchers.
iv) Validation of Other's Conclusions: Research is the process through which every one can
learn from the others. In research report by way of writing foot note, references, etc. the views
and suggestions of others, the scholar pays homage to them.
v) Examination of Validity: The validity of any research work can be judged by others based on
the research report only.
vi) Communication Medium: The aim of research report is to communicate the knowledge of
the researcher to the others.
b) Scope of Research Report: The scope of research report is that through this report one can
examine the validity of the research study. In research report, all the facts should be presented so
as to prove the validity or invalidity of the facts by careful observation and experimentation.
c) Characteristic of a Research Report: In writing a research report, the research scholar
should keep in mind the following points-
i) Communalism: Research results are public property;
ii) Universalism: The results should be independent of gender, race, colour, creed, etc;
iii) Unbiased: Results should not be manipulated to serve some specific profit. In writing a
research work, the research scholar should keep an eye on the political and personal biasness; no
way should it influence the research report.
iv) Share All: It is good to share the results, experience, honor, as well as blame with others.
v) Openness: The government or the research funding agencies have spent the amount collected
from tax payers in the research. So every member of the society has the right to access to the
research report.
Some other characteristics of research report are:
i) Should be systematic and attractive. The report should be clear to the point and easy in
understanding, so proverb and exaggeration should be avoided;
ii) The title, graph and figures should be presented only when it increases the value of the
research study;
iii) Similar type of facts must not be repeated in the report;
iv) Outside resources used should be noted as such so as to increase its retrieval. Pay homage to
others contribution
v) Problem and difficulties faced during the research work should be nicely presented; it will
guide the further researchers.
vi) A research report should be long enough to cover the subject matter and short enough to
maintain interest. The research report should sustain the reader’s interest throughout the chapters.
d) Content of Research Report: The content of the Research Report is as follows:
i) Preliminary Pages: The preliminary pages carry the title and date followed by declaration,
foreword and acknowledgements. Then there should be table of contents followed by list of
tables, graphs, charts and abbreviation used.
The front page should contain the title of the research work, name of the author, date, and
names of any sponsors of the research. The research title should reflect the keywords of the
research work, for easy information retrieval.
In the preface page, why the researcher undertook the current research work, what was
his/her motivation factor for choosing this topic, etc should be stated.
The researcher may acknowledge the services or guidance of certain individuals,
organizations on which success of the research project has been dependent on the
acknowledgement page.
Today, many of the research reports are hosted over institutional repositories. To do so an
abstract or summary is very much felt. Considering this, an abstract or summary of the whole
research findings and recommendations should be enclosed in the research report itself. The
abstract or summary should cover the aim of the research, the methods employed, the outcome of
the research, and any theoretical implications. A two hundred worded abstract is more than
ii) Main Text: The main text of the report carries the following item:
* Introduction: Introduction should mention the background of the topic (from, where the
research problem emerges), aim and objective of the research work, and an explanation of the
methodology adopted in accomplishing the research. There should be a steady flow of ideas with
the introduction page and the research documentation as a whole.
* Literature Review: The literature review is not only a summary or series of annotation or
description of others work, rather it is a critical judgment on others work. The researcher should
judge the literature like a judge appraising the argument of a lawyer making a case and should
conclude it by making a note of summing up. The result of the hard working, reading, notes
taking and analysis of others work will give to fruitful results in the form of literature review.
The literature review can be arranged according to the chronological order as well as
development of ideas.
* Main Report: The main body of the report should be presented in logical sequence and broken
down into identifiable sections. One can use table, graphs and charts regarding primary data
collection in this chapter. In data analysis it would be better if the researcher uses the whole
numbers instead of percentage, using percentage will lose the actual power of the data.
Whenever the research scholar provides arguments, it should always be supported by data
* Conclusion: Towards the end of the main text, the researcher should again put down the results
of his / her research clearly and precisely. In this chapter nothing new should be introduced. Its
whole content should be based on the content of the preceding chapters. In conclusion chapter
the research scholar should also justify whether the hypothesis that has been adopted proved or
not, methodology used is alright or not, mention the problems encountered and lastly, should
point out the researcher scholars own contribution to the world of knowledge or what the readers
will benefit from the current research work. Ideas for further research should also be mentioned
including the skill, attitude, capabilities, and qualities to conduct such type of research work.
Possible recommendation for other research workers working on the same line should be stated.
What existing practices should be revised in the light of the current research, and so on should be
made statement wise in the recommendations pages.
* References / Bibliographies: All the sources of information from which information have been
taken should clearly be described so that any person can verify these.
* End Report: At the end of the report, appendices should be enlisted in respect of all technical
data. Any extensive list should be included in an appendix rather than in the actual report.
It is expected that the report completed for the course is original for the class and
completed solely by the researcher. It is unethical to prepare a report that is the same, or basically
similar, to a report completed for another purpose.
The research report must be legible and word processed; appropriate margins and other
formatting as outlined in the research manual should be followed. The report must adhere to
appropriate rules of grammar, sentence structure, transitions between paragraphs, etc.
Finally, before submission of the research report to the competent authority, the research
scholar should check and recheck it for several times for errors and omission, consistency and so
on. If he/she is not a literature expert then he/she can also consider sending the research
documentation for editing to a literature expert before its submission to the competent authority.
e) Conclusion: A research report is an eye-opener to others to judge the work done by the
researcher in the field of given research. The research report consists of research that one does on
the topic as well as interpretation of the information, including applicability to the teaching
assignment. It explains how one will use the information that comes to the focus, how it will
impact on teaching pedagogy, discipline methods, curriculum development, assessment, etc.
Research Methods in Library and Information Science and Services
Research Methods in Library and Information Science and Services: The following research
methods are commonly used in Library and Information Science.
a) Survey Method: Survey research has been widely used in LIS. It deals mainly with
collection, analysis and presentation of data relating to the present time reflecting the present
state of affairs in social, economic and political activities. Survey method is approached through
the methods of personal interview, mailed questionnaires (both surface and Email), telephone,
personal discussion, electronic survey, and so on.
i) Cross Sectional Survey (=Single Short Survey): In this design, peoples are asked questions at
one points of time. It is difficult to establish the time order to variables. It is difficult to exchange
over a period of time.
ii) Panel Study and Trend Study: In a panel study the same peoples are interviewed two or more
times. Eg. Some users are interviewed at different times to seek their views on product. In a trend
study two or more different samples of people are drawn at different times from the same
* Panel Study: Panel studies provide information on both the net and gross changes. Panel
studies can describe how the individual members of a population are changing.
* Trend Study: Trend studies involve information on net changes. Trend studies can describe how
the distributions of variable are changes in the population studied.
Some of the characteristics of survey method are-
i) It is directly concerned with social life as it exists there and now. What is observed, described,
collected or a body of facts about current situation and problem.
ii) It focuses upon given locality or geographical area.
iii) A large volume of information can be collected from a very large population.
iv) The information generally collected through survey is accurate.
Some of the limitation of Survey Method are
i) It demands more money, effort, and time.
ii) It need to train the interviewers, otherwise it will contribute to error.
iii) Survey information touches only the surface of the research field and does not make a deeper
thrust into it.
iv) The respondent’s personal inhibitions, indifference and unawareness of the nature and
purpose of investigation render survey information invalid or at least imprecise.
v) If sample information has not been collected very carefully, the magnitude of sampling error
may be too large to render the sample results reasonably accurate.
Some well known examples of survey research that are applicable to library and
information sciences are-
i) User Study or User Survey: To determine the utilization of library resources, satisfaction of the
clientele and their need.
ii) Community Survey: To know the characteristic of the population being served by a library or
to be served by the proposed library.
iii) Library Survey: To ascertain the resource of a library or a group of libraries and their growth
in a particular period.
b) Case Study Method: Case study is a population type of qualitative research and it can be
defined as “in depth investigation of a discrete entity (which may be a single setting, subject,
collection or event) on the assumption that it is possible to derive knowledge of the wide
phenomena from intensive investigation of a specific instance or case”. In the words of Pauline
V. Young “a comprehensive study of a social unit- be that unit a person, a group, a social
institution, a district, or a community – is called a case study”.
Case study is a qualitative analysis where careful and complete observation of an
individual or a situation or an institution is done. An effort is made to study each and every
aspect of the concerning unit in minute details, and then from the case data generalization and
inferences are drawn.
Case data may be gathered exhaustively on an entire life cycle of a social unit or a
definite section of it whether a section or the whole of a life is studied. The aim is to ascertain the
natural history that is an account of generic development of a person or group, revealing the
factors and method of life of the unit within the cultural setting. Thus, case study aid in studying
behavior in specific and in details.
The significance of Case Study Method is:
i) This method enables us to understand fully the behavior pattern of the concern unit.
ii) Through case study a researcher can obtain a real and enlighten record of personal
experiences, which should reveal man’s inner strivings, tension and motivation that drive into
action along with the forces that direct him to adopt a certain pattern of behavior.
c) Delphi Technique: Delphi method is basically a technique of obtaining consensus among
experts opinion on a given problem. A questionnaire is prepared translating the aims and
objectives of research. The identified problem is put up to the panel of experts in many rounds
till a consensus agreement is achieved. The basic theory behind this technique is that consensus
opinion among majority of opinions will have grater creditability and authority than the guess of
only the most articulate / spokespersons in a group of participating respondent.
In the formulation of library legislations, policy making for libraries, curriculum design,
and method of teaching and evaluation process of decision making and in manpower planning
Delphi method can be used.
Research Design
Research Design: Research design essentially refers to the plan or strategy of shaping the
research, or as Hakim (1987) puts it “design deals primarily with aim, purposes, intentions and
plans within the practical constraints of location, time, money and availability of staff”.
a) Definition: According to Scltiz, Jahoda, Deutsch, and Cook “a research design is an
arrangement of the essential condition for collection and analysis of data in a form that aims to
combine relevance to research purpose with economy in the procedure”.
Suchman has pointed out that “a research design is not a highly specific plan to be
followed without deviation, but rather a series of guide posts to keep one handed in the right
Decision regarding what, where, when, how much by what means concerning an enquiry
or a research study constitute a research design. So a research design or a plan is a tentative
outline of the proposed research work. The plan is not a very specific one. It is simply a set of
guideline to keep the scholar on the right track.
b) Need of Research Design: The need of research design are-
i) It may result in the desired type of study with useful conclusion;
ii) It reduces inaccuracy;
iii) Helps to get optimum efficiency and reliability;
iv) Minimize wastage of time;
v) Minimize uncertainty confusion and practical haphazard associated with any research
vi) Helpful for collection of research material and testing of hypothesis;
vii) It is a guide post for giving research a right direction.
c) Characteristic of Research Design: Some of the characteristics of research design are-
i) Regularity: State character or fact of being regular.
ii) Verifiability: To ascertain text, the truth or accuracy of anything opens for verification.
iii) Universality: A state or quality of being universal or general.
iv) Predictability: To predict or tell before with moderate accuracy.
v) Objectivity: Not subjective or unbiased.
vi) Systematization: In a coherent or orderly manner.
d) Components of Research Design: A practical research design has the following steps,
however these are not independent but rather they are interdependent and overlapping in a sense.
i) Title of the Study: The title or name o topic of research should be brief. In order to sharpen the
focus if necessary a subtitle may be added to the main title.
ii) Stating Problem: Stating the problem which surrounds the specific problem will provide a
focus on the chosen topic for research.
iii) Review of Literature: A review of the literature should be made.
iv) Area and Scope of Study: The area and scope of the study should be stated.
v) Objectives of the Study: The objective of the study should be clearly mentioned.
vi) Formulation of Hypothesis: Though it is not mandatory a few hypothesis should be taken.
vii) Definition of Concept and Terminology: The concept and terminologies likely to be used in
the research should be clearly defined.
viii) Methodology: There are several methods of investigation and collection of materials. A
researcher is free to adopt one or several method.
ix) Determining Tools of Data Collection: Determining tools of data collection and formulation
of schedules or questionnaire.
x) Sampling Design: A complete coverage of the unit of the universe selected for research is not
possible. So, sampling design deals with the method of selecting items to be observed for the
given study. Sampling design means determining the research participants.
xi) Determining Techniques for Data Analysis: The collected data should be processed and
xii) Limitation: Limitation in terms of gap in the data, sample should ascertain.
xiii) Interpretation of Results: The processed and organized data are interpreted for drawing
e) Limitation of Research Design: The following are some of the limitations of research
i) Non availability of sufficient data;
ii) Non availability of resources like money, manpower, etc.;
iii) Inadequate time in the formulation of research design;
iv) Poor skill and ability of the research scholar;
v) Unforeseen development during the course of design, which are uncontrollable as well.
The research design is a tentative statement, so the design is subject to change in the light
of the material available or experience gathered while pursuing the actual work.
Research: The goal of research is to improve the level of living in society. The word research
carries an atmosphere of respect. As every object has got its own pros and cons, so does research.
But the advantages of research have out numbered the disadvantages of research and it has a
place of its own in the field of study.
In an academic environment, research activity is five fold i.e Master Dissertation; MPhil
Dissertation; PhD Thesis; DLitt Thesis; and Assigned Research Project (Most universities in
North America call a PhD a dissertation and the Masters a thesis, while most British universities
call the PhD a thesis and the Masters a dissertation).
A Masters dissertation in general does not contribute to the original knowledge that is
novel and unique, and takes a forward step in a particular branch of human knowledge. It is a
research work that makes one experienced with a series of high level education, intellectual and
ethical issues, whereby the person doing the work demonstrates his/her mastery of the skills of
data collection, handling, analysis, synthesis, evaluation, argumentation to a specific topic to
arrive at some conclusion, that is in turn recorded with the honesty of writing, which enlarges or
modifies the earlier concept on the topic. The objectives of a dissertation includes providing a
range of learning opportunities to go for original research work in future, by way of going
through different age old tradition of research methodologies; to equip the learner with the
knowledge of managing a project; etc.
In Master of Philosophy, stress is much given to the subject of research rather than on
theoretical research methodologies and the researcher has the full freedom to choose his/her
topic of interest. The individual capability of the students to choose their topic for research gives
a Master of Philosophy research a distinct look in opposition to the Master Dissertation, where
student is supposed to look forward to the topic relevant to their course contents only. Though at
Master of Philosophy, the research demands authoritativeness, it is also not able to contribute to
the original knowledge base.
The Master Dissertation and MPhill Dissertation does not belong to pure research work.
Besides the above points, it can also be justified from another point of view. In both cases, the
examiner of the research work gives a percentage or score during evaluation processes to the
students based upon their level of doing pure research in future. It means for example if one
student is able to score 80%, it is not a great success, it has other side also, in regards to the
potentiality of doing an original research work i.e. he / she is incapable of doing the work by
20%. But in case of original research work, only two options are left in the hands of the
examiners, either he / she have to accept or reject the work, there are no steps in between the two
i.e the evaluation of the research work should lead to either 100% or null.
Doctor of Philosophy involves pure individual research where the researcher is assumed
to be the world expert on his / her particular topic. So offering PhD assumes precondition that the
researcher promotes the subject into a new dimension by promoting its greater understanding,
producing significant new information or by way of formulating new theories.
Doctor of Literature is just like the Doctor of Philosophy but with more commitment to the areas
of research with in depth study.
The research projects are different from that of academic research degree in regards to
different scale of time, resources and extent, pioneering qualities and rigor. Research project
actually involves a group work on a pre-assigned topic by the funding agency; it has wide scope
in regards to the greater resource availability.
a) Definition: Research is composed of two words “re” and “search”, which means to search
again or it is a careful investigation to understand or re-examine the facts or to search for new
facts or to modify older ones in any branch of knowledge. The term research is also used to
describe an entire collection of information about a particular subject, but it is in general used by
the students of higher schools.
Research in common parlance refers to search for knowledge; one can also define
research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on as specific topic. Some
people consider research as a movement, a movement from the unknown to known. It is actually
a voyage of discovery. Thus research is an endeavor to discover, develop and verify knowledge.
P. M. Cook attributes the research taking the clue from each initial alphabets of the word
R= Rational way of thinking;
E= Expert and exhaustive treatment;
S= Search for solution;
E= Exactness;
A= Analysis;
R= Relationship of facts;
C= Critical observation, Careful recording; Constructive attributes, and Condensed
H= Honesty and hard working.
The Webster International Dictionary defines research as “a careful critical enquiry or
examination in seeking facts for principles, diligent investigation in order to ascertain
The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English lays down the meaning of
research as “a careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any
branch of knowledge”.
J. W. Best opined that research is not only specifically problem solving but is also closely
associated with verification of truth underlying the observed data”.
Thus research is an intellectual act that begins with the asking of questions and progress
through the critical examination of evidence that is both relevant and reliable to the reevaluation
of the truth that is generalization and universal.
b) Need of Research: The need of research is felt due to the following-
i) To discover the truth, which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet;
ii) To discover the solution of a problem;
iii) To expand the scope of theoretical knowledge;
iv) To discover the new application for old knowledge;
v) To understand, analyze and explore the phenomena;
vi) To know the cause effect relationship;
vii) To improve the level of living in society;
viii) For professional and intellectual development of the researcher by gaining knowledge;
ix) To obtain prestige and respect by a person or by the institution;
x) To obtain a research degree;
xi) As a means of livelihood by way of obtaining the source of finance.
c) Characteristic: Some of the characteristics of research are-
i) Research originates with a question or problem;
ii) Research requires a clear articulation of a goal;
iii) Research is guided by the specific research problem, question, or hypothesis or critical
iv) Research follows a specific plan of procedure;
v) Research requires the collection and interpretation of data in attempting to resolve the problem
that initiated the research;
vi) Research is, by its nature, cyclical; or more exactly, helical.
Mere information gathering, transportation of facts from one location to another, looking
through for information does not lead to research. It is not a catchword used to get attention.
d) Code of Conduct in Research: The following are some of the code of conduct in research-
i) Self Reflective: The researcher should use only the techniques, tools to which they are
ii) Taking Permission to Undertake Research: In most countries, the researchers have to take
permission to conduct research or they will be expelled from the field of study or the country as a
iii) Research Participants: Participation is the voluntary contribution by the people towards
achieving the goal of the researcher and by this way a process of involvement in their own
development, their lives and environment. In case of field study, the researcher should go with
sufficient imagination, and care to prevent spoiling the field for himself / herself or for the future
researcher. If the researcher makes some promise with the participants, then he/she must try to
keep them. The research participants should also be given guarantees of confidentiality and
anonymity, unless there are clear and overriding researches to do otherwise.
* Voluntary Participation: Participants should be voluntary in all types of research. No
researcher should bring the participants under some compulsion. If required the researcher can
also sign in consent form from the respondents.
* Confidentiality and Anonymity: There are a number of ways in which participants can be
harmed; it may be physical, psychological, emotional, embarrassment and so on. So the research
data should be aggregated in such a manner where individuals cannot be identified, if it is
necessary to quote the respondents name, potential harm should be identified and measures
should be taken to overcome such harm and necessary permission should be taken from the
respondent to quote their name.
* Right of Review: The participants have every right to review the data before going for
publication. So for a researcher it is good to communicate with them.
* Informed Consent: If a particular research may harm participants, the participants should be
informed and consent should be taken in advance. In publicizing the result of research, personal
data may lead to mutual protection, political sensitivity, and private issues (family affairs, tax
avoidance, etc). So the researcher should take the consent before publicizing any data regarding
research participants.
* Risk Assessment: “Science is certainty; research is uncertainty. Science is supposed to be cold,
straight and detached; research is warm, involving and risky. Science puts and end to the
vagaries of human disputes; research creates controversies”. So before publicizing data the
researcher should assess the risk regarding psychological stress, legal liabilities, political, social
etc. of the research participants.
iv) Acknowledging Others: The researcher should always acknowledge others who are
associated with their research work. But, including the names of persons, who had little or
nothing to do with the research is deception again.
v) Intellectual Ownership and Plagiarism: Representing some one's work as one's own is
called as plagiarism and it may lead to expulsion from the institution. So, please deal with it
properly. “Unless otherwise stated, what you write will be regarded as your own work; the ideas
will be considered you own unless you say to the contrary” (Walliman, 2005, p. 336). So, one
should be honest, fair and respect other's work and are expected to give same kind of treatment
what he/she expects from the readers of their own publication(s) and it will be good to use other's
text, diagram, table, data, picture with their permission only (generally for academic work,
author as well as publisher feels free to grant permission to use their material in your work).
Without permission, single text extract with citation should not cross the limit of 400 words. For
a series of extract, with citation should not cross the limit of 800 words, provided no single
extract exceed 300 words). The worst offence against this ethic is called “Plagiarism” and in
order to avoid the stigma and shame of being labeled as one, acknowledging others work is
always needed.
vii) Academic Frauds: Academic fraud involves the intentional misrepresentation of what has
been done. Fabrication, falsification, omitting data and plagiarism constitutes misconduct and
academic fraud in any research practice. So, the researcher should avoid it right from proposal to
report of any research work. Making misleading or deceptive statement also constitutes academic
viii) Publicizing Results: Publicizing the same article in more than one journal distorts citation
indexes and is therefore a bad practice. It is also a means to degrade your own contribution to the
total human knowledge.
Some of well designed research codes can be found in American Sociological Association
(, American Psychological Association Ethical
Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (,
American Political Science Association (, British
Sociological Association Code of Ethics (1996) (, British
Educational Research Association (, National Committee
for Ethics in Social Science Research in Health (India), Office of Research Integrity (ORI)
(, Oxford Brookes University (2003) code; etc.
e) Finding out Unethical Research Work: The following are some of the ways through which
unethical research works can be identified:-
i) Perfect Data: If a reader of some research work finds some work within the documentation of
the research work that reflects the perfect correlation with other sets of data, with which he/she
comes across in his/her past reading then he/she tries to recall them and goes for searching the
possibility to find out who (present or past researcher) tries to hide what. Such type of human
behavior leads to finding out the unethical research work. This type of unethical research
identification frequently happens in case when someone goes with the research work of their
peer groups research.
ii) Plagiarized Text: Some times in going through the text of a particular research work, the
evaluator or the expert or other reader is able to recall in the way that “I have read it earlier, is it
the same article I am reading it again?”. What he/she will do in the next step is he/she tries to
find out where is the problem? Such types of intuition for validity also lead to identification of
unethical research work.
iii) More Subjects than What Really Exists: In the process of falsification and fabrication of
data, sometimes may lead to an increase number of subjects than what really exist. If such type
of things happen then the readers who are alert with the field can easily identify the work as
unethical research work. Suppose there are 350 colleges in a city, and one’s research study
reveals it as 355 then the person who knows that only 350 colleges are there can easily identify
the present work through which he/she has gone recently as an unethical work.
iv) Data not Supported by Methodologies: There may be occasions when a researcher used
methodology and data reflects opposite direction. If such an occasion happens then the reader is
easily able to guess the work as unethical.
v) Time: If some research finding comes out to the surface within a short amount of time than
what it should consume, there may be occasion where the falsification in the data may be there.
vi) Researcher is Not Capable: The peers know their professional friends and colleagues and
their potentialities very well. So, when one of their colleagues publish some research work,
which according to his/her friend is not capable of working in that level, he/she immediately
goes for evidence to justify his/her points or to identify from which he/she copied the data. Such
types of peer to peer competition also lead to identification of unethical research work.
vii) Hide: When there are missing links in the data, the reader is easily able to guess that the
researcher must hide something to consider for publication in some other journals, or for other
viii) Plagiarize Text Checking Tools: Over the web nowadays there are many plagiarize text
checking tools are available that check for text copied from other sources. If a reader of some
research work used such tools then within a minute he/she is able to find out which sentences in
the present work is copied from which sources.
f) Course of Action against Unethical Research Work: Unethical research work includes loss
of respect and recognition from the peers, and society at large. To have some classic examples of
course of action against unethical research you can consult: Hart, Chris (2005). Doing your
masters dissertation. New Delhi: Vistaar Publication. 286-296. The course of action against
unethical research work includes the following.
The action taken by school / department / university where research work are undertaken
includes dismissal from school / department / university, dismissal from carrying out further
research work, dismissal from supervising other research work, making correctness to the
research work, sending the scholar to ethical training, and just warning.
Action from the employer includes termination of employment / academic career,
suspension with pay, warning, etc.
Action taken by research funding agencies includes repayment of grant / fund / award,
debarred from future research grant, etc
g) Criticism against Research: Prior to discussing the importance of research, let's have a
glance at the criticism raised against research-
i) Some people think that research is a waste of time, and effort;
ii) Some say that for degree sake, research is being undertaken;
iii) Most of the research deals with human being especially in social science research. But it is
being criticized that human behavior is difficult to study;
iv) Methods used for conducting research is inadequate. This is more so in case of developing
v) It is not always necessary that every research would lead to solution of problems rather it may
complicate the problem further;
vi) It is generally been seen that the problem under investigation may not be an area of interest to
the researcher, rather he / she may take the problem due to peer pressure or ego problem.
h) Let Us Sum Up: “Everywhere, our knowledge is incomplete and problems are waiting to be
solved. We address the void in our knowledge and those unresolved problems by asking relevant
questions and seeking answers to them. The role of research is to provide a method for obtaining
those answers by inquiringly studying the evidence within the parameters of the scientific
method.” It will be better to conclude by Patton (2002, 224) quotes “there is no rule of thumb
that tells a researcher precisely how to focus a study. The extent to which a research question is
broad or narrow depends on purpose, the resources available, the time available, and the interests
of those involved. In brief, these are not choices between good and bad, but choices among
alternatives, all of which have merit”.
Reference Sources
Reference Sources: A reference work / book / source is a compendium of information, usually
of a specific type, compiled in a book for easy consultation. The entries are disjointed but
arranged in such a way that the intended information can be quickly found when needed or
referred to, the sequence of which is determined by the scheme of arrangement chosen for that
purpose. It might be alphabetical, classified or some other type of arrangement. Even then the
connection between consecutive entries is not as compelling and continuous or as free from jerks
as between the paragraphs in an ordinary book. The writing style used in these works is
informative; the authors avoid use of the first person and emphasize facts. Indexes are commonly
provided in many types of reference work. Updated editions are published as needed, in some
cases annually. Sometimes reference sources are also described as approach material. Broadly
speaking, any book can be called a reference book provided the information contained in it is so
organized that it becomes readily accessible. It may consist mostly of formulae, statistics,
diagram, tables, maps, charts or list of documents with or without abstracts or annotations or
other features. All reference sources are also documentary sources of information.
According to ALA Glossary, a reference book has been defined as “a book designed by its
arrangement and treatment to be consulted for definite item of information rather than to be read
consecutively”. Most of the reference book anticipates a particular need and approach to
Generally a reference source bears the following characteristics
i) Consulted for Definite Item of Information: They are not meant for continuous i.e. cover to
cover reading. They are consulted from time to time (occasional) for particular pieces of
ii) Miscellany of Information: It is miscellany of information or facts and consists of disjointed
entries of varying length which are collected from a vast number of sources. One entry in sources
may or may not have any relationship with the other entry.
iii) Bird’s Eye View of the Topic: The books provide only the bird’s eye view of the topics and
rarely deal with them in depth.
iv) Item can be Randomly Located: The arrangement of information is such that it can be
conveniently and quickly recalled.
In the library, reference collections are shelved together in a special location separately
from circulating items. Ordinarily, the reference collections are not lent out (circulated) or
checked out from the library because they contain brief information about the topic in hand and,
if needed, can be photocopied and, therefore, do not need to be borrowed by the users. Its
availability in the library assures the provision of making it accessible on demand to any user to
answer questions immediately. Reference books are also too valuable to permit the borrowers to
take them out.
It may be added that the boarder line of demarcation between a reference book and others
is not always sharp. The decision as to whether or not to regard a given book as a reference book
will some time differ from library to library.
1. Classification of Reference Sources: William A. Katz divides the reference sources into two
large categories-
i) Control Access Directional Type: It itself does not contain the required information but directs
the user to the documents which contain the information. It includes bibliographies, catalogue,
indexes, abstracts etc.
ii) Work of Sources Type: It itself contains the information. For example, Encyclopedia,
Dictionary etc.
2. Types of Reference Sources: We may generally recognize the following kinds of reference
sources based on the internal characteristics.
a) Dictionary: A dictionary contains the words of a language or the terms of a subject,
profession or vocation arranged according to some definite order usually alphabetical, giving
their meanings, pronunciation, spelling, significance and use. Some times synonyms, antonyms,
derivation and history of the words or terms are also given. Many dictionaries also provide
grammatical information, etymologies (origin and development of the4 meaning of the word),
usage guidance and examples in phrases or sentences. The word "dictionary" comes from
neoclassical Latin word “diccio” meaning simply "word". Therefore, primarily it deals with
words and it is produced by lexicographers. A pictorial dictionary includes illustrations of the
objects represented by the words listed; some other types of dictionary may also list out
characters with their glyphs, or an alphabetical list of words with corresponding words in other
languages. It is most commonly found in the form of a book. However, in recent years some
dictionaries are also found in electronic portable handheld devices. Some examples of English
language dictionaries are Merriam-Webster Dictionary, Oxford English Dictionary (descriptive),
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Webster's Third New International
Dictionary (descriptive).
i) Lexicon: A dictionary of some ancient language that generally provides more grammatical
analysis is known as lexicon.
ii) Concordance: A concordance is an alphabetical list of the principal words used in a book or
body of work showing location in the text with immediate contexts. Because of the time and
difficulty and expense involved in creating a concordance in the pre-computer era, only works of
special importance, such as the Bible, Qur'an or the works of Shakespeare, had concordances
prepared for them.
iii) Glossary: A list of difficult terms along with some explanation or definition in a special field.
The glossary is sometimes also referred to as word book.
b) Thesaurus: It is designed for drawing distinctions between similar words and assisting in
choosing exactly the right word. So entries in a thesaurus should not be taken as a list of
synonyms and antonyms. It also does not define words. That work is left to the dictionary. A
formal definition of a thesaurus designed for indexing is: a list of every important term (single-
word or multi-word) in a given domain of knowledge arranged in a systematic order and
manifesting various types of relationship existing between the terms; and a set of related terms
for each term in the list. The word “thesaurus” more commonly means a listing of words with
similar, related, or opposite meanings (this new meaning of thesaurus dates back to Roget's
Thesaurus). For example, a book of jargon for a specialized field; or more technically a list of
subject headings and cross-references used in the filing and retrieval of documents (or indeed
papers, certificates, letters, cards, records, texts, files, articles, essays and perhaps even
manuscripts), film, sound recordings, machine-readable media, etc. Some examples of thesaurus
are Thesaurus of English Words & Phrases (ed. P. Roget); The Synonym Finder (ed. J. I. Rodale);
Webster's New World Thesaurus (ed. C. Laird); etc.
c) Encyclopaedia: The word encyclopaedia or encyclopaedia is derived from two Greek words
‘Enkyklios’ which means ‘circle’ and ‘Paideia’ which means “of learning”. The word
encyclopaedia itself is synonymous with cyclopedia which means compendium of information or
knowledge or a circle of knowledge, a work which represents synthesis of knowledge. It contains
comprehensive written information on all branches of knowledge or a particular branch of
knowledge, with the entries arranged in alphabetical order. Multi-volume encyclopedias often
include an index in the last volume.
The Oxford English dictionary has defined an encyclopaedia as “a literary work
containing extensive information on all branches of knowledge usually arranged in alphabetical
order”. ALA Glossary of Library Terms define encyclopaedia as “a work containing information
articles on subject in every field of knowledge usually arranged in alphabetical order or a similar
work limited to a special field of subject”.
Four major characteristics of an encyclopaedia are its subject matter, its scope, its method of
organization, and its method of production. It attempts to bring some order to the knowledge
reflecting the state of knowledge as it exists during the period of its compilation. The included
knowledge is related to kind of readership which an encyclopedia intends to serve. There have
historically been two main methods of organizing printed encyclopedias: the alphabetical method
(consisting of a number of separate articles, organized in alphabetical order), or organization by
hierarchical categories. The former method is the most common by far, especially for general
works. The encyclopedias are written by a number of employed text writers, usually people with
an academic degree but some modern encyclopedia’s articles are collaboratively written by the
experts on the subject.
The fluidity of electronic media, however, allows new possibilities for multiple methods
of organization of the same content in the encyclopedias. Further, electronic media offer
previously unimaginable capabilities for search, indexing, and cross reference.
Encyclopaedias can be general, containing articles on important topics in every field that
describe the total accumulated knowledge on each topic or all that came before them. The
general encyclopedias are larger compendia and often contain guides on how to do a variety of
things, as well as embedded dictionaries and gazetteers. Every general encyclopaedic work is, of
course, an abridged version of all knowledge discussed in depth However, the discussion of the
included topic represents the opinions and worldviews of a particular time and the target
audience is kept in view while discussing the topics. For example, New Encyclopædia
Britannica, Encyclopedia Americana, Collier’s encyclopaedia, and German Brockhaus. The
encyclopaedia can also specialize in a particular field such as an encyclopedia of medicine,
philosophy, or law, Encyclopaedia of library and information science, International
encyclopaedia of social sciences, McGraw Hill encyclopaedia of science and technology, etc.
i) Supplement to Encyclopedia: It is an annual or periodical publication issued by the publisher
of the encyclopaedia. The purpose of encyclopedia supplement is to provide up-to-date
information about the articles in the basic set and to bring out a summary of the major events,
which have taken place during a year. But in reality it only serves as general reading and
browsing and for summarizing the significant events. It is extremely useful to determine the
trend of development in a particular field during the previous year. Examples: Britannica Book
of the Year, Americana Annual, etc.
d) Bibliographical Sources: The term “bibliography” was first used by Louis Jacod de Saint
Charles in his Bibliographia Parisiana. It is a technique of systematically producing descriptive
list of written or published records or in simple writing and transcription of books. A
bibliography is a systematic listing of the records of human communication. In its most general
sense it is the study and description of books or other multimedia material. Bibliographical
works are almost always considered tertiary sources of information. They differ from library
catalogues by including all relevant publications rather than the items actually found in a
particular library. However, the catalogues of some national libraries also serve as national
bibliographies, as they contain almost all the publications of the concerned country. Standard
citation formats are used in writing the bibliographies. The main advantages of bibliographic
entries are that they contain enough information for readers to locate the materials and are
presented in a consistent format. In many cases bibliography is the end result of any literature
search. For example, Indian National Bibliography, Indian Books in Print, etc.
i) Bibliography of Bibliographies: A bibliography of bibliographies lists the bibliographies
which direct the reader to useful bibliographies through subject, place, institution, etc. The
bibliographies refereed to may be in the form of a separately published book or part of the book
or part of the periodical article or some other type of document. Bibliography of bibliographies is
highly selective in nature. For example, Bibliographic Index.
e) Indexing and Abstracting Periodicals: An index is a systematic guide to i) item contained in
or ii) concept derived from a collection. These items and derived concepts are represented by
entries arranged in a known or stated searchable order. According to Allen Kant, “an abstract is a
summary of a publication or articles accompanied by an adequate bibliographical description to
enable the publication or article to be traced”.
The indexing and abstracting periodicals present a condensed form of the literature of the
subject and provide a scientific or specialist bird’s eye view of the progress and development of
the subject so that the inquirer can select the most relevant documents relating to his work in the
hand. An indexing and abstracting periodical helps to find out specific information in the
literature of a subject.
i) Citation Index: A citation index is an index of citations between publications. It allows the
user to easily establish as to which later documents cite which earlier documents. It is an ordered
list of cited articles each of which is accompanied by a list of citing articles. The cited articles are
identified as references and the citing articles as source. In a simple way it can be said that cited
articles are ancestors and the citing articles are descendents and this descending relation of
subjects is reflected through the citation index. Citations provide a further reading list besides
paying homage to the pionners and giving credit for their work; sometimes it also criticises,
corrects and disputes the previous contributions. The first citation indices were legal citators such
as Shepard's Citations (1873). In 1960, Eugene Garfield's Institute for Scientific Information
(ISI) introduced the first citation index for papers published in academic journals, starting with
the Science Citation Index (SCI), and later expanding to produce the Social Sciences Citation
Index (SSCI) and the Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI). Examples include ISI citation
indexes (available online under the name “Web of Science”), Scopus published by Elsevier
publishers (available online only), CiteSeer system publish, Google Scholar (GS), etc.
f) Geographical Sources: Geography is the study of the Earth’s surface and its lands, features,
inhabitants, and phenomena, people's responses to topography and climate, and soil and
vegetation. Geographical sources of information can be of the following types:
i) Gazetteer: A gazetteer is a geographical dictionary, an important reference for information
about places and place-names, used in conjunction with an atlas. It typically contains information
concerning the geographical makeup of a country, region or continent, the social statistics and
physical features, such as mountains, waterways, or roads. It also includes information about the
location of places, dimensions of physical features, population, GDP, literacy rate, etc. World
gazetteers usually consist of an alphabetical listing of countries, with pertinent statistics for each
one, with some gazetteers listing information on individual cities, towns, villages and other
settlements of varying sizes. Examples include The World Gazetteer, Worldwide Index, etc.
ii) Guides: According to ALA Glossary of Library Terms, a guide book has been defined as
handbook for travellers that gives information about a city, region or country or a similar
handbook about a building, museum, etc.
A guide to the literature assists a user to use literature of a specific subject. It helps to
evaluate and introduce literature. It lays emphasis on the literature of a subject rather than its
content and covers secondary and tertiary sources. It presents a detailed account of the
bibliographical apparatus and tools, basic literature, agencies, etc. through which it is possible to
follow the development, status and progress of a subject. It gives the broadest bibliographical
view of the subject. A guide to the professional organization gives the address and a brief
description of the organizations engaged in a particular field at the national or international level.
Guides generally include guides to the literature of a subject, guides to the libraries, guides to
organization etc.
iii) Map: A map is defined as “a representation of a part or the whole of the surface of the earth
or a celestial body delineated on a plain surface, earth points in the drawing intended to
correspond to a geographical or a celestial position”. It represents the outer boundaries of a part
of the earth or the earth as a whole on a plain surface. In simple, it is a simplified depiction of a
space which highlights relations between components (objects, regions) of that space. Most
usually a map is a two-dimensional, geometrically accurate representation, normally to scale, of
all or a portion of the three-dimensional earth's surface or of the heavens, or another celestial
body. More generally, maps can be devised to represent any local property of the world or part of
it. Maps are usually stored in specially designed cases which allow them to lie flat.
iv) Atlas: An atlas is a collection of maps, traditionally bound into book form, but also found in
multimedia formats. It gives geographic features, political boundaries and some time
geopolitical, social, religious and economic statistics. ALA Glossary defines atlas as “a volume
of map, plates, engraving, tables, etc with or without descriptive letterpress”. It may be an
independent publication or it may have been issued to accompany one or more volume of text.
Some cartographically or commercially important atlases include Times Atlas of the World
(United Kingdom, 1920-present); Atlas Mira (Russia, 1937-present); National Geographic Atlas
of the World (United States, 1963-present); Historical Atlas of China (China). Some other atlases
are thematic. Example: The Times Atlas of World Exploration.
v) Globe: A globe is a three-dimensional scale model of Earth (terrestrial globe) or other
spheroid celestial body such as a planet, star, or moon. It may also refer to a spherical
representation of the celestial sphere, showing the apparent positions of the stars and
constellations in the sky (celestial globe).
g) Biographical Sources: A biography is a description or account of the series of events making
up of someone's life, which is usually published in the form of a book or an essay, or in some
other form, such as a film. An autobiography is a biography of a person's life written or told by
that same person. The biographical information also can be obtained from almanacs,
biographical dictionary, directories, encyclopedias, etc. Examples include International Who’s
Who, Dictionary of National Biography, etc.
h) Current Sources: Current sources of information are brought out on annual basis that depicts
some important happening in the previous year. It may take the form of the following:
i) Year Book: A year book is an annual compendium of current information which may be
sometimes restricted by subject or country or region. It is mostly used for answering questions
involving the recent trends and current developments. J. K. Cates defines a year book as “a
publication which is issued annually for the purpose of current information in narrative,
statistical or descriptive form”. According to ALA Glossary, a yearbook is “an annual volume of
current information in descriptive and or statistical form, sometimes limited to a special field”.
ii) Almanac: The word almanac (also spelled almanack) is an annual publication containing
tabular information in a particular field (mostly covering information about rising and setting of
moons, periods of low and high tides, climate or weather related information) often arranged
according to the calendar. According to the ALA Glossary, an almanac is a) an annual
publication containing a calendar frequently accompanied by astronomical data and other
information or b) An annual year book of statistics and other information sometimes in a
particular field. It records most of the astronomical data and various statistics, such as the times
of the rising and setting of the sun and moon, eclipses, hours of full tide, stated religious
festivals, terms of courts, etc. Contents also include discussions of topical developments and a
summary of recent historical events. Major topics covered by almanacs (reflected by their tables
of contents) include: geography, government, demographics, agriculture, economics and
business, health and medicine, religion, mass media, transportation, science and technology,
sport, and awards/prizes. Sometimes almanac is grouped with yearbooks as this is also an annual
publication giving current events, developments, statistics, etc. Example: World Almanac and
Books of Facts, Whitaker's Almanack, Information Please Almanac, The Old Farmer's Almanac
i) Directory: A directory is a list of names and addresses of persons, organizations,
manufacturers or periodicals. It may list information in a way which best serves the requirements
of its user so as to enable them to get the required information readily. S. R. Ranganathan defines
a directory as “a book containing the names, address, occupation, etc of the inhabitants of a town
or a district, a list of the user of a telephone system or of the members of a particular profession
or trade or a descriptive list of institution, enterprises or trade”. ALA Glossary of library terms
defines a directory as “a list of persons or organizations, systematically arranged usually in
alphabetical or classified order giving address, affiliation etc. for individual and address, officers,
functions and such data for organization”. In a wider sense, even a list of periodicals or
newspapers or places may also be termed a directory. Example: Times of India Directory and
Yearbook including Who’s Who, Bowker Annual of Library and Book Trade Information, World
of Learning, Universities Handbook, etc.
j) List of Research in Progress: A list or directory of research in progress covers the research
activities of a single institution, a laboratory or a group of institutions i.e. universities. The
information content usually is a short description of projects, names of investigators, period of
investigation, and names of funding agencies and, in some cases, reference to sources where
preliminary results have already been published or likely sources of publication of results.
List of research in progress helps an individual information seeker to get in touch with
the investigation, to get additional information about the work or can anticipate as to when and
where to get the full report or results of an investigation and thus to avoid duplication in
research. Example: Current research project in CSIR Laboratories, 1972 and 1976 compiled by
INSDOC, R and D Projects in Documentation and Librarianship of FID.
k) Notification of Forth Coming Conferences: The knowledge of forth-coming meetings,
conferences, symposia, seminar, etc. on a specific field should be notified to the members
belonging to that specific domain. Keeping this purpose in view some organizations publish
small booklets giving essential general information about forth-coming seminar, conference and
workshop in a specific field. Example: Forthcoming International Scientific and Technical
Conference, Quarterly published by ASLIB.
l) Handbook: The term “hand book” literally comes from the German word “handbuch” i.e. a
book which can be held in the hand comfortably. It is a compilation of miscellaneous information
in a compact and handy form. It is a small manual, reference work or other collection of
instructions, intended to provide ready reference regarding procedures, principles, etc. table,
graph, diagram and illustration are also provided. Louis Shores has defined handbook as “a
reference book of miscellaneous facts and figures on one or many subjects assembled for ready
use in response to popular interest or to a specific need for concise handy information”.
m) Manual: The word “manual” is derived from the Latin term “manualis” which means a guide
book or instruction book to pursue an occupation, art or study. The term “manual” in common
parlences refers to instruction to do something with the aid of very explicit step by step
directions. It gives instruction by means of specific and clear direction. Louis Shores opined that
“manuals are sources that contain instruction for doing”. ALA Glossary defines a manual as a) a
compact book, a handbook b) a book of rules for guidance or instructions in how to perform a
task, process etc. or make some physical subjects. Example: Fay, G.S. (1972). Rockhound’s
Manual. New York: Harper and Row.
n) Statistical Sources: The statistical information is distributed in other reference sources. The
dictionaries may contain population statistics. The encyclopedia may provide socio-economic
data about large geographical areas, which may be updated by their yearbook; the statistical
yearbook may provide some other kinds of statistics over a longer period of time, and so on.
Example includes Demographic Yearbook, Statesman’s Yearbook, etc.
o) Mathematical Table: In early days before calculators were cheap and plentiful, people were
using mathematical table i.e lists of numbers showing the results of calculation with varying
arguments to simplify and drastically speed up computation. The most common are
multiplication tables, which most people know from their early mathematics classes. Nowadays,
peple use logarithm tables and so on.
Some of the reference sources overlap. For instance a supplement to an encyclopedia can
be considered as a part of encyclopedia or separately. Similarly, the sources of statistics can be
considered under yearbook or as a separate category.
Many of the above sources are now available in audio- visual format or as an online
publication but still they can be included under their respective categories. Besides, the
traditional reference sources, Search engine, Meta search engines can also be considered as
reference sources of modern times.

3. Evaluation of Reference Sources: The checklists for evaluation of reference sources are
more or less same for all types of work. They can be applied to all sources with slight
modification. In general, they include the following
i) Authority: The work should be authoritative. The authority should be judged on the basis of
the reputation of the author(s), editor(s), compiler(s), sponsoring bodies and the publishers.
ii) Scope and Coverage: The kind of information included would depend upon the scope of the
work. Some work may cover a particular country or the whole world or all subjects while others
may be restricted to some specific or minute topic only. The date or period covered is an
important criterion. Sometimes it may relate to a particular subject, organization also. The
content page, preface, and introduction may give an idea of the information contained in the
iii) Treatment: It is to be ascertained whether the information is reliable and accurate or not,
whether the treatment is biased or unbiased.
iv) Arrangement: The information must be systematically arranged. It is essential to have a
detailed index which should provide for various kinds of approaches.
v) Uptodateness / Revision: Though some reference sources may contain some retrospective
information, every year it should be thoroughly revised and updated. The time lag is important
for current sources.
vi) Format: All reference works should be a handy volume easy to withstand wear and tear. Type
face should be clear and legible with suitable headings and subheading in bold types for the
guidance of the readers.
vii) Special Features: The other special features of the work include its total cost and whether
the cost can be justified on the basis of its content.
Reference and Information Service
Reference and Information Service: The library is a service institution. The library services
fall into two main categories - information in anticipation and information on demand.
Information in anticipation relates to the current awareness / selective dissemination of
information service. The information on demand relates to the past information sought by a user
and for which there is the provision of reference and information service known as retrospective
The provision of information in anticipation aims to keep the users well informed and up
to date in their field of specialization and also in the related subjects. The service in anticipation
can be divided into three broad categories - technical services, public services, and public
relation and extension services.
Technical services are vital for all other services provided by the library. Any library
would find it impossible to provide public service for their patron without the work performed in
“the backroom” by technical staff. The Card Catalogue or in a modern library OPAC is the result
of the library technical services. Other technical work includes classification, preparation of shelf
list, preparation of various other kinds of guides, etc.
Previously, people used to differentiate the reference service from that of information
service, but in reality there is no borderline between the two. The two services cannot be
differentiated based on the fact whether the librarian is referring the user to the sources of
information or is directly providing the information himself. Even, referring the user to the
sources of information itself may serve the function of information service for a particular user.
The emergence of web has further changed the whole scenario. Now the reference and
information service goes side by side and they cannot be differentiated as it was done earlier. If
one however likes to differentiate then the information service can be treated as an extended
form of reference service. Infact, the information service is a relatively new term for reference
service. Characteristically, information service denotes the ultimate existence of the reference
work to all kinds of answers to questions which are based on all sources and which requires the
service of the library staff. However, the library services can be differentiated based on the user
approach into two i.e service on demand and service in anticipation. In case of service on
demand, the staff waits for the users to approach and make a request. The user gets the answer to
their specific inquiries pin pointedly, exhaustively and expeditiously. In the reference and
information service in anticipation, the staff goes to the user and the user waits for the staff /
document / information. The information provided is of general type mostly referred to the
document rather than providing exact information.
Reference service in the early years of the twentieth century was limited in general to the
instruction and guidance. The implied policy was of minimal assistance and emphasis on the
librarian as instructor. Librarians, however, soon found themselves increasingly drawn into “fact
finding” and providing direct information service. The need for librarians to become more expert
in diverse fields led eventually to a growing trend towards subject specialization in reference.
The Reference and Information Services Section addresses all aspects of reference works,
in all types of libraries, in all regions of the world. Current interests encompass the new
electronic environment and the resulting changes in reference work, role of the reference
librarian, and the quality of reference services.
1. Definition: According to Ranganathan, reference service is personal service to each reader in
helping him to find the document answering his interest at the moment pin pointedly,
exhaustively and expeditiously. It is the process of establishing “contact between the right reader
and right book at the right time and in the right personal way”.
According to James I Wayer, reference work is “that part of library administration which
deals with the assistance given to readers in their use of the resources of the library”. This
definition is too narrow because in these days, the reference librarian assists the readers to use
resources outside his/her own library.
Samuel Rothstein defines reference service as “the personal assistance given by the
libraries to individual readers in pursuit of information”.
According to Hutchins, “reference work includes the direct, personal aid within a library
to persons in search of information for whatever purpose and also various library activities
especially aimed at making information as easily available as possible”.
ALA Glossary states, “reference service is that phase of library work which is directly
concerned with assistance to readers in securing information and in using the resources of the
library in study and research”.
2. Need and Purpose: The demand for reference and information services in libraries grew
exponentially with the end of World War II and the tremendous growth in higher education that
followed. In general, the need and purpose of reference service arises from the following facts
a) Complex Nature of Library Tools and Techniques: In order to facilitate the use of the
library, the librarian provides various tools like classification numbers, library catalogue (OPAC),
shelf list, written guides of various kinds, bibliographies, indexing and abstracting of journals /
books, etc. But all these tools are based on complex rules and practices and the users are not
supposed to be aware of the ways by which they can be operated. So, there need to be a reference
librarian in the library who can serve as a sort of canvassing agent for these tools.
b) Increase Volume of Information: A variety of information sources emerged in large
numbers. It is so large that it is impossible for the reader to keep track of its variety and its
location. So, there is a need of reference service for the selection of the right kind of document at
less possible time.
c) Peculiarities of Sources of Information: Each kind of information source follows its own
practices in the arrangements of entries, provision of subject headings, preparation of indexes,
etc. So, it is not always easy to get the desired information out of some sources of information
(indexing and abstracting journals, bibliographies, encyclopedia, etc) without the help of the
reference librarian.
d) Lack of Time: Information has a value only if they are received in time and put into practice.
But many research teams and others do not have the time required to search for information in
their parallel development. It is also not desirable to expect from a highly paid research scientist
to spend time in search for the literature in libraries. It is also unprofitable for the parent
organization. So, the trend is to seek the help of a reference librarian to get the information in
time, for the preparation of bibliographies, indexes, abstracts, and for arranging for translation
e) Personal Psychology: The users may be of shy nature, gentle, aggressive, and meek; they
may be less educated or highly educated and so on. They need to be taken care of by a person
when they come to a library for the first time. Otherwise, they may feel utterly lost or confused
with the result that they may not come again. Even those who come regularly to the library
would need occasional personal assistance. All these call for an arrangement for reference and
information service on demand.
f) Promote and Support Library Service: A good reference and information service is bound
to encourage the use of the library. The satisfied users serve as a friend of the library and can
lead to greater library support. After all, the reference service is treated as the hub of all the
activities of the library. It may be considered as the ultimate manifestation of the laws of library
g) National Economy: Sometimes the questions on a subject or topic are repetitive in nature in
the event of some local function. If each answer seekers goes to find the answer on their own, a
lot of man – hours will be wasted. So, in this regard reference service helps the national economy
by saving the time for the users.
3. Strategies in Establishing a Reference and Information Service: For establishing the
reference and information service, or to provide the reference and information service, the
librarian needs to go through the following steps:
a) Determining Aims and Objectives of the Library: The kind of reference service being
provided would vary from library to library. The service being rendered would depend upon the
type of library, its aims and objectives, its collection, the objectives of the reference section and
the philosophy of the chief librarian. The librarian should not waste much time in providing
answers to the questions that do not come within the scope of the parent organization, and his
b) Staffing: Library and information science professionals should be appointed to look after the
on-demand reference and information service.
c) Facilities Organization: In addition to an extensive research/reading room, there is also the
need of a multimedia room equipped with high-speed computers with Internet and multimedia
capabilities, phone / fax machine in the reference section so that the Reference Librarian can
instantly provide the answers sought.
d) Building Reference Collection: The maintenance of the print reference collections including
dictionaries, directories, and encyclopedia is a must for any kind of reference service. Compiling
bibliographies, establishing and maintaining vertical files, preparing displays, bulletin boards,
and exhibits also often fall within the scope of the reference staff. Some fugitive materials
consisting of newspaper-cuttings, magazine clippings, folders and collection of some similar
kinds of materials should also be included in the reference section.
e) Gathering Knowledge of the Subject: The librarian should have a sound knowledge about
all the reference collections in his library. He should also know about the search engine, subject
directories and so on.
f) Marketing/Visibility: The library reference services should be marketed extensively to get
the attention of the library users.
g) Origin of the Query: Queries to the Reference Librarian can be made by the library user
himself physically, by post, through phone calls, email, online chat, and so on. The Reference
Librarian should be in a position to answer the queries in a mode suitable for the user. He should
be able to provide answer to the fact-finding question on phone / chat instantly.
h) Reference Interview: A user will feel the need for information. He may approach the
Information / Reference desk and make a request for information in the form of a specific query.
In the first attempt the Reference Librarian should determine the readers’ problem. He should be
able to state clearly what the reader wants.
i) Initiating the Search: The Reference Librarian should pick up the keywords to search in
bibliographies, indexes, online databases, subject search engines and so on. By using the prior
knowledge he/she should be able to decide the order in which each of the various sources
available should be consulted and then should follow the possible short-cut method.
j) Solving the Query: The reference librarian finds out and provides the answer to a specific
question raised by the library user. The information sought by the enquirer, its quality and level
will depend on the query and type of the question. It may take the form of delivering the specific
information itself or direct him to appropriate sources of information. The librarian may also get
the concerned information translated and provide the translated version of the document. He may
provide a self prepared subject bibliography, delivering the result of the literature search and so
on. In all cases the reference librarian’s answer should be user-centric.
k) Ethics and the Provision of High Quality Service: The library users have different
psychological temperaments, some are meek and inert, some have a superiority complex while
some are not articulate enough to express their wants or needs correctly or in a precise manner,
and some others may be of limited patience. The reference librarian should follow some basic
ethics to deal with every one. He should not share his personal experience about the users with
l) Assimilation: In the reference service experience is the most important thing. The librarian
should periodically be able to absorb information and learn from his experience so that in near
future if same type of problem arises his movement should directly lead him to the path most
likely to provide the information he wants.
m) Sharing Experience with Others: A reference librarian should try to share his experience
with his colleagues in the reference section. During his work, he would discover certain
weakness in the collection, in the library catalogue, in the arrangement of documents, etc. He
should make suggestions to his colleagues in various sections of the library to bring about the
necessary improvement in the functioning of the library.
The reference librarian would also be dealing with the indexing and abstracting services
prepared by outside organization, bibliographies, national and international document service. He
should also share and point out the shortcoming of such tools to respective authorities.
n) Continuing Education of Reference Librarians: The reference librarian should be regularly
sent for training. For him training is essential to find the information he needs. Besides, the
emergence of the digital information sources and the rapid changes in technologies make it
necessary for the librarians to go for training periodically.
Recruitment, Selection and Test
Recruitment, Selection and Test: Recruitment of personnel refers to supply of new personnel to
work in an organization to fit into position with a well defined job description. The main aim of
recruitment should be to select best candidate for performing specific job in a library.
A library should aim to develop a positive and definite recruitment programme so that it
is able to reach out and attract the best available talent. There should be a continuous evaluation
of the recruitment programme.
Librarian should take care of all the aspects in recruitment of the staff in the library. He
should not have bias for anyone. He should keep in mind that only a suitable professional staff
can provide the adequate service to him as well as users.
a) Recruitment and Selection Procedure: The below mentioned procedures need to be
followed for recruitment or selection of candidate-
i) Ascertaining the Vacant Job: The vacancy may be due to retirement, resignation, termination
or dismissal. New post also may be created for specific job requirement.
ii) Deciding of Revising: If necessary, the requisite qualification, scale and other allowances, etc.
of the post should be revised.
iii) Advertisement: Inviting application by advertisement for the posts in national, state or local
newspapers or by publishing the information over website or broadcasting it through radio,
television, etc. should be carried out.
The advertisement should clearly give all related basic data about the post like the scale
of pay, position, job description, essential and desirable qualification, etc. The application form
to be filled up by the applicant should carefully be designed to get all the particulars of the
candidate to make tentative inference regarding his suitability for the particular post.
iv) Receiving the Application: Receiving the application of the candidates and processing these
methodically for deciding the names of candidate to be invited for interview. Library school
should also be consulted for this purpose.
v) Selection board: It involves task associated with deciding the interview dates, preparation of
the selection board, preparation of interview chart and verifying the data and sending these to
expert. For the selection of staff member, the chief librarian should be given a free hand and he
or she should also be free from bias. The chief librarian and the departmental head under whom
the person shall work must be the member of the interview board. It also involves the activity
associated with laying down interview criteria and test for the assessment of the candidates.
vi) Sending Interview letter: Sending interview letters to the candidate selected / recommended
by the expert or the library school or selection board.
vii) Interviewing the candidates: The purpose of interviewing is to find out the suitability of a
candidate and to seek more information to judge their personality and other traits. It is possible to
examine the academic background, knowledge of the subject, general awareness as well as
professional skills, areas of expertise, knowledge of technological development, and latest trend
of the profession within the country or abroad and other qualities. The interview board can also
assess the personal relation, study, motivation, attitude, mode of thinking, ability to adjust with
change, sense of co-operation, acceptance of challenge and efficiency of the candidates.
ix) Inviting opinion of referees: The references of suitable candidate are checked for their
personal details, especially their past history, political learning and professional standing. For
selection of the librarian, the authority may write to department of library science, prominent
librarians, etc. and consider their views.
x) Medical examination: Here, the candidate is asked to undergo medical / physical tests.
Medical examination serves to ascertain the applicant’s physical capability to meet the job
xi) Selecting the candidate provisionally: After a candidate has cleared all the hurdles in the
selection procedure the candidate should be offered appointment subject to certain laid down
condition. For example probationary period, which gives an opportunity to the administrator to
correct mistake if any. If during the probation period candidate is not found suitable the
management may transfer him to some other job or give up the service.
xii) Issuing of a formal appointment order: In this step, a formal appointment order is issued by
the authority. The authority may also execute an agreement bond with the appointed candidate,
stating clearly all the relevant conditions of service, etc.
b) Testing the Candidate: Individuals differ with respect to physical characteristic, capacity,
level of mental ability, their likes and dislikes and also with respect to personality traits. When
matching of individual physical, metal and temperamental pattern with the requirement of the job
or field of training takes place the result is happiness for the individual and greater prosperity for
the organization and the society. This will require the use of selection test. These tests may take
the form of the following-
i) Personality test: These test aims at measuring the total personality of an individual.
Personality includes various traits and behaviour patterns such as initiative, judgment, self
confidence temperament, complex (superior / inferior), likes and dislikes, etc. Personality may be
measured by making use of any of the following three methods-
* Rating method: In the rating method the reliance is laid upon other person’s opinion about a
* Question answer method: Here the personality of a candidate is judged from the answer given
by him to a series of questions asked from him.
* Experimental method: Here actual situation are created to know his reaction. For instance at
the circulation counter, a conscience box may be kept for collecting overdue charges from those
borrowers who return the books later. The honesty of the candidate can be judged from this
ii) Intelligence test: The ratio of mental age to the real age can be judge by this method. A person
may be asked to name twenty five words in a minute. From such test, mental alertness,
understanding power, reasoning ability, etc. of a person may be found out. These tests are very
much prevalent now.
iii) Aptitude test: Every person has a peculiar aptitude. The aptitude test helps an employer to
know whether a candidate has got aptitude for a manual, mental, mechanical job or routine job.
One may be good at mathematical calculation while another may lack it. These tests give an
indication to the employer about the possible performance of a prospective employee. A person
for example may be asked to copy a straight line drawing.
iv) Trade test: Through trade test, a candidate’s knowledge to perform a specific work or job is
measured. He is asked to perform a similar job when he would be expected to perform when
appointed. A catalogue typist may be asked to type catalogue card. A professional may be asked
to classify actual books of a library in order to know his skill of classifying books. As such these
tests may also be named as “proficiency”, “performance” and achievement tests.
v) Interest test: Interest tests are useful in finding out the probable liking of a candidate for a
particular job. Through these test a person’s preference for a specific job may be known. A
candidate may be a good administrator but he may like a teaching job or vice versa. The interest
of a person may be found out through a well prepared questionnaire.
Any one or the combination of two or more test may be used in selecting library staff
because library work involves various types of jobs i.e. intellectual, manual, mechanical, routine,
administrative, guidance and teaching function.
c) Role of Librarian in the selection of the library staff: Sometimes librarians have been given
free hand to select the library staff but the condition is that he or she should be free from bias. In
all other cases librarian is the member of the library staff selection board. The chief librarian and
the departmental head under whom the person or candidate shall work is always the member of
the interview board. The main roles of librarian in the staff selection are –
i) Helps in the selection of harmonious administrative, technical and service staff.
ii) Recommend the Vice-chancellor or principal for employment of the staff.
iii) Can make recommendation to the Vice-chancellor or principal on all matter pertaining to the
status, promotion, change in position or dismissal of the library staff members.
Besides the above functions, librarians form an un-separable part of all the steps or
procedures of recruitment, test and selection of candidate as the staff member of the library.
Really Simple Syndication (RSS)
Really Simple Syndication: Really Simple Syndication, Really Simple Subscribing, Rich Site
Summary, RSS, feed, web feed ( ) or channel or by whatever name we call it, it is
a family of Web feed formats that publish the contents from the frequently updated websites,
blog, podcasts, etc. It is the XML-based format that allows the syndication of Web content and
used to refer to the standards like Rich Site Summary (RSS 0.91), RDF Site Summary (RSS 0.9
and 1.0), Really Simple Syndication (RSS 2.0) and Really Simple Subscribing. RSS formats are
specified using XML, a generic specification for the creation of data formats. Although RSS
formats have evolved since March 1999 (My Netscape Network), the RSS icon first gained
widespread use in 2005/2006.
1. History: In 1995, Ramanathan V. Guha and others in Apple Computer's Advanced Technology
Group developed the Meta Content Framework (MCF) which forms the basic idea of
restructuring information about web sites. RDF Site Summary, the first version of RSS, was
created by Guha at Netscape in March 1999 for use on the My.Netscape.Com portal. This
version became known as RSS 0.9. (My Netscape Network). In July 1999, Dan Libby of
Netscape produced a new version, RSS 0.91 that simplified the format by removing RDF
elements and incorporating elements from Dave Winer's scriptingNews syndication format.
Libby also renamed RSS to Rich Site Summary and outlined further development of the format
in a “futures document”.
Winer published a modified version of the RSS 0.91 specification on the UserLand web
site, covering how it was being used in his company’s products, and claimed copyright to the
document. The RSS-DEV Working Group, a project whose members included Guha and
representatives of O’Reilly Media and Moreover, produced RSS 1.0 in December 2000. This
new version, which reclaimed the name RDF Site Summary from RSS 0.9, reintroduced support
for RDF and added XML namespaces support, adopting elements from standard metadata
vocabularies such as Dublin Core. In December 2000, Winer released RSS 0.92 a minor set of
changes aside from the introduction of the enclosure element, which permitted audio files to be
carried in RSS feeds and helped spark podcasting. In September 2002, Winer released a major
new version of the format, RSS 2.0, which redubbed its initials Really Simple Syndication. RSS
2.0 removed the type attribute added in the RSS 0.94 draft and added support for namespaces.
As neither Winer nor the RSS-DEV Working Group had Netscape’s involvement, they could not
make an official claim on the RSS name or format. This has fueled ongoing controversy in the
syndication development community as to which entity was the proper publisher of RSS. One
product of that contentious debate was the creation of an alternative syndication format, Atom,
that began in June 2003. The Atom syndication format, whose creation was in part motivated by
a desire to get a clean start free of the issues surrounding RSS, has been adopted as IETF
Proposed Standard RFC 4287.
In July 2003, Winer and UserLand Software assigned the copyright of the RSS 2.0
specification to Harvard’s Berkman Center for the Internet & Society, where he had just begun a
term as a visiting fellow. In December 2005, the Microsoft Internet Explorer team and Outlook
team announced on their blogs that they were adopting the feed icon first used in the Mozilla
Firefox browser. A few months later, Opera Software followed suit. This effectively made the
orange square with white radio waves the industry standard for RSS and Atom feeds, replacing
the large variety of icons and text that had been used previously to identify syndication data. In
January 2006, Rogers Cadenhead re-launched the RSS Advisory Board without Dave Winer’s
participation, with a stated desire to continue the development of the RSS format and resolve
ambiguities. In June 2007, the board revised their version of the specification to confirm that
namespaces may extend core elements with namespace attributes, as Microsoft has done in
Internet Explorer 7. In their view, a difference of interpretation left publishers unsure of whether
this was permitted or forbidden.
2. Need of RSS: In the days of the development of internet, users were maintaining bookmark or
favorite (Bookmark in Mozilla Firefox or Favorite in Internet Explorer) folder for the site that
they considered important to revisit after some interval of time to check its updating information.
In this case, users were left with no choice but to check the websites frequently or sometime
daily by actually visiting them in the browser irrespective of whether it is actually updated or
not. But due to the time constraint it is not possible to revisit each site of the bookmark or
favorite folder regularly, as each user have many favorite sites.
The development of newsletters or e-zine in the next step solves a general quest of the
problem. It helps the user to subscribe to the e-zine or newsletters of a particular site that in turn
contains a summary of all the latest updates made on the website. But it demands the disclosure
of email address to the website owners for subscribing, which can be easily used by spammers to
flood one’s mailbox with lots of junk mails. Subscribing to many newsletters at a time will also
itself flood one’s mail box and demand a considerable time to find out one’s valuable email out
of the whole. The task of reading every email, deleting it or shifting it to another folder will be
also a time consuming process in itself.
In the RSS environment, whenever a website is updated by means of producing an article
/ news item, it simultaneously produces a document that contains in it the summary of all the
updates made on the website. This document is in the form of an XML document. This XML
document that contains the summary of all updates is known as a “Feed” or “Atom” and it
usually has an “.xml” extension.
Blog that are hosted over Wordpress, Blogger, etc have an inbuilt feature of creating an
RSS feed automatically. So, every time when a blog is updated they create a RSS feed. So, the
blogger that hosted their blog does not require to create an RSS feed separately for their blog.
3. Versions: There are several different versions of RSS, falling into two major branches, 1.* and
a) RSS 1.*: The RDF, or RSS 1.* branch includes the following versions:
i) RSS 0.90: It was the original Netscape RSS version. This RSS was called RDF Site Summary,
but was based on an early working draft of the RDF standard, and was not compatible with the
final RDF Recommendation.
ii) RSS 1.0: It is an open format by the RSS-DEV Working Group, again standing for RDF Site
Summary. RSS 1.0 is an RDF format like RSS 0.90, but not fully compatible with it, since 1.0 is
based on the final RDF 1.0 Recommendation.
iii) RSS 1.1: It is also an open format and is intended to update and replace RSS 1.0. The
specification is an independent draft not supported or endorsed in any way by the RSS-Dev
Working Group or any other organization.
b) The RSS 2.*: This branch (initially UserLand, now Harvard) includes the following versions:
i) RSS 0.91: It is the simplified RSS version released by Netscape, and also the version number
of the simplified version championed by Dave Winer from Userland Software. The Netscape
version was now called Rich Site Summary; this was no longer an RDF format, but was
relatively easy to use. It remains the most common RSS variant.
ii) RSS 0.92 through 0.94: They are expansions of the RSS 0.91 format, which are mostly
compatible with each other and with Winer’s version of RSS 0.91, but are not compatible with
RSS 0.90. In all Userland RSS 0.9x specifications, RSS was no longer an acronym.
iii) RSS 2.0.1: It has the internal version number 2.0. RSS 2.0.1 was proclaimed to be “frozen”,
but still updated shortly after release without changing the version number. RSS now stood for
Really Simple Syndication. The major change in this version is an explicit extension mechanism
using XML Namespaces.
For the most part, later versions in each branch are backward-compatible with earlier
versions (aside from non-conformant RDF syntax in 0.90), and both versions include properly
documented extension mechanisms using XML Namespaces, either directly (in the 2.* branch)
or through RDF (in the 1.* branch). Most syndication software supports both branches.
4. RSS Readers: The XML document can not be accessed by eyes, or if it is, it is very difficult.
So, there is a need of software that makes it readable to our eyes. The software that makes the
XML document readable to human eye is known as RSS Readers, feed reader or aggregator. So,
an RSS Reader is specialized software which interprets the RSS feed (written in XML language)
and present it in a readable form to end user. Using an RSS Reader to view the XML document
just looks like checking the mail box.
a) Types of RSS Reader: There are mainly two types of RSS reader- Online RSS reader and
Offline RSS reader. Google Reader, Yahoo, Bloglines provides online RSS reader. Google
Reader is free, fast and reliable. It needs not to be download just to do is to create a free account
at Google Reader. Alnera Feed Buster is a commercial offline RSS Reader which cost about
b) Subscribing to an RSS feed: If one wants to subscribe to the RSS feed of a blog, then he/she
needs to look for the “Atom” or “RSS” feed icon. After clicking on the RSS feed icon it will
show the feed address (usually right-click on an RSS icon and open it in a new browser window
will show the address). The user then need to copy and paste the address of the RSS feed of the
website in the RSS Reader. Now whenever, the user checks its RSS feed in the RSS reader, it
will show the updates that where made in the website of one’s choice.
Initially, reading various websites through their RSS feed in an RSS reader may appear a
little odd to anyone. However, as one will accustom with this activity he/she will find it as the
fastest and the easiest method to keep abreast with the latest updates of his/her favorite websites /
5. Advantages: RSS is creating an earthquake in the online communication environment. It
helps one to filter among the world of blog, to push the latest updating of his/her favorite blog to
the RSS Reader at his own desktop that meet his/her personal, professional, or business needs.
Even an RSS aggregator has many blogs aggregated. Some other benefits are
i) Time Saving: One doesn’t have to save the file in his/her browser’s favorite folder and visit it
regularly to check for its new updates. Checking the RSS reader will save a considerable time
from the busy schedule of heavy net surfer by directly brining the content to his own desktop.
ii) Summary or Full Contents: RSS contains either a summary of content from an associated
web site or the full text.
iii) Current Awareness Service (CAS): It will keep abreast with the latest posting to a favorite
website without visiting it.
iv) Filtered Display: RSS makes it possible for people to keep up with web sites in an automated
manner that can be piped into special programs or filtered displays.
v) Privacy: In the RSS environment, one doesn’t have to disclose his/her email address to
Currently a majority of websites / blogs are coming up with their RSS feeds. If a website
is not publishing its RSS feed, it is considered as its drawback.
Raja Rammohan Roy Library Foundation (RRRLF)
Raja Rammohan Roy Library Foundation (RRRLF): The year 1972 was the year of
celebration of the bicentenary of Raja Rammohan Roy, a great social reformer. The government
of India decided that a library foundation would be the best tribute to the memory of Raja
Rammohan Roy, who spent his life in fighting against forces that shackle and retard the progress
of a society. Thus, Raja Rammohan Roy Library Foundation was set up by the government of
India in 1972 as an autonomous body under the then Department of Culture, Ministry of
Education and Social welfare with its head quarters in Calcutta.
a) Objectives: The major objectives of the foundation are as follows:-
i) To promote library movement in the country.
ii) To enunciate a national library policy and work towards its adoption by the central and state
iii) To help in building a national library system by integrating the services of national libraries,
state central libraries, district libraries and other types of libraries through interlibrary lending
iv) To propagate the adoption of library legislation in the country.
v) To provide financial and technical assistance to libraries, etc.
b) Organization: The foundation consists of 22 members. Minister of education, government of
India or his / her nominee is the chairman. Indian Library Association is represented on the
foundation. In addition four eminent librarians are also its member.
c) Functions: RRRLF provides assistance to state government on matching basis for purchase of
books, organization of seminars and conferences, running of mobile library service, purchase of
furniture, etc.
d) Publication: It brings out Raja Rammohan Roy Library Foundation Newsletter (Quarterly) to
disseminate information about its activities.
Public Service
Public Service: The library public service manages the activities that directly assist the end-user.
The public service can be grouped into two major headings essential public service and enhanced
public service.
Generally, reading room, circulation, list of accession, printed catalogue, etc are treated
as essential (general) public services and Current Awareness Service (CAS), Selective
Dissemination of Information (SDI) are treated as enhanced (selective) public services. The
public service of the library generally depends upon one major factor i.e. whether it provides
open access to its collection or it is closed access.
The library public service sometimes is also known as information service. L. M. Harrod
defines information service as “service provided by or for any information centre which draws
attention to information possessed in its departments in anticipation of demand, this is done by
presenting and circulating news sheet, literature surveys, reading lists, abstract, particulars of
articles in current periodicals etc which, it is anticipated, will be of interest to potential users of
the service”. The information service is provided directly to the potential user of the service.
1. General / Universal / Essential Public Service: The general public services include the
following facilities and services
a) Building Collection of Reference Material: It will include acquisition of dictionaries,
encyclopedias, and bibliographies, indexing and abstracting periodicals and so on. The library
can also bring out different types of bibliographies, indexing and abstracting of different types on
its own to draw the attention of the user.
b) Card Catalogue: The card catalogues are filled in a cabinet containing many drawers
identified books and other materials. In a large library, the card catalogue often fills a large room.
c) Accession List / List of Recent Acquisition: Here, a list of books newly added to the library
is regularly compiled and distributed. These lists provide new books and journals added to the
library and are generally indicative, bearing very few details like author, title, publisher, pages,
call number and accession number. Sometimes, the library can also display the book jacket of
new additions prominently in the library to bring it to the notice of potential users.
d) Book Display: Displaying of library material pertinent to a special interest or illustrating a
historic occasion like man’s flight to space, and so on can be helpful. This enables the users to
keep themselves currently aware of the recent developments.
e) Newspaper Clipping Service: In this type of service the important topics / news published in
newspaper are cut and filed subject wise for being provided to the user.
f) Public Relation: Public relation is a day to day building of the atmosphere of good will with
the public in which a library can operate most widely and most effectively to give the best
possible service to its community. It is the relationship of the library with its user or borrowers,
with non borrowers of the community, with the trustees or library committee, with dealers,
collectors, salesmen of equipment, with scholars, with the staff and administrator for which
librarians work.
2. Enhance / Selective Public Service: The enhance public services can be grouped into the
following types.
2.1 Current Awareness Service (CAS): The awareness service provides knowledge to the user
regarding recent developments in the field of general interest. This type of service is directed
towards all users of the services. It does not deal with the exact or specific requirement or
interest of the user and is thus distinguished from SDI service.
The CAS helps the user by keeping him up-to-date & well informed with the latest
information on a particular field and also in the related field. It indicates what one should read
and thereby it saves the time of the reader. It also serves as a rapid survey of retrospective
literature. CAS helps the user in the following ways:
i) Keeps Well Informed: Due to great advances made in the field of knowledge, it is becoming
more and more difficult for the users to keep themselves up-to-date and well informed in their
field of specialization. CAS meets this end for the researcher and others. Otherwise, too much of
information would make it difficult for them to use information effectively.
ii) Helps the User in Scanning the Literature: There may be users who do not possess the ability
or willingness to do the scanning regularly on their own. CAS provides aid in such situation by
widely and regularly scanning the literature and sending to the user the relevant topic of interest.
iii) Saves Time: The Library and Information Centres by scanning the sources of information and
notifying the members of the community, saves their valuable time. Again, in case each user
scans literature individually then this will lead to unnecessary duplication of effort. So, the CAS
can help the user avoid this duplication.
iv) Promotes and Supports Library Service: All services of the library are not free nowadays. So,
in this context, it is essential to promote and market library services. CAS is one of the ways to
bring the resources of the library / information centre to the notice of the users. This will in turn
lead to greater demand for the library service, giving opportunity to the library to prove its value
and justification for the money spent on it.
Librarians have been providing the CAS service on manual basis for a long time. But
nowadays computers are used to mechanize the procedure. The current awareness service
through computer may be provided through E-List (a Web-enabled contemporary reference
service offered to the registered members), online groups, blogs, RSS, E-Mail, SMS, etc. The
steps involved in CAS may be of the following types
i) Creation of User Profile: The profiles of the user, who are to be given CAS/SDI service, are
prepared. A profile consists of the key words that collectively characterize the subject interest of
an individual. The profile can be of a single user or a group working on the same project or some
limited subject field. The profile obtained thus must be kept up-to-date. Therefore, if the topic of
inertest changes then the corresponding profile must also be modified accordingly.
ii) Acquisition of Resources: The different sources of information, periodicals, research papers,
which are relevant to the parent body, must be selected and collected from different sources. In
the next step, through rapid reading the resources are scanned by the LIS professionals to find
out the key concepts.
iii) Creation of Document Profile: The relevant and significant information is recorded in the
form of content list for different contexts. The recorded information may be in the form of an
abstract or an extract. Depending upon the significance of the document, the bibliographical
details and indexing terms and the information itself are stored on the file / magnetic tape /
computer document.
iv) Matching Profile: In a regular interval, the user profile should be correlated or matched with
the document profile. The computer compares the two inputs; the output is printed out in the
form of two cards. One card is called information card that contain either the list of document or
the information itself along with bibliographical details of document which also has a tear off
strip request note. The other card is called response card.
v) Notification / Information Communication: If there exists any matching between the two
profiles then the matching information is sent to the user or group of users, who may require it,
through different means of communication in anticipation, like telephone calls, postal mail /
email / SMS with a request to call at the reference desk to get the pertinent information. In case
of postal communication, the two cards are sent to the user. The information can also be sent
through a messenger.
vi) Feedback Mechanism: The user keeps the information card for his use. In case he wants to
consult the document, he tears off the request note strip and sends it to the library along with the
response card, in which he indicates the degree of interest in the particular document.
vii) Library Action: The library takes action on the request note strip to send the document(s) to
the concerned user or to keep it in the library for him. The response card helps the library to
know about the usefulness of the information provided as well as the shift in the information
need. The library accordingly modifies the user profile page for improving performance.
2.2 Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) Service: SDI is a refinement of CAS service
which is directed to individual / personal requirement (personalized). It provides a deeper
analysis of literature. If two people exactly match in terms of their interest, then SDI also can be
provided to the two people. H.P. Luhn is a pioneer in this field. The steps in providing SDI
services are same as that of CAS, the difference is only in the depth of the interest.
The aim of SDI is to see that the user should neither be provided too much of information
nor made to miss information essential for his requirements. It should also meet the user need at
individual level.
SDI service may take the following forms-
i) Contents Alerts: This service is provided by photocopying, scanning the content pages of
learned journals and other important publications keeping in view the interest of the users.
ii) Routine of Periodicals (Automatic Loan): In this procedure, the current issues of periodicals
are routed. There are two systems of routing the current issues of the periodicals. In the first
method, the library sends the current issue to the first person on the last, who passes it on to the
next name in the list. The last person in the list returns the periodical to the library. In the second
method, the library sends the issue to the first person on the list, who returns it to the library, and
then the library sends it to the next person on the list, who again returns it to the library. Next the
library sends it to the third person, and the system goes on like this.
iii) Notification of Forth Coming Conferences, Seminars, etc.: The information about
forthcoming meetings, conferences, symposia, seminar, workshop etc. on a specific field should
be notified to the members belonging to that specific domain. Keeping this purpose in view some
library provides this kind of service to the user.
2.3 Liaison Service: In Liaison service, the library professionals go to the users to identify the
problems encountered by them in course of their activities, analyze their information need, and
put them in touch with the information sources or services.
2.4 Let Us Sum Up: An efficient library service does not merely depend on its stock and staff
but also on the awareness and attraction of the clients to the services offered by the library. It is a
prime responsibility, therefore, of the librarian to effectively interpret its activities to the public.
Computerized Current awareness services began with bibliographic databases that
contained references to periodicals, books, and other documents. Services then were expanded
to include online catalogues, CD-ROM sources, networking of libraries and library systems, full
text retrieval, and the Internet.
Public relation is as much a part of the daily life of the library as of any business, perhaps
more so, as the library is not self supporting and primarily depends even more than the usual
business, on the good wishes of its patron. The precisely stated public relation and extension
service of the library is the task of lending or delivering books and other forms of information to
the users who are distant from a library or who may be relatively near it but somehow unable to
travel to it. Staff news sheet, exhibits, guides to exhibit are all part of a library publicity
programme. Libraries can also supplement and complement the mass media of communication
i.e. Newspaper, Press, Radio, Television, Cinema for public relation.
Public Library or Public Lending Library
Public Library or Public Lending Library: These libraries provide service to the general
public and make at least some of their books available for borrowing, so that readers may use
them at home over a period of days or weeks. Typically these libraries issue library cards to
community members wishing to borrow books. Many public libraries also serve as community
organizations that provide free services and events to the public, such as babysitting classes and
story time. The public library system has rural library at its base to provide services to the rural
Public libraries exist in most nations of the world and are often considered an essential
part of having an educated and literate population. It fosters and provides means for maintaining
individual’s individuality, helps in the progressive development of individual’s personality, and
individual’s acquisition of know how of daily life. It believes that a good reader is a better citizen
and an asset to the community.
a) Definition: A library that is open to the general public and that provides general library
services without charge to all residents of a given community, district, or region and is supported
wholly or in part by public funds is the public library. It may be operated by civil servants. Public
libraries are often funded (mostly) by taxes. Besides maintaining material collections, they
usually play community role. Considering all these facts the public library is called the people’s
university. Each individual in this university begins at his own level and progresses at his own
speed. Today, by public library, we mean a library with the following chief attributes-
i) Open to all without any distinction of caste, creed or sex;
ii) Free of any charge either in the form of security deposit or membership fee;
iii) Financed from public funds received by way of library rates and government grants;
iv) Supported by library legislation.
Benjamin Franklin not only looked upon the public library as an educational institution
and used it as one, but went further to define it as an institution for the diffusion of knowledge to
the end that people could control their own destinies and become better citizens.
According to Ranganathan, the public library is established out of the public fund; it
serves the general public of its locality; and it is essentially a service library.

The UNESCO Manifesto clearly states that “the public library should be established under the
clear mandate of law, so framed as to ensure nation-wide provision of public library service”. In
short, a public library is a free library for the public, by the people and of the public. According
to the UNESCO Public Library Manifesto 1994 (Revised), "the public library acts as a living
force for education, culture and information and as an essential agent for the fostering of peace
and spiritual welfare through the minds of men and women".
b) Objectives: The UNESCO Public Library Manifesto first issued in 1949 and revised in 1972
by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions on the occasion of
International Book Year is a broad charter of public library goals. The purposes and objectives of
the public library are described in relation to three basic concerns-
- The needs of people who use the libraries;
- The need to ensure that the library is located in suitable site; and
- The need to provide for effective means of operating it and developing its services.
c) Collections: Public library should try to procure books on most of the main subject areas. In
promoting the culture of the community the public libraries should include works of disinterested
pursuit of truth, beauty or goodness, even though it is always mixed up with other motivations
such as search for social importance (knowledge is power), or for status and acceptance, or for
comfort of a dream world, for the individual self-realisation. Its contents should be a living
demonstration of the evolution of knowledge and culture, constantly reviewed, kept up-to-date
and attractively presented. It should also include works on literature, art, philosophy, history,
biography and topology. In facilitating non-formal education or self-education, public library
should provide educational materials which include introductions or standard works on a subject.
Most users of the public library read for recreation at one time or another and the provision of
this kind of reading is essential. Public libraries not only collect books and periodicals but also
procure other graphic, holistic and acoustic material such as books and journals, maps and charts,
microfilm and the like all designed for use. Today, public libraries have a wide array of other
media including CDs, software, video tapes, and DVDs, as well as facilities to access the
d) Services: The public library is planned so as to become the hub of social life, a real
community centre around which the daily life and habits of the people are geared. The main
function of public libraries is to serve the public's information needs generally. The public library
must offer adults and children the opportunity to keep in touch with their times, to educate them-
selves continuously and keep abreast of progress in the sciences and arts. It should also help
people to form their own opinions, and develop their creative and critical capacities and powers
of appreciation. For illiterates or neo-literates it needs to organize the audio-visual or mass media
Public libraries are typically lending libraries, circulating book and other materials to the
users; they also have non-circulating reference collections. It typically focuses on popular
materials such as popular fiction and videos, as well as educational and nonfiction materials of
interest to the general public; in the larger cities, they are to some extent reference libraries as
well. Public libraries also provide materials for children, including books, videos and other
materials (both fiction and nonfiction), often housed in a special section. Public libraries may
also provide services for other particular groups, such as large print or Braille materials, young /
adult literature and other materials for teenagers, or materials in other than the national language.
Librarians at most public libraries provide reference and research help to the general
public, usually at a reference desk. Depending on the size of the library, there may be more than
one desk; at some smaller libraries all transactions may occur at one desk, while large urban
public libraries may employ subject-specialist librarians to sit at multiple reference or
information desks to answer queries about particular topics. Often the children's section in a
public library has its own reference desk.
Public libraries may also provide other services, such as community meeting rooms,
children’s story time or after-school programme, and space for homework help programmes or
other community services. In some countries it pays authors when their books are borrowed from
libraries. These are known as Public Lending Right programmes.
Properties of Information
Properties of Information: Information has an origin. It is communicated from the origin or
from a “source” where information is termed as “message”. The message needs a “medium” for
communication. The message is aimed to be communicated to a “recipient”. At each step the
information possesses certain characteristics. Some of the characteristics or properties of
information are listed below
a) General Characteristics
i) Information is Heterogeneous: Information is extremely heterogeneous with virtually infinite
variation in response to individual conjunctions of supplier, processor, user and channel of
communication. It is inter-disciplinary in nature.
ii) Information Itself is Valueless: Information is rarely of value in itself. It always requires a
content structure or model within which it can be interpreted.
iii) Information is Central: The role of information in any organization is central and can be
viewed as a fundamental factor of production like money and manpower.
iv) Protection: The supplier and the user of information often need special protection by means
of government intervention such as copyright and patent laws, privacy legislation, fraud statutes,
v) Demand Varies: Demand for information is a function of such variables as age, perishability,
convenience, reliability, source, etc.
vi) Un-destroyable: Information is not consumed in its use.
vii) Shareable: It can be shared by many and can be used simultaneously without any loss to
viii) Democratic Resource: Information is the best democratic resource that can be consumed
by the poor and the rich alike depending upon their intake capacity.
b) Characteristics at the Source of Origin
i) Reliable and Genuine Source: When information is received from a valid, reliable and
genuine source then only it should be considered for communication to the recipient or end user.
ii) Communicability: Information should be in a communicable form.
c) Characteristics as a Message
i) Accuracy: Information should be precise and free from error.
ii) Timeliness: The information should be timely. To achieve this modern electronic device can
be used.
iii) Completeness: Information as a message should include all the relevant information.
iv) Explicitness: The message should not leave any doubt in the mind of the user as to its
validity, comprehensiveness, etc.
v) Availability and Accessibility: Information must be available and readily accessible to the
vi) Verifiability: The message must be verifiable so that its validity, accuracy, appropriateness,
etc can be assessed.
vii) Bias free: Information should be free from any kind of bias.
d) Characteristics at the end of the Recipient
i) Adaptability: Information should be adaptable for a new use, need, situation, etc.
ii) Cost Effectiveness: Information should improve the performance of a system at an acceptable
cost or at no cost or should reduce the cost without unduly effecting performance.
iii) Currency: The information should be timely available. It should not be obsolete as well.
Timely information will be of high value.
iv) Relevance: Information should be relevant to the user.
v) Conciseness: Information should summarize the relevant data so that it will be useful for the

Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)

Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT): Program Evaluation and Review
Technique (PERT) charts depict task, duration, and dependency information. Each chart starts
with an initiation node from which the first task, or tasks, originates. If multiple tasks begin at
the same time, they are all started from the node or branch, or forked out from the starting point.
Each task is represented by a line which states its name or other identifier, its duration, the
number of people assigned to it, and in some cases the initials of the personnel assigned. The
other end of the task line is terminated by another node which identifies the start of another task,
or the beginning of any slack time, that is, waiting time between tasks.
Each task is connected to its successor tasks in this manner forming a network of nodes and
connecting lines. The chart is complete when all final tasks come together at the completion
node. When slack time exists between the end of one task and the start of another, the usual
method is to draw a broken or dotted line between the end of the first task and the start of the
next dependent task.
A PERT chart may have multiple parallel or interconnecting networks of tasks. If the
scheduled project has milestones, checkpoints, or review points (all of which are highly
recommended in any project schedule), the PERT chart will note that all tasks up to that point
terminate at the review node. It should be noted at this point that the project review, approvals,
user reviews, and so forth all take time. This time should never be underestimated when drawing
up the project plan. It is not unusual for a review to take 1 or 2 weeks. Obtaining management
and user approvals may take even longer.
When drawing up the plan, it should also include tasks for documentation writing,
documentation editing, project report writing and editing, and report reproduction.
PERT charts are usually drawn on ruled paper with the horizontal axis indicating time
period divisions in days, weeks, months, and so on. Although it is possible to draw a PERT chart
for an entire project, the usual practice is to break the plans into smaller, more meaningful parts.
This is very helpful if the chart has to be redrawn for any reason, such as skipped or incorrectly
estimated tasks.
Many PERT charts terminate at the major review points, such as at the end of the
analysis. Many organizations include funding reviews in the projects life cycle. Where this is the
case, each chart terminates in the funding review node.
Funding reviews can affect a project in that they may either increase funding, in which
case more people have to be made available, or they may decrease funding, in which case fewer
people may be available. Obviously more or less people will affect the length of time it takes to
complete the project.

Processing of Books
Processing: Cataloguing is followed by the processing phase. The processing transforms a
collection of books into serviceable items, thus making books fit for use.
a) Stamping: It is necessary to put a library stamp on lower half of the title page, bottom of the
last page of text, bottom of the last page of the volume, and the secret page. In addition each
plate, map and other pages not included in pagination should also be stamped. The stamp should
be put properly and carefully without falling on the printed matter. The stamp should contain the
name of the library and its address.
b) Tagging: Paste a tag (spine label) on the back of the volume, after removing the jacket, if any.
It should be fixed one inch above the bottom of the spine of the volume. This is done so that the
call number may be properly visible to the readers when the book is shelved in a books rack.In
case the volume is not thick enough to allow space for a tag then apply it on the front cover close
to the back. Gummed white cloth is cut into round or square pieces of about 1.25 each to make
the spine label where class no., book no and location mark of the book are written. The location
marks are written on the left hand upper portion of the label. Such marks may be Reference,
Rare, Text Book, etc.
c) Date Labelling: A date label or slip should be pasted on the first page after the cover. It
should be fixed symmetrically and pasting should be done only along the top edge. In case of
reference books, manuscripts and other books which are not to be issued, this slip is not pasted.
d) Book Pocket Fixing: Near the right hand bottom corner of the inside of the front cover of the
book, the pocket should be fixed. For reference and other non–issuable books, this pocket is not
e) Book Card: One printed book card of 5X 3 cm size is put in the book pocket of each book.
f) Fixing Ownership Slip: Ownership slip is generally pasted on the inner side of the front cover
at left hand top most corners. The slip may be of 3 X 2.5 cm, made of glazed paper. It may be
printed giving the name of the library, its logo, class number, book number, and accession
g) Entering Call Number: The call number should be written in pencil at the back of the title
page and also on the secret page to be decided by the library. Call number can be written in ink
over tag, date label and book card to be put in the book pocket.
h) Entering Accession Number: Accession number is to be added on the date label, book card
and to the written near the book pocket.
i) Filling Book Card: Author, title, edition and year of publication are written on the book card.
j) Checking: All the call numbers and catalogue entries must be carefully checked. Any
mistakes found must be corrected.
k) Filling of Cards: The catalogue cards should be taken out from the books. From the main
cards, a list of latest additions can be prepared. It is a list of books added to the library. A
mimeographed or printed list can be distributed widely.
The catalogue cards except the shelf cards should be filed in the public catalogue. Shelf
cards should be filed in the shelf list. At this stage, the books can be released for display for a
week and then merged in the general collection. Book releasing work also includes making lists
of new additions or accession list. The accession list may be put up on the notice board and the
printed or cyclostyled ad copies are to be mailed to members, or published in the weekly editions
of library newsletter, etc.
Principles of Management
Principles of Management: Principles of Management are generalization based on experience
and careful analysis of case studies. These are universally applicable. These are not rigid; change
in circumstances would require adoption of these.
Principles of management are a powerful tool in the hands of a manager but these must
be used rather carefully after analysis of the problem and its diagnosis. Good management can be
learned only through practice and by solving problem rather than by memorization of principles
which may have only limited relevance to actual problem.
Henri Fayol was the first to put forward a list of general administrative principles. On the
whole, his observations are valid, even today. Fayol used scientific approach. Fayol formulated
the following fourteen management principles. These are the first categorized on management
and these have not lost their relevance in modern management policy. These are the basic
management principles.
i) Division of Work: In any organization the division of work, duties, and activities is a must.
The division of work lead to specialization. If possible only that work should be assigned to a
person in which field he has specialization. The principles of division of work are based on
common principle of experience that every person cannot do every job.
ii) Authority and Responsibility: An individual should be given authority equal to his
responsibility. Possession of authority means responsibility for actions. Actual work in the library
may be done by different persons but the ultimate responsibilities lie with the chief librarian. The
responsibilities without authority will lead to lack of confidence.
iii) Discipline: Discipline encompasses regularity, behaviors, conduct and interpersonal
relationship among the staff workers. In the best interest of the organization there should be
complete obedience, diligence, energy and outward marks respect. This is equally applicable to
iv) Unity of Command: An organizational structure should be such that each employee is
supervised by only one supervisor. An employee should be responsible to and also receive orders
from only one superior. The command should generally come from the immediate superior.
v) Unity of Direction: In a planned administrative setup, direction should come from one end
and one person should be responsible for similar type of jobs.
vi) Subordination of Individual’s Interest to General Interest: Where there is a conflict of
general interest with individual interest, general interest should get the priority over the
individual interest. It is desirable in any social order.
vii) Remuneration: Remuneration should be reasonable and should commensurate to the
qualification, experience, technical knowledge, seniority, performance and such other factors.
Employees should be given incentives for successful efforts.
viii) Centralization: There should be judicious distribution of work of the library in terms of
centralization and decentralization. Anything that increases the importance of the role of a
subordinate should be decentralized. On the other hand any thing that decreases the importance
of the role of a subordinate should be centralized. For example book selection and managerial
function should be decentralized because in case of book selection the heads of the departmental
libraries knows more about their field of specialization. But ordering should be centralized so
that there is no duplication of bibliographical tool.
ix) Scalar Chain: This refers to hierarchy. A hierarchy consists of a series of steps extended in
an unbroken line from the chief librarian to the lowest employee. This principal implies that
authority and responsibility should flow in a clear, unbroken line from the highest executive to
the lowest rank. Orders go down the line traveling from top to bottom. However, information and
appeal travel in the reverse direction.
x) Orders: Orders indicate the disciplined flow of discharging the respective duties and the
systematic organization of work flow. It refers to the best possible management to achieve the
most efficient operation of the organization.
xi) Equity: In dealing with employees treatment of equality must be put into practice. Justice
must be combined with friendliness and kindness by those in the executive towards staff.
xii) Stability of Tenure of Personnel: Stability of tenure indicates a longer service period of an
employees and uninterrupted working period. It assures better service, steady growth and
systematic planning of work schedules. Rapid turnover of staff can cause anxiety.
xiii) Initiative: One should not only do his job assigned to him, but he should feel inspired to
perform his duties. In working situation anybody may have suggestion for improvement and
better work or redesigning the works schedule for better result, all the suggestion should be taken
with trust by the management. Due attention, proper consideration should be given to them. This
will inspire the person working with incentives and ultimately institution will get better result.
xiv) Esprit de Corps: The management should create environment which leads to harmony and
unity. The entire employees should not feel as an assemblage of individuals but recognize their
identity with the institution. Thus a sense of co-operation, a sense of belonging, a feeling of
identification with the institution, a corporate sense over self, a team spirit, a feeling of unity
make the institution as a organic whole.
Besides the principles put forward by Fayol, other principles often included are as
xv) Span of Control: This refers to the persons with whom a manager must deal directly. For
efficient management there should be a few people to be controlled directly by each head.
xvi) Coordination: Aim of co-ordination being to achieve harmony of individual efforts toward
accomplishment of group goals. Co-ordination is concerned with interrelating of the various
parts of an organization so that all procedures, operation and activities lead to maximum
contribution to the person to person relationship. Co-ordination in an organization is balancing
and interrelating of the various parts of an organization and keeping together all the staff for
getting best result with the minimum resources at hand.
xvii) Accountability: Accountability means liable to account. In any organization, the emphasis
should be given to measure the quality and quantity of performance.
Preservation and Conservation of Library Materials
Preservation and Conservation of Library Materials: The library houses the document by
considering the long-term preservation of the items while still allowing the end user to access the
material easily. But all library collections experience damage from use and decay from aging. So
there is a need of preservation and conservation of library materials.
Books and other materials suffer damage or deterioration because of several groups of
factors, some inherent in the materials and others beyond the control of the library. Library
holdings may begin to deteriorate because of the organic materials from which they are made.
Each type of material - paper, glue, plastic, etc. - that goes into the manufacture of a book,
recording or optical media has its own combination of physical and chemical properties, and a
life span. The other factors include all of the conditions surrounding the processing, storage and
use of the materials.
Preservation is the task of minimizing or reducing the physical and chemical deterioration
of documents. Conservation is the maintenance of documents in a usable condition through
treatment and repairs of individual items to slow the process of decay or to restore them to a
usable state. Conservation includes study, diagnosis, preventive care, examination, treatment,
documentation using any methods that may prove effective in keeping that property in as close to
its original condition as possible and for as long as possible. The conservation actions are carried
out for a variety of reasons including aesthetic choices, stabilization, needs for structural
integrity or for cultural requirements for intangible continuity.
a) Need of Preservation and Conservation: When an important, often used book is found in a
poor physical condition that restricts its future use and denies the borrower the pleasure of its
reading, then the need arises for its preservation and conservation. The need of preservation and
conservation are-
i) Compendium of Information: Books, journals, newspapers are the sources of information.
They reflect social, economic, political and cultural life. They also depict the latest trend on all
subjects or topics and, as such, they are a valuable asset of our society.
ii) Raw Materials of History: The old reading material constitutes the raw materials of our
history and provides background information about an event in history. Nostalgia for such works
is another point of consideration.
iii) Wide Range of Users: Everyone from a child to an old man, from layman to researchers, turns
to information even after hundred years of the publication of the material.
iv) Future and Heavy Use: Hard copies of the old as well as new materials are prone to decay.
So, to provide continuous and wider access to the collection preservation is a must.
v) Rare Materials: Manuscripts and other materials are of immense value from the cultural and
historical point of view and therefore they need to be preserved. Priority should be given to high-
value, at-risk materials of national interest. The purpose shall be to serve preventive preservation,
as well as security, goals by reducing the handling of the originals.
b) Strategies in Preservation and Conservation: The strategies in preservation and
conservation of library material can be viewed in the form of following points-
i) Document Selection: If preservation and conservation practices will be followed then the goal
should be to bring as many worthy collections as possible for the document at risk to improve
ii) Options: Choosing the options that will be followed to meet the requirements of the custodial
function of the library as well as its current use.
iii) Budget: Preparing a budget for the preservation and conservation of the reading materials,
including cost in procuring equipments, and others.
iv) Procuring Necessary Infrastructure: According to the option chosen for preservation
necessary infrastructure should be developed. In case of digital preservation necessary hardware
and software should be procured. If possible the archive or library can go for automated
management systems that will manage digital resources for acquisition, use, and archiving
v) The Conservation Laboratory: Conservators routinely use chemical and scientific analysis for
the examination and treatment of the works. The modern conservation lab uses equipment such
as microscopes, spectrometers, and x-ray machines to understand better the objects and their
components. The data thus collected help in deciding the conservation treatments to be provided
to the object.
c) Types of Preservation and Conservation Techniques: The preservation and conservation
techniques can be of the following types:-
i) Preventive Conservation: Many cultural works are sensitive to environmental conditions such
as temperature, humidity and exposure to light and ultraviolet light. Taking sufficient measures
to protect materials in a controlled environment where such variables are maintained within a
range of damage-limiting levels is called preventive conservation.
ii) Interventive Conservation: Interventive Conservation refers to any act by a conservator that
involves a direct interaction between the conservator and the cultural material. These interventive
treatments could involve cleaning, stabilizing, repair, or even replacement of parts of the original
object or consolidation such as securing flaking paint.
d) Ethics in Conservation: The conservator applies some simple ethical guidelines, such as:
i) Minimal Intervention: It is essential that the conservator should fully justify the intervention
for conservation if necessary before the work is undertaken and if necessary after the work is
ii) Reversible Methods: Using appropriate materials and methods that aim to be reversible to
reduce the possible problems with future treatment, investigation, and use is one of the guiding
principles of conservation. It means, that all interventions with the object should be fully
reversible, and the object should be in a position to be returned to the state in which it was, prior
to the conservator’s intervention. This principle nowadays has been widely criticized within the
conservation profession itself.
iii) Complete Documentation: Complete documentation of the work carried out before, during,
and after the treatment is necessary. It is a must for all kinds of documents as it will provide what
was done with the document in the past and accordingly it helps in taking the right decision in
future treatment process.
Presentation of Data
Presentation of Data: Diagram attracts the human mind more, compared to numerical figures,
which causes one to pause for a while to have a glance at the diagram and thus can get an overall
ideas of the said data. In practice a very large variety of diagrams are in use and new ones are
constantly being added. In the following only more frequently used diagram are discussed.
1. One Dimensional: The one dimensional representation of data includes different types of bar
a) Simple Bar Diagram: To draw a simple bar diagram, equidistant bars each of equal width are
drawn on a line, one for each group of data. The value of each group is represented by the height
of the corresponding bar generally, in case of time based data, vertical bars are drawn and to
represent space based (or other) data horizontal bars are drawn. A simple bar diagram is used to
represent only one variable.
b) Sub Divided Bar Diagram: The sub divided bar diagram is used if the total magnitude of the
given variable is to be divided into various parts or components. The method of drawing this
type of diagram is same as that of the bar diagram, only the bar drawn should be divided into
various segments, according to the given components of the total.
c) Multiple Bar Diagram: To represent two or more numerical characteristic by the same
diagram, multiple bar diagram is to be used. A multiple bar diagram is obtained by drawing a
number of equidistant vertical set of bars on a line. Each set of bars contain two or more adjacent
bars. Width of the bars is same and height of the corresponding bars is to be taken in the ratio of
the numerical figure which is denoted by that bar. The total numbers of set of bars are taken to be
equal to the total number of items.
d) Percentage Bar: Percentage bars are particularly useful in statistical work which requires the
portrayal of relative changes in data. When such diagrams are prepared the length of the bars is
kept equal to 100 and segments are cut in these bars to represent the components (percentage) of
an aggregate.
e) Deviation Bar: Deviation bars are popularly used for representing net qualities – excess or
deficit, i.e. net profit, net loss, net export or imports etc. such bars can have both positive and
negative values. Positive values are shown above the bars line and negative values below it.
2. Two Dimensional: In two dimensional diagrams, the length as well as the width of the bars is
considered. Thus the area of the bars represents the given data. Two dimensional diagrams are
also known as surface diagram or area diagram. The important types under this category are-
a) Rectangles: In constructing rectangle one may represent the figures as they are given or may
convert them to percentage and then subdivide the length into various components. The area of a
rectangle is equal to the product of its length and width, so in constructing a rectangle both
length and width are important.
b) Squares: The rectangular method of diagrammatic presentation does not look good when the
values of item vary widely. So, in order to overcome this difficulty squares method are used. In
this method one has to take the square root of the values of various items that are to be shown in
the diagrams and then select a suitable scale to draw the square.
c) Circles: In Circles both the total and the component parts or sector can be shown. Since the
area of a circle is preoperational to the square of its radius, so in the construction of circles, the
square root of various figures are worked out, and the radii of the circles drawn are proportional
to the square root of the figures.
d) Pie Diagram: For constructing a pie diagram the various components values of data are
transposed into corresponding degrees on the circle, and then the diagram obtained by dividing a
circle into various sector is known as circle or pie diagram. The number of sector should be equal
to the total number of components parts. The area of the sectors should be taken in the ratio of
the values of the constituent parts.
3. Three Dimensional: Three dimensional diagrams are also known as volume diagrams. In
such diagram, three things namely length, width and height have to be taken into account. Such
diagrams are used where the range of difference between the smallest and the largest values is
very large. It includes cube, cylinder and sphere. Amongst three dimensional diagram, cubes are
most popular and also simple to draw. The side of a cube is drawn in proportional to the cube
root of the magnitude of data.
4. Others: Some other tools that can be used to represent data are -
a) Pictographs: Pictures are attractive and easy to comprehend and as such this method is
particularly useful in presenting statistics to the layman. In pictograph the data are represented
through a pictorial symbol, which is very carefully selected, so pictographs depict the kind of
data we are dealing with.
b) Cartogram: Cartograms or statistical maps are used to give quantitative information on a
geographical basis. They thus represent spatial distributions. The quantities on the map can be
shown in many ways, such as through shades or colors, by dots, by placing pictograms in each
geographical unit and by placing the appropriate numerical figures in each geographical unit.
c) Graphs: When we observe the values of a variable at different points of time, the series so
formed is known as time series. Time based data can be represented by line diagram. In this case,
points are plotted on the graph paper by taking time as X co-ordinate and the data corresponding
to that particular time as Y co-ordinate. After that, by joining the points in pairs by line segment,
line diagrams are drawn.
d) Histogram: Histogram consists of a series of adjacent vertical rectangles, drawn and each of
each class intervals. Area of each rectangle determines the frequency of that class. Generally for
the graphical representation of frequency distribution of continuous variable histogram is used.
To draw histogram, firstly class intervals are marked along horizontal axis (X-axis) and
frequencies are to be marked along vertical axis (Y-axis) after that taking, difference between
lower and upper boundaries as base rectangles are drawn one for each class recording to the ratio
of the area of the frequency. Since the area of the rectangles having same base are proportionate
to the length, therefore, in case of frequency distribution having equal class width, the height of
the rectangles should be taken in the ration of the frequencies.
e) Frequency Polygon: To draw frequency polygon, points are plotted on the co-ordinate plane
by taking the mid value of a class as X co-ordinate and corresponding frequency of the class as Y
co-ordinate. The points are then joined in pairs represented by a line segment. The polygon is
closed at both ends, by extending it to the mid-points of two classes having frequency zero,
before the first class and after the last class.
f) Smoothed Frequency Curve: The smoothed frequency curve is drawn freehand in such a
manner that the area included under the curve is approximately the same as that of the polygon.
The object of drawing a smoothed frequency curve is to eliminate as far as possible accidental
variations that might be present in the data.
g) Cumulative Frequency Curves or “Ogives”: Cumulative frequency curve is a smooth curve.
To draw this curve, points are plotted on the graph paper by taking upper class boundaries as X
co-ordinate and cumulative frequency of the respective class as Y co-ordinate. The points so
obtained are joined by a smooth free hand curve. This curve is joined to the lower class boundary
of the first class. The smooth curve drawn in this manner is called the cumulative frequency

Planning a Library and Information Science Centre / Library

Planning a Library and Information Science Centre / Library: Plan is regarded as a
projected course of action or the course of action to be done in near future. According to Koont’z
and O’Donnell, “planning is deciding in advance what to do? How to do? When to do? And who
is to do it?”. After that planning is a continuous process requiring constant reappraisal. It is not
an end in itself, but a means to an agreed aim and objective. It involves selecting from alternative
future course of actions for the organization as a whole and for each of its department or section.
It might be evaluated and revised in the light of developing situation, that is to say, a plan is
always being brought up-to-date throughout the long or medium term in which it is based. The
planning of library and information centre involves the following steps-
a) Formation of a Committee: A planning committee should be formed in the first step. The
head of the parent institution, architect, librarian, library consultant, and interior designer and, if
possible, representative from the user community should also be included.
Inclusion of the a librarian should be treated as one of the most important components in
planning a library and information science centre because he / she is the best person for planning
and equipping the library. He himself should also be very conscious about his responsibility in
planning the library and information science centre. He should work closely with the building
committee. He must identify each and every factor with reference to which planning has to be
made. The librarian should also consult other experienced librarians if there is any confusion as
mistakes made at this stage could prove to be extremely serious.
b) To be Accustomed to the Concept of Library: The planning committee should be
accustomed to the library. To do so they should read the existing literature on planning a library
and information centre, visit some other library and information centre, and so on to assess the
existing situation. They should also try to understand the present strength and weakness of the
library in the light of where it stands.
c) Functionality of the Parent Organization: The committee should study the functionality of
the parent organization, its resources and visualize its future direction and be aware about the
changes and the consequent effect thereof.
d) User’s Identification and his / her Information Need: Libraries and information centers are
highly user oriented and so it should take care of the exact needs of the consumer. The
experienced planner immediately asks for the evidence of the extent and the nature of demand
for the libraries and information centre, going to be planned. Needs of the user may be
ascertained by questioning or by carrying out potential user studies. The nature and extent of
local demand will have to be checked by consultation, surveys and controlled test so that
information activities are well directed on demand criteria.
e) Establishment of Plan Premises or Forecasting: Forecasting is estimating or predicting the
future internal and external environment of the information centre. Premises refer to planning
assumptions concerning the expected internal or external environment under which the plan will
operate. Since planning is concerned with the objective to be attained in the future and the
provision of the means for their attainment, it is imperative that various dimensions of the future
are explored and estimated.
f) Establishment of Objectives: Objectives are the main factors on which the planning of a
modern library depends. Depending upon the objectives it may be a public, special or academic
library. The objective should be established for the entire organization and then for each
subordinate unit i.e. department or section of a library or information centres then the
subordinate parts of the department or section and so on. Major department objectives in turn
control the objectives of the subordinate departments and so on down the line. The objectives are
divided and sub divided into successively smaller components until each department or section
of the library has a definite set of goals for the short as well as long period.
g) Course of Action: The planners should search for and examine and evaluate the alternative
course of action by weighing them in the light of various factors involved i.e cost, time,
materials, manpower, equipment, etc. The use of operation research and mathematical and
computing techniques may be helpful in this regard. Out of the alternatives, a suitable course of
action should be selected.
h) Choice of the Site: Choice of the site should be the one conveniently accessible to the
community to be served taking into consideration the future expansion.
i) Public Library: For public library, the site should be centrally located where everybody finds it
convenient. This should be the place where normally public visit more often than any other
place. Therefore a place where they go for shopping might be found suitable.
ii) University Library: The site should be centrally located within the campus.
iii) College and School Library: The location of the library does not matter very much if the
distances are small, but if possible the library should be at the entrance path.
iv) Special Library: Library site in case of special library should be near the factory building or
the factory canteen or staff canteen. The ground floor might be preferred for the library.
i) Organizational Structure: Organizing means the establishing of a formal structure of
authority that is well defined and that can co-ordinate towards the attainment of the objectives.
Proper job analysis and assignment of job should be planned in such a manner that no
overlapping in duties occur. This can be achieved by establishing various departments. The
power, function and duties of various departmental heads must be clearly defined; similar jobs
should be put under one department while the jobs which are dissimilar should be isolated from
each other.
j) Financial and Cost Consideration: Without a proper source of finance an information centre
will fail to provide the expected services to its user. It should not depend solely on the grants
received from the parent organization. It should also make provisions for generation of funds by
k) Determination of Requirement of Resources: In this stage the various kinds of resources
that would be required for the implementation of objectives or planning are determined. The
resources mainly consist of the following.
i) Library Building, Equipment and Other Similar Facilities: A library and information centre
cannot exist without a proper building, without the furniture and equipment. So the construction
of a library building is of first and foremost step for planning a library or information centre. The
building should be well equipped and must be free from dust, dirt, cobwebs and also should be
water proof, theft proof and equipped with noise prevention measures, the provision of drinking
water, heating and cooling machine (air conditioned), proper lighting.
The basic aim of the design of a library building should be to achieve flexibility by using
the modular system. The library building has to demonstrate a remarkable ability to grow, to
adapt to changing conditions to meet new demands and to implement new technologies. If these
aspects are taken care of then one need not give much weightage to the predictions made about
their future expansion and existence. The space estimates for the library staff, documents,
services, users and for other purposes i.e corridors, entrances, lobbies, toilet, etc should also be
ii) Library Staff: Library staff constitutes an important component of the library trinity. The
entire staff structure of a library usually consists of certain ranks of employees of different
grades. The ranking of employees is determined according to the types of work they perform; in
other words, it relates to the number of posts at each level. All the employees in a library are
divided into three categories i.e professional, semi-professional, and non professional.
The professional staff are engaged in performing professional duties whose minimum
qualification should be graduation with at least one year training in library and information
science leading to post graduate degree or diploma. The semi professional staff of the library
employees are engaged in performing library routines and techniques under the guidance of the
professional staff and have to receive alternatively training in library science. Also some non-
professional (clerical) and unskilled workers are appointed to perform certain library works.
Planning for education and training in library and information science and technology is
to be given utmost attention so that a high quality of man power at all levels in adequate quantity
and with a variety of skills is constantly made available to take care of the ever increasing
complex of the information institution and the system. There should also be scope for continuing
education, training, and scholarship.
In order to promote exchange of experience, conference, seminar, workshop etc. should
be organized. Adequate facility for research and development, innovation should be built-up.
iii) Information Technology (Hardware & Software Resources): A modern library and
information centre should give thrust to the application of modern information technology, which
involves computer hardware and software, telecommunication, reprographic, digitization, and
micrographic equipment etc and should also create and develop facilities thereof; otherwise it
will find itself handicapped to have access to the world of information.
iv) Document (information) Resources: A compressive collection of documentary information
resources, whether primary or secondary or tertiary, should be built within the organization. The
collection should be focused on the user’s need. If it is a plan for a university library then
importance should be given for post-graduate students as well as research scholars. Similarly a
special library develops its collection and service according to the requirements of the parent
v) Institutional Resources: A modern library or information centre, however resourceful, cannot
be self-sufficient in respect of information due to the information explosion, so there must be
some provision to link up similar type of institutional resources i.e. libraries or information
centre, joining with other library network, and consortia.
l) Information Product and Services: A library or information centre should also have an
option to bibliographic control, indexing and abstracting services relating to indigenous
information, besides the traditional services. The scope should also be there to provide the
service by on line and off line mode. The scope for document delivery service, translation
service, reprographic service, accesses and repackage of information should also be there.
Establishing database of indigenous information, establishing feed back mechanism and
evaluation of the services and products should be made constantly.
m) Standardization: Standardization in terms of methods, procedures, hardware, software,
services must be followed so that exchangeability of information is facilitated in the national
network. Standardization will contribute to overall economy of cost time and effort.
n) Cooperation: Cooperation with other similar institutions and national information system
should also be maintained in the information field to exchange information between institutions.
o) Preparation of Preliminary Plan: A preliminary plan should be prepared at this stage by
considering all of the above considerations.
Besides the above steps the following steps are also required to be taken.
p) Publicity: Every plan has a movable horizon i.e. it is never definitive but can and should be
improved in the light of experience and will inevitably have to be adopted. It is important,
therefore, that the initial plan includes arrangement for education and amendments as necessary.
The planning officer should encourage energetically such studies as help in improving the plan
further before its submission to the competent authority. Considering this view, planning must be
free to discussion and public should be asked for constructive criticism and suggestion regarding
the aim, objectives and arrangements.
q) Preparation of Final Plan: In the light of open discussion / advice received the preliminary
plan should be revised or modified and a final plan should be prepared. The final plan should
state clearly the list of equipment needed, stating the sources of funds, budget estimates, time
needed for completion of the project etc.
r) Numberizing Plan by Budgeting: The final step consists of numberizing the plans by
converting them to budget. Each section of a library can have its own budget which may form
part of the total budget.
s) Obtaining Approval from the Top Management: After the preparation of the final plan, if
the library and information centre going to be established is a part of the parent institution then it
is important to obtain general approval from the top management.
t) Execution and Evaluation: In course of execution the short term section of the plan will
indicate the urgent and basic problem, legislative, staff training, setting up of executive bodies
that must be disposed of in order to attain the medium and long term objectives. The information
centre should have a continuous user-orientation programme to attract the new users to the
system. After the full implementation of the project it should be periodically evaluated and
maintained to keep it up-to-date with time.
Plagiarism: Plagiarism is the use or close imitation of the language and ideas of another author
and representation of them as one's own original work. The intentional plagiarism refers to using
someone’s ideas or results without citing the source, using someone’s ideas or results without
using quotation marks, even though he/she cites the source and using someone’s ideas or results
without crediting the source. The accidental plagiarism is when the author does not know what is
considered as plagiarism and he/she can’t think of a better way to say it and so copy sentences,
phrases, or even sentence structure from the original without using quotation marks and in the
event while preparing the notes he/she does not put exact wording in quotation marks and so
he/she plagiarizes without realizing it.
a) Why Plagiarism should be Avoided: Plagiarism intentional or accidental is considered
academic misconduct. Plagiarized work can result in a failing course grade, expulsion, rejection
of a paper submitted for publication, denial of an advanced degree, or loss of job. Every year –
thousands of research scholars and students are expelled for committing plagiarism.
b) How Plagiarism can be avoided: The plagiarism in best can be avoided by adopting the
following measure-
i) As you take notes, put quotation marks around any wording that you copy directly from the
source so that later you can put it into your own words and won’t accidentally plagiarize.
ii) If you copy something word for word, put quotation marks around it and cite it, if you cannot
remember the source, you don’t have the right to use that information.
iii) If you paraphrase by putting ideas into your own words, cite the source of the ideas.
iv) Put the complete bibliographic reference for all citations in the Bibliography (or Works
v) Use plagiarism detection software on your own text and make necessary correction.
vi) Use some content composing software like Content Composer
( that will help in creating plagiarize-proof content.
c) How to Detect Plagiarism: Nowadays there are a number of software packages available in
the market to detect plagiarism. Some of them are mentioned below-
i) CopyTracker ( Copytracker is software to detect
plagiarism in text documents. It can be freely downloaded and used.
ii) Plagiarismdetect ( A plugin to MS Office 2007 to check
for plagiarism.
iii) Plagium ( In this software, one can track plagiarism by pasting the
original text in the webpage of the site.
iv) SeeSources ( takes a whole text, automatically
extracts its unique signatures and searches the Internet for them. It checks for plagiarism online -
no need to install software.
v) Plagiarism-detector ( Plagiarism-Detector (also known
as Plagiarism-Detector Software) is a standalone Microsoft Windows based computer desktop
application created by SkyLine, Inc. Plagiarism-Detector targets mainly individual users, though
Institutions (typically universities and high schools) can acquire licenses to use the software for
their own purposes.
vi) SafeAssign ( SafeAssign™ is a plagiarism prevention service,
offered by Blackboard to its Blackboard Learning System Enterprise, Vista Enterprise and CE
Enterprise clients. This service helps educators prevent plagiarism by detecting unoriginal
content in student papers. In addition to acting as a plagiarism deterrent, it also has features
designed to aid in educating students about plagiarism and importance of proper attribution of
any borrowed content.
vii) Turnitin WriteCycle ( Turnitin (also known as is an Internet-based plagiarism-detection service created by iParadigms, LLC.
Institutions (typically universities and high schools) buy licenses to submit essays to the Turnitin
website, which checks the document for plagiarism. Turnitin WriteCycle is the complete, web-
based solution for managing writing assignments, via multiple phases of feedback and revisions.
Its three interrelated services greatly accelerate the learning process, involving students in their
own development, freeing instructors from the burden of tracking papers, and promoting critical
thinking, while maintaining academic integrity.
viii) Scanmyessay ( Scan My Essay scans over six billion online
sources including websites, online journals, news sources and much more online to detect
ix) Urkund ( Urkund is owned and developed by PrioInfo AB.
PrioInfo is a company with over 25 years of experience of the requirements and needs of
information intensive organizations. PrioInfo is an agent for net based services from a multitude
of international information providers and publishers. PrioInfo also delivers a licensed e-book
platform to corporations, publishers and libraries as well as Universities.
x) Copyscape ( The Copyscape service makes it easy to find copies of any
document on the Web. Simply one needs to type the URL of the document or web page and paste
the address into the Copyscape. Copyscape finds sites that have copied the content without
permission, as well as those that have copied with quote.
xi) Google ( One can also check for the plagiarized text by way of using
Google. For this one needs to copy the text with a maximum of 32 words from any article and
paste it in the Google Search box and makes a search to know who have copied those words or
from whose work the present content is copied from. One can also receive Google Alert by way
of Email when new instances of the phrases for which search has been initiated are published on
the Internet.
xii) Plagiarism Checker ( One can type one or more
phrases from different parts of a document into the search box of Plagiarism Checker by hitting
the Enter key after each phrase and then can make a search to know from where the present
contents has been copied or whom copied from the present content.
xiii) Glatt Plagiarism Screening Program (GPSP)
( A highly sophisticated Screening Program to
detect plagiarism. Typically used in academic institutions or in the legal profession for cases of
copyright infringement.
xiv) Glatt Plagiarism Self-Detection Program (GPSD)
( ): GPSD test is designed to help one become more
sensitive to his/her own writing style. It also helps to gain some insight into how to detect and
avoid plagiarism. One can order a Windows 95/98/NT version of this test for $65.
xv) JPlag ( JPlag is a system that finds similarities
among multiple sets of source code files. This way it can detect software plagiarism.
xvi) MOSS ( Moss (for a Measure Of Software
Similarity) is an automatic system for determining the similarity of C, C++, Java, Pascal, Ada,
ML, Lisp, or Scheme programs. To date, the main application of Moss has been in detecting
plagiarism in programming classes. Since its development in 1994, Moss has been very effective
in this role.
xvii) Plagium ( In Plagium, you can track plagiarism by pasting the
original text in the box.
xviii) AC ( AC is an anti-plagiarism system for programming
assignments. It aids instructors and graders to detect plagiarism within a group of assignments
written in C, C++ or Java. AC incorporates multiple similarity detection algorithms found in the
scientific literature, and allows their results to be visualized graphically.
xix) Plaggie ( Plaggie is a stand-alone source code
plagiarism detection engine purposed for Java programming exercises. Plaggie's functionality
and graphical user interface are similar with previously published JPlag web service but unlike
JPlag, Plaggie must be installed locally and its source code is open.
xx) Sherlock ( Sherlock is a program which finds
similarities between textual documents. It uses digital signatures to find similar pieces of text. A
digital signature is a number which is formed by turning several words in the input into a series
of bits and joining those bits into a number.
xxi) SID ( SID stands for Shared Information Distance
or Software Integrity Detection. It detects similarity between programs by computing the shared
information between them.
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model
1. History: In 1977, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), began to develop
its OSI networking suite. OSI has two major components: an abstract model of networking (the
Basic Reference Model, or seven-layer model), and a set of concrete protocols. The standard
documents that describe OSI are for sale and not currently available online.
Parts of OSI have influenced Internet protocol development, but none more than the
abstract model itself, documented in ISO 7498 and its various addenda. In this model, a
networking system is divided into layers. Within each layer, one or more entities implement its
functionality. Each entity interacts directly only with the layer immediately beneath it, and
provides facilities for use by the layer above it.
In particular, Internet protocols are deliberately not as rigorously architected as the OSI
model, but a common version of the TCP/IP model splits it into four layers. The Internet
Application Layer includes the OSI Application Layer, Presentation Layer, and most of the
Session Layer. Its End-to-End Layer includes the graceful close function of the OSI Session
Layer as well as the Transport Layer. Its Internet work Layer is equivalent to the OSI Network
Layer, while its Interface layer includes the OSI Data Link and Physical Layers. These
comparisons are based on the original seven-layer protocol model as defined in ISO 7498, rather
than refinements in such things as the Internal Organization of the Network Layer document.
Protocols enable an entity in one host to interact with a corresponding entity at the same
layer in a remote host. Service definitions abstractly describe the functionality provided to a (N)-
layer by an (N-1) layer, where N is one of the seven layers inside the local host.
The Open Systems Interconnection Basic Reference Model (OSI Reference Model or
OSI Model for short) is a layered, abstract description for communications and computer
network protocol design, developed as part of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)
initiative. It is also called the OSI seven layer model. The layers, described below, are, from top
to bottom, Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data Link and Physical. A
layer is a collection of related functions that provides services to the layer above it and receives
service from the layer below it. For example, a layer that provides error-free communications
across a network provides the path needed by applications above it, while it calls the next lower
layer to send and receive packets that make up the contents of the path.
Even though newer IETF and IEEE protocols, and indeed OSI protocol work subsequent
to the publication of the original architectural standards that have largely superseded it, the OSI
model is an excellent place to begin the study of network architecture. Not understanding that
the pure seven-layer model is more historic than current, many beginners make the mistake of
trying to fit every protocol they study into one of the seven basic layers. This is not always easy
to do as many of the protocols in use on the Internet today were designed as part of the TCP/IP
model, and may not fit cleanly into the OSI model.
Description of OSI layers
Data Unit Layer Function

Host layers Data 7. Application Network process to application

Segments 6. Presentation Data representation and encryption

5. Session Interhost communication

Media layers Packets 4. Transport End-to-end connections and reliability (TCP)

Frames 3. Network Path determination and logical addressing (IP)

Bits 2. Data link Physical addressing (MAC & LLC)

1. Physical Media, signal and binary transmission

2. Layer 7: Application Layer: The application layer interfaces directly to and performs
common application services for the application processes; it also issues requests to the
presentation layer. Note carefully that this layer provides services to user-defined application
processes, and not to the end user. For example, it defines a file transfer protocol, but the end
user must go through an application process to invoke file transfer. The OSI model does not
include human interfaces.
The common application services sub layer provides functional elements including the
Remote Operations Service Element (comparable to Internet Remote Procedure Call),
Association Control, and Transaction Processing (according to the ACID requirements).
Above the common application service sub layer are functions meaningful to user
application programs, such as messaging (X.400), directory (X.500), file transfer (FTAM),
virtual terminal (VTAM), and batch job manipulation (JTAM). These contrast with user
applications that use the services of the application layer, but are not part of the application layer
File Transfer applications using FTAM (OSI protocol) or FTP (TCP/IP Protocol)
Mail Transfer clients using X.400 (OSI protocol) or SMTP/POP3/IMAP (TCP/IP protocols)
Web browsers using HTTP (TCP/IP protocol); no true OSI protocol for web applications
3. Layer 6: Presentation Layer: The Presentation layer transforms the data to provide a
standard interface for the application layer. MIME encoding, data encryption and similar
manipulation of the presentation are done at this layer to present the data as a service or protocol
that the developer sees fit. Examples of this layer are converting an EBCDIC-coded text file to
an ASCII-coded file, or serializing objects and other data structures into and out of XML.
4. Layer 5: Session Layer: The Session layer controls the dialogues/connections (sessions)
between computers. It establishes, manages and terminates the connections between the local
and remote application. It provides for full-duplex, half-duplex, or simplex operation, and
establishes check pointing, adjournment, termination, and restart procedures. The OSI model
made this layer responsible for "graceful close" of sessions, which is a property of TCP, and also
for session check pointing and recovery, which is not usually used in the Internet protocols suite.
Session layers are commonly used in application environments that make use of remote
procedure calls (RPCs).
iSCSI, which implements the Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI) encapsulated
into TCP/IP packets, is a session layer protocol increasingly used in Storage Area Networks and
internally between processors and high-performance storage devices. iSCSI leverages TCP for
guaranteed delivery, and carries SCSI command descriptor blocks (CDB) as payload to create a
virtual SCSI bus between iSCSI initiators and iSCSI targets.
5. Layer 4: Transport Layer: The Transport layer provides transparent transfer of data between
end users, providing reliable data transfer services to the upper layers. The transport layer
controls the reliability of a given link through flow control, segmentation/de-segmentation, and
error control. Some protocols are state and connection oriented. This means that the transport
layer can keep track of the segments and retransmit those that fail.
Although it was not developed under the OSI Reference Model and does not strictly
conform to the OSI definition of the Transport Service, the best known example of a layer 4
protocol is the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). The transport layer is the layer that
converts messages into TCP segments or User Datagram Protocol (UDP), Stream Control
Transmission Protocol (SCTP), etc. packets.
Of the actual OSI protocols, not merely protocols developed under the model, there are
five classes of transport protocols, ranging from class 0 (which is also known as TP0 and
provides the least error recovery) to class 4 (which is also known as TP4 and is designed for less
reliable networks, similar to the Internet). Class 4 is closest to TCP, although TCP contains
functions, such as the graceful close, which OSI assigns to the Session Layer.
Perhaps an easy way to visualize the Transport Layer is to compare it with a Post Office,
which deals with the dispatch and classification of mail and parcels sent. Do remember,
however, that a post office manages the outer envelope of mail. Higher layers may have the
equivalent of double envelopes, such as cryptographic Presentation services that can be read by
the addressee only. Roughly speaking, tunneling protocols operate at the transport layer, such as
carrying non-IP protocols such as IBM's SNA or Novell's IPX over an IP network, or end-to-end
encryption with IPsec. While Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) might seem to be a network
layer protocol, if the encapsulation of the payload takes place only at endpoint, GRE becomes
closer to a transport protocol that uses IP headers but contains complete frames or packets to
deliver to an endpoint. L2TP carries PPP frames inside transport packets.
6. Layer 3: Network Layer: The Network layer provides the functional and procedural means
of transferring variable length data sequences from a source to a destination via one or more
networks while maintaining the quality of service requested by the Transport layer. The Network
layer performs network routing functions, and might also perform fragmentation and reassembly,
and report delivery errors. Routers operate at this layer—sending data throughout the extended
network and making the Internet possible. This is a logical addressing scheme – values are
chosen by the network engineer. The addressing scheme is hierarchical. The best known example
of a layer 3 protocol is the Internet Protocol (IP). Perhaps it's easier to visualize this layer as
managing the sequence of human carriers taking a letter from the sender to the local post office,
trucks that carry sacks of mail to other post offices or airports, airplanes that carry airmail
between major cities, trucks that distribute mail sacks in a city, and carriers that take a letter to
its destinations. Think of fragmentation as splitting a large document into smaller envelopes for
shipping, or, in the case of the network layer, splitting an application or transport record into
7. Layer 2: Data Link Layer: The Data Link layer provides the functional and procedural
means to transfer data between network entities and to detect and possibly correct errors that
may occur in the Physical layer. Originally, this layer was intended for point-to-point and point-
to-multipoint media, characteristic of wide area media in the telephone system. Local area
network architecture, which included broadcast-capable multi access media, was developed
independently of the ISO work, in IEEE Project 802. IEEE work assumed sub layering and
management functions not required for WAN use. In modern practice, only error detection, not
flow control using sliding window, is present in modern data link protocols such as Point-to-
Point Protocol (PPP), and, on local area networks, the IEEE 802.2 LLC layer is not used for
most protocols on Ethernet, and, on other local area networks, its flow control and
acknowledgment mechanisms are rarely used. Sliding window flow control and
acknowledgment is used at the transport layers by protocols such as TCP, but is still used in
niches where X.25 offers performance advantages.
Both WAN and LAN services arrange bits, from the physical layer, into logical
sequences called frames. Not all physical layer bits necessarily go into frames, as some of these
bits are purely intended for physical layer functions. For example, every fifth bit of the FDDI bit
stream is not used by the data link layer.
a) WAN Protocol Architecture: Connection-oriented WAN data link protocols, in addition to
framing, detect and may correct errors. They also are capable of controlling the rate of
transmission. A WAN data link layer might implement a sliding window flow control and
acknowledgment mechanism to provide reliable delivery of frames; that is the case for SDLC
and HDLC, and derivatives of HDLC such as LAPB and LAPD.
b) IEEE 802 LAN Architecture: Practical, connectionless LANs began with the pre-IEEE
Ethernet specification, which is the ancestor of the IEEE 802.3 This layer manages the
interaction of devices with a shared medium, which is the function of a Media Access Control
(MAC) sub layer. Above this MAC sub layer is the media-independent IEEE 802.2 Logical
Link Control (LLC) sub layer, which deals with addressing and multiplexing on multi access
While IEEE 802.3 is the dominant wired LAN protocol and IEEE 802.11 the wireless
LAN protocol, obsolescent MAC layers include Token Ring and FDDI. The MAC sub layer
detects but does not correct errors.
8. Layer 1: Physical Layer: The Physical layer defines all the electrical and physical
specifications for devices. In particular, it defines the relationship between a device and a
physical medium. This includes the layout of pins, voltages, and cable specifications. Hubs,
repeaters, network adapters and Host Bus Adapters (HBAs used in Storage Area Networks) are
physical-layer devices.
To understand the function of the physical layer in contrast to the functions of the data
link layer, think of the physical layer as concerned primarily with the interaction of a single
device with a medium, where the data link layer is concerned more with the interactions of
multiple devices (i.e., at least two) with a shared medium. The physical layer will tell one device
how to transmit to the medium, and another device how to receive from it, but not, with modern
protocols, how to gain access to the medium. Obsolescent physical layer standards such as RS-
232 do use physical wires to control access to the medium.
The major functions and services performed by the physical layer are:
-Establishment and termination of a connection to a communications medium.
-Participation in the process whereby the communication resources are effectively shared among
multiple users. For example, contention resolution and flow control.
-Modulation, or conversion between the representation of digital data in user equipment and the
corresponding signals transmitted over a communications channel. These are signals operating
over the physical cabling (such as copper and optical fiber) or over a radio link.
Parallel SCSI buses operate in this layer, although it must be remembered that the logical
SCSI protocol is a transport-layer protocol that runs over this bus. Various physical-layer
Ethernet standards are also in this layer; Ethernet incorporates both this layer and the data-link
layer. The same applies to other local-area networks, such as Token ring, FDDI, and IEEE
802.11, as well as personal area networks such as Bluetooth and IEEE 802.15.4.
Interfaces: In addition to standards for individual protocols in transmission, there are also
interface standards for different layers to talk to the ones above or below (usually operating-
system–specific). For example, Microsoft Windows' Winsock, and Unix's Berkeley sockets and
System V Transport Layer Interface, are interfaces between applications (layers 5 and above)
and the transport (layer 4). NDIS and ODI are interfaces between the media (layer 2) and the
network protocol (layer 3).
OSI Service Specifications are abstractions of functionality commonly present in
programming interfaces.
Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC)
Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC): An Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC) is a
computerized online catalogue of the materials held in a library, or a library system. OPACs are
often part of an integrated library management system or software. The library staff and the
public can usually access it in computers within the library, or from home via the Internet. Since
the mid-1980s, it has replaced the card catalog in most libraries. Since the mid-1990s, character-
based OPAC interfaces are being replaced by Web-based interfaces. Today more complex
OPACs offer a variety of search capabilities on several indexes, integrate rich content (book
covers, video clips, etc.), and offer interactive request and renewal functionality.
Most integrated library systems offer a browser-based OPAC module as a standard
capability or optional feature. OPAC modules rely on pulldown menus, popup windows, dialog
boxes, mouse operations, and other graphical user interface components to simplify the entry of
search commands and formatting of retrieved information. Many libraries have their catalogues
accessible via Internet; some of them can be queried using a simple browser, other using a
special version of browser (with JavaScript and CSS features), and some others using Z39.50
clients. If one has few elements to identify a document, then he/ she can use a meta-searcher
where he/she can fill the query form once and spread his/her query over many library catalogues.
The OPAC has many advantages over card catalogues. It can store entries; it can add new
entries, withdraw entries and print out updated version of a catalogue in book, card or shelf form.
It can also be used to search and produce catalogue in CD, DVD, etc. It itself can be used as a
catalogue cabinet with enhance features i.e information can be stored within the computer and
kind of entries required can be easily got as and when required. It has also the facility to input the
data from the point of origin and output data can be transmitted directly to the place where it is
needed by using teleprocessing.
OPAC is more useful than the traditional card formats because:
i) The online catalogue does not need to be sorted statically. Here the user can choose the author,
title, keyword, or systematic order dynamically.
ii) Most online catalogue offer search facility for any word of the title. The goal of the
grammatical word order which is to provide an entry on the word that most users would look for
is reached even better.
iii) Many online catalogues allow links between several variants of an author’s name. So, authors
can be found both under the original and the standardized name (if entered properly by the
Online cataloguing has greatly enhanced the usability of catalogues, and its origin from
the effort of MAchine Readable Cataloging (MARC) standards in the 1960s. The rules governing
the creation of catalogue MARC records include not only formal cataloging rules like AACR2
but also the special rules specific to MARC, available from the Library of Congress and also
Online Computer Library Centre (OCLC)
Online Computer Library Centre (OCLC): OCLC is a library network of USA. In 1967, the
presidents of the colleges and universities in the state of Ohio founded the Ohio College Library
Center (OCLC) to develop a computerized system in which the libraries of Ohio academic
institutions could share resources and reduce costs. It was established under the guidance of
library automation pioneer Frederic Kilgour. In 1977, the Ohio members of OCLC adopted
changes in the governance structure that enabled libraries outside Ohio to become members and
participate in the election of the Board of Trustees; the Ohio College Library Center became
OCLC, Inc. In 1981, the legal name of the corporation became Online Computer Library Center,
Inc (OCLC) <>.
a) Objectives: The objectives of OCLC are
i) To establish, maintain and operate a computerized library network and to promote the
evolution of library use, of libraries themselves and of librarianship;
ii) To provide processes and products for the benefit of library users and libraries;
iii) To Increase the availability of library resources to individual library patrons and to reduce the
rate-of-rise of library per-unit costs, and
iv) To further the ease of access to and the use of the ever-expanding body of worldwide
scientific, literary and educational knowledge and information.
b) Membership: Together OCLC member libraries make up the world's largest consortium.
More than 53 thousand libraries in 96 countries and territories around the world use OCLC
services to locate, acquire, catalogue, lend and preserve library materials.
c) Functions and Activities
i) Cataloguing and Metadata: OCLC offers full-service online cataloguing, simple copy
cataloguing, MARC record collections, offline cataloguing, customized OCLC cataloguing from
library’s materials vendor, automated copy cataloguing for materials purchased and custom
cataloguing serviced.
ii) Dewey Decimal Classification System: OCLC administers the Dewey Decimal Classification
system, the most widely used library classification system in the world. It also provides
WebDewey, the online version that is continually updated.
iii) Open WorldCat: WorldCat is the world’s largest bibliographic database. The Open WorldCat
programme makes it feasible to internet users who broadly search the Web at popular search
portals to discover materials owned by OCLC libraries. Current Open WorldCat participants
include Yahoo! Search ( and Google (
iv) OCLC Research: OCLC’s 25-year-old Research arm furthers the science of librarianship by
incubating new information access and exchange technologies, sponsoring the work of library
scientists and serving on global standards bodies (including those of the Dublin Core and Open
Archives initiatives).
v) Digitization and Preservation: OCLC’s digitization, microfilm and archival services are
designed to protect, share, and manage collections. The Intercat and Persistent Uniform Resource
Locators (PURLs) are such project of OCLC.
vi) Standardization: OCLC Terminologies Service provides single interface to access multiple
thesauruses. Access often-used controlled vocabularies such as mesh, gmgpc, gsafd, lctgm, ngl
and dct.
vii) Publication: OCLC regularly develops and publishes studies and other informational
documents that all libraries can use for "future-forward" planning. Recent reports include:
“2004 Information Format Trends: Content, Not Containers”, “The 2003 OCLC Environmental
Scan: Pattern Recognition”, etc.
viii) Mailing Lists and Forum: “WebJunction” is a Web-based community dedicated to the
emerging technology and training needs of librarians. It was funded by the Bill and Melinda
Gates Foundation’s U.S. Library Program, and coordinated by OCLC and other partners.
WebJunction feature articles, handouts, courses and forum discussions address the real issues
that librarians and library staff face everyday. OCLC also maintains groups and forums to foster
and maintain communication with its members.
ix) Others: NetLibrary provides full-text digital books, journals, newspapers and other published
works in hundreds of subject areas. NetLibrary, OCLC's eBook division, recently celebrated the
surpassing of the 58,000-title milestone. The Electronic Collections Online provides easy Web
access to thousands of full-text academic and professional journals.
The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) is a nonprofit, membership based,
computer library service and research organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering
access to the world's information and reducing information costs. Its Headquarters is in Dublin,
Ohio, USA.
Online Chat
Online Chat: Online chat refers to the text-based (keying or type words) communication
between two or more participants over the internet / intranet in real-time. Sometime it is also
known as synchronous conferencing, or Instant messaging (IM). Online chat is also referred to as
web chat. The expression online chat comes from the word chat which means "informal
conversation". In some chat program the users need to install some specialized software whereas
in some others, only the internet browser is necessary. There are also Graphical User Interface
(GUI) text-based chat rooms which allow users to select an identifying icon and to modify the
look of their chat environment.
Synchronous conferencing or Real Time Chat is the formal term used particularly in
computer-mediated communication, collaboration and learning, to describe online chat
technologies. Today it is also occasionally extended to mean audio/video conferencing or instant
messaging systems, provided that they also have a text-based multi-user chat function.
Synchronous conferencing protocols include Internet Relay Chat (IRC), Protocol for
Synchronous Conferencing (PSYC), Secure Internet Live Conferencing protocol (SILC),
Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP).
Chatiquette describes the basic rules of online communication. To avoid
misunderstanding and to simplify the communication between the users in a chat these
conventions or guidelines have been created. Chatiquette varies from community to community,
generally describing basic courtesy; it introduces the new user into the community and the
associated network culture. As an example, in Chatiquette it is considered rude to write only in
UPPER CASE, because it looks as if the user is shouting.
a) Types of Online Chat: Based on the number of users that participate in the chat it can be of
the following types-
i) 1 – on – 1 Chat: 1-on-1 or private chat refers to an environment where only two people share
their knowledge base.
ii) Group Chat: Here more than two people chat over an interface and share their thought.
Stranger Chat or anonymous chat is an environment where each other identity remains
Chat can also be categorized based on cost factor as commercial or paid and free; based
on type of software used as Open Source (eg. Adium), and Proprietary (eg. Digsby).
b) Importance of Chat: Internet chat allows one to connect with people all over the world in
real time. The primary use of a chat room is to share information via text with a group of other
users. New technology has enabled the use of file sharing and webcams to be included in some
programs and almost all Internet chat or messaging services allow users to display or send to
each other photos.


1) Invite your friends for chat in

Gmail, accept the invitation
from other friends and chat with

c) Examples: There are thousands of chat programs available over the web. In the following,
some commonly used free chat services are listed. An expertise in two or three will be an added
advantage for you. We recommend you to use Google Talk or chat that is integrated with your
Gmail. To use this service, you can use your own Gmail id and password.
Sl No. Name URL

1) Adium (

2) AOL Instant Messenger (AIM) (

3) Climm (

4) Digsby (

5) Ebuddy (

6) Google Talk (

7) IMVU (

8) KMess (

9) Kopete (

10) Mibbit (

11) Miranda IM (

12) Pidgin (

13) QQ (

14) Trillian (

15) Windows Live Messenger (

(Formerly MSN Messenger)

Non Documentary Sources of Information

Non Documentary Sources of Information: There are mainly two types of information
sources. They are: documentary and non documentary. The documents are physical sources of
information that are fit for physical handling or they are the record in some physical form. The
non documentary sources of information are live sources that provide information instantly. The
non documentary sources of information include research organizations, societies, industries,
government establishment, departments, learned and professional bodies, universities,
technological institutions, etc.
The non documentary sources of information are live sources which are extremely important in
the process of communication. Very often, if a scientist working on an experiment needs some
information, he would turn to his / her colleague working in the same laboratory rather than to a
printed page. It is easier to have a dialogue with an expert than to use a bibliography or index or
card catalogue or even a consultation with a reference librarian. Non documentary sources of
information provide information instantly and it is very easy to handle. The main disadvantage of
non documentary sources of information is that it involves high cost when distance between the
people is large and that it also demands the use of highly sophisticated techniques i.e. computer
system, video conference, telephone etc.
The non documentary sources of information include government establishment,
departments, universities, technological institutions, data centres, information centres, referral
centres, clearing houses, consultants, technological gatekeeper, etc. Non documentary sources of
information also include discussion with colleagues, visitors, participants of seminars and
conferences, etc. The library through the referral service provides access to important non
documentary sources of information which may include the following types:
i) Research Association: Research association may establish cooperative information centres. In
such cases there is a possibility of firm to firm discussion and exchange of information between
the members of an association.
ii) Learned Societies and Professional Institutions: A member of these bodies forms the core of
a discipline or profession. The head quarters staff help the members personally on professional
matter and sometimes they may direct the queries to the expert member of the body.
iii) Industrial Liaison Officer: These officers provide particularly the preliminary information
needed to put a firm on the right track and for information which needs to be given personally
and supported by practical advice in order to be fully effective. They visit firms, explore their
needs and problems and help them to find solutions, sometimes directly on the spot, more often
by putting them in touch with specialized sources of information and assistance or refer to some
other specialists.
iv) Mass Media: Mass media is a means of communication of information through broadcasting
and telecasting or a combination of these two for the masses, which is more effective than any
documentary sources.
NKN Vs NME-ICT: A meeting was held on 30/12/2010 under the Chairmanship of Secretary,
DIT to discuss the connectivity issues of universities and colleges under the NKN and NMEICT.
The following are the decisions taken in order to have seamless integration of NMEICT and
NKN networks.
i) There will be two different list of universities to be called NKN list of universities and
NMEICT list of universities.
ii) NKN connects its list of universities with a cost model of 100% by the project and NMEICT
connects with a cost model of 75% from the project and 25% chargeable from the universities (it
is 90:10 % for North East India).
iii) NKN does not provide any assistance to universities for establishing LAN whereas NMEICT
provides support for LAN from the project. So a university under NKN list would not have to
pay any money to get OFC connection to NKN, but it would have to invest 100% cost of LAN
and get the LAN established on its own.
Networking: A network is a physical connection between / among the devices (autonomous
computer) that are distributed widely in different geographical location. It is the computer and
communication link that permits computer to communicate with each other and to share
program, facilities, data and knowledge base. It is a group of devices that are linked to one
another by data communication system. In a computer network two or more computers are
linked together with a medium and data communication devices for the purpose of
communicating data and sharing of resources.
According to Martin “a network is a group of individuals or organizations that are
interconnected. The linking must include a communication mechanism, and many networks exist
for the express purpose of facilitating certain types of communication among their members. In
the library world, institutions from network primarily to achieve better sharing of resources –
resources consisting of bibliographic information and of collection – and better services to
Based on the type of participants who are participated in the network, network can be
divided into the following categories-
a) Private Network: These networks are usually owned by some corporation or other entity that
control access and use of network to its staff.
b) Public Networks: These networks provide services to any individual or organization who
becomes the member or subscriber. Eg. Telephone system.
c) Cooperative Networks: These networks are managed and supported by their user.
Based on the techniques used to transfer data and control, communication network can be
classified into two categories - Switched Network and Broadcast Network. In Broadcast system,
there is no intermediate switching nodes. All station share a single transmission channel. Packet
transmitted by one station is received by all other station. An address field within the packet
specifies the destination of the packet. Packets that are intended for other station are ignored. Eg.
Satellite network, LAN, etc.
Network architecture refers to the arrangement of nodes and their interconnection
communication circuit to represent the structure of the network and the significance of nodes in
the network. Based on the architecture of the network, network can be of the following types-
a) Peer to Peer Architecture: In this type of network each workstation has equivalent capabilities
and responsibilities. No one computer is in charge of the network.
b) Client / Server Architecture: Here the servers are dedicated to serving the client. Servers are
powerful computer or processor and clients are less powerful PCs or workstation on which users
run applications.
Topology refers to the way in which the end points or station of the network are
interconnected. It is the structure or the arrangement of nodes for a network. It is the physical
layout of the LAN. Topologies are named for the figure created by the web of wiring called data
path used for data transfer. Based on the topology network can be of the following types-
a) Bus: In a bus network each computer is connected to a single communication cable via an
interface and every computer can directly communicate with each other. The bus is a single pair
or a bunch of wires that carry the electrical signals. The individual nodes are connected to the
bus using a passive tap such that all systems are able to monitor the signal on the bus
simultaneously. The bus acts as a broadcast medium. Access and control of bus network are
typically maintained by a method called contention where by if a line is unused a terminal or
device can transmit its message at will but if two or more terminal initiate message
simultaneously they must stop and transmit again at different intervals. The connection of the
node to the bus is similar to Christmas light. Each ends of the bus network is also terminated
with a resistor to keep the signal that is sent by a node across the network from bouncing back
when it reaches the end of the cables. Traffic travels in both directions.
The bus topology appears to be the most flexible one and suitable for LAN networks. It is
able to handle the wide range of devices in terms of numbers of devices, data rates and data
types. Again being passive units the failure of an interface tap in a bus topology does not affect
the operation of a LAN.
b) Ring Topology: Like a bus network, ring has the nodes daisy chained. The difference is that
the end of the network comes back around to the first node creating a complete circuit. In a ring
network several devices or computer are connected to each other in a closed loop by a single
communication cable so a ring network also called as loop network. The data travels around the
ring to each station in turn until they arrive at the required station.
A ring can be unidirectional or bidirectional. In a unidirectional ring, data moves in one
direction only and in bidirectional ring data moves in both direction, but in only one direction at
a time. Each node of the ring takes a turn sending and receiving information through the use of a
token. The token along with any data is sent from the first node to the second nodes which
extract the data address to it and adds any data it wishes to send. Then the second node passes the
token and so on. Only the node with the token is allowed to send data, others must wait for the
token as it comes to them.
The advantage of ring network is that they can travel larger distances with a very high
speed link than other types of network such as bus network because each node regenerates
messages as they pass through it.
In a ring network each unit serves as a controller. All messages travel in only one
direction so when one unit is down the system could be down. So, it becomes necessary to
consider fault tolerance techniques such as dual ring or folded ring operation for handling RIV
failure in a ring topology.
c) Star Topology: In the star topology single controller is there in the middle of the system. All
communication takes place through the controller. All other devices are connected to the
centralized device called hub / switches. In the star topology, the controller is responsible for
managing the network. Other nodes share a fixed amount of the Central’s CPU’s time called a
time slice. So if controller is inoperative the whole system is down for all.
The star topology is good for terminal intensive requirement because of the minimal
processing works. Star LANs are generally designed in banking sector for centralized record
d) Tree Topology: In a tree network several devices or computer are linked in a hierarchical
fashion. In constructing the network the frequently interacting nodes are placed near to each
other so it is also known as hierarchical network. This type of distribution system is commonly
used in the organization where headquarters communicates with regional offices and regional
offices communicate with district offices and so on. The tree networks are difficult to expand
once established.
e) Completely Connected or Mesh Network: Completely connected network has a separate
physical link for connecting each node to any other node. Thus each computer of such network
has a direct dedicated link, called a point to point link with all other computers of the network.
The control is distributed with each computer deciding its communication priorities.
This type of network is very reliable as any line breakdown will affect only
communication between the connected computers. Again, each node of the network needs not to
have individual routing capacity and communication is very fast between any two nodes.
It is most expensive system from the point of view of line cost. If there are n nodes in the
network, then n(n-1)/2 links are required. Thus the cost of linking the system grows with the
square of the number of nodes.
f) Hybrid Network: The basic network topologies can be linked together to form hybrid network
of considerable complexity. For example, the star and bus topologies can be combined to form a
hybrid network.
There are a number of other topologies that have been studied in the content of LAN.
These include hypercube, multistage store, and forward network. However, LANs based on these
topologies are not widely used at present.
Again, based on utility criteria, network can be of the following types-
a) Resource Sharing Network: This type of network are intended to share the resources which
includes specialized computer, software or other devices that are expensive and are not
affordable by an individual user. Eg. A super computer in an institution is accessed by several
station located in different department / section of the institution.
b) Data Sharing Network: This network provides access to various databases from workstation
situated at distance apart. Eg. Remote access to stock exchange data or hotel and airline
reservation system.
c) Communication and Data Exchange Network: This type of network allows users to
exchange data graphs and document with each other using such devices as e-mail, bulletin board,
etc irrespective of their location.
Classification of network based on the concept of “area” made good sense at this time
because a key distinction between a LAN, MAN and WAN involves the physical distances that
the network spread. As technology improves the new types of network appeared on the sense.
These too become known as various types of area network for consistency’s sake (eg. Storage
area network, system area network, campus area network, etc) although distances no longer
proved a useful differentiation.
a) LAN: In an LAN two or more computers or node are directly linked within a small well
defined areas such a room, office, building, campus or a local neighborhood with a range of 10
kilometer. Each hardware device on a LAN such as computer or a printer is called a node. Most
LAN’s are privately owned, controlled and managed by a single person or organization and uses
direct high speed cables to share hardware, software and data resources. LAN uses the Institute
of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE-802.5, IEEE 802.3) Ethernet, IBM token ring, etc
protocol where as WAN uses TCP/IP, HTTP, FTP, etc.
b) MAN: The networks which spread over a city or that connect an area longer than a LAN but
smaller than WAN are known as MAN. It covers a city with dedicated or high performance
c) WAN: A Wide Area Network is a computer network that directly connects computer separated
by long distances, more than a mile and as much as half the globe. WAN uses special purpose
telephone wires, dedicated line, fiber optic cables, microwaves or satellites for communication.
WAN is a geographically dispersed collection of LAN and are not owned by any one
organization but rather exists under collective or distributed ownership and management. The
largest WAN in existence is the internet.
A WAN is composed of a number of autonomous computer that are distributed over a
large geographical area often a county or continent and it is a satellite based network eg.
National Social Science Documentation Centre (NASSDOC)
National Social Science Documentation Centre (NASSDOC): NASSDOC is an India's
Leading Information Centre for Research and Innovations in Social Sciences. It was established
in 1969 as a Division of ICSSR with the objective to provide library and information support
services to researchers in social sciences; those working in academic institutions, autonomous
research organisations, policy making, planning and research units of government departments,
business and industry, etc. NASSDOC provides guidance to libraries of ICSSR Regional Centres
and ICSSR maintained Research Institutes.
To cater to the information needs of social scientists, NASSDOC offers many services. These
include the following
i) Library and Reference Service.
ii) Collection of unpublished doctoral dissertations, research project reports, current and old
volumes of selected social science journals of Indian and foreign origin.
iii) Literature Search Service from printed and digital databases, i.e CD-ROMS, floppies, online
database, etc.
iv) Compilation of short bibliographies on request.
v) Study grants are made available to doctoral students for collection of research material from
various libraries located in different parts of India.
vi) Financial assistance is provided for taking up bibliographical and documentation projects.
vii) Published bibliographies, directories, reference sources in social sciences are acquired in
bulk for distribution among institutions and libraries.
viii) Document Delivery Service is provided by procuring books and journals on Inter-library
loan or by photocopying the documents.
ix) Short-term training courses are organized for the research scholars, social scientists, librarians
and IT professionals to acquaint them with the latest information and communication
x) Cyber Cafe, to facilitate access to internet resources on social sciences.

National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning (NPTEL)

National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning (NPTEL): NPTEL is an acronym
for National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning which is an initiative by seven
Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT Bombay, Delhi, Guwahati, Kanpur, Kharagpur, Madras and
Roorkee) and Indian Institute of Science (IISc) Bangalore. The main objective of NPTEL
program is to enhance the quality of engineering education in the country by developing
curriculum based video and web courses. The NPTEL project, receives its funding support
through the National Mission on Education through Information and Communication
Technology (NMEICT) since the year 2009.
Five engineering branches (Civil, Computer Science, Electrical, Electronics and Communication
and Mechanical) and core science programmes that all engineering students are required to take
in their undergraduate engineering programme in India were chosen initially. Contents for the
above courses were based on the model curriculum suggested by All India Council for Technical
Education (AICTE) and the syllabi of major affiliating Universities in India.
In the first phase of the project, supplementary content for 129 web courses in
engineering/science and humanities and 110 courses in video format have been developed. Each
course contains materials that can be covered in depth in 40 or more lecture hours. The courses
are available freely over the NPTEL website
National Mission on Education through Information and Communication
Technology (NME-ICT)
National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology
(NME-ICT): Under this project all the colleges, institutes and universities are being provided
with high speed data connectivity so that high quality e-content could be reached to the teachers
and students of educational organizations.
According to the project, all UGC-approved colleges (degree level and above) would be
provided VPN over Broadband (VPNoBB) @512 kbps each-10 connections in the first year, 15
connections in the second year and 20 connections in the third year. Internet bandwidth will be
fed centrally to this VPN network @ 5 Gbps in first year, 10 Gbps in second year and 30 Gbps in
third year. All the 419 universities will be given 1 Gbps link to nearest National Knowledge
Network (NKN) node on OFC. All the universities will be provided a LAN network of 400
nodes each and BSNL will be responsible for its maintenance for next 5 years.
The connectivity under NMEICT would seamlessly integrate with the National
Knowledge Network (NKN).
National Library Day / National Library Week
National Library Day / National Library Week: Ayyanki Venkata Ramanaiah, Secretary,
Andhra Pradesh Library Association organised an All India Library Meeting on 12th November,
1912 in Madras. This meeting lead to the formation of Indian Library Association (ILA). Later,
ILA gave prominence to the 12th November meeting and declared 14th November as National
Library Day. This was also the Birth day of our former Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. Since
1968, 14th-20th November are celebrated as National Library Week all over India.

National Library Associations

National Library Associations: The American Library Association (ALA) (1876), Association
for Information Management (ASLIB), The Canadian Library Association (CLA) (1946), The
Library Association, London, The Special Libraries Association (SLA), (1909), The Association
for Library and Information Science Education (ALISE) (1915), The American Society for
Information Science (ASIS), The Association of Research Libraries (ARL) (1932), The Society
of American Archivists (SAA) (1936), etc are some of the most popular national library
associations in the world.
In India, All India Public Library Association (1919); Indian Library Association (1933);
Government of India Library Association (1933); All India Rural Library Association (1933);
Indian Library Association (1933); All India Manuscripts Library Association (1944) are some of
popular library associations that were established before independence.
The Raja Rammohun Roy Library Foundation (RRRLF), Indian Association of Special Libraries
and Information Centers (IASLIC) (1955); All India College Library Association (1966); Indian
Association of Teachers of Library and Information Science (IATLIS) (1969); Society for
Information Science (SIS) (1969); Indian Theological Library Association; Medical Library
Association of India (MALI), etc. were established after independence.

National Library and Information Services Infrastructure for Scholarly Content

National Library and Information Services Infrastructure for Scholarly Content (N-LIST):
N-LIST is an initiative of Ministry of Human Resource Development under National Mission on
Education through ICT to extend e-resources to colleges in India. The Project entitled “National
Library and Information Services Infrastructure for Scholarly Content (N-LIST)”, being jointly
executed by the UGC-INFONET Digital Library Consortium, and the INDEST-AICTE
a) Aims and Objectives: The project has four distinct components. The INDEST and UGC-
INFONET are jointly responsible for the following activity listed at i) and ii). The INFLIBNET
Centre, Ahmedabad is responsible for activities listed at iii) and iv).
i) To subscribe and provide access to selected UGC-INFONET e-resources to technical
institutions (IITs, IISc, IISERs and NITs) and monitor its usage;
ii) To subscribe and provide access to selected INDEST e-resources to selected universities and
monitor its usage;
iii) To subscribe and provide access to selected e-resources to 6,000 Govt./ Govt.-aided colleges
and monitor its usage; and
iv) To act as a Monitoring Agency for colleges and evaluate, promote, impart training and
monitor all activities involved in the process of providing effective and efficient access to e-
resources to colleges.
b) Membership: The N-LIST project provides access to e-resources to students, researchers and
faculty from colleges and other beneficiary institutions through server(s) installed at the
INFLIBNET Centre. More than 6,000 colleges covered under 2F/12B Act of UGC are eligible to
register with N-LIST programme. The colleges that are not covered under 2F/12B, can apply for
Associate Membership Programme. All members will be required to pay Rs. 5,000/ for annual
National Library
National Library: The governments of most major countries support national libraries. The
national library has a national responsibility. It stands as the apex institution for library services
in a country and is funded by National government. Three noteworthy examples are
the U.S. Library of Congress (located in Washington, D.C.), Canada Library and Archives and
the British Library. The countries which wish to preserve their particular culture, have
established a national library, with the provision of legal deposit. In addition to having a law
requiring the publishers to deposit books, those countries with legal deposits usually have many
other incentives for a proper and speedy deposit, such as a tie-in with laws affecting copyright of
the same documents, and/or a cataloguing- in- publication service.
a) Definition: A national library is a library specifically established by the government of a
nation to serve as the preeminent repository of information for that country. According to
UNESCO’s definition “National library of a country is the one responsible for collecting and
conserving that country’s book production for the benefit of future generation.”
According to the ALA glossary of library and information science, a national library is “a
library designated as such by the appropriate national body and funded by the national
government. Its functions may include the comprehensive collection of the publication output of
the nation (frequently as a copyright depository library), the compilation and maintenance of a
national bibliography, the comprehensive collection and organization of publications on an
international scale for the scholarly community, the production of the bibliographic tools, the
coordination of a library network, the provision of library services to the national government or
some of its agencies, and other responsibilities delineated by the national government”. It has a
comprehensive collection of the published output of a nation to serve the nation as a whole.
Unlike public libraries, National Library rarely allows citizens to borrow books. Often, it
includes numerous rare, valuable, or significant works.
b) Objectives: According to International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions
(IFLA), IFLA National Libraries Section, “national libraries often serve as a national forum for
international programmes and projects. They may have a close relationship with national
governments, may be concerned with the development of national information policies, and may
act as a conduct for the views of other sectors of the profession. Occasionally, they also serve the
information needs of the legislature directly”. Some of the objectives of national libraries are
i) To acquire and conserve the whole of the national production via legal deposit (i.e., copyright)
of the national imprint (both print and electronic);
ii) The provision of central services (e.g., reference, bibliography, preservation, lending) to users
both directly and through other library and information centres [(i.e., Inter Library Loan (ILL)];
iii) The preservation and promotion of the national cultural heritage; acquisition of at least a
representative collection of foreign publications;
iv) To undertake the production of current national bibliographies and also of retrospective
national bibliographies;
v) To assemble material for a central register of manuscript collections and to keep it up to date;
vi) To set up a national plan for the acquisition of foreign materials in countries where no such
plan exists;
vii) The promotion of national cultural policy; and leadership in national literacy campaigns.
c) Collections: National library is usually notable for its size, compared to that of other libraries.
It is compressive in the extreme but it also concentrates on current, working collection. Its thrust
is immediate use. National libraries are however still trying to collect all significant materials
produced in the respective country as well as important documents published outside the country.
d) Services: Library services available throughout the world vary so much in detail from country
to country that it is impossible to present any thing but the most general picture of their activities.
International organization for Standardization has recognized the following functions of a
national library:
i) Responsible for acquiring and conserving copies of all significant publications published in the
country, built up by legal deposit or under other arrangement;
ii) Hold and keep up to date a large and representative collection of foreign literature including
books about the country;
iii) Produce a national bibliography;
iv) Publish a retrospective national bibliography;
v) Act as a national bibliographical information centre;
vi) Compile a union catalogue.
To the above basic functions, the following additional functions are identified.
vii) Provide interlibrary lending and for this purpose develop central loan / photocopy collection
of both national and foreign literature;
viii) Developing and maintaining bibliographic data bases relevant to the country;
ix) Act as a national repository for the receipt, storage, preservation and supply by loan or
photocopy of items withdrawn from other libraries;
x) To conserve the national intellectual and cultural heritage for the benefit of the future
xi) Act as exchange centre, national and international.
The national library is the central agent receiving information and inquiries and initiating
library services for the common good. The national library should be the prime mover in library
matters and should be expected to be the leading library in all fields. It should act as the hub of
nation’s research and reference and referral centre.
National Knowledge Network (NKN)
National Knowledge Network (NKN): The idea of setting up of a NKN was deliberated at the
office of Principal Scientific Advisor to the Government of India and the National Knowledge
Commission. Collaborative engagements were held with key stakeholders including experts,
potential users, telecom service providers and educational and research institutions. This project
is again a part of the Knowledge Commission headed by Sam Pitroda.
The decision to set up NKN was announced in 2008-09 with an initial allocation of INR 100
crore to the Department of Information Technology (DIT), Ministry of Communications and IT.
However, to provide the much needed impetus to this initiative the Cabinet Committee on
Infrastructure in March 2010 approved the establishment of NKN at an outlay of INR 5,990
crore to be implemented by National Informatics Centre (NIC) over a period of 10 years. The
project is being monitored by a High Level Committee headed by Dr. R Chidambaram,
Principal Scientific Advisor to the Prime Minister of India. Under this project, nearly 2500
institutes like all state universities, central universities, IITs, government medical and
engineering colleges, R & D institutes like ICMR, BARC, etc. are going to be connected.
NKN will provide a unified high bandwidth (low latency) network backbone for all the
sectors. It will also provide necessary equipment required to connect the institute to the
network. It will encourage and enable the use of specialized applications, which allow sharing
of high performance computing facilities (for example GARUDA through mutual consent with
the owner of HPC services), R & D Networks (for example GLORIAD, an Indo-Us initiative,
TIEN 3, an Indo-European initiative, etc), e-libraries, virtual classrooms, large databases and
high speed internet. It will be a critical infrastructure for India to evolve as a Knowledge
At present, 15 Points of Presence (PoP) for NKN have been established across the
country. The target of NKN shall be to connect 1,500+ institutes by March, 2012.
National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources
National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR): The
National Institute of Science Communication (NISCOM), the erstwhile Publications and
Information Directorate (PID) was set up in 1951 to published scientific journals, periodicals
and to compile information on the country’s raw material in the form of an encyclopedia of
great importance. Again, the Indian National Scientific Documentation Centre (INSDOC) was
set up in 1952, with the technical assistance from UNESCO. Both the institute NISCOM and
INSDOC merged on 30th September, 2002 giving rise to National Institute of Science
Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR), which devotes itself to science
communication, dissemination and Science & Technology information management systems
and services user with the application of modern Information Technology infrastructure.
a) Aims and Objectives: The main aims and objectives of NISCAIR are-
i) Mission Statement: To become the prime custodian of all information resources on current
and traditional knowledge systems in science and technology in the country, and to promote
communication in science to diverse constituents at all levels, using the most appropriate

ii) Mandate of NISCAIR

* To provide formal linkages of communication among the scientific community in the form of
research journals in different areas of S & T;
* To disseminate S & T information to general public, particularly school students, to inculcate
interest in science among them;
* To collect, collate and disseminate information on plant, animal and mineral wealth of the
* To harness information technology applications in information management with particular
reference to science communication and modernizing libraries
* To act as a facilitator in furthering the economic, social, industrial, scientific and commercial
development by providing timely access to relevant and accurate information
* To develop human resources in science communication, library, documentation and
information science and S&T information management systems and services
* To collaborate with international institutions and organizations having objectives and goals
similar to those of NISCAIR
* Any other activity in consonance with the mission statement of NISCAIR
b) Activities and Services: Broadly the core activity of NISCAIR is to collect/store, publish
and disseminate S & T information through a mix of traditional and modern means, which
benefits different segments of society.
i) Acquisition of Information Resources: One of the core activities of NISCAIR is to collect,
organize and disseminate S & T information generated in India as well as in the world which
has relevance to Indian S & T community. Under this programme, the institute is building
comprehensive collection of S & T publications in print as well as in electronic form and
disseminating through traditional as well as modern means benefiting different segments of the
ii) National Science Library: The National Science Library (NSL), which was set up in 1964
has a comprehensive collection of over 2, 00,000 volumes including monographs and bound
volumes of journals in the country and is offering services on a national scale. NSL also acts as
a referral centre and clearing house for the best utilisation of the existing collection in the
country. The NSL is enrich with electronic resourcdes, online databases, CD-ROM Databases.
iii) In-house Databases: The database developed by NISCAIR includes
* National Union Catalogue of Scientific Serials in India (NUCSSI)
* Indian Patents (INPAT) Database
* Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Abstracts (MAPA)
* Indian Science Abstract (ISA)
iv) Raw Materials Herbarium & Museum: NISCAIR has set up a Herbarium and Museum
housing economically important raw materials of plant, animal and mineral origin from India at
one place, to cater to the needs of scientists, researchers, industrialists students and the public.
The NISCAIR Herbarium & Museum has been assigned the acronym RHMD (Raw Materials
Herbarium & Museum, Delhi) by the International Association for Plant Taxonomy, which
appears in the publiication "Index Herbarium, New York, USA". The Herbarium houses over
6000 specimen of economic and medicinal plants of India and the Museum comprises over
2500 samples of crude-drugs, animal and mineral specimens.
v) Consultancy Services: Under this programme, services are offered in the identification of
plants and crude drug samples against payment. Information on plants regarding availability,
use, cultivation, export/import data is provided on request. Services on other important aspects
of plants, animals and minerals of commercial and industrial uses are also supplied against
vi) Official Certifying Centre (OCC): Based on the herbarium and museum of crude drug
samples and in-house expertise, NISCAIR herbarium serves as one of the nodal agencies in
India for authentication of crude drugs used in the Indigenous Systems of Medicine.
vii) NISCAIR Citizen Charter: The charter would essentially incorporate citizen’s entitlement
to public services, wide publicity of standards of performance, quality of services, access to
information, simplified procedures of complaints, time-bound redressal of grievances and
provision for independent scrutiny of performance.
viii) E-journals Consortia: NISCAIR is the nodal agency for developing a "Consortium for
CSIR Laboratories for Accessing e-journals". The activity ranges from creation to monitoring
of the access facility of scientific periodicals published by leading international institutions.
ix) Translation Service: NISCAIR provides translation of S & T documents from 20 foreign
languages into English. The languages include Chinese, Czech, Danish, Dutch, French,
German, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Rumanian, Russian,
Serbo-Croatian, Spanish, Swedish, etc. The clients include National Laboratories, S&T
institutes, R&D organisations, Corporate and Public Sector Undertakings, Universities,
Research Scholars, etc. NISCAIR also provides reverse translation (English into foreign
x) Document Copy Supply Service (DCSS): NISCAIR provides DCSS to the Indian scientific
community by supplying copies of articles from Indian and foreign journals at nominal charges
Copies of Indian and foreign patents and standards can also be obtained from NISCAIR.
xii) Human Resource Development: NISCAIR conducts training programs in library and
information science, documentation, science communication and herbarium techniques with an
objective of human resource development. Short-Term / Attachment / On-site Training
Programmes including a two year master’s level academic course [Associateship in Information
Science (AIS)] in information science (one course every year) is the peculiarity of NISCAIR.
xiii) Publication: The institute brings out 17 primary and two secondary scientific journals of
international repute. The institute also brings out three popular science magazines in Hindi,
English and Urdu to meet the scientific quest of the masses. Encyclopaedic volumes of "The
Wealth of India" and "Bharat Ki Sampada", which deal with the natural resources of the
country, cater to the needs of enterpreneurs, progressive farmers, students, researchers, etc.
Besides, Fortnightly issues of CSIR News (in English) and monthly issues of CSIR Samachar
(in Hindi) serve as an effective link between various CSIR constituents and users of
information on various R & D programs and other activities of CSIR, other R&D organizations,
university departments and industry. The journals published by the institute includes Indian
Journal of Traditional Knowledge (IJTK) and Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Abstracts
It also publishes digitized versions of Indian Science Abstracts (ISA), Medicinal and
Aromatic Plants Abstracts (MAPA), The Wealth of India, Raw Materials Series.
xiv) International Collaboration: NISCAIR is the National Centre of the ISSN International
Centre for assigning ISSN numbers for serials published in India. NISCAIR exchanges
publications with over 150 institutions in 44 countries in the world. Distinguished experts from
other countries visit the institute every year. NISCAIR's scientists also attend international
conferences, seminars, workshops and training programmes.
c) Conclusion: In addition, NISCAIR provides various services such as Medicinal and
Aromatic Plants Information Service; Contents, Abstracts and Photocopy Service (CAPS);
Literature Search Service; S & T Translation Service; Bibliometric Service; Editing, Designing,
Production and Printing of scientific publications.

National Information System for Science and Technology (NISSAT)

National Information System for Science and Technology (NISSAT): The increasing role of
science and technology in the economic and social development of the country generated a
pressing demand for faster technology transfer to the industries. In fact information centres
serving the needs of different industries and Research & Development units, were therefore
required to be coordinated and organized into an integrated system to avoid a haphazard growth
and duplication of activities and to conform to national and international standards. In order to
meet this requirement the National Information System for Science & Technology (NISSAT)
was launched in 1977. In tune with the changing global scenario and in pursuance of the
national efforts in liberalization and globalization of the economy, NISSAT reoriented its
programme activities continually in order to be useful to a wider base of clientele in diverse
subjects. Besides establishing the internal linkages between the information industry, its
promoters and users, NISSAT also made efforts to establish a bridge between information
resource developers and users in India and other countries.
a) History: In 1971 the government of India made a request to UNESCO for advising the
government about the establishment of an information network in science and technology in the
country. In 1972, Dr. Peter Lazer, who worked as a consultants submitted a report on NISSAT.
In 1973, the panel group of National Committee on Science and Technology (NCST)
recommended the establishment of NISSAT under the Department of Science and Technology
(DST) and finally NISSAT was launched on 13th May 1977 under the Department of Science
and Technology and was put under the charges of Department of Scientific and Industrial
Research in the Ministry of Science and Technology..
b) Closure of Scheme: The scheme has not been included as a component of the Tenth Plan of
the Planning Commission. So, finally the NISSAT comes to an end. Though, it has not been
possible to provide financial assistance to many of the projects during 2002-03, most of them
continued their activities and provided services.
Motivation of Personnel
Motivation of Personnel: The term motivation is derived from the work motive which may be
defined as needs, wants, drives or impulses within an individual. Motivation may be defined as
the complex of force inspiring a person at work to intensify his willingness to use his capacities
for the achievement of certain objectives. Motivation is something that motivates a person into
action and continues him in the courses of action enthusiastically. It determines the behaviors of
the person to a great extent.
According to D. E. McFarland, motivation refers to the way in which urges, drives,
desires, aspiration, striving or needs direct control or explain the behaviours of human beings.
An employee of the library should not think that he has got a job and he has to do his job.
In the library it is the service which matters and this service is not in one’s own job but in the
service of the library as a whole. Therefore, the motivation of the library staff is of prime
a) How of Motivation: The workers must be motivated by congenial service condition and
environment. They must be made to realize that if they work properly they will be rewarded for
the same through promotion, recognition and incentives so that they perform their job willingly
and conscientiously. The motivation will create proper environment for employees to put in their
best effort and work more. For motivation of personnel following factors should be considered-
i) Providing a suitable environment for work and elimination of potential sources of danger in
ii) Determination of the motives or needs of the worker and providing an environment in which
appropriate incentives are available for their need and satisfaction. The incentives may be
monetary reward, status, power, etc.
iii) Persons should be directed, controlled and when needed must be threatened.
iv) Giving scope to develop and control worker’s own commitments, responsibility, self
direction, self control, etc.
v) Giving recognition to the worker for their achievement.
vi) Giving scope for achievement needs i.e. giving responsibility for problem solving;
vii) Creating positive feeling towards job;
viii) Acceptance of the hierarchy level of need and to apply it in motivating the personnel.
b) Theories of Motivation: There are number of theories on human motivation in general. These
can be applied to the personnel management in libraries also. Some of them are-
i) Douglas McGregor: Douglas McGregor in his “the Human side of enterprise”, 1960 describes
that there are two contrasting sets of assumption about individual and their perception of work.
According to him, the theory “X” assumes that the human being on an average has a
inherent dislike of work and always will avoid it. So the personnel should be directed, controlled
and even threatened where necessary to put them to work. They need direction for their work and
when reluctant to take much responsibility in their work. They are also not ambitious and prefer
to have a secure and predictable work situation.
In contrast to the above, he also describes the theory “Y” which argues that motivation
comes from within and one can work efficiently without persuasion. He states-
* Individual will seek responsibility when conditions are favourable for work;
* Workers wish to develop and control their own commitments in a favourable work situation;
* They will exercise self-direction and self-control in the service of objectives to which they are
committed under proper condition.
* They will learn to accept responsibility as well as they will seek it.
* Workers will seek recognition for their achievement;
* They will make significant contribution to achieve the goal of the organization
In the situation of a library, both the theory of “X” and “Y” is applicable.
ii) David C. McClelland: David C. McClelland in “the achieving society”, 1961 describes the
achievement motivation theory. In this theory, he emphasized the importance of high level of
accomplishment or the satisfaction of “achievement needs”. The monetary reward, status and
power have impact over the motivation of individual. He points out that the accomplishment of
objectives is a prime factor. According to him, individual have a sense of achieving and will
accept responsibility for problem solving even in an adverse situation. The entrepreneurial
activity within a controlled environment is liked by the individual. If they are given the
opportunity to develop in such a situation they will prove their efficiency.
iii) F. Herzberg: F. Herzberg in “Work and the nature of man”, 1968 describes his motivation –
hygine theory. He made an extensive examination of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction among
various classes of professionals and non-professional staff. He found that the causes of
satisfaction were not the same as the cause of dissatisfaction. The factor providing satisfaction in
a job situation are the motivating factors and when there are absent in a situation the
dissatisfaction causes in the form of indifference. The element of work generating positive
feelings leading to greater productivity and job satisfaction are described as satisfiers. The
satisfiers are achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibilities and advancement. These
elements create a good climate of productivity and motivate individuals. On the other hand faulty
planning, poor organizational policies, bad administration, environment, lacking inspiration and
motivation, no-recognition of achievement and the like create dissatisfaction leading to low
motivation and indifference.
iv) A. H. Maslow: A. H. Maslow in “Motivation and personality”, 1970 develops the theory that
an individual is motivated by two kinds of needs – basic needs and those that are socially
determined and that both of these must be satisfied to allow emotional maturity. The needs of an
individual are in hierarchy just like a pyramid. At the base, the lowest strata are the basic
physiological needs for survival. Next higher are the safety needs concerned with physical and
psychological well-being and the next higher is the social well-being in terms of belonging and
acceptance. Next higher to that are esteem needs and the self-confidence derived from
recognition and status. At the top is self actualization – the zenith of the individual needs
whereby his own potentialities are realized fully. Maslow gave emphasis on the progressive
nature of needs achievements. When the lowest level is satisfied the individual strives for the
next higher and in this way he aspires for the zenith. According to him, to motivate the personnel
the progressive higher order should be created for the individual in any work situation to get the
best performance from the individuals.
The motivation factors can be improved through better organization of work, the planning
and implementation of work schedules in a better way, monitoring of the works done,
elimination of bottle-necks in work schedules, proper flow-charting, assigning responsibilities to
the individual, placing of right person at the right position capable of doing the job are certain
situations which influence the motivation factor. But higher effective factor is the staff
c) Significance of Motivation: Motivation is called the core of management. It is the major task
of every manager to motivate his subordinates or to create the will to work among the
subordinates. Some of the significance of motivation is-
i) The workers are generally immensely capable of doing some work. Nothing can be achieved if
they are not willing to work. So motivation is an effective instrument in the hands of
management in creation of will to work.
ii) Motivation helps in the better utilization of resources, abilities and capabilities of the worker.
iii) Higher motivation leads to job satisfaction of the worker which can reduce the absenteeism,
turnover and unrest of the staff. This will create better relation in the library. Workers will be
willing to join in the organization.
iv) Motivation will faster team spirit among the workers and increase their loyalty to the work
v) Motivation is intimately connected with morals. Good motivation leads to higher moral.
Metadata: Metadata is structured information that describes, explains, locates, or otherwise
makes it easier to retrieve, use, or manage an information resource. Metadata is often called data
about data or information about information. Metadata shares many similar characteristics to the
cataloguing that takes place in libraries, museums and archives.
a) Metadata Schema: There are literally hundreds of metadata schemas to choose from and the
number is growing rapidly, as different communities seek to meet the specific needs of their
members. Each metadata schema usually has three main characteristics- A limited number of
elements, the name of each element, and the meaning of each element. Two commonly used
metadata schema are Dublin Core (, and Anglo-
American Cataloging Rules (AACR-II).
i) Dublin Core: The Dublin Core Metadata Element Set arose from discussions at a 1995
workshop sponsored by OCLC and the National Center for Supercomputing Applications
(NCSA). As the workshop was held in Dublin, Ohio, the element set was named the Dublin
Core. The continuing development of the Dublin Core and related specifications is managed by
the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI). The fifteen-element of Dublin core are Title,
Creator, Subject, Description, Publisher, Contributor, Date, Type, Format, Identifier, Source,
Language, Relation, Coverage, and Rights. The fifteen-element "Dublin Core" achieved wide
dissemination as part of the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-
PMH) and has been ratified as IETF RFC 5013, ANSI/NISO Standard Z39.85-2007, and ISO
Standard 15836:2009.
b) Creation of Metadata: The metadata can be created and collected at point of creation of a
resource or at point of publication. There are many such tools available and the number
continues to grow. Such tools can be standalone or part of a package of software, usually with a
backend database or repository to store and retrieve the metadata records, some examples
i) DC-dot ( This service will retrieve a Web page and
automatically generate Dublin Core metadata, either as HTML tags or as RDF/XML, suitable for
embedding in the section of the page.
ii) DCmeta ( Developed by Tasmania
Online. It is based on SuperNoteTab text-editor and can be customized.
iii) HotMeta ( A package of software,
including metadata editor, repository and search engine.
Melville Dewey
Melville Dewey: Melville Louis Kossuth Dewey was born in Adams Center, New York in the
United States on December 10, 1851. Dewey invented the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC)
system for library classification when he was 21 and working as a student assistant in the library
of Amherst College. This classification system is the most widely used library classification
scheme in the world. In 1884, he founded the Columbia School of Library Economy, the first
ever institution organized for the instruction of librarians.
He was an advocate of the metric system and English language spelling reform and is
responsible for, among other things, the “American” spelling of the word Catalog (as opposed to
the British Catalogue). He also considered changing his own name from Melville Louis Kossuth
Dewey to simply Melvil Dui. Dewey is a member of the American Library Association’s Hall of
Fame. His work created a revolution in library science and set in motion a new era of
librarianship. He well deserves the title of “Father of Modern Librarianship”. He died after
suffering a stroke on December 26, 1931 at an age of 80.
MEDical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLARS)
MEDical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLARS): MEDical Literature
Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLARS) is the computerized system of databases and
databanks offered by the National Library of Medicine. The National Library of Medicine
(NLM) enters into bilateral agreements with public institutions in foreign countries to serve as
International MEDLARS Centers.
These Centers assist health professionals in accessing MEDLARS databases, offer search
training, provide document delivery and perform other functions as biomedical information
resource centers. There are more than 20 international MEDLARS centres worldwide. In the List
of international MEDLARS centres of the National Library of Medicine one can find the
corresponding addresses.
Manpower Planning
Manpower Planning: Effective manpower planning is a crucial job in the library system. It
should consider both the existing staff as well as new persons to be recruited. An effective
planning should be made for the personnel management at the organizational level itself so that
at the planning stage itself the library system have a well defined, well structured and realistic
manpower policy.

The preplan activities before manpower planning includes-

i) Collection of data for job specification and job analysis;
ii) Preparation of flow charting for various operation and system analysis;
iii) Subsequent quantification and interpretation of the data;
iv) Translation of the system analysis into manpower requirements.
The points that should be considered in manpower planning includes-
i) The objectives and goals of the library and the performance to achieve these through
implementation of services should be considered in the manpower planning;
ii) Besides the routine jobs the emphasis should also be given on changing circumstances,
revised objectives and programme adjustment because libraries are constantly changing social
organization. The social forces and new technology are always influencing factors of the library.
iii) The staff structure should facilitate the understanding of the role of individual
iv) Each staff should be given opportunity to make useful contribution to the general functioning
of the library.
v) Motivation is of prime importance in a library because in the library it is the service which
vi) Adequate communication should be maintained among the staff member and the staff must be
kept informed of facts affecting their work.
vii) The manpower planning also should give clear-cut guideline about recruitment and selection,
test, placement, induction and orientation, training and development, etc.
Managing Research Work
Managing Research Work: The following activities will lead one to manage his research work
a) Managing Yourself: Doing any kind of research work is a lonely experience. Sometimes it
looks like that the person doing the research and his/her guide or supervisor is the only two
people in this world who are interested in that particular subject. So, keeping it in mind the
research scholar should not try to discuss about their research work with a common person
unless he / she is the professional colleague.
b) Managing Friends and Family: It would be better if the researcher does not expect too much
from his/her friend and family members, as they can do nothing, except giving a glimpse of
encouraging words and a moral support. The researcher should also avoid in telling in an
extensive way about the research work to the friends and family members, otherwise others may
see the researcher like a bore. So, in simple, during the course of the research work the
researcher should try to maintain a balance (though it’s really a difficult task) between research
work and the social responsibility.
c) Managing Time: One cannot find more time than what he / she has. What one can do is only
to manage his / her time for a productive work instead of spending it in the way of gossiping,
unnecessary thinking, etc.
d) Managing Document: The research scholar should arrange all the resources collected or own
resource,s i.e books, articles, etc. in a systematic way, so that in case of immediate retrieval it
does not cost much time.
e) Research Diary: During the course of research work, the research diary should move along
with the researcher. He/she should keep notes of everything (necessary/near unnecessary),
because what today seems to be unnecessary may be relevant tomorrow.
f) Keeping Backup: During the course of the research work, different ideas will invade the mind
of the researcher. Keeping a back up copy of these ideas by way of documenting over the note
book may some times prove extraordinarily important. Some times ideas are invaluable one, and
it may have the capacity to give a new wing to the researcher’s career. The researcher should also
keep backup copy of the writing on daily basis, both in soft copy as well as hard copy ignoring
whatever the cost may be.
g) Managing Supervisor: In any field of study, resource persons are very busy but they are also
crucial to the success of any research work. The majority of the supervisors are highly
experienced and will do their best to make the researcher’s visit to them productive and
enjoyable (exceptions will always be there). So, as a research worker, the research scholar
shouldn’t hesitate to use his /her supervisor within their legitimate time period.
h) Citation Style: Before going through the research work, the research scholar should
determine which citation format he/she is going to follow and after wards whatever the research
scholar reads, he / she should immediately include it in the reference page, according to the
chosen citation style. It is crucial, if one does not want to include his/her name in the list of
“plagiaries”, by not citing them. The normal strategy for longer quotation is to write it in italics,
keeping a small gap before as well as after the quotation.
Management School of Thought
Management School of Thought: During the present century, certain schools of management
thought have developed. Each school reflects the problems of the period during which they were
popular. Herold Koontz was the first who have attempted to classify the various approaches on
the management in the schools of management theory. Based on the writings of some of the
scholars and Koontz, the management thoughts, have been classified in the following schools of
management theory.
a) Management Process School: This school developed in France. Henri Fayol, a Frenchman is
considered as the father of this school. Sometimes this school is referred to as “Traditional or
Universalist” or Classical school. It regards management as a universal process. The
management process is analyzed, conceptual framework is established, principles are identified
and a theory of management in built from it.
Henri Fayol applied scientific approach but looked at administration from the top to
down. He focused on a systematic understanding of the overall management process. It holds
that management is a process which can best be understood by analyzing its function.
The traditional school is also called the rules of thumb, where workers are not given the
chance for decision-making. It is running as usual without any logic. There is not any
consideration of scientific method. The traditional school gives rise to:
i) Narrow work specialization;
ii) Rigid hierarchical structure of management;
iii) Gulf between vision and work due to organizational levels;
iv) Salary and perks determining the structure of management rather than work structure.
b) Scientific Management School: Scientific management is the application of the principles
and methodology of modern science to problems of administration. Scientific management, in
brief, involves certain combination of the following elements-
i) Science instead of rule of thumb;
ii) Co-operation instead of individuation;
iii) Harmony instead of discord;
iv) Maximum output instead of restricted output;
v) The development of each person to his greatest efficiency.
The term scientific management was introduced by Louis Brandeis in 1910 in his
appearance before Interstate Commerce Commission. “The basic assumption of this school is the
philosophy that workers are economically motivated and they will respond with their best
emphasis is on maximum output with minimum effort by eliminating waste and inefficiency at
the operative level”.
The above theory owes its origin to Frederick Winslow Taylor, who is regarded as the
father of scientific management. Efficiency was the central theme of his writing. He aimed at
making management a science based on well organized, clearly defined and fixed principles of
management instead of depending on more or less lazy ideas.
Scientific management is also called Modern management. Modern management gives
due emphasis on Human Resource Development (HRD), so that they can use the existing
resources. Existing resources should be trained so that they can handle the latest technology.
Modern management looks into the personal development of the staff. Welfare of the staff is the
objective of modern management.
c) Bureaucratic Theory: This theory was propounded by Max Weber which has profoundly
influenced modern thinking in these areas. Weber developed a bureaucratic model of
organization which is essentially a universal model of efficient organization. Bureaucracy refers
to a certain characteristic of organizational design. This emphasized specialization within an
organization and considered hierarchy of the decision making process of great importance. He
analyzed the authority and responsibility of the office rather than individual. He made
monumental contribution to authority structures in a complex organization.
Luther Gulick, an American has described the functions of an executive in terms of an
acronym POSDCORB, representing Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, COordinating,
Reporting and Budgeting.
d) Human Relation School: The human relations approach to management began with the
Hawthorne experiments in the early 1930s. Its findings led to the development of a new
hypothesis i.e. motivation to work, morale and productivity are related to social relations among
the workers and the supervision and not to physical condition of work. The human relation
school considers that as managing involves getting things done through people; therefore
management studies should be evolved around interpersonal relations. Thus the main emphasis is
on the individual and the informal group in the formal organization. The basic concern is to study
people as human beings rather than as mere work units. Sociologists and psychologists have
been very active in developing this school of thought.
i) Human Behavior School: The focus of the human behavior school is on behaviour of the
individual, the group and the organization. This theory looks at the human factor as the central
theme. It lays greater emphasis on interpersonal relationship, leadership, group dynamics and
motivation of personnel. The basic assumption is that in case the management can keep the
employees happy, then this will result in the maximum performance.
Elton Mayo and group of industrial Psychologist conducted experiments at the Western
Electric Hawthorne plant in Chicago. They came to the conclusion that social interaction and
psychological factors are important in determining the level of productivity and satisfaction.
ii) Social System School: This theory views organization as a system which is composed of
interacting and inter dependent parts. As a system, an organization is composed of a number of
subsystem of parts, each of which are in itself a system composed of various subsystems which
are also in interdependent and interaction relationship among themselves. The various
subsystems of an organization are linked with each other through its communication network,
decisions, authority, responsibility, relationship, objectives, policies, procedures and other
aspects of coordinating mechanism. The social system school encourages employees to develop
social group on the job, to participate in management and allows democratic functioning in the
e) Decision Theory School: The decision theory school of management, led by Simon looks
upon the management processes as a decision making process. In view of the decision theories,
since the performance of various management functions involved decision making the entire
field of management can be studied from the study of the process of decision making. They have
expanded their area of theory building from the decision making processes to the study of the
decision, the decision maker and the social and psychological environment of the decision
maker. The decision theory starts with the small areas of decision making and then looks at the
entire field of management through this keyhole.
f) Democratic Schools: With development, people are now aware about their rights and
responsibilities. Democratic rights are given to the workers. They have the right to oppose to
illegal works. They can demand for the right to oppose to illegal works. They can demand for
their rights. All these approaches led to the development of democratic school of management.
g) Contingency Theory School: This theory emphasizes that there is no best way to manage. It
focus on the inter relationship within and among the subsystems as well as between the
organization and its environment. It emphasizes the multivariate nature of organization and
attempts to understand how organizations operate under varying conditions and in specific
situation. It regards management as situational.
None of the above school provides a comprehensive view. Each has strong and weak
points. In the present time, people don’t support the traditional school, as there is not any scope
of right of the workers. It is not the mentality of workers to work as a toy under the authority. As
a result, democratic school has got the importance. But the contingency school of management
includes all other schools of management and so seems to be more adaptable.
Human relation school should get importance, as for the development of an organization
it is most essential. An organization can fulfill its objectives only when the employees are
satisfied. They should get an environment to work and to get working environment mutual
respect for each other is essential.
The most suitable school in the present situation seems to be modern school. This is
because personnel constitute the most important and vital key to the effective functioning of an
organization. Their knowledge and skills have to be constantly upgraded to handle new task to
achieve organizational success and the modern schools feel the necessity of this point.
Similarly scientific schools can also be supported in the present time. Today, the library
and information systems are the complex organizations committed to serve the users demands.
Libraries have growth in times in the social, cultural, scientific and technological environments
in which they have been developing and operating. Modern libraries are not merely store houses
of information and knowledge, but are also live and active institutions involved in a vital service
to the society. Today, information and knowledge are considered as important as energy and
biotechnology and hence have to be taken care of and managed well. Therefore in the libraries,
the theories and principles of scientific management are being increasingly applied to manage
A number of more or less separate schools of management thought have emerged since
the end of the 19th century and each sees management from its own viewpoint. Each of the above
school of management thought reflects the problems of the period during which they were
popular and these schools which have survived today are influencing management thoughts of
the present situation.
Management: Right from the dawn of human civilization man has been acquiring and
sharpening the principle of management for better understanding of nature, better exploitation of
resources, better human relations, better organization and governance. As such management is
quite dynamic and flexible and responsible to changes in the social concept and economic
condition. Management structure is pyramid, i.e broadest at the base and tapering towards the
The term management as used in business has a fairly precise meaning and includes the
four basic functions of planning, organizing, motivation (personnel) and controlling. In simple,
management means getting things done in a proper manner without conflict or with least
conflict. The purpose of management function is to yield the optimum good result by using the
resources at hand. The available resources may not be sufficient but the management attempts to
get the best result in a given situation.
According to ALA Glossary of library and information science “management may be defined as
the process of coordinating the total resources of an organization towards the accomplishment of
the desired goals of that organization through the execution of a group of interrelated function
such as planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling.
John Franklin Mee has analyzed a number of definitions and arrived at a definition which
defines management as being composed of three elements-
i) Objectives for group effort must exist;
ii) A process based on logic must be followed in attaining objectives and
iii) People must be utilized in the process to attain objectives.
Management is “the function….concerned in the execution of policy within the limits set
up by administration and the employment of the organization for the particular objects before it.”
Perhaps the simplest and most useful definition of management is “achievement of objectives
through other people”.
Management has been practiced in some form ever since the dawn of human civilization.
However, systematic study of management as a separate branch of knowledge is a product of 20th
century. It was confined to the study of organization, functions, powers and activities etc. of the
public authorities. Later, attempt was made to determine rules for effective and efficient
administrative organization on the basis of empirical evidence.
Managers are needed to convert disorganized resources of people equipment and finance
into a useful enterprise. The modern library managers are needed to exercise a positive influence
to make things happen, to be a dynamic, innovative force, to initiate change and follow through
action. To design job structure which will satisfy the social need of staff member by providing
opportunities for self expression, inner security and human satisfaction.
Maintenance Service
Maintenance Service: Documents are acquired, processed, stored and displayed for use. So it is
essential that these are maintained in proper order and in good physical condition fit for being
used by the library users. In fact, the ultimate success of various other functions like acquisition,
classification and cataloguing rests on the efficiency of the maintenance work. Maintenance
work involves continuous monitoring or keeping proper stocking, arrangement and display of
books on the shelves in the stack rooms and taking care of them.
There are always some users who forget to return materials. There are also thieves who
prey on libraries. The public may not always realize how valuable some of the library materials
are. Again, the price to be paid in a retail store for books and other materials is much lower than
what it costs for the library to acquire, process, store, and to maintain records and so on. Besides,
some documents are rare and some go out of print. So the documents that are in the library
collection can not be easily replaceable. The library security section that comes under
maintenance should try to ensure that no document is lost, no document is mutilated and so on. If
possible, the thief catching devices should be introduced in a library.
1. Guides: Guides should be put at different places in the library so that a user can find out his /
her way without asking anybody in different parts of the library such as reading room, stacks,
etc. Some general guides should be affixed at the entrance of the stack. It should give an overall
view of the arrangements of books in the stacks. Besides general guides, the following will also
need to be introduced, each of which should show the subjects covered in the particular area
giving the inclusive class numbers as well as equivalent names of the subjects in the natural
language / verbal plane.
a) Tier Guide: In case of more than one tier stack, a tier guide should be provided on each tier.
b) Gangway Guide: Each gangway should be provided a gangway guide.
c) Bay Guide: Bay is the part of the face of rack between two consecutive upright. The bay
guide should be put for each bay in the stack room.
d) Shelf Guide: Each shelf should be provided a shelf guide.
2. Shelf List: A shelf list consists of cards of standard size 7.5 X 12.5 cm. A library can also use
the catalogue cards without lines or colored cards for this purpose, or the duplicate copy of the
main entry catalogue card of the book. For each volume there would be one card. The call
number is written on the leading line in the left hand corner, starting from first vertical.
Accession number is written bellow it. In the next line comes the heading. Last line contains
title, edition and year of publication. These cards are then arranged in a classified order parallel
to the corresponding books on the shelves.
Shelf list enables the library to maintain correct sequence on the shelves and to put every
book in the correct place. It can also indicate immediately the position of any book on the self in
the library. As such, the shelf list is an important record; so it should be kept under safety.
Further, shelf list may be regarded as a stock register; therefore, it can be used for stock
verification purpose also.
* Shelf Rectification: The maintenance staff at all levels in a library can devote their free time in
studying the books on the shelves so as to develop a fair knowledge of their contents. According
to Ranganathan, shelf rectification is the process of restoring order among the books. In an open
access library, users have the freedom to select books of their choice from the shelves. While
doing so, some users may intentionally or unintentionally misplace the books in the shelves and a
book wrongly placed is as good as lost. All these would require restoration of order. This can be
achieved by reading the shelves systematically and shifting the misplaced books on the shelves
to their proper places.
In order to control the movement of books in a library system, we make use of the shelf
list. The cards will move with the books, wherever they are transferred. The regular shelf reading
will provide efficient retrieval of materials and helps in the identification of the damaged books
so that they can be removed for repair and binding.
3. Document Maintenance in and Around the Shelves: When the documents are in the shelves
the following maintenance procedures are implemented
a) Shelving: The documents should be properly arranged in the shelves of the library so that they
can be quickly located. The arrangement may be keyword based, classification based or such
other. This practice should be followed for the new books received in the library, books just
returned from circulation, books taken out by the user to the reading room, books taken out from
shelves for carrying out some type of correction, books received after binding, books that are
misplaced, and so on.
b) Maintenance of Document: If tags on books are found missing or get faded, then necessary
action should be taken. Books in need of binding or repair should be taken out from the shelves
for maintenance work. Maintenance of document will include following actions
i) Mending: Mending means minor restoration, not involving replacement with any new material
or the separation of books from cover. For example, the mending of a tear in a page or the
tipping in a loose leaf.
ii) Repairing: Partial rehabilitation of a worn volume, in which the amount of work done being
less than the minimum amount of money involved in rebinding and more than the maximum
involved in mending is called repairing. For example, the repairing of the cover cloth or restoring
the lost leaf corners.
iii) Reinforcing: Strengthening the structure of a weakened volume usually by adding material is
termed as reinforcing. For example, the strengthening of a hinge with cloth or the reinforcing of
a page by covering it with tissue.
iv) Recasing: Replacing the cover of a volume, which is still in good condition but come out of
its cover or has loosened in its cover, the sewing can be solved by recasing.
v) Re-backing: Attaching a new shelf back on a volume without any other binding in termed as
vi) Re-sewing: The process of making a new cover and of attaching it to the volume.
vii) Re-covering: The process of taking out the volume out of its cover, removing the old sewing,
sewing a new and replacing it in the same cover.
c) Dusting and Cleaning: Dust reduces the life of a book; further, the users will hesitate to take
out for consultation such a volume which is full of dust. Again, the books lying unattended in
dark corners for a long period have a greater possibility of being eaten by silver fish and other
insects. To avoid this, dusting and cleaning of books should be done on a regular basis, at least in
an interval of 20-30 days. In a library where the stack area is very large, cleaning can be done by
mechanical devices like vacuum cleaners, etc.
4. Binding: Binding enables the stock to be kept in proper physical conditions. Routine bindings
as well as specification are similar for both books and periodicals publications. Big libraries
should have their own binderies both for binding and repair of books. Other libraries should get
their books bound and repaired by commercial binders.
a) Picking up Books: Damaged books are picked up in the issue or return of the books by the
users, during shelving, shelf rectification and stock verification. New books having weak casing
should also be taken out for binding before being released for use.
b) Noting Details: For each volume the librarian needs to prepare a binding slip. The binding
slip should contain information regarding author, title, call number, accession number, kind of
binding required, colour of binding, lettering (in gold or ink), matter for lettering on the cover
page / spine, etc.
c) Sending the Books: The librarian needs to prepare an order copy for binding from the binding
slips, giving instructions to the binder. The order copy along with the books now should be sent
to the binders.
d) Receiving Books: On receiving the books, these should be checked with the binding slips to
know whether specifications listed out are followed or not. Specification should cover matter
regarding assembling (collation, removal of wrappers and advertisement), stitching (sewing,
mounting of maps, and illustrations, use of end papers, cutting of edges), forwarding, lettering,
sizes, materials to be used etc. If everything is found in order then the labelling and pasting
should be done, to be followed by shelving and releasing of the bill of the binders for payment.
In many libraries, the issues of a complete volume of a periodical are bound together in
hard covers which are known as bound volume periodicals. The bound volumes are shelved with
other books by classification number in some libraries. In other libraries they are shelved in a
separate periodical area. Some libraries acquire some of the current copies of periodicals in paper
and the back issues in digital form.
5. Stock Verification: Stock verification means a systematic checking of the library holdings
with an aim to find out the missing volumes in the library stock. It is a physical check-up of the
documents on record.
a) Need: Books may be mutilated, misplaced, and lost. The damaged books have to be repaired;
misplaced books should be taken out for correct placing, and the lost books should be simply
written off. Those books, which are important and in heavy demand, would need to be replaced.
In case too many books are found to have been lost, mutilated and misplaced, then steps have to
be taken to improve the situation. For all these stock verification will be necessary.
b) Disadvantages: One of the disadvantages of stock verification is that during the stock
verification process many libraries have to close down. The books borrowed by users are recalled
for physical verification and this may cause inconvenience to the users. Again, very often the
cost of stock verification is higher than the cost of the lost book.
c) Stock Verification Procedures: Let us now discuss stock verification procedures as given
i) Accession Register: In this method, the accession register is taken to the shelves. One person
calls out the accession numbers of the books on the shelves and another person ticks the same
accession number in the accession register with a pencil. After this, the items on loan, the items
sent for binding, etc. are ticked in the register. At the end of this operation, a list of untraceable
books is prepared. An effort is also made to trace the missing books. This method is time
consuming, cumbersome and it spoils the accession register.
ii) Register Listing Accession Numbers: In this procedure a separate register is prepared that
contains the accession numbers. The register is taken to the shelves. One person calls out the
accession number from the book, another person ticks the relevant column against the particular
accession number. The rest are same as that of access register procedure.
For small libraries whose collections are within the range of 25 thousand, they can use
any of the above two methods. They can also use similar method that includes Check Cards,
Book cards, and so on. Large libraries cannot use these procedures.
iii) Loose Sheets Listing Accession Numbers: In case of loose sheet, on each sheet consecutive
accession numbers are written down. A single sheet may contain 100 accession numbers. An
accession number called out is crossed out in the sheet. This procedure has the advantage over
the above two in its ability to carry out the stock verification by more than two people at a time
since the loose sheets provide wide flexibility of taking out by multiple persons.
iv) Shelf List: When the shelf lists are on cards and the shelf list is up to date and accurate in
terms of details and arrangement, then this procedure can be followed for stock verification. It is
also essential that in this method, stock verification and stock rectification should be combined
into a single process for the ultimate success. In this method also sock verification can be carried
out by a number of persons at a time as portions of shelves to be checked can be allocated to
different persons.
v) Numerical Counting of Books: This involves mere counting of books lying on shelves and
those on loan. This number deducted out of total stock based on accession register would lead to
number of books lost. On knowing the average cost of a book, one can calculate the cost of all
the lost books.
vi) Sample Stock Verification Method: In this method, a few sections are chosen on the basis of
sampling method (statistics) for stock verification. This gives the figure for annual loss on
average basis.
d) Loss of Books: The stock verification is helpful in identifying and determining the loss of
books in a library. Loss of books in an open access library is inevitable. The General Finance
Rules 2005, The Ministry of Finance, Government of India, No. 194 (ii) (P. 74) envisages that
“loss of five volumes per one thousand volumes of books issued / consulted in a year may be
taken as reasonable provided such losses are not attributable to dishonesty or negligence.
However, loss of a book of a value exceeding Rs. 1,000/- (Rupees One thousand only) and rare
books irrespective of value shall invariably be investigated and appropriate action taken”. The
authorities should write off such loss of books. In case the loss is higher than the permissible
limit then there will be a need to investigate the mater. Causes for higher loss should be
determined and steps should be taken to improve the situation.
6. Evaluation: Library documents are selected by different people over a long period of time.
Librarians may vary in their perception of the general principles of the selection. Patrons’ interest
may change and what was a good collection a decade ago may no longer meet their needs, or the
community itself may change, bringing entirely new patrons with very different needs. All these
factors demand an evaluation of the total collection.
Collection evaluation is a part of collection development in which the existing collections
are measured, analyzed, and judged according to preset criteria for size, relevance, quality, and
use. Evaluation methodologies may be categorized by their focus (user-centered versus
collection-centered) or by the nature of their findings (objective / quantitative/ statistical versus
subjective / qualitative / interpretative).
a) Determining the Worth of the Collection: Various techniques can be used to get some idea
of the worth of a collection. Some of them are
i) Bestsellers, and Reviews: Each year the American Library Association produces lists such as
Best Books for Young Adults, Notable Children’s’ Books, and Notable Books for adult
collections. Certain ALA divisions cooperate to produce University books for secondary school
libraries and university press books for public libraries. Other organizations also produce such
lists. With more and more books being published and reaching the bestseller lists, librarians must
check these lists against their holdings. How many titles were bought, how many were missed?
Did the librarian decide consciously not to buy the missing titles and if so was the decision
correct? Do the titles fall outside the scope of the collection being developed or have the review
media being used to make choices failed to alert the librarian as to their value? Another point of
consideration is that no library can survive with only standard list of titles on its shelves, since no
list can meet the need of diverse patron interest to be found in varying communities.
ii) User Study: The librarian should be alert to study groups within the user community, their
movement and their changing demands from time to time. The users’ need is to be compared
with the existing collection. Soliciting opinions on adequacy and quality of local collections from
the users and/or experts can also prove effective.
iii) Interlibrary Loan Request: Keeping accurate statistics on the number of requests as well as
specific titles and subjects requested will provide an insight into the ways where the users’ needs
are shifting.
iv) Questions at the Reference Desk: Requests from patrons will show the relationship between
the patrons’ interest and the library’s collection. When a genuine conflict exists between the two,
reevaluation of the collection development policy is called for.
v) Titles on Reserve: The title on reserve also provides an insight into a patron’s interest. A large
number of reserves for a particular title would alert the librarian to procure more copies of the
same title.
vi) Circulation Statistics: Here, the circulation of locally held materials is analyzed to forecast
distributions of future needs.
vii) Request Analysis: In request analysis, the requests for materials that could not be found in
local collections are analyzed to determine the weaknesses while the fulfillment of requests from
other libraries is analyzed to determine the strength.
viii) Bibliographies: No library has enough staff to use all the specialized bibliographies
available for evaluation of a collection. But a wide range of such tools should be owned by
libraries for consultation in reader’s advisory and reference services.
7. Weeding: A garden can hardly attain the goals of beauty and elegance without the removal of
the earlier plants and the planting and nurturing of the new ones. In the same way, a library
should weed the obsolete or unused materials periodically to use its limited space most
effectively and for efficient utilization of its new collections. But, titles from old collection need
to be weeded only when the library periodically acquires new materials, as something is always
better than nothing in the library.
a) Why Weeding is not Practised in Libraries: In a service library, the collection loses its
value and significance if the important and valuable documents are mixed up with larger number
of outdated and useless documents. Still, weeding is avoided in many libraries because of the
following factors
i) Love for Large Numbers: The glory for numbers in libraries is still there. This is mainly
because official reports to be submitted by the librarian emphasize on numbers.
ii) No Reading is Obsolete: Many feel that every book, however old it may be, has its own value.
What seems superfluous today may contain the essence of our times for the researcher of
iii) Pressure of Work: Library being a dynamic organization, a work pressure will always be on
the library professionals. Since weeding implies careful, judicious and justifiable action, which
needs time, librarians hesitate to weed out.
iv) Fear of Audit and Clientele Comments: At the time of audit one may face objection that
documents for which amounts were paid are not found in the library. Similarly, the clientele may
also comment upon the documents weeded out of the library saying that some very useful
documents are also discarded.
The librarians need to be discouraged by the above factors. A clear and well planned
weeding out policy free from biasness and approved by a committee will clear all hurdles.
b) Weeding Policy: The Council of American Library Association holds the view that in public
libraries “annual withdrawals from the collection should average at least 5 percent of the total
collection”. Sinha Committee Report (1958) holds a similar view in case of Indian Public
Libraries in the statement that “a conscious librarian should discard 5 percent of the fiction and 2
percent of the non-fiction every year”. According to Ranganathan, many collections lose their
relevance in 20 years. After that period such books should not be preserved in the library but
should be weeded out and written off.
c) What should be weeded: The following types of collection can be considered for weeding:
i) Obsolete Collection: In science and technology, the developments are so fast that the books
published twenty or thirty years ago become outdated. Such books have to be weeded out. The
books that are obsolete in content, style or theme also need to be weeded out.
ii) Older Editions: Superseded editions of books might well be eliminated, if the library is not
attempting a historical collection of all the editions of a given title. Almanacs and yearbooks may
be discarded after 5 years.
Bibliographies and encyclopaeidas are of little use after ten years, though exceptions may
be made in specific instances such as the famous eleventh edition of Encyclopedia Britannica.
iii) Unused Collection: The books that are not circulated or consulted by any library patron
during the last five years also need to be weeded out.
iv) Mutilated Books: Books that are mutilated because of constant use should be withdrawn.
Books that show signs of wear, books which have become dirty, shabby or just plain worn out
should also be withdrawn. When the heavily used items or the titles with significant content are
selected for weeding due to its physical condition then a new copy if it is still available from the
producer or publisher, should be acquired or it should be replaced with a reproduced / Xeroxed
copy (digital conversion).
The weeding should be regularly practised in the library. It might be possible for the
selectors to consider each new title in relation to the possibility of discarding one already on the
shelves. In such cases the weeded collection is replaced with a fresh edition or more
contemporary substitute.
d) Space for Weeded out Books: The weeded out books can be stored in a cooperative way, can
be provided to other library as a donation, can be sold out in the market of second hand book or
i) Storage: At least one copy of the weeded books should be transferred from active collection to
storage (cooperative or individual), or transferring the title to some network partner. This is for
the possible remedies for preventing the permanent loss of the weeded collection. The provision
of cooperative storage will make the weeded collection available to the user of any other
ii) Donation: If the books are in good condition, particularly if they are older editions of
reference sources like encyclopedia, handbook, etc, they may be donated to other libraries which
are not in a position to go for such costly books.
iii) Sold: The documents which are completely worn out, mutilated and irreparable should be
sold just like unpreserved old newspapers.
iv) Destroy: Some collection also needs to be destroyed. Ministry of Finance vide its circular of
7/2/1984 says that “there may be no objection to the librarian disposing of
mutilated/damaged/obsolete volumes to the best interest of the library. However, the disposal of
such volumes should be made on the recommendations of a three member committee”.
e) What should not be weeded: The titles that were in the bestsellers list should not be weeded
even if its circulation statistics is not good. The classic books in each subject also should not be
weeded out.
8. Let Us Sum Up: If proper care is not taken by the maintenance section in a library, the stock
would deteriorate and become unserviceable very soon. The maintenance section preserves the
most valuable or most-used items in the collection.
In a small library, it is generally possible to carry out stock verification once every year.
However, in a larger library, it is neither feasible nor necessary to do stock verification every
year. In such cases it should be a continuous process, in which regions of shelves are taken for
stock verification and the whole process should be completed in two to three years. Again, the
part of the stock which is prone to greater losses can be subjected to stock verification more
frequently. During stock verification, regular library services should not be affected as far as
possible. The use of shelf list for the purpose provides a method of stock verification, which can
be carried out without closing the library.
The library collection in numbers does not tell anything about how the collection relates
to the patron needs. Library collections must be continuously evaluated to go with the user
needs. The tools or methods that are used in selection of materials for library acquisition can also
be used in evaluation of the collection and weeding of the unused collection. The library
collection should be evaluated periodically within five to ten years, depending on the stability of
staff doing the selection and patron’s surveys showing major weaknesses. It should identify what
has been missed, what titles in the collection are not relevant to the users and so on. All
evaluation techniques are time consuming and costly.
Library materials may be weeded because of a combination of their out-dated content,
unnecessary titles, their physical condition (scratched, torn, generally ragged), and their use
patterns (declining or directly lost). The weeded titles may be sent to storage.
Machine Readable Cataloguing 21 (MARC 21)
Machine Readable Cataloguing 21 (MARC 21): The MARC 21 is a standard format for the
representation and communication of bibliographic and related information in machine readable
form. The MARC 21 is a new name of harmonization of CANMARC and USMARC in a single
edition. In 1987, the Library of Congress issued the first edition of the document MARC 21.
Subsequent editions were published in 1990, 1994 and 2000.
a) Necessity of MARC 21: Mark 21 is necessary because of the following factors:
i) Lack of standardization among different national MARC formats;
ii) Lack of internationally accepted cataloguing code to MARC record;
iii) Diverse functions of bibliographic agencies;
iv) Lack of agreement among different bibliographic communities.
b) Maintenance of MARC 21: The Library of Congress and the National Library of Canada
serve as the maintenance agency for MARC 21. The MARC 21 format, documentation and
reviewing and revision are done by the Machine Readable Bibliographic Information Committee
(MARBI). MARBI is a committee of the ALA. MARBI meets in conjunction with MARC
advisory committee at each American Library Association (ALA) conference.
c) Standard Used in MARC 21
i) Cataloguing Code: AACR II;
ii) Subject Heading: LCSH;
iii) Classification Scheme: DDC;
iv) ISO 2709 and ANSI / NISO Z39.2.
Till now, MARC 21 remains the standard one which is widely accepted in different
library softwares and also in different countries.
Machine Readable Cataloguing (MARC)
Machine Readable Cataloguing (MARC): MARC format has become a generic term to all
MARC formats including UKMARC, CANMARC, InterMARC, etc. which are used for the
identification and arrangement of bibliographical data for handling by computer.
The first conference on Machine Readable Cataloguing was sponsored by the Library of
Congress. The committee on Automation of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) and
Council of Library Resources (CLR) was met at the Library of Congress. This conference
recommended that
i) MARC records should include additional information to be used as multipurpose records, in
addition to information available on printed card;
ii) The element of MARC data should be standardized;
iii) MARC records should be produced and distributed to libraries which have automated system.
In the second conference held at the Library of Congress in November 1965, Library of
Congress sought funds from CLR and in December 1965 it received a grant to conduct a pilot
In early January 1966 the planning for the pilot project began. The third conference was
held in February 1966 at the Library of Congress which was considered the official opening of
the pilot project for machine readable cataloguing data. The pilot project was called MARC I. In
this way the MARC I format was set up in April 1966 which was restricted to books only. The
distribution of regular weekly service of MARC tapes started from Nov. 1966. The MARC I
format was based entirely on the structure of the Library of Congress catalogue card. So, BNB
(with active collaboration with Library of Congress) made some operational changes to make it
interchangeable record format. As a result, MARC II was developed. It is capable of containing
bibliographic data of all forms of library material such as books, monographs, serial, map, music,
etc. By subscribing to this service a library can acquire Magnetic tapes in machine readable
Due to the differences between the British Library and the Library of Congress MARC II
was later split into two formats - BNB MARC (later UK MARC) and US MARC. The
USMARC format becomes the U. S. National Standard in 1971 (ANSI Z39.2) and an
International Standard in 1973 (ISO 2709). The MARC II also influenced the other countries to
develop their own standard format which followed the same structure but the tags were slightly
different. As a result, certain amount of incompatibility exists among the different countries. To
solve this problem IFLA launched a programme known as UNIMARC, but eventually it failed.
A) Structure of MARC Tapes
a) Leader: It provides information about ensuring such records as total length of the record, the
type of record, etc. It is 24 characters (00-23) long.
b) Record Directory: It shows what variable fields are in the record and what their locations in
the record are. It is of 12 characters long.
c) Variable Field: The variable fields are of two types- Variable Control Field (001-009) and
Variable Data Field.
B) Advantages of Using MARC:
a) MARC tapes can be used by individual libraries for producing their conventional card
catalogue / book form of catalogue, etc.
b) It helps in the creation of centrally prepared catalogue.
c) Distribution of MARC tapes to the receiving libraries avoid duplication of effort.
d) Uses of MARC tapes make different library softwares compatible to one another.
e) MARC tapes can be used for computerized SDI services.
f) MARC tapes perform sharing of bibliographical information.
Local Area Network (LAN)
Local Area Network (LAN): In a LAN two or more computers or node are directly linked
within a small well defined areas such as a room, office, building, campus or a local
neighborhood with a range of 10 kilometers. Each hardware device on a LAN such as computer
or a printer is called a node. Most LANs are privately owned, controlled and managed by a
single person or organization and uses direct high speed cables to share hardware, software and
data resources. LAN uses the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE-802.5, IEEE
802.3), Ethernet, IBM token ring, etc standardization protocol where as WAN uses TCP/IP,
HTTP, FTP, etc.
The main component of LAN are discussed below-
A) Cables and Other Medium for Transmitting Signal: Cables and other medium for
transmitting the signal is one of the very important components of any network. The cables can
be of the following types-
a) Twisted Pair: It is used in low speed LAN using base hand transmission. In this mode of
transmission data is transmitted as simple electrical levels often without any modulation. There is
no multiplexing and the entire bandwidth of the medium is used for transmitting signals from
one station. It is used for communication up to a distance of 2 km.
Twisted pair is vulnerable to interference from large machines such as air conditioners.
This interference can destroy data.
Twisted pair cables are generally two types-
i) Shielded Twisted Pair (STP);
ii) Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP);
Twisted pair consists of a pair of insulated conductor’s that is twisted together.
Linkage of Library and Information Science with Other Disciplines
Linkage of LIS with Other Disciplines: Library and Information Science is an interdisciplinary
body of knowledge, taking shape in the form of new paradigmatic science recognizable from its
theoretical foundations and broad agreement as to its purpose and methods and the approach it
employs. This interdisciplinary subject has derived and drawn the benefits from most of the
traditional subjects which include Chemistry, Computer Science, Education, Linguistics, Logic,
Mathematics, Physics, Psychology and so on. In the following paragraphs an attempt has been
made to discuss the contribution of some other subjects towards library and information science.
The discussion has been arranged according to the alphabetical order of the name of the
a) Chemistry: Chemistry is the science of matter. It deals with the composition of substances
and their properties and reactions upon one another. The Alchemists did much of the ground
work leading up to modern chemistry of which Antoine Lavoisier (1743-94) is considered the
founder. Chemistry helps the Library and Information Science in the preservation and
conservation of different types of documents. It is extensively used to save the print and / or
digital counterparts from different biological agents.
b) Computer Science: Computer science is the study of computation. It is the discipline that is
concerned with the methods and techniques related to data processing performed by automatic
means. It deals with theories of understanding computing systems and methods; designing
methodology, algorithms and tools; dealing with the methods for the testing of concepts,
methods of analysis and verification; and knowledge representation and implementation.
Library and Information Science often needs to handle very large quantity of data which
always demands the use of computer. In recent times, the work of every branch of Library and
Information Science relies directly or indirectly on the use of computer i.e. it is used for library
administration, acquisition, retrospective searching, current awareness, SDI services, online
database searching, machine translation, etc. It helps to reduce the burden of handling the ever-
increasing amount of information. It helps to automate the whole house keeping operation and so
on. The computer science with operation research or cybernetics helps in the study and
development of information processing, psychology and the behavioral sciences, through putting
light on the human processes involved in knowledge-transfer such as communication process,
analysis of user needs and man – machine interaction.
c) Economics: Economics is the branch of social science that deals with the production,
distribution and consumption of goods and services and their management. It includes interest
rates, gross national product, inflation, unemployment, inventories, as tools to predict the
direction of the economy, etc.
Library is a non profit making institution. So, its service must be justified in terms of
demand and uses. Economic theories are used for the evaluation of different types of reference
sources. It is extensively used to study the document procuring and processing cost of the staff,
cost of storage, cost of maintenance, cost of retrieval of information, overhead cost etc. It is also
used for the cost benefit and cost effectiveness studies in the context of different services.
d) Education: Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also something
less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, good judgment and wisdom. It
also imparts culture from generation to generation.
Every seeker of information is a student in one sense and they need initiation into the
library and information system, tools and technique. The libraries and information centre also
serves as institutions of informal education. It teaches the library patron about how to use the
library material through user education programme, gives assistance through reference services,
and provides information service when the users need it. In addition, the subject education,
works out programmes of education and training for the profession itself regarding the design
and execution of courses, method of evaluation, certification, etc.
e) Law: Law is the combination of those rules and principles of conduct promulgated by
legislative authority. It is derived from court decisions and established by local custom. In library
environment there are also laws governing registration of newspaper and periodical, ISBN /
ISSN number, censorship, copyright, delivery of books act, transmission & communication of
information, etc. Within the premises of library itself, library rules are in existence for the proper
use of library material. Various states also have library legislation which enables the
establishment, maintenance, financing and governing the public library system within the states.
In the computer environment also there are laws related to data flow, networking, and uses of
information which are governed by special regulation. Library and Information Science demands
the detail study and evaluation of all these laws.
f) Linguistics: Linguistics is the scientific study of human language. In the library environment
linguistics is of great significance in information processing, indexing and abstracting of
document, automatic indexing, artificial intelligence, machine translation etc. In the process of
indexing, the indexer has to choose the terms from natural language by taking into consideration
different syntactic and semantic problems as the phrase or word chosen should match the
vocabulary of the text and the search terms of the user.
g) Logic: Logic is the branch of philosophy that deals with the formal properties of arguments
and the philosophical problems associated with them. It means gathering and reasoning;
investigating the principles governing correct or reliable inference and deals with the canons and
criteria of validity in thought and demonstration. The system of reasoning is applicable to any
branch of knowledge or study. In Library and Information Science, it is used in the classification
and indexing of document, and widely used in decision making by the librarian.
h) Management: According to ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science “management
may be defined as the process of coordinating the total resources of an organization towards the
accomplishment of the desired goals of that organization through the execution of a group of
interrelated function such as planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling.
Management science helps in system analysis, system design, and system management and by
this way helps in managing a LIS centre most efficiently. It is responsible for deciding the line of
authority and the objectives of the institution, analysing and describing a job and fixing policies
for recruitment and so on.
i) Mathematics: Mathematics is the science dealing with quantity, form, measurement and
arrangement, and in particular, with the methods for discovering by concepts and by models the
properties and interrelationship of quantities and magnitudes. The mathematics helps in
programming as well as in the study of economics of information, estimate cost, performance
evaluation, etc. Various information models are needed in preparing different types of library
software packages. Again, bibliometrics is a branch of Library and Information Science where
mathematical principles are used to a great extent.
j) Philosophy: The term philosophy is drawn from a combination of the Greek words “philos”
meaning love and “Sophia” meaning wisdom (love of wisdom). So, it is the study of the most
general and abstract features of the world and categories with which we think mind, matter,
reason, proof, truth and so on. It is the tool for the generation and development of information.
k) Physics: Physics (from the Greek ‘phusikos’ means natural and ‘phusis’ means nature) is the
science of Nature in the broadest sense. It is concerned with the study of the behaviour and
properties of matter in a wide variety of contexts, ranging from the sub-nuclear particles from
which all ordinary matter is made (particle physics) to the behaviour of the material universe as a
whole (cosmology). Different types of machines that are widely used in the library are product
of the physics. It includes reprographic, automatic binding machine, etc.
l) Psychology: Psychology is the scientific study of human behaviour (derived from the Greek
word 'psyche' meaning breath, spirit, or soul and ‘logos’ means ‘study’), mental processes, and
how they are affected and/or affect individuals or groups physical state, mental state, and
external environment. Its goal is to describe, understand, predict, and modify behaviour. Though
it is largely concerned with humans, the behaviour and thought of animals is also studied.
Library and Information Centers have to provide information service based on user needs. But
the users have different psychological temperaments, which makes knowledge of human
psychology important in LIS. The human psychology helps the Library and Information Science
professional to understand the user correctly, analyze his/her problem or need precisely to
provide the specific information in a form most suitable to him/her, and to treat the user
appropriately. The knowledge of psychology is also important in designing and developing an
information retrieval system as it helps to select a term which majority of the users is likely to
m) Sociology: Sociology, the study of the social lives of humans, groups, and societies, is
sometimes defined as the study of social interactions. It concerns itself with the social rules and
processes that bind and separate people not only as individuals, but as members of associations,
groups, and institutions. Library is a social institution. In Library and Information Science
sociology examines the legal and social aspects of information processing, transfer and use.
n) Statistics: Statistics is concerned with the collections, classification, analysis and
interpretation of numerical facts or data. Statistics obtains data from a study of a large quantity
of numerical data which need not be exact but should approximate the true value. Statistical
methods in Library and Information Science help in improving the existing services of the
library. The statistical analysis is used to assess the users' needs and ascertain views on library
services, to measure productivity of library staff, to justify the need of reference service, cost
benefit analysis, library performance evaluation and so on.
Library and Information Science and other traditional subjects are inter-linked. It is sure that
information science is benefited by other traditional subject. But in return it also gives its best to
other subject. It takes the sole responsibility of the literary heritage of other subjects, its
document collection, conservation and preservation, dissemination and uses and by this way also
helps in their subsequent generation of new information. Again, it is only the library that
manages the literary heritages on which our modern civilization exists. Without the help of
Library and Information Science, the society will again move to the traditional days of human
civilization. When we come to the electronic environment, much of the information available
over the internet as a whole, is the product of the Library and Information Science or devised in
consultation with the help of the Library and Information Science professional.
Library Standards
Library Standards: It is desirable that a library should use standard specification. In this
connection the following standards will be found useful:
i) Indian standard specification for library furniture and fittings: Part I Timber [IS: 1829 (Part I)-
ii) Indian standard specification for library furniture and fittings: Part II Steel [IS: 1892 (Part I)-
Indian Standard Recommendations relating to primary elements in the design of library
building (first revision), Delhi, Indian Standards Institution, 1977 recommend the following
a) Documents: 150 volumes per square metre;
b) Library Staff
i) Librarian and deputy librarian=30 m2
ii) Classifier, cataloguer, accession librarian and maintenance librarian= 9 m2
iii) Administrative and professional staff not at service points = 5 m2
c) Users: Average area per reader in the reading room=2.33 m2
d) Services: Area required for services to users can be calculated on the basis of local
e) Others: According to Keyes D. Metcalf, Planning academic and research library buildings,
New York, McGraw-Hill, 1965, P. 316 space for stairways, corridors, entrances, lobbies, toilet
facilities, walls, columns, vertical communication and transportation, etc would consists of 30
percent to one-third of area for documents, readers, and service to readers and staff.
The dimension for table, chair, shelving and card catalogue cabinet can be taken from the
Indian standard specification for library furniture and fittings: Part II Steel (IS: 1829 (Part II)-
1977), New Delhi, Indian Standards Institution, 1978.
Stacks are required for reading room, staff’s room, seminar and meeting hall, for non-
book materials and so on. While selecting stacks for any kind of library, the main consideration
should be to ensure maximum space utilization, user convenience and easy movement with the
stack room. The Indian Statistical Institution, Delhi has laid down a standard for wooden rack
vide IS: 1829 (Part 1)-1961 Library Furniture and Fitting: Part 1 (Timber). These have been
reaffirmed by the University Grants Commission’s Library Committee. These are very much in
Library Rules and Its Components
Library Rules and Its Components: The library rules lay down the privileges and duties of the
library members so that they may know their limits precisely and there may not be any
confusion. These rules and regulations serve as a guideline to deal with the public. In the absence
of such rules it may be difficult for the library to meet the demands of its users. Freedom without
any limits cannot be called freedom because a person who claims freedom to himself to do any
act which is injurious to the freedom of another person will deny the other person his freedom.
So the diction “right” implies “duties” and “vigilance is the price of freedom” should be the
guiding factors. The components of the library rules may be as follows:
a) About the Library: A brief description about the library, its history, aims and objectives.
b) Library Hours, Holidays: A library shall be kept open on all days from 9 am to 9 pm except
on national holidays unless decided otherwise by the library committee. The issue counter shall
be closed one hour before the closing of the library.
c) Library Collection: The reference collection, rare books, thesis, periodicals may not be
issued out.
d) Library Services / Facilities: Circulation, reservation, reprography, inter library loan,
bibliographical services can be considered as a must in every kind of library.
e) Membership Eligibility: To get enrolled as a member of a library a person shall fill and sign
the enrollment form. The category of members may be administrative staff of the parent
institution, teachers, research scholars, students, and others.
f) Admission to the Library: Only regular members of the library should have the admission
privileges. However, non-members shall be admitted only by special permit to be issued by the
librarian or his deputy during his absence. Membership identity card shall be shown at the
counter when requested. Every member shall enter his name and membership number in the gate
g) Property Counter: Sticks, umbrellas, boxes, personal books and such other items should be
left at the property counter.
h) Membership Privileges: Each category of member shall be given as many reader’s tickets as
many volumes of books he/she is entitled to borrow at one time. The category can be as follows
Administrative Staff – 5 volumes
Teacher – 20 volumes
Research Scholar – 15 volumes
Honors Student – 10 volumes
Students – 5 volumes
The borrowers must satisfy themselves about the physical condition of the books before
borrowing. They shall be held responsible for any damage or mutilation noticed at the time of
returning. In the membership privileges itself the condition of loan, period of loan, overdue
charge, condition of renewal should also be listed out. A member who loses a ticket shall make a
written report to the Librarian. He shall be responsible for the misuse of the reader’s tickets.
Duplicate ticket shall be issued after a lapse of two weeks from the date of such a notice and on
payment of Rs. 100. He/she shall also be required to sign an indemnity bond.
A member, who infringes rules, shall be liable to forfeit his privilege of admission to and
borrowing of books from the library.
i) Do’s and don’ts: Library rules include those regarding the prevention of misuse of library
resources, maintenance of silence, prohibiting spitting and smoking, switching of the mobile
phone or keeping it in vibration mode, and so on. The rules also insist that no person shall
damage or disfigure books or other property of the library. A member shall have to replace such
books or other properties those are damaged or must make payment for the value thereof.
j) Others: The rules also include the scope for their modification. The cases of misbehavior or
discourtesy by the staff or unwillingness to provide service shall be reported to the librarian or
his deputy during his absence.
The rules to be framed by a library should be worded in such a way that an average user
can understand them. The main rules should be printed on the library tickets, book label, pocket
and the back cover of the book.
Library Resource Sharing and Networking
Library Resource Sharing and Networking: The sharing of library resources started with the
concept of inter library loan, under which a library can get a document from another library on
loan for a certain period. It was followed by the term “Library Cooperation”, but now in its
revised and improved form it is called as “Resource Sharing”. Today, it is called “Library
Network” or “Library Consortia”, which is one of the cooperative ways of sharing online
resources. The inter library loan means sharing of the resources of one library by the other
libraries on demand, when they are needed by its user i.e sharing one’s assets with others.
Library Cooperation / Resource Sharing / Networking / Consortia all denote a mode of
cooperation among a number of libraries whereby the library collection, function or services are
shared by a number of libraries. According to Allen Kent the goals are to provide a positive net
effect on the library user in terms of access to more material or services and or on the library
budget in terms of providing level service at less cost, increased service at level cost or much
more service at less cost than if undertaken individually.
1. Library Cooperation: Library cooperation is a social phenomenon by which libraries are
mutually engaged to increase the service capabilities of a single library and by which the
librarians extend their option to serve clients. It includes sharing materials or function or services
that constitute a library system. A material includes both documentary and non documentary
forms. The function covers the activities concerning the acquisition, processing, storage, etc.;
services include techniques, activities and procedures employed to establish contact between the
document and its consumer i.e. lending, reference, documentation, translation, etc. Library
cooperation also can be looked upon as a broader term than resource sharing or networking or
2. Types of Library Cooperation: Based on the geographical area covered, library cooperation
may be of
i) International Level: E.g. Universal Availability of Publication (UAP) programme introduced
by IFLA, Universal Bibliographic Control (UBC)];
ii) National Level: E.g. National Social Science Documentation Center (NASSDOC);
iii) Regional Level and
iv) Local Level.
Based on the functional area covered Library Cooperation may be
i) Sharing of documentary resources (cooperative acquisition, cooperative processing,
cooperative storage for the documents which are less used, cooperative delivery system ie inter
library lending, development of network, developing consortia).
ii) Sharing of manpower resources (arrangement for the cooperative staff training and such).
ii) Sharing of other library facilities or equipment (for eg. sharing of the computer and
reprographic equipment that cannot be afforded by small libraries due to their high cost), and
sharing of finance.
Based on subject basis it may be general or subject based.
3. Kinds of Library Cooperation: Following are some of the kinds of library cooperation.
i) Co-operative Acquisition: The process of acquisition involves selecting, placing orders to
vendors, passing of bills, payments, etc. All these activities can be minimized by cooperative
acquisition. This will also result in saving the cost, earning of a larger discount, saving time and
clerical labor.
The INSDOC, New Delhi, initiated Centralized Acquisition of Periodicals (CAP) through
which it is acquiring foreign periodicals for about 30 CSIR laboratories.
ii) Cooperative Processing: If each library, within the network of resources sharing, processes a
book through the computer then the job of cataloguing can be shared by all the libraries within
the network in the form of-
- Printed Catalogue Card Service: In this process some libraries, usually of national status,
undertake the responsibility of producing printed catalogue cards which are available on a
payment basis for other libraries. The Library of Congress and BNB are producing printed
catalogue card service.
- Prenatal Cataloguing / Cataloguing In Publication (CIP): The term prenatal cataloguing was
used by Dr. S. R. Ranganathan. Prenatal technical work involves completion of technical work
by the national central library of a country on each book before its release by the publisher.
The Cataloguing in Publication (CIP) programme was initiated by Library of Congress
(LOC), USA in 1971 with 27 participating publishers. The process of classification and
cataloguing of a publication is done before the book is released. The cataloguing data provided
by the LOC is printed on the reverse of the title page which helps the individual libraries in
copying down the data on their catalogue card.
- Centralized Classification and Cataloguing: Centralized classification and cataloguing service
of Online Computer Library Centre (OCLC), and Machine Readable Catalogue (MARC) project
of the Library of Congress are remarkable in this direction. Online cataloguing, retrospective
conversion using databases also lead to economy with quality.
iii) Cooperative Storage: Every library has limited space for storage of books. So the old and
less used books are weeded out regularly to provide space for new acquisition. Moreover, the
maintenance of the unused or little used books not only consumes valuable space of the library
but also involves money and labour. So, by resources sharing a centralized cooperative storage of
less used books can be achieved.
The material which is not in active use may be stored on a cooperative basis at a central
dormitory. With the initiative of NASSDOC (ICSSR), New
Delhi and Jawarharlal Nehru University, Delhi an Inter Library Resource Centre (ILRC) was
established in New Delhi in 1975. Some 38 libraries of Delhi deposited their less used serial and
government documents at the centre.
Library of Congress
Library of Congress: The Library of Congress is the national library (National libraries) of the
United States. Founded in 1800, the Library of Congress was originally housed in part of the
Capitol building. In 1897, the Library got its own building (now known as the Jefferson
Building). The Guinness Book of World Records currently lists the Library of Congress as the
"World's Largest Library". This apparently is based on the shelf space the collection occupies.
The Library of Congress states that its collection fills about 530 miles (850 km) of shelves. It
holds about 130 million items with 29 million books. It is estimated that the print holdings of the
Library of Congress would, if digitized and stored as plain text, constitute 17 to 20 terabytes of
Library Network
Library Network: Library networking is an arrangement or a structure that links a group of
libraries which have agreed to work together and / or share their resources in an organized basis
to a certain degree. It can be defined as a two or more libraries engaged in a common pattern of
information exchange through communication for some functional purposes . It is meant to
promote and facilitate sharing of resources available within a group of participating libraries.
a) Definition: The National Commission on Libraries and Information Science (NCLIS) in its
National Programme Document (1975) defines a network as: “two or more libraries and/or other
organizations engaged in a common pattern of information exchange, through communications,
for some functional purpose. A network usually consists of a formal arrangement whereby
materials, information and services provided by a variety of libraries and other organizations are
available to all potential users. Libraries may be in different jurisdictions but they agree to serve
one another on the same basis as each serves its own constituents. Computer and
telecommunications may be among the tools used for facilitating communication among them”.
b) Precondition for Networking: The agreements between library authorities of different
libraries, building or developing required infrastructure, maintenance of standardization in terms
of classification schemes, cataloguing schemes, uses of some common library management
software and so on are some of the preconditions before developing any kind of network. Some
other preconditions are
i) Automation of the Member Library: For the success of network in the long run, each of the
member libraries must have a policy to automate every function of the library – acquisition,
cataloguing, classification, serials control, circulation, SDI, current awareness services, etc. – in
the shortest possible time. This helps the library to have a computer environment which is
required to design, develop, maintain and to operate several databases, to reduce the cost of
library operations as well as network operations.
ii) Hardware and Software: The network should be able to recommend to participating libraries
the type of hardware and software they need for their in-house functions and for networking
purposes. Hardware should be selected considering the number of entries the participating
libraries can generate within the next 3-5 years.
iii) Trained Manpower: If there is no adequate trained manpower in each of the member
libraries, attempts should be made to train or/and recruit new skilled library personnel.
iv) Standardization: For the purpose of creating databases, it is essential to agree upon a
standard. All libraries should follow a standard MARC format, AACR-II, a standard thesaurus
like Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), etc. uniformly. Although efforts should be
made to have one classification scheme for all participating libraries yet the use of different
numbers should not become a hurdle as search requests are mostly about authors, titles, editors
and subject descriptions.
Besides the above, it is preferable to have certain communication facilities such as Fax,
Telex, Telephone, etc. as a part of the network system in each of the member libraries for the
effective working of the network. E-mail and internet facilities should be available with the
libraries and they should be able to access international databases, preferably individually or
through the network host to begin with.
c) Advantages of Networking: The advantages of library networking are as follows:
i) Cooperative Collection Development: In the age of information explosion no individual
library, however resourceful, can be self-sufficient in terms of documents. For a library, however
rich it may be impossible to acquire and store all the documents within its four walls.
Networking will help to develop collection in terms of books, periodicals, patents, standards,
audio visual, CDs, etc. and share those resources.
ii) Meets Specialized User Demand: User needs are varied and diversified. To meet the
specialized need one has to approach such special collection or special service that are available
in special libraries. Networking will help in the sharing of experience and expertise of the library
iii) Breaks Financial Constraint: The library budgets are decreasing. With the provision of
library networking a library can arrange for cooperative staff training, can exchange the staff for
performing some technical works. Sharing of the finance for cooperative acquisition and
collection development, processing, etc, can also be made.
iv) Reduces Unnecessary Duplication of Work: The networking will remove the efforts in
duplication of classification, cataloguing, and such others.
v) Barrier Breaker: Library networking is needed to break the barriers of distance and time.
Further, it will reduce the physical movement of materials.
vi) Sharing of Hardware Resources: Expensive computer equipment, microfilming equipment,
digitizing devices for newspaper, reprographic systems, etc. can be procured by a networking
group for the benefit of all the libraries of the network. Networking is also needed to connect
personal computer with the mainframe or super computer for problem solving.
vii) Sharing of Software Resources: The software that is too expensive to procure by individual
libraries can be procured and shared by the network for solving larger programmes, information
retrieval, and so on. The software can be installed in the central computer and all other
computers can be used as client.
viii) Development of Union Catalogue: Network helps in developing union catalogue to refer the
user to the documents in any of the other participating libraries and it can be consulted by the
user in order to know which document is available in which library. For example, Union
Catalogue of Social Science Serials was compiled and published by the NASSDOC
(ICSSR), New Delhi in 1980s.
ix) Development of Database: Library network helps in developing special database to meet
some special need by the participatory libraries. Again, through networking the local information
which is available over the network can be controlled locally that satisfies the accuracy. For
example, National Union Catalogue of Scientific Serial in India (1988) was the result of the work
of INSDOC in collaboration with several scientific libraries all over India.
x) Document Delivery Service (DDS): Networks enable librarians, faced with clients’
information needs beyond their local resources, to identify and obtain materials and services for
those clients. The interlibrary loan, Document Delivery Service (DDS) provides the user the
required documents irrespective of its location.
xi) Humanware: Manpower training and refresher course facilities – stimulating, promoting and
coordinating research and training programme for library staff- can be arranged by the network
d) Development of Library Network in India: At international level Joint Academic NETwork
(JANET), Online Computer Library Centre (OCLC), etc. are functioning properly. The examples
of library networks in the western countries suggest that all networks based on a fee structure can
be maintained without grant and are viable in the long run.
NICNET, established by National Informatics Centre (NIC) in 1977 was started in the
late 1987’s. It is one of the largest VSAT Networks of its kind in the world. It was launched
basically for getting and providing information from/to district levels to facilitate planning
process. It links for regional nodes at Delhi, Pune, Bhubneswar and Hyderabad and has
established 32 nodes at state and union territory levels and 439 nodes at district headquarters.
At national level INDONET is India’s first data communication and computer network
that was started in March 1986 by CMC Ltd. It was launched as a solution to the growing need
for providing timely, well processed data to various institutions. In the First phase, they have
mainly network in Mumbai, Calcutta and Chennai. Later, Delhi and Hyderabad were also linked
as additional stations. INDONET presently has an international gateway which provides access
to the world wide pocket switched networks like USA’s Global Networks Systems (GNS) and
Education and Research Network (ERNET) <> was launched by
the Department of Education (DOE), Govt. of India in late 1986 with financial assistance from
United Nationals Development Programme (UNDP) to provide academic and research
institutions with electronic mail facilities. It is currently used by DSIR Labs, research centres and
academic institutions.
Scientific and Industrial Research Network (SIRNET) was established by INSDOC in
late 1989 to interconnect all the CSIR laboratories and other R&D institutions in India.
The success of the above networks and the initiatives taken by NISSAT, UGC, Planning
Commission and other departments of Govt. of India have led to the establishment and
development of library networks in India.
CALIBNET was established by NISSAT in 1986 in Calcutta. It was the first library
network visualized. At present, it has become the centre for CD-ROM databases which are
acquired from outside sources. DELNET was established in 1988 in Delhi by India International
Centre with the initial financial support of NISSAT. It is the first operational library network in
India. INFLIBNET was established by UGC in 1988 and its operations began in 1991. It is a
network of university and college libraries. MALIBNET is the result of the need for
interconnecting libraries and information centres in Chennai, which was visualized by INSDOC
in 1991. INSDOC undertook a feasibility study which was completed in March 1992.
MALIBNET was registered as a society in Chennai in Feb. 1993. Some other library networks in
India are PUNENET (1992) in Pune, ADINET (1993) in Ahmedabad, BONET (1994) in
Mumbai, MYLIBNET (1994) in Mysore (Chennai), and BALNET (1995) in Bangalore.
Library Movement in India
Library Movement in India: The first libraries were only partly libraries, and stored most of
the unpublished records, which are usually viewed as archives. The archeological as well as
literary evidence (written by Chiness travellers in India) make it clear that writing and reading of
manuscripts were regularly practiced in ancient period since the fourth century B.C. to the sixth
century after Christ. This must have led to the growth and development of collection of
manuscripts in important centers of learning. The important library of that period was that of
Nalanda University of Bihar in the fourth century AD. The library was said to be in three
grandest buildings, the area of which was called “Drama Ganja” meaning mast of religion. The
other important academic library of that period was Vikramsila, Odantapuri, Somapuri, Jaggadal,
Mithila, Vallabhi, Kanheri, etc. During that period there was a considerable activity in South
India too, and there was a tradition about the libraries in that period known as sangam age.
The Buddhist of India laid special emphasis on the writing of manuscripts and
maintaining their collection. The Jains and Hindus also made immense contribution in the field
of learning. They patronized education and literary activities, established innumerable institution
called Upasrayas and Temple College.
Acharya Nagarjuna, the founder of Mahayana Buddhism is known to have maintained a
library on the top floor of the university building. It was also said that Taxila has a rich library.
a) Medieval Period: The medieval cycle may be roughly taken to have ended with the
seventeenth century. It was during the ascending phase of this cycle that the giant intellectual and
spiritual leaders such as Sankara, Ramanuja and Madheva flourished.
i) Personnel Libraries: From the earliest times the kings and nobles of India patronized
education and encouraged writing of manuscripts and their preservation. Even the princes of
small states maintained their manuscripts libraries. The tradition was continued till the nineteenth
century. The emperors of Timuride dynasty were patrons of learning. With the exception of
Aurangzeb all the early Mughal rulers extended their support to art, music and literature. The
libraries also made remarkable progress during their times. Humayun converted a pleasure house
in purana quila in Delhi into a library. Akbar maintained an “imperial library”; he was also
instrumental in introducing reforms in the classification and storage of books. Jahangir is said to
have maintained a personnel library which moved with him wherever he went.
ii) Public Libraries: In the seventeenth and the eighteenth century, the development of libraries
received an impetus due to rise of European settlement in India. From 1690, Calcutta began to
develop as one of the principal English settlement, when a large number of British began to settle
there. Subsequently, the circulation and subscription libraries came into being.
The East India Company established the Fort St. David library in 1707 at Cuddalore. In
the year 1709, the society for promotion of Christian Knowledge sent out a circulating library
to Calcutta, the first of its kind in India. Subsequently, a number of such libraries were
established in India, the notable among them were Fort St. George library (1714), East India
Company’s library, Bombay (1715), John Andrews circulating library at Fort
William, Calcutta (1770), The Calcutta Circulating library (1787), etc.
b) Period of Modern Cycle (till Nineteenth Century)
i) Public Libraries: The role of Mughal rulers and missionaries in establishment of some
libraries also find their way to modern cycle. Some of the scattered manuscripts of the early
periods have been collected and preserved in many modern manuscripts libraries. These are
found in many states in India. Those of Baroda, Banaras, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Mysore,
Poona, Tanjavur and Trivandrum are well known.
The year 1808 is considered an important period during which the then government
of Bombay initiated a proposal to register libraries which were to be given copies of books
published from “funds for the encouragement of literature”. This has been the first attempt to
register the libraries and assist them with literature by the government.
In the early 19th century John Andrew’s circulating library at Fort William, Calcutta
(established in 1770) was converted into a public library. A few public libraries started appearing
sporadically here and there during the same period in this country. The notable among them are
Asha Granthalaya, Waltair (1800), Calcutta Literary Society’s Library (1818), United Services
Library, Poona (1818), Raghunandan Library, Puri (1821), Bombay General Library (1830), etc.
In August 1835, the Calcutta public library was established. It was meant to serve the
needs of all ranks and classes without distinction. In 1860, a small library was established by
Jean Mitchel in Madras as a part of the Museum. It was opened to the public in 1896. It was
named Connemera Public Library, this library can be claimed to be the first true public library,
only a nominal refundable deposit was required. In 1948, it becomes State Central library.
In 1867, the Government of India enacted the Press and Registration of Books Act
(XXV) under which the publisher of a book was supposed to deliver free, to the provincial
government concerned, one copy of the book and one or two more copies, if the provincial
government so desired, to be transmitted to the central government.
In 1876, Khuda Baksh Oriental public library (Patna) was established. Maulvi
Muhammod Baksh Khan, on his death left a collection of 1500 manuscripts. It formed the
nucleus of the library. In 1891, the library was opened to the public.
The imperial library was also established at Calcutta in 1891. Lord Curzon, the viceroy
of India promulgated the imperial library act 1902, which is based on Registration of books act
of 1867, amalgamating Calcutta public library with imperial library. Soon after independence the
Government of India passed the National Library Act in 1948 following which the imperial
library was renamed as the National library of India.
By the end of nineteenth century, all the provincial capitals as well as many of the district
towns, especially in the three presidencies (Bombay, Calcutta and Madras) had so called public
libraries. Even princely states such as Indore and Travancore-Cochin had public libraries in their
capital. However, the masses in general did not take full advantage of these institutions.
ii) Academic Libraries: The first college to be started in this country is
the Fort William College in 1800. Sir John Colville in 1857, introduced the bill to establish
universities in India. In the same year Lord Delhousie, then the Governor General of India, gives
immediate consent to this bill. As a result, the first three modern universities were started
at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1857 based on the patterns of London University.
* Calcutta University Library: Calcutta University was the first to be established on January
24, 1857. On February 24, 1869 Mr. Joy Kissen Mookherjee of Uttar para donated Rs. 5,000.00
to the University for purchasing books for the library. The senate in the year 1872 succeeded in
constructing a beautiful building at a cost of Rs. 4, 34,697.00. This is the first and oldest
university library that was established in British India. In 1874, the library also started a
collection of periodicals. In 1876-77, Calcutta University library had a good collection of books
with printed catalogue service to the user. In 1934, a new library building was set up in
the Calcutta University. In 1937, the Calcutta University Library appointed the professionally
qualified librarian, Dr. Nihar Ranjan Roy. He, for the first time in India introduced the DDC and
AACR rule for providing effective library services to the user.
* Madras University Library: The Madras University Library was opened in 1907. The
government of India gave a special grant of Rs. 1,00,000.00 to the library to develop its book
collection. In 1924, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan joined the Madras University Library as librarian. He
was the first professionally qualified librarian in Indian history. Due to his active involvement he
was able to receive Rs. 6,000.00 and Rs. 10,00,000.00 in the year 1926. This was the first grant
to be received from the government in the history of the university libraries in India. As a result
of this grant, the University Library that was in-house at the Connemara Public Library since
1908, was shifted to the new location in 1936. Again five well-trained reference librarians were
appointed to provide special reference service to the user. This was done for the first time in the
Indian history.
* Bombay University Library: The Bombay University library was established very lately due to
the lack of donation. It was the university authorities of Bombay that offered a donation of Rs.
20,000.00 for construction of library building. In 1931, a very special grant of Rs. 10,000 was
given by Kikabhai and Meneklen the sons of late Premchand Roy Chand. In 1939, the Central
government provides a special grant of Rs. 50,000.00 to the University of Bombay library to
strengthen its collection.
* Punjab University Library: Punjab University was established in 1882 and in the year 1908
Punjab University Library was opened.
* Banaras Hindu University Library: Banaras Hindu University was established in 1916. In
1926-27 the construction of the library was made by the handsome donation of Rs. 2,00,000.00
by the late Sir Siyaji Rao, the Maharaja of Borada.
iii) Research Libraries: The Asiatic society of Bengal that was established at Calcutta in 1784
started building up a good research library since its inception. The Asiatic Society of Bombay,
founded in 1804, also developed a good library. The first technical library to be founded in this
country is the Victoria Technical library at Nagpur in 1806. The Madras Literary Society had
founded its library in 1812.
c) Twentieth Century
i) Role of Individual: The development of public libraries as a movement may be said to have
started by Maharaja Sayajirao Gaekwad III, the ruler of Baroda state in 1906. During his visit
to USA he was impressed by the public libraries system in that country. In order to organize
libraries along modern lines, the Maharaja appointed an American librarian by name William
Allenson Borden as curator of libraries of his state. During his tenure of office that is in between
1910-13, Borden could organize a very good network of free library services in the state.
However, this example did not set a pace in the later development due to lack of interest on the
part of the state government. But the contribution made by Maharaja Sayajirao III would be
written in golden letters in the history of public library movement in India.
The library movement in Baroda originated as the peoples movement under the
leadership of Motibhai Amin (a public leader) in the form of Mitra Mandal (Society of Friends)
as early as 1906 which received state patronage in 1960. Newton Mohan Dutta, curator of
libraries at Baroda also did good work.
There has been a number of pioneers who made contribution to the library movement in
Andhra Pradesh. Out of them Sir Iyyanki Venkata Ramanayya holds a place of pride.
From Bengal we have the name of Monindra Dev Rai Mahashaya. Master Motilal (1876-1949),
by his own effort and meagre resource established Shri Sanmati Pustakalaya (a public library) in
Jaipur in 1920. From Punjab we had Sant Ram Bhatia, who played an important role in
promoting the cause of public libraries in Punjab. In Assam, the library movement at its true
spirit was led by Late Kumudeshar Barthakur (1893-8th November 1966), a retired Secondary
School teacher under the brand name of Assam Library Association.
The contribution of S.R. Ranganathan is unique and remarkable. He is regarded as the
father of Indian library movement. The idea of an integrated library system was first introduced
by him at the first “All Asia Educational Conference” held at Benerai in 1930. There he
presented a model library act that form the basis of the Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and
Karnataka library legislation and as a whole the subsequent library legislation in India.
ii) Role of Library Association and Organization: Library association also played a vital role
in the progress and development of library movement in India.
The Andhra Desa Library Association, founded in 1914, is the first of its kind in India. It
started the first full fledged professional periodical in 1925 under the title “Indian Library
All Indian Library Association was also set up in 1920, but it could not do anything for
libraries and their development. By Dr. S. R. Ranganathan’s effort Indian Library Association
was set up in 1933 in its present form with its head quarter in Calcutta (Kolkata). The association
published a quarterly periodical named ABGILA.
Raja Rammohun Roy Library Foundation (RRRLF) was set up in 1972, on the occasion
of the bicentenary of Raja Rammohun Roy who raised the banner of revolt against obscurantism
in the society and devoted his life to fight against injustice. RRRLF is an autonomous
organization of Dept of Culture, Govt of India and it provides different types of grant to different
public libraries.
Bengal Library Association (1925), Madras Library Association (1928), Punjab Library
Association (1929), Assam Library Association (Sadau Assam Puthibharal Sanga) (1938), etc.
played vital roles for the growth and development of public libraries in the respective states of
iii) Role of Union and State Government
* First Five Year Plan (1951-56): The government of India in its first five year plan of
educational development includes the scheme of “Improvement of Library Service”. This
scheme envisaged a network of libraries spread all over the country. The proposal of setting up a
National central library at New Delhi was also made. During the first five year plan nine state
governments i.e. Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, etc. decided to set up state central libraries.
* Second Five Year Plan (1956-1961): Under the second five year plan the government
of India allocated about Rs. 140 lakhs for setting up a country wide network of libraries in 320
districts. Under this plan, the “Institute of Library Science” at University of Delhi was also
established. The refresher course on “The public library and national development” on March 2,
1959 also started.
* Third Five Year Plan: During the third plan period besides the Institute of Library science,
University of Delhi other universities also upgraded the facilities for training library personnel
and enhanced the facilities for research in library science.
* Fourth Five Year Plan: The government of India announced on July 16, 1964, appointment of
a 16 member education commission to make a compressive review of the entire field of
education and advice the government on evolving a national pattern at all stages of education.
The commission has formed various sub committees to prepare report on various aspect of
education including the libraries, which plays a great role towards the betterment of libraries
in India. During the fourth five year plan, the government of India set up the Raja Rammohan
Roy Library Foundation in 1972 to make the bicentenary of the birth of Raja Rammohan Roy,
the father of modern India.
iv) Role of UGC: The UGC gave a new life to the university and college libraries. It gave
librarian a status, prestige and a better life. The major commission and committees formed by
UGC for the growth and development of college and university libraries are
* Library Committee (1957): The UGC programme (Commission) appointed a committee under
the chairmanship of Dr. S. R. Ranganathan to advise on a wide range of subjects including the
standards and principles for the designing of library building, fitting and furniture, administration
of university libraries, training of librarianship etc.
* Review Committee (1961): In order to consider the question of improving and coordinating the
standards of teaching, and conducting research in the department of library science in Indian
Universities under the chairmanship of Dr. S. R. Ranganathan a review committee was formed in
July 1961. The first meeting of the committee was held on 15th July 1961, in which a
questionnaire was finalized on the basis of data supplied by the Indian Universities. In response
to this questionnaire a note was prepared by the UGC, which form the back bone of many
developments in the subject of library science.
Other mentionable Committees and Commissions are
* Education Commission (1964): Chairman D. S. Kothari.
* Pal Committee (1970): Chairman A. B. Lal.
* Mehrotra Committee (1983): Chairman R. C. Mehrotra.
* Committee on National Network System for Universities (1988): Chairman Yash Pal.
* Curriculum Development Committee on LISc (1990).
* Work Flow Seminar: UGC organized a seminar on “work flow” in libraries in New Delhi from
March 4-7, 1959, Dr. C. D. Deshmukh, the then chairman of UGC, extended assistance to
libraries for constructing building and furniture as well as for the engaging the staff on a scale
which is, relatively speaking, larger than found in many other countries. The recommendations
of the seminar were circulated to the universities and colleges all over the country. These
comments were considered by the commission and were accepted.
* Revision of Pay Scale: Another great improvement in the history of universities and college
libraries is the revision of salary scales of professionally qualified librarian under the third five
year plan.
v) Role of UNESCO: The great contribution of UNESCO towards the library profession
in India is that it gave it an international status. UNESCO for the first time started the first pilot
project by establishing the Delhi Public Library in October 1951. The main aim of this project
was to provide information on the problem of public library services for the parts of India in
particular and for Asia in general.
The Indian National Scientific Documentation Centre (INSDOC) was set up in 1952 by
the government of India with technical assistance from UNESCO. In 1964, UNESCO assisted
INSDOC again in setting up its regional centre in Bangalore.
The second eminent step that the UNESCO took in this direction was the holding of a
seminar on the development of public libraries in Asia in Delhi from October 6-26, 1955. It was
the first international meeting on this subject to be organized in an Asian country. On the whole,
the seminar was a great success for the library profession in India.
Another UNESCO seminar which had far reaching effect on library profession
in India was the “Regional seminar on library development in South Asia”. It was held in
the University of Delhi library from 3-14 October 1960. The most significant achievement of this
seminar was the “grading of staff”, “salary scales” and “status of librarian”.
Besides these, the UNESCO honored the Indian librarians by inviting them to advice on
various library projects meant for the member country. The prominent among those are Dr. S. R.
Ranganathan, B. S. Kesavan, S. S. Saith and a few others.
Indian National Commission is the official agency of UNESCO, the National Information
System for Science and Technology (NISSAT) in Department of Scientific and Industrial
Research (DSIR) is the focal point for UNISIST (PGI) and is also the coordinating centre for
ASTINFO programme. NASSDOC of ICSSR is the focal point for UNESCO supporting
APINESS programme.
Library Management Software Packages
Library Management Software Packages: Library management or automation software
provides centralized management and processes for different types of libraries and library
activities such as acquisition, cataloguing, circulation, administration, reporting and patron
records. It provides integration of self-service kiosks and online web portal access for catalogue
search, content delivery or reservation requests and such others. They also track and automate
notification of overdue books and fines.
In the following paragraphs, an attempt is made to list some of the popular free and open
source library automation software packages. A very few commercial software packages are also
a) Automatización de Bibliotecas y Centros de Documentación (ABCD): ABCD stands for
"Automatización de Bibliotecas y Centros de Documentación" (Spanish), which means: Library
and Documentation Centers Automation. Its development is promoted and coordinated by
BIREME, with the support of VLIR. ABCD is an integrated library management system that
covers all the major functions in a library. It is able to manage acquisitions, management of
bibliographic databases, user management, loan management, control of periodicals, and so on.
It uses MARC-21 cataloguing formats and other current standards or protocols (Dublin Core,
METS, Z39.50) and published as Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) with the
accompanying tools for the developer community. Website: or
b) DEL-PLUS: This software was designed and developed by Developing Library Network
(DELNET), New Delhi exclusively to work under all kinds of libraries. It is able to manage the
acquisition, cataloguing, circulation, and administrative work of the library. It also has an OPAC
end and follows internationally recommended standards and formats such as MARC 21. It is
suitable for small and medium size libraries which have collections upto one lakh holdings. It
also supports Barcode. Website:
c) E-Granthalaya: e-Granthalaya is a library automation software from National Informatics
Centre, Department of Information Technology, Ministry of Communications and Information
Technology, Government of India. Using this software the libraries can automate in-house
activities as well as user services. The software can be implemented either in stand-alone or in
client-server mode where the database and WebOPAC are installed on the server PC while the
data entry programme is installed on client PCs. The software runs on Windows platform. The
software is provided at zero cost to the Ministries / Departments / Public / Academic /
Universities / Colleges and school libraries. Besides, libraries set up in Public / Private sectors
may also approach the NIC for free copy of the software. Website:
d) Evergreen: Evergreen is an open source library management software, freely licensed under
the GNU GPL. It was first launched in September, 2006 in Georgia's PINES consortium. It is
highly-scalable software for libraries that helps library patrons find library materials, and helps
the libraries to manage, catalogue, and circulate those materials, no matter how large or complex
the libraries. are Evergreen has an active community that participates in its coding,
documentation, and direction of the project. Website:
e) FireFly: FireFly is a Complete Public Library system. It is being written in Python, Perl, with
all data being stored in XML. The driving force behind this project is to give public libraries a
Free-Software set to run and maintain library systems. Website:

f) Koha: Koha is the world's first open-source Integrated Library System (ILS) and it is
distributed free of cost (open source, and so no license fee, ever). It was initially developed in
New Zealand by Katipo Communications Ltd and first deployed in January of 2000 for
Horowhenua Library Trust. It is currently maintained by a team of software providers and library
technology staff from around the globe and is in use worldwide in the libraries of all sizes. The
name “Koha” comes from the Maori word for a gift or donation.
It runs on Linux, Unix, Windows and MacOS platform. Koha is a comprehensive system
that has the capacity to intelligently run a library, large or small, real or virtual. Koha is
compliance with copy cataloguing and z39.50, MARC21 and UNIMARC for professional
cataloguers. The software can also be used as document manager or digital library. Website:
g) Library Information and Management System (LIMS): LIMS is a unique library system,
designed, developed, implemented and fully tested by library professionals. It is distributed free
of cost to the libraries. Website:
h) Library Manager: Library Manager is a library management software. It has been developed
under GPL licence. Website:
i) LibSys 7: It is a web based library software product from Libsys Ltd., Gurgaon, Haryana. It
has the modules for acquisition, cataloguing, circulation, serials, article indexing, Web-OPAC,
and reports. It supports international standard like MARC21 (USMARC + CANMARC),
Unicode, SRU-SRW, Z39.50, NCIP-NISO, SICI-Barcode. If any library has the sufficient fund,
then it can be treated as the most field-proven library system in a wide spectrum of libraries with
unmatchable depth in functionality and features. Website:
j) NewGenLib: NewGenLib is an integrated library management system developed by Verus
Solutions Pvt Ltd. Domain expertise is provided by Kesavan Institute of Information and
Knowledge Management in Hyderabad, India. On 9th January 2008, NewGenLib was declared as
Open Source Software under GNU GPL Licence by Verus Solutions. It is estimated that 2,500
libraries across 58 countries are using NewGenLib as their Primary integrated library
management system. Website:
k) OpenBiblio: OpenBiblio is an easy to use, automated library system written in PHP
containing OPAC, circulation, cataloguing, and staff administration functionality. The software
is free. Website:
l) Sanjay: The NISSAT sponsored a project to DESIDOC for developing programmes on
UNESCO’s CDS/ISIS for enabling a library to do acquisition, circulation, etc. DESIDOC has
successfully modified the programmes and a new package based on CDS/ISIS was released in
1992 by the name of SANJAY. So, Sanjay is an augmented version of CDS/ISIS with modules
prepared for the various house keeping operations. The software is totally menu driven and
works in windows environment with LAN support. In India, NISSAT is the marketing agent of
this software. The package was released for marketing in September 1995.
m) Small Library Organizer Pro: It is a complete software for small private, public, or
corporate libraries. It able to manages all the library collections, member / patron information,
and keeps track of the library circulation data. The package has a separate module called
Designer. With Designer one can modify Small Library solution or can build their own. This is a
freeware. Website:
n) SOUL 2.0: Software for University Libraries (SOUL) is the state-of-the-art library
automation software designed and developed by the INFLIBNET Centre, Ahmedabad. It is a
user-friendly software developed to work under client-server environment. Looking at the name
of the software, one may think that it is meant for the university libraries only, but, in fact, it is
flexible enough to be used for automating any type or size of library. It is one of the best and
proven software for all types of libraries. Website:
o) WEBLIS: WEBLIS is a free-of-charge Web based Library Integrated System based on
CDS/ISIS. The system has been developed by the Institute for Computer and Information
Engineering (ICIE), Poland. The current version of WEBLIS, available in English, consists of
the cataloguing system, OPAC (search), LOAN module, and statistical module. WEBLIS runs
through the WWW-ISIS engine. More:

Library Legislation in India

Library Legislation in India: Act means preparing the format of law or legislation. In the
context of libraries, the Library Act means to give legal provision for establishing a library
system, its maintenance, services, functions, right and management under any state or a national
government. Library legislation is capable of regulating various organs of public library services.
It is an instrument for the development of public libraries in a planned manner to ensure
establishment, development and maintenance of libraries in a uniform pattern. It can help in
promoting a sense of self consciousness among the people who would feel it obligatory on their
part to use services offered by the library.
In the year 1850 the first library act was passed in Great Britain. At present most of the
countries specify free use of public library services.
1. Need for Library Legislation: Provision of public library service is a natural corollary to the
democratic way of life. Free communication is essential for the preservation of a free society and
creative culture. A public library expects its users only to spend time and not money for the
utilization of services. In that situation, the question arises from where will the finance come? It
has been experienced that public library service can be effectively offered only through
legislation. Library Legislation is needed because:
i) A law helps in creating necessary conditions under which public libraries can be established
nation wide.
ii) To put the public library on a sound and sure financial footing by way of levy of library tax.
iii) To make the public library independent from subscription, donation or private gift and to save
the library from political influence.
iv) For a sound administrative setup permanent, uniform, efficient, balanced and coordinated
library service and also for proper line of growth.
v) To solve the problem of land, building, legacies, etc.
vi) For centralized services like acquisition, processing, etc.
The library legislation has the provision of financial support to the public libraries, but
the provision to be made in library legislation would depend upon the social, political and
economic environment. There are mainly two ways of making provision of finance to public
libraries through library legislation. They are
i) Annual budget allocation by the state out of its total funds with capital grants from central
ii) Levying of library cess with a matching grant from the state government.
2. Components of Library Legislation: Dr. S. R. Ranganathan recognized the following
components of public library act.
a) Preliminaries: The description of all the terms used in the act and the brief title of the act are
under this component of library Act.
b) Top Management: It discusses the issues relating to the management of the libraries that will
fall under the jurisdiction of the Act, such as who will manage the libraries. It is the second
component for consideration.
c) Library Committee: To give suggestions to the library authority (top management) and to the
librarians, a committee is to be constituted. The library Act should clearly mention who will be
the members of such library committees, what are their functions, rights, qualifications,
responsibilities, etc.
d) Finance: The Act should mention clearly-
i) Rate of library cess / Local extra tax or surcharge;
ii) Goods on which tax will be levied i.e. vehicle, land, house, other properties, etc;
iii) The method of receiving the cess from the public;
iv) Checking of received money through cess;
v) Other sources of finance;
vi) There should be a component in the library Act itself to maintain all the records of accounts
and audit from time to time. The appointment of staff, categories of the staff, pay scale, service
condition and working period should also be mentioned in the Act.
vii) The laws, rules and by laws should be mentioned in the Act.
3. Characteristics of Library Legislation: Some of the important characteristics of library
legislation are-
i) The library legislation must be simple and general. It should also allow future modification or
ii) It must be free from political influence or political changes.
iii) It must define the respective responsibilities of the local, state and national government.
iv) It must make the library service compulsory and free to one and all.
v) It should create conditions for libraries to flourish.
vi) It must coordinate and control library activities in full recognition of the people to have free
access to the information and knowledge.
vii) It must meet every interest of its reader.
viii) Different tasks can be assigned to different types of libraries based on specialization to
ensure a better service to the community with the least cost.
ix) It also must take into account the other types of libraries.
4. Role of Different Bodies in the Process of Enacting Library Legislation: In the process of
enacting the library legislation, the levying of library cess should not be the pre condition.
Otherwise, it will lose the support of the general public or other members of the society. The
following roles can be played by different bodies in the process of enacting the library legislation
in respective states.
a) Library Association: The local as well as the state and national level library associations can
lay down a strategy to get the public legislation passed. They can utilize various media and
platforms to propagate the idea of library legislation. Members of the state assembly, especially
the concerned ministers should be approached and be presented a strong case for library
legislation. Indian Library legislation must provide all the support and guidance needed for the
b) Library Professionals: The library professionals should make the general as well as the elite
people aware about the significant role that can be played by the library. They should first do so
through their services in the organization in which they are working and then through
newspapers, radio, television, etc.
c) Elite Groups: The elite have the responsibility of framing policies, procedures etc. As the
leader of the society they also have the hidden responsibility to give the people the best they can.
As such, considering the role that can be played by the library they should take upon themselves
the responsibilities of awakening the general public about the library services, facilities, etc.
d) Political Leader and General Public: Leaders, who matter in decision making be given
special attention in enacting library legislation. The general people should also give pressure to
enact the library legislation.
5. Library Legislation in India: In ancient India learning was the concern of the Brahmin and
the common man had to depend for his enlightenment on the spoken words of gurus. General
people were also accustomed to this oral tradition of learning and, as a result in
ancient India there was no tradition of public library legislation.
a) Before Independence: Pre independence India shows some of the significant steps in
implementing the library legislation, which can be summarized as follows
i) The Press and Registration of Books Act (1867): The Press and Registration of Books Act
was passed in 1867 for the British India. This Act was for the regulation of printing-presses and
newspapers for the preservation of copies of books and newspapers printed in India and for the
registration of such books and newspapers. It helped some specific libraries to get some copies of
books free of cost and to maintain a continuous catalogue of early printed books in the country.
In terms of this Act the publisher or the printer of every book or newspaper was to send a copy of
the book or newspaper to the Secretary of state for India, another copy to the Governor General
in Council and still another to the local government.
ii) Funds for the encouragement of literature (1898);
iii) Imperial Library Act (1902);
iv) Model Library Act (1930).
Dr. S. R. Ranganathan drafted a “Model Library Act”, which was presented at the All
Asia Educational Conference held at Banaras in 1930. In 1942 on the request of ILA, Dr. S. R.
Ranganathan drafted another bill called ‘The Model Public Library Bill’.
b) After Independence: The major steps in implementing library legislation in the post
independence era are as follows
i) Imperial Library Act (1948): In 1948, the Government of India passed the Imperial Library
(change of name) Act. By this act the Imperial Library of Calcutta (Kolkata) became the National
Library (of India).
ii) Delivery of Books (Public Libraries Act) 1954: In 1954 Indian parliament passed Delivery
of Books and Newspaper Act which was further amended as the Delivery of Books and
Newspaper (Public Libraries) Amendment Act 1956 to include serials as well.
iii) Model Library Act / Bill (1963): A library bill was also drafted in 1963 by a committee
under the chairmanship of Dr. D. M. Sen. Then in 1972 revision was made to the model library
act of 1930. Another model public libraries bill was prepared by the library legislation
subcommittee of the Planning Commission in 1966.
c) Present Status of Library Legislation in India: The credit of enacting a library act for the
first time in India goes to the Kolhapur princely state of the present Maharashtra in 1945. The act
is presently non functional. In India, nineteen states have so far enacted library legislation and
the rest are providing library services without legislation. The list of the nineteen Acts is given
i) Andhra Pradesh (Hyderabad) Public Libraries Act, 1960;
ii) Arunachal Pradesh Public Libraries Act, 2009;
iii) Bihar Public Libraries Act, 2007;
iv) Chattisgarh Public Libraries Act, 2007;
v) Goa Public Libraries Act, 1993;
vi) Gujarat Public Libraries Act, 2001;
vii) Haryana Public Libraries Act, 1989;
viii) Karnataka (Mysore) Public Libraries Act, 1965;
ix) Kerala Public Libraries Act, 1989;
x) Maharashtra Public Libraries Act, 1967;
xi) Manipur Public Libraries Act, 1988;
xii) Mizoram Public Libraries Act, 1993;
xiii) Orissa Public Libraries Act, 2001;
xiv) Pondichery Public Libraries Act, 2007;
xv) Rajasthan Public Libraries Act, 2006;
xvi) Tamil Nadu (Madras) Public Libraries Act, 1948;
xvii) Uttar Pradesh Public Libraries Act, 2005;
xviii) Uttarakhand (Uttaranchal) Public Libraries Act, 2005 and
xix) West Bengal Public Libraries Act, 1979.
6. The Delivery of Books and Newspapers (Public Libraries) Act, 1954: The Delivery of
Books (Public Libraries) Act, 1954 extends to the whole of India except the state of Jammu and
Kashmir. According to this Act, the publisher of every book, newspaper or serial must deliver at
his own expense a copy of the book within thirty days from the date of its publication to the
National Library at Calcutta and one copy each to three other public libraries specified by the
Central Government. The Delivery of Books (Public Libraries) Act, 1954: No. 27 of 1954,
amended by the Delivery of Books (Public Libraries) Amendment Act, 1956: No. 99 of 1956 and
thus it became “The Delivery of Books 'and Newspapers' (Public Libraries) Act, 1954”. The
insertions “and Newspapers” provided by the Delivery of Books (Public Libraries)
Ammendment Act, 1956: No. 99 of 1956 includes serials as well.
i) Mode of Delivery: A copy of every book published by a publisher and the publisher of every
newspaper, published in the territories to which this Act extends, shall deliver at his own expense
one copy of each issue of such newspaper as soon as it is published, shall be delivered by him to
the librarian of three public library either by registered post or through a special messenger.
Under the Delivery of Books and Newspapers (Public Libraries) Act, 1954, the National Library,
Calcutta (presently Kolkata) is entitled to receive a copy of every publication brought out by
anyone anywhere in the country. The other copies should be delivered to the Connemera Public
Library, Madras (Chennai), The Central Library, Town Hall, Bombay (Mumbai), and the Delhi
Public Library. The copy to be delivered to the National Library, Kolkata should be the best of its
ii) Receipt for Books Delivered: The person in charge of a public library (whether called a
librarian or by any other name) or any other person authorised by him in his behalf to whom a
copy of a book is delivered shall give to the publisher a receipt in writing and send it to the
publisher by registered post and such receipt shall be conclusive proof of the fact that a copy of
the book has been duly delivered to the public library of which he is the librarian.
iii) Benefit for the Publisher: The Indian National Bibliography is procured by all leading
libraries and learned institutions throughout the English speaking world and much beyond. The
books that are received by way of Delivery of Books (Public Libraries) Act 1954, 56 are
included in the INB. Thus, the INB provides the publisher or the author with an excellent and
unique opportunity of using the forum of the Indian National Bibliography to give the widest
possible publicity to their publications not only in India but virtually all over the world. So,
Delivery of Books (Public Libraries) Act 1954, 56 also gives a commercial advantage of
publicity to the publisher or authors.
iv) Penalty: Any publisher who contravenes any provision of this Act. or of any rule made
hereunder shall be punishable with fine which may extend to fifty rupees and, “if the
contravention is in respect of a book, shall also be punishable with fine which shall be equivalent
to” the value of the book, and the court trying the offence may direct that the whole or any part
of the fine realised from him shall be paid, by way of compensation to the public library to which
the book or “newspaper”, as the case may be, ought to have been delivered.
7. Let Us Sum Up: None of the countries in which library legislation exists are able to provide
entirely satisfactory and effective library services. All of them have problem to some degree
despite the fact that there has been revision of laws in most countries. Again, there are many
countries without legislation but they are serving the general public in a better way in
comparison to the countries that have legislation.
Library Governance and Authority
Library Governance and Authority: The library governance refers to the persons (or
committees or departments etc.) who make up a body for the purpose of administering the
library. The authority has the power or right to give orders or make decisions in the library.
a) Library Governance
i) University Library: University library is based on the statutes and ordinances adopted by the
governing body of a university. The statutes made in accordance with the policy enunciated by
the university act would determine the status of the librarian in the general set up of the
university and provide for its organization and administration.
ii) Public Library: The public library law enacted by a state legislature forms the legal basis for
the establishment, maintenance and governance of the public library. In India, the public libraries
were formerly under the ministry of education but now it is under the ministry of culture.
iii) Special Library: In a special library run by a company or industry, there may be no legal
basis of library government. The library concerned may be their internal matter and the librarian
may be at the mercy of the higher authorities of the concerned organization. There may be no
prescribed rules, regulations, etc.
b) Library Authority: The word “authority” implies a person having the power to do
something, the power being derived from his office or character or prestige. A person having
power is authorized by a competent agency / authority to carry out a certain job. The purpose of
granting authority is to allow him / her to perform some kind of service by means of
administrative process.
i) College Library: In a college, the Board of Management is the authority and college librarian
is directly answerable to the principal.
ii) University Library: In Indian Universities, the Executive Council (EC) is the library
authority. In actual practice, many powers are delegated by EC to the Vice Chancellor (VC). So,
the librarian is directly answerable to the VC.
iii) Public Library: In a public library, the Directorate of Library Services or Local or State
Library Authority is the library authority or otherwise a library board might be the authority. The
librarian is responsible to the board. In case of a public library, where there is a library
legislation, it is mentioned in the library act as to who will be the library authority. But when
there is no library legislation then the Director of Library Services will be the library authority.
iv) Special Library: The Board of Director or Board of Trustees of the parent body is the
authority. The librarian is answerable to the Managing Director or some other senior officer and
in practice the situation differs from library to library.
Library Furniture and Fittings
Library Furniture and Fittings: The furniture and fittings can be made of metal, wood or
plastic. The furniture and fittings should also be modular. This would be the case for tables,
chairs, book racks, book trolleys, doors, windows, etc.
a) Book Racks: For normal shelving in general libraries, the standard racks or shelves made of
either seasoned teak or sheesham wood can prove useful and functional. Book racks are used to
store books, bound volumes of periodicals, reports and such other kinds of materials. Each
individual rack is usually 180 cm wide, 195/225 cm high and 25/50 cm deep depending on
whether it is a single-sided or double sided. The number of shelves in a rack is usually 5-6
depending on the high of the rack. A number of racks can be joined together to make one row. In
general, the height of the unit book rack should be such that a person of normal height should be
able to pick up books from top-most shelf. The popular kinds of stacks are:
i) Fixed Shelves with Double Row: They are normal fixed shelves where material can be
arranged in double rows.
ii) Hinged Stacks: Here two shelves are joined together with hinges on one side and one shelf
fixed while the other is mounted in front of the hinges.
iii) Rolling Stacks: These are metal stack units mounted on ball bearing wheel placed side by
iv) Compact Storage: This system consists of units of three stacks, the centre row of fixed
double-sided stacks at each side. This helps in increasing the capacity of the storage space.
v) Multitier Stacks: This kind of stacking consists of stacks from the floor to the roof and it has
become quite popular in very large libraries.
b) Periodical Display Rack: Double sided periodical racks are not recommended since the unit
becomes too bulky. It is better to place two single sided racks back to back, if necessary. The
following types of periodical display racks are generally available in the market.
i) Step or Gallery Type: In this type the periodicals are displayed stepwise, each step being 5 cm
deep and 15cm high. Length of the rack is generally 90cm. There may be 4-5 steps and on each
step 4-5 journals can be displayed and on a single sided rack 20-25 journals can be displayed.
ii) Pigeon Hole Type: This type of rack has two parts, one being a cupboard in the bottom and
other pigeon holes at the top. The usual height and width are 7.5 feet by 6 feet. The depth is
about one foot in the pigeon hole and about 1.5 feet in the lower cupboard portion. The cupboard
portion is for storing the back volumes of the periodicals and the pigeons holes hold about 36
current periodicals.
iii) Inclined Type: This type of display rack is an improvement over the earlier pigeon hole type
of rack. This is a box type rack with horizontal shelves, each covered with wooden planks with
an inclination to the shelf plank. The shelves can be portioned into pigeon holes, each hole being
provided with a wooden support for the periodicals. The inclined plank provides a way of
displaying periodicals with the back issues in the space behind the inclined plank. Display space
for 25-30 periodicals can be provided in one rack.
c) Catalogue Cabinet: The catalogue cabinet is a unit of drawers full of cards specially designed
to hold library cards (5 x 3) and equipped with a metal holding rod. These units are available in a
wide range of sizes starting from four drawers to about sixty drawers. For convenience and ease
of consultation, the trays of drawers are placed on stands of eye level. Each tray can hold about
1,000 thick cards.
d) Charging Desk / Issue Counter: In most of the libraries the charging desk is specially
designed to serve special need of the library, and it is not usually acquired from the open market
that has predefined shape and size. The issue counter is usually designed for two people to work
simultaneously. The height of the counter should be 4-5 foot and should have sufficient drawer
space to accommodate all the issued documents records. The counter should also have sufficient
shelving space for placing the books which are returned by the users. The common type of
design used for issue counter is circular, L-shaped, rectangular, and U-shaped.
e) Computer Table / Reading table: Proper computer tables with drawers are required for the
OPAC terminal, digital library section and such other. Some common type tables are also
required for the technical staff of the library and for the readers to use as reading table in the
reading room. The tables to be used in the reading room are large in size and without any
f) Chairs: The chairs are required for OPAC terminal, digital library section, technical staff and
for the readers to use in the reading room.
g) Book Ends or Book Supports: These should be provided in large numbers. At least two book
supports are required for one plank so that the books are made to stand erect.
h) Book-lifts and Trolleys: If the book stacks are spread over many floors, it is desirable that
book lifts or dumb elevators, as these are called, should be provided. Similarly, to carry books
from one end to the other end of each floor, there should be a book trolley so that the time and
energy of the staff can be saved.
i) Record Keeping Equipment: In a modern library, most of the record keeping equipment is
replaced by computerized record keeping databases. The record keeping equipment includes loan
register, periodical record register, accession register, gate register, membership register and such
j) Filing Cabinets: There should be filing cabinets for correspondences, newspaper clippings,
pamphlets, patents, standards, and other types of materials with odd sizes. For filing of
correspondences, vertical filing cabinets with drawers that can be pulled out can be used.
Pamphlet boxes of various kinds are also available in the market for storing pamphlets, leaf-lets,
standards and patents.
k) Photocopiers / Printer: In the libraries for various activities there will always be the need of
multiple copies of a single document. The photocopiers will also be needed when readers of the
library want to make Xerox copies of a chapter of a book or for such other activities. Several
leading companies are manufacturing photocopiers with several variations like coloured copies,
size enlargement or reduction and several copies at a time. Depending on the requirements of an
individual library and availability of funds, suitable copier as per requirement can be purchased.
In modern day libraries computer printer should also be procured.
l) Typewriters / Computers: Typewriters are gradually replaced by computers in most of the
libraries. So, it’s better to go for computer than typewriters. In an automated library bar-coding
printer, bar-coding reader and such others should also be procured.
m) Miscellaneous Items: It will include stool or step ladder for reaching the roof for cleaning,
for users in stack room for picking books from upper shelves, vacuum cleaners, air-conditioners,
binding equipment, projectors, etc. Some other library furniture may include notice board,
newspaper stand with sloping top, property counter or rack for keeping the users belongings.
Let Us Sum Up: Planning the library building is a team project and not exclusively the job of an
architect. The basic aim of the design of a library building should be to achieve flexibility using
modular system. In addition, open access and provision of future growth is an important
consideration. The design should be functional rather than a monumental consisting of a
rectangular area having pillars or modules.
The inclusion of the librarian in the library building committee is a crucial factor. He is
the best person for planning and equipping the library and determines the exact functional
relationship between the various parts of the structure. He will prepare a note on library building
programme explaining the requirements of the library to the architect, management, etc. The
architect on the basis of his note would propose a plan keeping in view the ways in which the
users would use a library. He would be able to suggest the designing of a functional and
attractive building within the budget allocated for the purpose. The decision of the library
building committee must be finally approved by the competent authority.
Library Extension Services
Library Extension Services: Extension work is defined as those activities which are undertaken
with the objective of reaching the group of people who might otherwise be unaware of the library
services and book stocks. Mc Colvin considers it as means “to increase the number of readers
and the volumes of work and later to make the library more useful to more people”. ALA
Glossary of Library and Information Science 1983 defines it as “the provision by a library of
materials and services (including advisory services) to individuals and organizations outside its
regular service area, especially to an area in which library service is not otherwise available.
1. Objectives: The main objectives in providing extension services are
i) To convert a library into a social, cultural and intellectual centre;
ii) To convert non reader into reader, non user to user.
iii) To bring books and readers together.
iv) To inform those who do not use the library services and to attract them to those services.
v) To inform the reader of all the facilities offered by the library.
vi) To remind both the reader and the non reader of the library and its resources.
vii) As a means of publicity to enlist financial support or otherwise for the libraries.
2. Prerequisites for Extension Services
i) The library should have a good collection to support all extension activities.
ii) The trained and experienced staff is obligatory.
iii) The library should have a lecture hall, an exhibition hall for holding meeting of different
iv) The library should possess audio-video equipment i.e. LCD projector, slide projector and
mike arrangement.
v) The librarian should be a good organizer, should understand the needs of the different
categories of the community and be knowledgeable about the collection of the library.
3. Forms of Extension Services: The Library extension services may be of internal or external
type. The internal extension service includes orientation programmes and the external extension
service includes the mobile library service, publicity programmes etc. Some of the main forms of
extension services are as follows
i) Library Orientation / Library Tour: Many potential library patrons do not know how to use a
library effectively. This can be due to the lack of early exposure, shyness, or anxiety and fear of
displaying ignorance. These problems led to the emergence of the library instruction movement,
which advocated library user education. Libraries inform the public of what materials are
available in their collections and how to access that information. The reference staff may orient
the user either in formal way or informally into the library system.
ii) Reading Circle, Study Circle: Persons with common interest may be bought together by the
library to a reading circle. Each reading circle should be given necessary facilities regarding the
materials and a suitable place to hold the meeting.
iii) Forming Friends of the Library Group: The Library can also think of forming “Friends of
the Library Group”; such group can assist the library through fund raising, volunteering, and
advocacy. They also hold book sales at the library.
iv) Reading to Illiterates: Reading hours for adults who cannot read should be arranged by
public libraries. Once they become neo-literates the public library then should take upon itself to
see to it that they do not lapse into illiteracy again.
v) Meeting, Public Lectures and Talks: A library should organize public lectures and talks by
eminent persons and also by library staff.
vi) Celebration of Festival and Events and Arranging Cultural Programmes: It is a good idea
to arrange popular festivals and events in the library which may also arrange a drama, a puppet
show, a music concert, a film show, a magic show etc. Such cultural programmes can prove great
attraction for the community. On such occasions a book exhibition related to the programme
should be arranged.
vii) Book Fair and Exhibition: At the time of talk, festival, fair, drama, etc. a book exhibition on
the relevant topic may be arranged. Exhibition on local history, local festivals, art, photograph
and painting can offer great opportunity to attract the attention of the community.
Periodical exhibition of books which have a bearing on topical theme enhances the
chances of books finding their readers. Occasional exhibitions of unused books might prove
useful for the reader in getting interested in books and using them.
viii) Mobile Service: Introduction of mobile library services to provide service to citizens
without access to central or branch libraries has devised an interesting variety of delivering
methods. For offering this service, the time for each locality is to be fixed and notified earlier.
ix) Publicity/ Propagenda: Propaganda through the newspaper, radio, television can be
x) Book by Mail and Telephone Request: The public library should also provide library lending
service through mail and Dial a book and Dial a fact method. A public library can also think of
delivering books to any home bound person on a request. Introduction of library website is also
a good form of extension service.
xi) Publication: Publications like annual report, reading guide, library magazine / bulletin and
other similar publications are also helpful.
* Library Bulletin: The library bulletin should not only list fresh books and some important
articles published in current issues of journals but should also give brief annotations wherever
the content of new material needs. The library bulletin can take the form of indexing or
abstracting service or table of content of periodicals received in the library or the list of recent
publications or acquisition.
* Annual Report: The annual report is the official document of the library for recording the
annual library activities in totality. It is the statement of assessment and evaluation of all the
departments of the library. It is the survey of works carried out during the preceding year with
summarization of the activities and achievements of the library.
Libraries are the democratic institutions for the profit and enjoyment of all. So, in the
recent years much thought has been given to the best methods of popularizing the use of
libraries. How does one attract readers to libraries? How were it extend to all classes the facilities
for using them? How can one render the maximum amount of help to those who desire to use
libraries and how to save the time of the reader and library staff alike are some issues to be

Library Consortia
Library Consortia: The basic premise of consortia is that its members can collectively achieve
more than what they can achieve as individual institutions.
a) Definition: According to American Heritage Dictionary a consortium is “a cooperative
arrangement among groups or institution,” or “an association or society”. According to Oxford
English Dictionary, “Consortium means temporary cooperation of a number of powers,
companies, etc. for a common purpose. It is an association of similar type of organization /
institution who are engaged for producing and servicing the common things / for providing
services for a specific purpose of its users.”
Library consortium is a “community (a cooperative) of two or more information agencies
which have formally agreed to coordinate, cooperate or consolidate certain function” to achieve
mutual objectives. It is an association of a group of libraries to achieve mutually the joint
benefits. It provides a way for its members to conduct business in a comparative manner.
Library consortia is a network for buying and accessing e- information in a cooperative
arrangement among a group of libraries in providing instant access to greater resources for the
users of the individual libraries. One of the libraries or agencies of the consortia works as
coordinator for identification of libraries for each publisher, negotiation, legal matters, etc.
Library consortia may vary from being decentralized to highly centralize in nature. The degree of
centralization of consortium is the primary factor affecting not only how member institutions
interact with one another, but also maintain relationship with external party (publisher/vendor).
More decentralized the consortium, the greater the degree of autonomy each member retains.
b) Precondition for Consortia: Technological developments, electronic publishing of scholarly
journals, emergence of consortia, pricing models of publishers are some of the factors that create
the condition for the development of the library consortia.
i) Emergence of Electronic Document: The whole world is moving towards electronic
publishing and the cost of the electronic publishing is much less than that of the print version.
The users also hope to have access to their learned journals article in electronic form.
ii) Access to Electronic Resources is a Precondition for a Modern Library: Library materials
have grown exponentially in many forms and formats like e-books, e-journals, etc. and all these
are very essential for the survival of the library itself.
The limitation in finance, space and manpower also stresses upon the need for library
c) Benefit of Consortia: Library consortia increases the Cost Benefit Per Subscription. The
other advantages are:
i) Reduced Information Cost: Many libraries currently subscribe only to those journals that
they can afford. Though interested in other journals yet they cannot afford to provide access to
them. Consortia approach helps them to provide the access.
ii) Access to More Resources Than the Capabilities: A number of publishers offer consortia. If
the library’s purchase power is big enough they provide access to their whole range of journals –
that is, every member of the consortium gets electronic access not only to the journals currently
subscribed to but also to all the journals published in the field.
ii) Promoting the Rational Use of Funds: By forming consortia the purchasing power of the
collaborating institutions can expand the resource availability and offer automated services.
iii) Ensuring Continuous Subscription: The continuous subscription to the periodicals
subscribed is ensure in library consortia.
iv) DDS: Inter-libraries loan services will grow and it is interlinked with the search of the union
catalogues which will build effective DDS. Delivery of documents will be fast, either
electronically through Xeroxing, fax, courier or e-mail.
Consortia will give the library and also the user extended access- that is, better service for
reduced costs. With subscribed resources accessible online in electronic format, the member
libraries would have less pressure on space requirement for storing and managing print- based
library resources. Moreover, all problems associated with print media such as their wear and tear,
location, shelving, binding, organizing, etc. would not be an issue for electronic resources.
d) Development of Library Consortia in India: Library consortia has become quite popular in
India and many intuitions some of which are furnish below has made use of it.
i) Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) e-Journals Consortium
ii) The Forum for Resource Sharing in Astronomy & Astrophysics (FORSA)
iii) Health Sciences Library & Information Network (HELINET)
iv) Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India (ICICI) Knowledge Park
v) The Indian Institute of Management (IIM)’s Library Consortia.
vi) Indian National Digital Library in Engineering Sciences and Technology (INDEST)
Consortium <>.
vii) UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research <>.
viii) UGC- INFONET <>.
ix) ISRO Library Consortium, ICMR Library Consortium, etc.

The library cooperation / resource sharing / networking / consortia or by whatever name we term
it aims to improve the existing organizational infrastructure of the participating libraries in terms
of finance, manpower, equipment, document, and other library facilities. It improves the
effectiveness and efficiencies of the participating libraries to serve the needs of the user,
improves access to resources, widens information coverage and accelerates the sphere in the
supply of information, and helps in utilizing the available resources to the optimum level.
Library Committee
Library Committee: A library authority may appoint a library committee, which is a body
consisting of persons who are assigned the job of looking after the library. The library committee
is needed because the librarian alone should not carry the whole burden of a big institution like a
a) Members of the Library Committee: In case of a University, the library committee is
formed with the heads of the departments of the University, the Vice-chancellor, the Librarian,
etc. The Vice chancellor is the Chairman of the library committee, and the Librarian is the
Secretary. In case of college library, the principal is the chairman, and the librarian is the
secretary. In case of school library, there is no need of a library committee because the library
itself is a very small one and the librarian is the working head of the library.
The library committee should not be a very large. Only those people should be included
as members of the library committee who are interested in the library and in this way the
membership is restricted within the limit of twenty.
b) Types of Library Committee: There are mainly two types of library committees
i) Executive Committee: This committee is most powerful as it has full power over those matters
which are delegated to them by the library authority. So the decision of the library executive
committee is final and mandatory. It need not report its decision to the library authority.
ii) Advisory or Recommendatory Committee: It simply gives proposals which are subject to the
approval of the library authority.
If we go deep into the history of library committee we will also find some other types of
library committees. These are as follows:
iii) Self Perpetuating Committee: These committees have the sole authority and independence as
regards the control and management of the library under it. It does not have to report to any other
higher body about its activities.
iv)Adhoc Committee (Statutory Committee): It has the advantage of being independent of
politics. It takes decision expeditiously. This committee is more or less independent. The Madras
Public Library Act of 1948 provides the appointment of such a committee. This type of
committee serves as library authority.
v) Nominated / Elected Committee: A large committee or an authority nominates or elects a
smaller body for looking after certain bodies under it. It delegates certain power to such smaller
bodies or committees.
vi) Recommending Committee: It does not have any real power except that it simply gives certain
proposals which are subject to the approval of the library authority.
vii) Reporting Committee: This committee has sufficient powers to decide the matters within
certain limit. Such decision needs no confirmation of the supreme authority but the decision is to
be reported to the latter for information.
c) Powers and Functions of Library Committee: Powers and functions of a library committee
vary according to its nature. In case of the Executive Committee the powers, functions and
responsibilities are more whereas in case of a recommending committee, these will be narrowed
to a great extent. Almost all the proposals for discussion at the library committee meeting are put
forth by the librarian who generally acts as an ex-officio secretary to the committee. The library
committees generally serve the following purposes.
i) Library Building: Library committee plays a great role in the construction of the library
building and also makes necessary arrangement for the maintenance of the library building.
ii) Library Furniture and Fittings: Library committee ensures the availability of the adequate and
proper standard furniture so that in future any number of identical articles may be added without
any wastage of money or space.
iii) Library Staff: A library committee employs the qualified and adequate library staff for the
iv) Library Rule: It frames a set of library rules and keeps them up-to-date.
v) Library Finance: The librarian not being an elected representative of the people cannot
successfully appeal for more fund allocation for the library. But the committee being a
representative body of the people can successfully and convincingly appeal for more funds. The
committee can also allocate the funds for the library.
vi) Collection of Documents: A library committee may appoint a sub-committee to serve as book
selection committee so that the lists of books are thoroughly scrutinized to avoid the purchase of
undesirable books.
vii) Library Accounts and Audits: A library committee provides the proper machinery for
checking the library accounts. It may appoint an account sub-committee for auditing the
viii) Standard Library Service: A library committee put in its best efforts to secure full coverage
and standard library services to the users.
ix) Library co-operation: A library committee finds out ways and means of securing co-operation
between various branches within a locality and between other authorities.
x) Supervision and Advice: Public functions are best performed by a committee of persons who
may be elected or nominated out by the people themselves as such the library committees also
supervise and advise the librarian in matters on which public participation is essential.
xi) Buffer Agency: The committee serves as a buffer agency and an interpreter of the needs of the
library to the community, controlling and guiding the library activities. In the absence of a library
committee the librarian would find himself defenseless and unprotected.
Library Classification
Library Classification: Classification means putting together the like-entities and separating
the unlike entities. The characteristics of entities are used as a basis for determining the likeness
and unlikeness between them. A class consists of entities which are like in some respects and
possessing certain qualities in common. This helps in distinguish them from another class of
1. Definition: A library classification is a system of coding and organizing library materials
(books, serials, audiovisual, computer files, maps, photographs, manuscripts, regalia,
gramophone records, tape records, microfilm and so on) according to their subject. It provides
formal access to documents in a library.
Sayers defines library classification as “the arrangement of books on shelves or
description of them in the manner which is most helpful to those who read”. The emphasis is on
usefulness so that the users can locate the document without complication.
According to Margaret Mann, classification is “the arranging of things according to
likeness and unlikeness. It is the sorting and grouping of things, but in addition classification of
books is a knowledge classification with adjustment made necessary by the physical forms of
According to S.R. Ranganathan, “it is the translation of the name of the subject of a book
into a preferred artificial language of ordinal numbers and the individualization of the several
books dealing with the same specific subject by means of a further set of ordinal numbers which
represents some features of the book other than their thought content”. The first of these ordinal
numbers is called the class number of the book. The second ordinal numbers is called its book
number. The class number and the book number together constitute the call number of the book.
The library classification system provides a system for organizing the knowledge
embodied in books, CD, web, etc. It supplies a notation (in case of DDC, it is Arabic numerals)
to the document. The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system is a general knowledge
organization tool that is continuously revised to keep pace with the development of knowledge.
It is the most widely used classification scheme in the world. Libraries in more than 135
countries use the DDC to organize their collection. It is also used over the web for organizing the
web resources for the purpose of browsing.
2. Need: Until 19th century, most libraries had closed stacks, so the library classification only
served to organize the subject catalogue. In the 20th century, libraries opened their stacks to the
public and started to shelve the library material itself according to certain library classification
scheme to simplify subject browsing. So classification is needed for providing the following
i) Helpful Sequence: Classification brings the like documents together on the shelf in a helpful
sequence providing approach through subject.
ii) Locate a Particular Document: A library collects / preserves documents. It is very difficult to
locate a required document from a system of disorderly collection. So, it needs classification to
bring order to the collection.
iii) Self Help: Classification helps the locating of document by the patron of the library itself,
thus requiring less assistance from the library staff.
iv) Correct Replacement: Documents would be taken out from shelves by the users or library
staff. The classification helps in the correct replacement of documents after these have been
returned from use.
v) Mechanical Arrangement: The classification helps the mechanization of the collection by
allocating notation.
3. Different Schemes of Classification: To derive the particular class number different libraries
use different classification schemes. All classification schemes can be categorized into three
kinds- based on the language, based on the synthesis and based on arrangement. Let us discuss
them in detail
Based on the language library classification can be:
i) English-Speaking World: In the English –speaking countries Dewey Decimal Classification
(DDC), Library of Congress Classification (LC), Bliss Bibliographic Classification (BC),
Dickinson Classification are generally followed.
ii) Non English Speaking World: Non English speaking countries use Nippon Decimal
Classification (NDC), Principes de Classement des Documents Musicaux (PCDM), Chinese
Library Classification (CLC), Korean Decimal Classification (KDC), etc.
Synthesis means combining codes from different lists to represent the different attributes
of a work. Based on synthesis library classification may be Bibliographic Classification by Bliss,
Colon Classification by Ranganathan, Expansive Classification by Cutter, Universal Decimal
Classification, etc.
Based on the arrangement there are three main types of classification systems:
i) Enumerative: Produce an alphabetical list of subject headings; assign numbers to each heading
in alphabetical order. The most common classification systems, LC and DDC, are essentially
enumerative, though with some hierarchical and faceted elements, especially at the broadest and
most general level.
ii) Hierarchical: Divides subjects hierarchically, from general to specific.
iii) Faceted or analytico-synthetic: Divides subjects into mutually exclusive orthogonal facets.
The first true faceted system was the Colon classification of S. R. Ranganathan.
iv) Specialist Classification: Specialist classification systems have been developed for particular
subject areas, and some specialist libraries develop their own classification system that
emphasizes those areas they specialize in. An example is the Medical Subject Headings devised
by the US National Library of Medicine (NLM). Another example is the specialist classification
system for art and iconography (Iconclass). There are also emerging metadata standards that are
being developed for web resources, digital images, and other specialized materials.
4. Dewey Decimal Classification: The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system is the
world’s most widely used library classification system. American librarian and library educator
Melville Dewey devised the system in 1873 while he was a student
at Amherst College in Massachusetts. The Dewey Decimal system was first published in 1876 as
“A Classification and Subject Index for Cataloguing and Arranging the Books and Pamphlets of
a Library”. It appeared in the form of a small book of 44 pages. The Decimal Classification
Editorial Policy Committee (EPC) was established in 1937 to serve as an advisory body to the
Dewey Decimal Classification. In 1988, Online Computer Library Center, Inc (OCLC) acquired
the DDC. The editorial headquarters was located at the Library of Congress in the Decimal
Classification Division. The editors prepare the proposed schedule revisions and expansions, and
forward the proposals to EPC for review and recommended action. Nowadays, DDC is
published by Online Computer Library Center, Inc in full and abridged editions. The abridged
edition targets the general libraries having less than 20,000 titles. Both the full and abridged
editions are available in print as well as in electronic version.
4.1 Introduction to 22nd Edition of DDC: The edition 22 is the first edition of the DDC, which
is produced in the context of the web environment. DDC 22 is composed of the following major
parts in four volumes.
a) Volume 1: It includes special features of edition 22, introduction regarding how to use the
DDC, glossary, index to the introduction and glossary, a manual (guide to the use of the DDC),
and six numbered tables. It also has the lists that compare editions 21 and 22 with the list of
relocated, discontinued and reused numbers.
b) Volume 2: It includes DDC summaries (the top three levels of the DDC), and schedules (from
000-599). The summaries will help you to visualize at a glance the structure and scope of
various subjects as laid down in DDC.
The first summary contains ten main classes. The first digit in each three-digit number
represents the main class. For example, 600 represents technology.
The second summary contains the hundred divisions, ten for each main class. The second
digit in each three-digit number indicates the division. For example, 600 is used for general
works on technology, 610 for medicine and health, 620 for engineering, 630 for agriculture.
The third summary contains the thousand sections. The third digit in each three-digit
number indicates the section. Thus, 610 is used for general works on medicine and health, 611
for human anatomy, 612 for human physiology, 613 for personal health and safety.
c) Volume 3: It includes the organization of knowledge schedules from 600-999.
d) Volume 4: It includes a relative index. The relative index (it relates subjects to discipline)
contains an alphabetical list of subjects with the disciplines in which they are treated as sub-
arranged alphabetically under each entry.
4.2 Understanding the Structure of DDC: The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system
uses simple decimal notation to divide recorded knowledge into 10 main classes at the broadest
level which together cover the entire world of knowledge. Each main class is further divided into
ten divisions, and each division into ten sections giving 100 divisions and 1,000 sections. All the
numbers for the divisions and sections have not been used.
a) Tables: The six tables in the DDC are as following
T1 Standard Subdivisions
T2 Geographic Areas, Historical Periods, Persons
T3 Subdivisions for the Arts, for Individual Literatures, for Specific Literary Forms
T4 Subdivisions of Individual Languages and Language Families
T5 Ethnic and National Groups
T6 Languages
The notation from T1can be added to any numbers unless there is an instruction in the
schedules or tables to the contrary. The other table notations may be added only when
instructions are given in the schedules or tables.
b) Summaries: The Dewey Decimal Classification divides human knowledge into ten basic
categories, with subdivisions indicated by decimal notation. Each of the ten main classes has the
potential to be broken down into smaller multiples of ten. The word decimal in the name of the
classification system comes from decem, the Latin word for “ten”.
DDC has three summaries. The first summaries includes 10 main classes, the second
summary includes 100 divisions and the third summary includes 1000 sections.
i) First Summary: The ten primary classes of DDC are as follows:
000 Generalities
100 Philosophy and psychology
200 Religion
300 Social sciences
400 Language
500 Natural sciences and mathematics
600 Technology (applied sciences)
700 The arts; fine and decorative arts
800 Literature and rhetoric
900 Geography and history
A brief explanation of each of the class is given below.
000: Class 000 is the most general class. It includes the works that are not limited to any one
specific discipline or the works that are related to information and knowledge. It includes
encyclopedias, newspapers, general periodicals, computer science, library and information
science, journalism, etc.
100: Class 100 covers Philosophy, Parapsychology and occultism, and Psychology.
200: Class 200 is devoted to Religion.
300: Class 300 covers the social sciences that include Sociology, Anthropology, Statistics,
Political science, Economics, Law, Public administration, Social problems and services,
Education, Commerce, Communications, Transportation, Custom (including folk literature), etc.
400: It comprises languages, linguistics, and specific languages.
500: It includes Natural sciences and Mathematics.
600: Class 600 includes technology.
700: It covers arts in general, fine and decorative arts, music, and the performing arts. It also
includes recreation, including sports and games.
800: It covers literature, and includes rhetoric, prose, poetry, drama, etc.
900: It is devoted to History and Geography.
ii) Second Summary: Again, each of the 10 Main Classes is subdivided into 10 Divisions
resulting in 100 Divisions on the whole. The entire second summary is reproduced bellow for
your reference. You should remember the first and second summary of DDC fully.
000 Computer science, knowledge & systems
010 Bibliographies
020 Library & information sciences
030 Encyclopedias & books of facts
040 [Unassigned]
050 Magazines, journals & serials
060 Associations, organizations & museums
070 News media, journalism & publishing
080 Quotations
090 Manuscripts & rare books
100 Philosophy
110 Metaphysics
120 Epistemology
130 Parapsychology & occultism
140 Philosophical schools of thought
150 Psychology
160 Logic
170 Ethics
180 Ancient, medieval & eastern philosophy
190 Modern western philosophy
200 Religion
210 Philosophy & theory of religion
220 The Bible
230 Christianity & Christian theology
240 Christian practice & observance
250 Christian pastoral practice & religious orders
260 Christian organization, social work & worship
270 History of Christianity
280 Christian denominations
290 Other religions
300 Social sciences, Sociology & Anthropology
310 Statistics
320 Political science
330 Economics
340 Law
350 Public administration & military science
360 Social problems & social services
370 Education
380 Commerce, communications & transportation
390 Customs, etiquette & folklore
400 Language
410 Linguistics
420 English & Old English languages
430 German & related languages
440 French & related languages
450 Italian, Romanian & related languages
460 Spanish & Portuguese languages
470 Latin & Italic languages
480 Classical & modern Greek languages
490 Other languages
500 Science
510 Mathematics
520 Astronomy
530 Physics
540 Chemistry
550 Earth sciences & geology
560 Fossils & prehistoric life
570 Life science; Biology
580 Plants (Botany)
590 Animals (Zoology)
600 Technology
610 Medicine & health
620 Engineering
630 Agriculture
640 Home & family management
650 Management & public relations
660 Chemical engineering
670 Manufacturing
680 Manufacture for specific uses
690 Building & construction
700 Arts
710 Landscaping & area planning
720 Architecture
730 Sculpture, ceramics & metalwork
740 Drawing & decorative arts
750 Painting
760 Graphic arts
770 Photography & computer art
780 Music
790 Sports, games & entertainment
800 Literature, Rhetoric & Criticism
810 American literatures in English
820 English & Old English literatures
830 German & related literature
840 French & related literatures
850 Italian, Romanian & related literatures
860 Spanish & Portuguese literature
870 Latin & Italic literatures
880 Classical & modern Greek literature
890 Other literatures
900 History
910 Geography & travel
920 Biography & geography
930 History of ancient world (to ca. 499)
940 History of Europe
950 History of Asia
960 History of Africa
970 History of North America
980 History of South America
990 History of other areas
iii) Third Summary: In the third summaries, each one of the 100 divisions is further subdivided
into 10 sections resulting in 1000 sections. For the copyright issue, the third summary is not
included here in this unit. But, you can find the complete summaries of DDC 22nd edition over
OCLC website (, and
( The provides the DDC summaries of 22nd
edition in a very easy to browse, and search structure. You can also use this interface to obtain
the main class number of any document.
You can also find the Dewey Decimal Classification System (13th Abridged) in the
website of Near North District School Board (http://www-
c) Schedules: Schedules contain the schedules of Class Numbers assigned in numeric order
from 000 to 999. To follow the correct use of the Schedules, it is necessary to understand the
various notes and instructions suggested in different entries. So, let’s explore the schedule in
some details.
Entries in the schedules and tables are composed of DDC number in the left margin, a
heading describing the class that the number represents, and often one or more notes. All entries,
numbers, headings, and notes should be read in the context of hierarchy. The first three digits of
schedule number appears only once, when first used, in the number column. They are repeated at
the top of each page where their subdivisions continue. Subordinate numbers appear in the
number column, beginning with a decimal point. The numbers and notes in parentheses provide
options to standard practice. Numbers in square brackets represent the topics that have been
reallocated or discontinued, or unassigned. Square brackets are also used for standard
subdivision concepts that are represented in another location.
Only a fraction of the potential DDC numbers is included in the schedules. It is often
necessary to build or synthesize a number that is not specifically listed in the schedules. If you
turn the third page of the schedule (Vol 2), you will see that entries start with the notation “000”
at the top of the page and a summary of all divisions and sections below it. In the 5 th page you
will see the first entry that is “001” which stands for knowledge, and below it the numbers and
descriptions and different notes to arrive at the correct class number of a document.
d) Relative Index: The volume 4 contains the Relative Index. It is an alphabetical list of all the
subjects given in the Schedules and Tables. It is called the Relative Index because it brings
together under the name of the subject the various aspects of a subject which are scattered in the
schedules according to the disciplines. This index not only arranges the concepts and their terms
in an alphabetical sequence but also shows the relation between the terms and the contexts in
which the subjects appear in the Schedule. It is a key to the Schedules as well as an independent
approach to classification. In the index, all possible subjects are included under main divisions
and sub-divisions so that the classifier finds it easy to search out the possible subjects under the
alphabetical list of relative index. The numbers that are given for subjects in the index are
readymade numbers, but they are not the same as those of the schedule. The classifier has to
finally decide the number himself.
4.3 Steps for Classifying with DDC: While doing the classification of a document one should
procede to the class number in the following ways
a) Determine the Subject: First, try to determine the subject of the book or document in your
hand. The title often provides a clue to the subject, but it should never be the sole source of
analysis. The subject which the book deals with can be determined by going through the table of
contents, chapter headings, the preface or introduction, and the book jacket or the accompanying
If a work includes multiple subjects, class it under the subject that is being acted upon
(rule of application). The rule of application takes precedence over any other rule. For instance,
class an analytical work dealing with Shakespeare’ influence on Keats with the subject Keats.
Class a work (book) on two subjects with the subjects receiving fuller treatment. If two subjects
receive equal treatment, class the work with the subject whose number comes first in the DDC
schedules (first-of-two rule). For example, history dealing equally with the United States and
Japan, should be classed under history of Japan, because 952 Japan precedes 973 United States
(even if in the title of the work United States appears first, and it is discussed first in the contents
of the work). Class a work in which three or more subjects are treated equally but are all
subdivisions of a broader subject in the first higher number that includes them all (rule of three).
For instance, a history of Portugal (946.9), Sweden (948.5), and Greece (949.5) is classed with
the history of Europe (940).
b) Determine the Discipline: After determining the subject the classifier should try to
determine the disciplinary focus and, if possible, the approach or form of the work.
If a work is dealing with more than one discipline, interdisciplinary number should be
provided to the work.
If you are not able to determine the subject and the discipline of the book in hand, you
can consult “The Relative Index”. It will help by suggesting the discipline(s) in which a subject
is normally treated.
c) Consult the Schedule: The schedules are the only place where all the information about
coverage and use of the numbers may be found. So, once the subject has been determined and
information on the discipline has been found, the classifier should turn to the schedules. The
summaries, headings and notes within the schedules will provide the necessary guidance to
arrive at the appropriate class number.
In the schedule of DDC, special headings, notes, and entries indicate relationships among
the topics that violate the notational hierarchy. The notes are usually given at the highest level of
application. For example, the scope note at 700 applies to 730 to 736 and to 736.4. So, during
the process of classifying a document the classifier has to turn the pages up and down.
Even if the classifier has used “The Relative Index”, he should still rely on the structure
of the classification schedule to arrive at the proper class number of a work. Even the most
promising Relative Index citations must be verified in the schedules.
d) Close and Broad Classification: Close classification means that the content of a work is
specified by notation to the fullest extent possible. Broad classification means that the work is
placed in a broad class by the use of notation that has been logically abridged. For example, a
work on French cooking is classed closely at 641.5944 (641.59 Cooking by place + 44 France
from the T1), or broadly at 641.5 (Cooking). The DDC provides the basic options of close versus
broad classification. A library should choose between these two option based on the size of its
collection and the needs of its users. The abridged edition of the DDC is another source for
broad classification.
e) Other Points: It should be noted that DDC uses the convention that no number should have
fewer than three digits; zeros are used to fill in the numbers. A decimal point (or dot) follows the
third digit in a class number, after which division by ten continues to the specific degree of
classification needed. The “dot” is not used as a decimal point in the mathematical sense; it used
to ease the transcription and copying of the class numbers.
A number should never end in a zero anywhere to the right of the decimal point. Again,
subdivisions beginning with zero should be avoided if there is a choice between zero and 1-9 at
the same point in the hierarchy of the notation (rule of zero).
4.4 Examples of Classifying a Document with DDC Summaries: Now let’s try to classify
some general books practically, wherein we do not require to use seven tables and the details
about the Schedules. For classification of such books, the three summaries of DDC and the
Relative Index will be enough. Now, for example, take a book whose name is “A Text Book of
Here, in the title, it is very easy and expressive enough to determine the subject.
Geometry is the branch of Mathematics and it will come under science. So, go to the first
summary wherein you will find “500 Science”, then consult the second summary, wherein under
500 you will find “510 Mathematics”. Now, in the third summary under “510 Mathematics”, you
will find “516 Geometry”. Now, consult the schedule for verification. In the schedule also the
516 is for Geometry. So, the class number of the above book will be “516”.
Now, suppose, in lieu of the above approach you want to move from the Relative Index.
In such cases, find the word Geometry in the page number 331 of volume 4. Opposite to the
word you will find the number “516” in the following format.
Geometry 516
famous problems 516.204
Now consult the schedule for verification. In page number 515 of volume 2, you will find
“516 Geometry”, so the class number of the above book will be “516”.
4.5 Classification of Document by Using the Web: The cost of DDC is very high. Every
library in India and in other developing countries cannot afford to have a set of DDC as its own.
But the classification of the documents in a library is a must. To meet this end, librarians can use
some tools and techniques to have a class number of a document they have procured in their
library. There are some excellent tools over the web that share the class numbers. Some of these
tools and techniques are discussed bellow. They will provide the readymade class number of a
document and will save the time of the classifier. We may not require to follow these options if
we have a set of DDC. We are to only follow the options listed below in the event of not having
a set of DDC. We can also follow these options to verify the class number obtained by
consulting the DDC on our own.
a) Classify: An Experimental Classification Web Service: OCLC Research experimental
classification service launched “Classify” ( which is targeted to
support the assignment of class number and subject heading by using the web. The interface can
be used both by a machine as well as human being. It provides access to more than 36 million
collectively built records from a large pool of related resources. Each record in the database
contains Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) numbers, Library of Congress Classification
(LCC) numbers, or National Library of Medicine (NLM) Classification numbers, and subject
headings from the Faceted Application of Subject Terminology (FAST).
In the database of Classify ( by inputting any one or in
combination of some basic information related to the document, the class number or subject
heading can be obtained. The inputted information may be of the following types-
i) ISBN: You can use the 10 or 13 digit ISBN. The ISBN should be used without hyphens in
between. You can find more about ISBN over:
ii) OCLC #: Each bibliographic record in the WorldCat has a unique number that range from 1 to
9 digits in length. You can also use this number to find out the information from the database.
More about OCLC # is available over:
iii) Barcode / The Universal Product Code (UPC): You can use the 12 digits UPC number
found in the document. You can know more about Barcode over:
iv) International Standard Serial Number (ISSN): You can use the eight digits ISSN with or
without hyphen (as it is appeared in the document). You can know more about ISSN over:
v) Title and / or Author: You can also use full title of the document or some portion of it or its
author or both the title and the author as a combined search.
vi) Faceted Application of Subject Terminology (FAST): You can also use the FAST controlled
vocabulary that is based on the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH). You can collect
more information about FAST over:
If you go to ( web address and enter the ISBN / ISSN or any
standard number correctly in the interface it sometimes shows a “No data found for the input
argument” error. But, if you use the title and some portion of the authors’ name of the same
document it shows the result. It happens probably because sometimes people perhaps do not
entered those fields in the records of the database, while preparing it.
Entering some portion of the title and the first author’s surname (or sometimes the
forename) of the document in the interface mostly leads to the relevant document and class
number. You can use this option as your first approach to obtain the class number of the
document or its subject heading.
Fig. 1 : Home Page of Classify of OCLC
b) DeweyBrowser: The DeweyBrowser ( provides access to
approximately 2.5 million records from the OCLC Worldcat database. You can also use this
interface to obtain readymade class number of a document in your library. Just make a search by
entering the complete title of the document in the search box of the site to have its class number.

c) ( is a database of books that is built by taking

data from hundreds of libraries across the world. It is developed by Andrew Maltsev. He has also
a company named Ejelta LLC (, based in San Gabriel, CA. This
is one of the outputs of the company. You can enter the keywords, book title, author, publisher,
topic or ISBN of the document in its search box to have its class number. After displaying the
result by the interface, click on the most relevant title under the heading of “Books Matching
(‘your enter title’)” and consult the “Dewey Class:” under “Classification:” heading. Here you
will find the classification number of the document you are looking for.
If you don’t find the heading “Classification:” or you find the heading “Classification:”
but don’t find the “Dewey Class:” then you should move to the appropriate title under “Libraries
this book has an entry in:”. Now under the “MARC Record” you should consult the number
against: 092: $a: or 082. This will be your classification number of the document you were
looking for.
d) Library of Congress Online Catalogue: To classify document by using Library of Congress
Online Catalogue (, enter the address in the address
bar of your browser, and then click on “Alternative Interface to the LC Online Catalog
(Z39.50)”. It will lead you to a new screen, from where you have to opt for “Advanced Search
(multiple terms using Boolean operators)”. In the new page you have arrived at (it will look just
like the following) you can search for class numbers by entering different details about the
document in your library. Your search term may be the name of the author, title, series, ISBN,
ISSN, publisher and many others to choose from. After submission of the details in the interface
you have to click on "Submit Query" and then should navigate to “More on this record". Now,
against the "Dewey No.:", you will find the class number of the document you are searching for.
Please note that for some titles you will not be able to find DDC number in this database, as it
was mainly designed by using the Library of Congress Classification number.


Type the title, author and ISBN of ten books

recently acquired by your library and classify
those titles by following the different online
methods listed above.

The WebDewey also offers easy-to-use, World Wide Web-based access to the Dewey
Decimal Classification (DDC) and related information, with searching and browsing
capabilities. One can also find Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) intellectually and
statistically mapped to Dewey numbers; and links from the mapped LCSH to the corresponding
LCSH authority records. It is also an excellent tool for online classification of the document, but
the bad thing is that it is a paid service. It costs from $ 225-$575 per year.
4.6 Let Us Sum Up: In this unit you have learnt how to classify a document by using the DDC
summaries as well as by using different online tools and techniques. Sometimes a book itself
may contain the classification number. In such cases, you can simply copy down that
classification number from Cataloguing in Publication (CIP) data. The CIP will provide
classification number, subject headings, and notes. This type of data is very common in the verso
of the title page of many books published from U.S., Australia, British, and Canada. So, if you
have a book published from the above countries, try to find the CIP data and copy it to your
The unit takes into account the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) that includes the
structure of the DDC consisting of Tables, Summaries, Schedules and Relative Index.
Classification of document by using the web is another important point of discussion in the unit.
In this section the relevant matter includes “Classify”, Dewey Browser, and
Library of Congress Online Catalogue. Each of these concepts has been exercised to give an idea
about the use of the web for classification.
5. Library of Congress Classification: In 1898 a group under the guidance of J. C. M. Hanson,
the head of the catalog division at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C, and Charles
Martel, the library’s chief classifier, developed the first part of the Library of Congress (LC)
Classification system. In the years that followed, numerous specialists contributed to the further
development of the system and expanded it to cover other subject areas.
The Library of Congress Classification system divides human knowledge into 21 major
classes, using letters of the English alphabet for each, with further subdivisions indicated by
decimal notation. The system does not use the letters I, O, W, X, and Y.
The major classes of the Library of Congress Classification system are as follows:
A General works
B Philosophy; psychology; religion
C Auxiliary sciences of history
D History: General and Old World
E-F History: America
G Geography; anthropology; recreation
H Social sciences
J Political science
K Law
L Education
M Music and books on music
N Fine arts
P Languages and literature
Q Science
R Medicine
S Agriculture
T Technology
U Military science
V Naval science
Z Library science
6. Universal Decimal Classification: UDC, which was designed to facilitate the organization of
a universal bibliography of all recorded knowledge, first made its origin at Belgium in 1895 by
bibliographers Paul Otlet and Henri La Fontaine. Initially UDC was based on the fifth edition of
the Dewey Decimal Classification that combines notation to express multiple concepts. The
Universal Decimal Classification system is issued by the International Federation for
Documentation, in the Hague, Netherlands, which is responsible for its ongoing revision.
7. Colon Classification: In 1933 Indian librarian Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan introduced
the Colon Classification system, which classifies all knowledge into broad, fundamental
concepts. The Colon system then divides these concepts into several distinguishing
characteristics, which Ranganathan called facets. The classification system uses colons (:) to
distinguish between the various facets in a single notation and the name “Colon Classification
system” is derived from its use in its notation scheme.
In United States, most research and academic libraries use Library of Congress
Classification, while most schools and public libraries use Dewey Decimal Classification. The
UDC system is widely used in Europe, Latin America, Russia, and Japan. Although the use of
the Colon Classification system is limited to a few Indian libraries, Ranganathan’s concept of
facet analysis in classifying knowledge has been widely recognized. Some of its key concepts
have been adopted by subsequent editions of the DDC or UDC, among others.


Classifier: The library professional who

is engaged in the process of classifying
of library materials is called a classifier
or classifier librarian.
8. Allotting Class Number: In classifying, a classifier first takes up those books which are
additional copies or new editions of works available in the library. In such cases, he/she would
put down the call number in the book order slip and on the process slip along with the fact
whether the book in hand is an additional copy or a new edition. Sequence numbers are also
copied in the processing slip. The rest of the books received by a classifier are sorted by basic
classes. The indexes attached to the classification schedules are used to find out the basic class
numbers. Each basic class is taken, one by one. In the process of classification, based on the
subject content of the item, a class number is assigned by consulting the schedules. The
classification of the document can be made by manual means or by copy cataloguing, etc. The
practice of complete reliance on the indexes for deriving the class number of any document is
not advisable. The class numbers so arrived at should be tallied with the other standard
catalogues, if necessity arises, especially in doubtful cases. The class numbers are given in
pencil on the upper half portion of the verso of the title page. It is in pencil, because in case there
is some changes in the class numbers, in future it may be corrected without any damage to the
book by rubbing the earlier class numbers. This phenomenon is common because almost every
classification scheme is revised periodically.
9. Allotting Book Number: Generally, the author marks constitute a book number. Cutter’s
Author Table, Cutter-Sanborne Author Table, Merrill’s Author Table, Author Tables of L. Stanley
Jast, Biscore Time Numbers, Ranganathan’s Book Numbers System may be used to allot author
marks. A decision is to be taken by each library as to which system is to be used for allotting
book numbers.
The class number and book number together constitute the call number of the book. The
call numbers should be written on the processing slips, adding the sequence number, wherever
10. Assigning Subject Heading: Subject heading is the words or group of words under which
books and other materials on a subject are entered in a catalogue. The heading may include
punctuation to which an arranging significance may be assigned. In a classified catalogue the
subject heading consists of a classification symbols with or without its verbal meaning. It may
also include entries for all materials on the same subject in an index or bibliography. For
assigning subject heading, Library of Congress List of Subject Headings, Sears List of Subject
Headings, ALA List of Subject Headings, Ranganathan’s Chain Procedure may be used. The
chain procedure method is useful in deriving proper subject headings. The smaller libraries,
where minute subject headings are not required, may use Sears List of Subject Headings or ALA
List of Subject Headings. But large, research or special libraries may use the Library of
Congress List of Subject Headings which is a very comprehensive and standard one. Each
library due to some local and special conditions may adopt certain subject headings of its own in
order to meet the readers’ demand.
Library Cataloguing
Library Cataloguing: The cataloguing department decides on the appropriate form for
identifying authorship of works in the collection, describes the item as a physical item or a
virtual source, and assigns subject access points. In the cataloguing, on the process lip, headings
for different types of entries to be prepared should be listed. The headings should be listed on the
pattern of a tracing section. At this state, the cataloguer should pass on the volumes along with
process slips to the typist to type out catalogue cards or to handwrite the card. So at the end, the
product of cataloguing is just like a card or in modern sense an entry in the OPAC giving
essential general information about informational entity. This essential general information
includes details about author, title, place of publication, name of publisher, year of publication,
edition, editorship, pagination, illustration, etc. The individual cards which bear the class number
or call number to enable the item to be located are arranged in some definite order. It may be
noted that for each volume, an additional card called shelf list card shall be prepared.


Cataloguer / Catalog Librarian: The

library professional who is engaged in
the process of cataloging of library
materials is called cataloguer. He
compiles the list of documents according
to a definite set of rules to enable the
item to be located in the collection.

1. Definition: In order to provide access to the holdings of a library, an index or list of the
materials is always prepared and maintained systematically for the readers. It contains all the
essential details about the documents with location mark, usually in numerical form, by which
the documents can be located on the shelves of the library. This list or index or tool is basically
called a library catalogue.
Cataloguing meant those activities that record, describe and index the resources of a
collection that were acquired in a manner that will aid the end-user in locating materials in the
collection(s). Library items that are written in a foreign script are, in some cases, transliterated to
the script of the catalog.
Ranganathan has defined a library catalogue as “a list of document in a library or in a
collection forming a portion of it”. A “list” refers to some kind of arrangement based on a set
plan and a “document” constitutes embodied thought, which is a ‘record of work on paper or
other material fit for physical handling, transport across space and preservation through time’.
This means that document includes all types of records in which information can be stored or
According to Ruth French Strout, a catalogue may be considered “a work in which
contents are arranged in a reasonable way, according to a set plan or merely word by word”.
2. Need and Purpose: The objective or function of the early catalogue was to serve as an
inventory list with progressive pattern of arrangement based on the order of accession
chronologically by date of publication or period of author. From this arose a wide variety of
approaches and an expansion of the inventory idea to include retrieval.
The modern library catalogue serves both the inventory (listing) and retrieval (finding)
function. Without cataloguing, it would be difficult for anyone to know what is in the collection,
how many items dealing with a particular topic are in the collection and so on. What one sees in
the public catalogue is the result of the efforts of the cataloguing staff and the extent of the use of
library resources depends greatly upon the quality of it. A well made catalogue definitely adds to
the reputation of the library. Library cataloguing allows library aids to assist the end-users in
locating the materials. The need and purpose of the library catalogue can be viewed from the
following points of view
a) General Objectives: The general objectives of library catalogues are-
i) Register: At any time the user may not find the entire collection of the library on the shelf.
Therefore, to know about the entire collection (what is available) at any time reliance is to be
given to some other dependable tool. Catalogue, which is a register of all informational items
found in a particular library or group of libraries serves this end.
ii) Finding Aid: Cataloguing helps the user in locating the document in the stack. Simply it
guides the user to the exact location of a stack in which he / she will find the book of his/her
iii) Describes an Entity: Catalogue is only one of the many forms of bibliography, giving
essential general information about an informational entity (e.g., books, computer files, graphics,
regalia, cartographic materials, a webpage etc.).
iv) Satisfies Different Approaches: Cataloguing satisfies different kinds of approaches of the
patron of the library, say author, title, series, subject approach etc.
b) Charles Ammi Cutter Objectives: Charles Ammi Cutter made the first explicit statement
regarding the objectives of a bibliographic system in 1876. These have been frequently quoted
and criticized. According to Cutter, those objectives are
a) To enable a person to find a book of which (Finding objective) one of the following is known
i) The author
ii) The title
iii) The subject.
b) To show what the library has (collocating objective)
i) By a given author
ii) On a given subject
iii) In a given kind of literature
c) To assist in the choice of a book (Choice objective)
i) As to its edition (bibliographically)
ii) As to its character (literary or topical)
It is only a few readers who are able to express their subject requirements in specific
terms. They think of either a narrower or broader subject rather than the specific subject they
require. Considering this, Ranganathan raised an important point by quoting “if it is the interest
in the subject which takes him to the library, his wants will be better served if the catalogue can
spread before him a full connected panorama of all materials on his specific subject, all its
subdivisions and all broader subject of which it is itself a subdivision”. Ranganathan in the light
of the five laws of library & information science expressed the objectives of a catalogue as the
A catalogue should be so designed as to
i) Disclose to every reader his or her document;
ii) Secure for every document its reader;
iii) Save the time of the reader and with this save the time of the staff.
The Cutter objectives are more specific in comparison to the Ranganathan approach in
describing the objectives of a library catalogue.
c) Paris Conference: The principles adopted by the International Conference on Cataloguing
Principles held in Paris in 1961 are considered a landmark that leads to the standardization of
practices. The Paris conference resolved the function of a catalogue as given below
The catalogue should be efficient instrument for ascertaining
a) Whether the library contains a particular book specified by
i) Its author and title or
ii) If the author is not named in the book its title alone or
iii) If author and title are inappropriate or insufficient for identification, a substitute for the title
b) i) Which work by a particular author and
ii) Which edition of a particular work in the library.
The function as adopted by the Paris conference is more or less a restatement of the
Cutter objectives as described in his first edition of 1876.
d) Simonton Objectives: According to Simonton (1964) a library catalogue serves three
purposes in the conventional library and especially in the research library.
i) Describing all items catalogued to a degree of precision permitting positive identification.
ii) Establishing and describing the relationship of all items catalogued in terms of community of
authorship or sponsorship, similarly of context and continuity of bibliographic history.
iii) Serving as a finding list.
Though the objectives stated by Cutter have been criticized a great deal and quoted very
often, these can only explain the explicit objective of a catalogue. These have stood the test of
time and according to Patrick Quigg “later statements’ are most usually restatements of them”.
3. Different Kinds of Catalogue: The catalogue may be of different types based on different
approaches to division.
Based on physical form of presentation library catalogue can be of the following types
i) Printed Catalogue: The printed catalogue is also known as dictionary catalogues or bound
book catalogue. This type of catalogue is just like a book where individual catalogues are printed
to make it easy to consult for the user. The printed catalogues sometimes are interlaced with
blank leaves on which additions could be recorded. This type of catalogue is difficult to produce
and update; it’s very difficult to interpolate new entries and maintain correct sequence in it.
Again, its portability can be a disadvantage to other users because when a single volume is taken
to nearby table to be used by a particular user, it becomes difficult for the other user to consult
and there is no guarantee that the user will keep the volume in the proper place.
The British Museum catalogue of printed books is an example of this kind of catalogue.
ii) Guard Book Catalogue: This type of catalogue is also known as paste down catalogue. In
paste down catalogue, the base is a bound volume of thick blank sheets; each typed or printed
entry is pasted in the correct sequence on the successive right hand pages, leaving space for at
least five more entries to be inserted between any two consecutive pages. The left hand page is
left blank for pasting down any new entry not finding its due place vacant on the right hand
page, in the corresponding position. In case a given portion of the catalogue becomes too
crowded, the stripes are lifted and redistributed. This is similar to a printed catalogue except that
additional new entries can be pasted in and also new pages can be inserted. It is sometimes used
in conjunction with a printed catalogue and used prior to its production, bringing a new edition
or in producing a supplement for making addition, deletion, amendment and so on.
iii) Sheaf Catalogue: This type of catalogue is also known as loose leaf book form catalogue. It
contains about six entries on a single paper slip with holes or slots at one edge so that they can
be fastened into binders. Each binder has a locking / releasing mechanism to allow the insertion
of new entries when required yet ensures that the slips remain securely in place when the
catalogue is consulted. Owing to the fact that more than one entry was included on a single leaf
sometimes a break-down in sequence occurs.
iv) Card Catalogue: In card catalogue the size of leaf is reduced so that each leaf containes one
entry only and as the small leaf is inconvenient to handle so it has been replaced by the card.
Each card is of 125 mm X 75 mm. The cards are arranged in trays and held in their relative
position by a rod passing through holes near their bottom edge. The trays are all built into a
cabinet. The specification for the catalogue cabinet is given by the Indian Standards Institution.
The card catalogues allow much more flexibility.
v) Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC): The card catalogue was a familiar sight to library
users for generations, but the computerization of library activities has led to rethinking regarding
the form, purpose and function of a library catalogue. Now the card catalogue has been
effectively replaced by the OPAC or Web OPAC. Some libraries with OPAC access still have
card catalogues on site, but these are now strictly a secondary resource and are seldom updated.
Some libraries have eliminated their card catalogue in favour of the OPAC. The other form of
catalogue can be easily obtained as an output from OPAC.
Based on source where cataloguing is done catalogue can be grouped into the following
i) Individual Cataloguing: Cataloguing done by individual libraries, institution, people to serve
their own need and purpose or for their own sake are known as individual cataloguing.
ii) Cooperative Cataloguing: Cooperative cataloguing refers to a situation where a number of
independent libraries share the work of producing a catalogue for their mutual benefit. It is done
in two or more libraries for the benefit of each participant and the results may or may not be
made available to other libraries. One of the important outputs of cooperative cataloguing is
Union catalogue.
iii) Centralized Cataloguing: Centralized cataloguing is defined as the cataloguing of documents
by some central organization for the benefit of other libraries. This form of cataloguing can take
place within one library system or within a number of library systems. Sometimes centralized
cataloguing may be done by another agency. Some of the forms of centralized cataloguing
services are Card or shelf service, Cataloguing in source, Cataloguing in publication, and
Prenatal cataloguing.
The term “Prenatal cataloguing” was used by Dr. S.R. Ranganathan. In this process the
cataloguing work has been done by the National Central Library of a country on each book
before its release by the publisher. This is done with the help of a copy of the form proof of each
book sent by each publisher. The National Central Library prepares a muster stencil of the
catalogue cards for each book before its release. The catalogue cards are later made available for
distribution to libraries on order along with the release of books themselves, Call numbers are
also printed on the back of the title pages and tooled on the binding as well. According to
Ranganathan, this type of process leads to saving 79% in the technical manpower of an intra
National and inter National Library System.
Based on the type of entry catalogue can be divided into the following-
i) Author Catalogue: A formal catalogue, sorted alphabetically according to the authors' or
editors' names of the entries.
ii) Title Catalogue: A formal catalogue, sorted alphabetically according to the title of the entries.
iii) Keyword Catalogue: It is a subject catalogue, sorted alphabetically according to keywords.
The keywords are derived by using some system.
iv) Mixed Alphabetic Catalogue: It is a mixture of author / title, or an author / title / keyword
v) Systematic Catalogue: A subject catalogue, sorted according to some systematic subdivision
of subjects is called systematic catalogue.
vi) Shelf List Catalogue: It is a formal catalogue with entries sorted in the same order as
bibliographic items are shelved on the stack.
d) Based on Scope: Based on the scope of a catalogue unit, cataloguing can be divided into i)
Individual catalogue and ii) Union catalogue. When a library catalogue lists holding or part of
holding of two or more libraries then it is called a union catalogue.
e) Based on Purpose: Based on purpose catalogue can be classified as Library Catalogue, Book
Sellers Catalogue, Publisher Catalogue, Dealers Catalogue, etc.
4. Criteria for Selection of Library Catalogue: In selecting the forms of catalogue to be
adopted by the librarian, he / she may consider the following factors-
i) Economic to produce and handle: The production and its subsequent maintenance cost and
labour of the catalogue should be minimal.
ii) Compact in size: It should not occupy much space in the library.
iii) Bring together like entries: It should have the provision to bring together entries with the
same heading or leading section.
iv) Updating: The selected catalogue should have the provision to insert or withdraw entries
easily as and when required.
v) Reproduction: It should have the provision to produce duplicate copies.
vi) Durability: The catalogue should be durable.
vii) Accessible: It should be reasonably accessible (within approach) to both users and staff
members of the library.
viii) Easy to handle and consult: To enable a user to find entries with ease. It should be easy to
handle and consult.
ix) Speed of searching: It should be amenable to fast speed of search.
x) Portability: It should be easily portable to enable the user / staff to consult it from inside or
from outside the library. The user should be able to take it home and consult it there.
5. Cataloguing Rules: Cataloguing rules have been defined to allow for consistent cataloguing
of various library materials across several persons of a cataloguing team and across time and
space. Users can use them to clarify as to how to find an entry and how to interpret the data in an
Cataloguing rules prescribe which information from a bibliographic item is included in
the entry; how this information is presented on a catalogue card or in a cataloguing record; how
the entries should be sorted in the catalogue. Currently, most cataloguing rules are similar to, or
even based on, the International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD), a set of rules
produced by the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) to describe a wide
range of library materials. These rules describe an item in terms of: title and statement of
responsibility (author or editor), edition, material-dependent information (for example, the scale
of a map), publication and distribution, physical description (for example, number of pages),
series, note, and standard number (ISBN).
A catalogue code is a set of rules for the guidance of cataloguers in preparing entries for
catalogues so as to ensure uniformity in treatment. These codes may also include rules for
subject heading, filling and arranging of entries. Classified catalogue code by S. R. Ranganathan
and Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd edition (AACR-II) are examples of such catalogue
codes. In June, 2010, the Resource Description and Access (RDA) was published, which will
completely take over the place of AACR-II. AACR-II was the most commonly used set of
cataloguing rules in the English speaking world. The AACR-II has been translated into many
languages for use around the world. AACR-II provides rules for descriptive cataloguing only
and does not touch upon subject cataloguing.
5.1 Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules – II: AACR-II was jointly prepared by American
Library Association, The British Library, The Canadian Committee on Cataloguing, The Library
Association, UK, and The Library of Congress. The code was edited by Michael Gorman and
Paul W. Winkler. It was published in 1978 by the American Library Association and Canadian
Library Association.
There are two parts and four appendices in AACR-II. An index was also provided at the
end of the code and it has been compiled by KG B Backwell.
Part I: Description
1. General Rules for Description
2. Books, Pamphlets and Printed Sheets
3. Cartographic Materials
4. Manuscripts
5. Music
6. Sound Recordings
7. Motion Pictures and Video Recordings
8. Graphic Materials
9. Machine-Readable Data Files
10. Three-Dimensional Artifacts and Realia
11. Microforms
12. Serials
13. Analysis
Part II: Headings, Uniform Titles and References
14. Choice of Access Points
15. Headings for Persons
16. Geographic Names
17. Headings for Corporate Bodies
18. References
Appendix A: Contains instructions for Capitalization
Appendix B: Contains list of Standard Abbreviations
Appendix C: Deals with Numerals
Appendix D: Glossary
AACR-II prescribes three levels of details in the description depending upon the nature
and the size of the library. The first level provides a brief cataloguing description just to identify
a particular document. It is recommended for a small library. The second level description is
recommended for a medium size library, whereas the third level of description includes all the
elements prescribed in the AACR-II and is recommended for the highly specialized libraries or
national and research libraries. Here, we will concentrate only on the second level of description.
5.2 Card Catalogue: In most of the libraries of India the entries are written on card. The
standard size of the card is 12.5 X 7.5 cm or 5’’X 3". The catalogue cards which are used for
preparing entries may be ruled, semi-ruled or plain. The ruled cards are very convenient if the
entries are prepared by hand, and if the matter is typed then plain cards are more suitable and
used. There are different lines on the card, which may be of the following types:
First Indention: It is the first vertical line that lays nine (9) spaces from left margin. This line is
in red ink.
Second Indention: It is the second vertical line that lays thirteen (13) spaces from left margin or
four letters space from first indention. It is also indicated in red ink.
Third Indention: Beyond the second vertical line there is also a third indention which is an
imaginary line. It lays fifteen (15) spaces from left margin. In a reference, referred-from heading
continues from third indention.
Horizontal Line: The card has also one horizontal line in the upper section of the catalogue
card. It is a bold line and is also indicated in red ink.
Hole: The card also contains one hole at the bottom portion at equal distance from both the
vertical cores of the cards. A rod of iron or brass is used to support all the cards in the tray
through this hole.
5.3 Types of Entries: Each library prepares various unit records for each document in its
holding. These unit records are prepared to meet the various need and approach of the library
user to the document. These unit records are called as entries.
AACR-I regards the main entry as “the complete catalogue record of a bibliographical
entry, presented in the form by which the entity is to be uniformly identified and cited. The main
entry normally includes the tracing of all other headings under which the record is to be
represented in the catalogue”.
An added entry is “an entry, additional to the main entry, by which an item is represented
in a catalog” (AACR-II, p. 563). The additional entries supplement the main entry by providing
an additional approach to the documents listed in the catalogue.
a) Type of Information Needed for Cataloguing: The cataloguer needs the following
information about a document for cataloguing.
Name of the authors
Name of the collaborators
Title, subtitle or alternative title of the document
Name of the series
Editor of series
Name, place and year of publication
Size and number of pages of the document
Copyright year
The call number (class number and book number) of the document. It can be found at the
verso of the title page that will be provided by the classifier.
The accession number of the document. It also can be found at the verso of the title page.
The accessionist will provide this number.
b) Sources of Information Needed for Cataloguing: The prescribed source of information for
the preparation of the card catalogue is the title page. It provides most of the information about
the book. It is the next printed page to the cover of the book. Please note here that the cover page
of the book is not the title page. The page leaving one or two pages from the beginning and on
which the description mentioned bellow is printed is called the title page. The title page, in upper
most part of it, contains the title and subtitle (if any) of the book. The names of authors and
collaborators with their working institutions are given in the middle of the page. In the lower
part, the name of the publisher, place and year of publication and price etc are given. If there is
no title page, one can consult the cover caption or the half title page of the book. In the half title
page of the book, only the title of the book, but no author and publication statements, is printed.
Sometimes, the name of the series is also printed on this page. The verso / back of the title page
contains copyright year, print and reprint, edition, name and address of the publisher, the price,
and so on.
Besides the title page, we can also collect information about the book (in order of the
following preference)
i) Accompanying material
ii) A container
iii) Another published description of the book or
iv) Any other available sources.
AACR-II recommends the following types of entries
i) Main Entry: The Main entry is an author entry in AACR-II. If the authorship is diffused or
not known the main entry is prepared under the title. The Main Entry is the complete catalogue
record of an item. It also includes the tracing of all other headings under which the record is to
be presented in the catalogue.
ii) Added Entry: An added entry is a secondary entry, additional to the Main Entry, by which an
item is represented in a catalogue. S R Ranganathan calls it “entry other than the main entry”.
There are different types of added entries. i.e. Joint author(s), Editor(s), Translator(s),
Compiler(s), Subject, Title, Series, etc. The number and kind of added entries required by a
document depends upon the nature of a particular document and also on the nature of the
catalogue used in a library.
iii) Reference: Reference is a direction from one heading or entry to another. There are different
types of references in AACR-II. They are See Reference, See also Reference, Name title
Reference, Explanatory Reference, etc. Out of all the references “See” and “See also” type of
references are frequently used.
* See Reference: It directs the user of a catalogue from a form of the name of a person or a
corporate body or the title of a work to the form that has been chosen as a name heading or a
uniform title.
Md. Syed Ahmed Khan
see Syed Ahmed Khan
Dhanpat Rai
see Prem Chand
* “See Also” Reference: The function of a “See also” reference is to direct the user from one
name heading or uniform title to another that is related to it. If the works of one person or
corporate body are entered under two different headings a “see also” reference is prepared from
each heading.
Home Science
See also Interior decoration
5.4 Rules for Description of Monograph: The elements to be included in the catalogue entry
are divided into the following areas:
a) Call Number: Call number is the combination of class number and book number. It is the
first item which should be recorded in the upper left hand corner of the catalogue card with
b) Accession Number: It should be recorded on the seventh line from the top of the card or
fourth line from the bottom.
c) Author: “Author” in the entry is indicated by writing the surname first which is followed by a
comma “,” and the remaining parts of the name (i.e. forenames) are given after leaving one
space which is followed by the date of birth and / or death of an author in full, if any, and a full
stop. This is written from the first indention and continued from the third indention on the next
d) Title and Statement of Responsibility: The title proper should be recorded exactly as the
wording, order and spelling as it is found in the title page of the document. Capitalization and
punctuation should be avoided.
i) Alternate Title: Use the first part of the title with commas, and then the alternate title.
Another world watching, or The riddle of the flying saucers
Indian song of songs, or Gita govinda
ii) Abridge Title: Abridge a long title proper only if this can be done without any loss of the
essential information. Indicate the omission by the mark of three dots “…”.
iii) Initial and Acronyms: If a title proper includes separate letters or initials without full stops
between them, record such letters without spaces between them. If such letters or initials have
full stop between them, record them with full stops.
“ALA Rules for filling catalog cards” and “A.L.A. Rules for filling catalog cards”
iv) Parallel Title: Record parallel title in the order indicated by their sequences. If the title
appears in two or more languages, choose one of these as the title proper and record the other
titles as parallel title. The parallel title appearing outside the chief source of information should
be noted in the note section of the catalogue card.
v) Title in Numerals: If the title of a document appears in numerals, record it in letters and
endorse it in the square brackets.
“20 [Twenty] – point programme”.
vi) Other Title Information: Record other title information (subtitle, etc) appearing in the chief
source of information. Use space colon space “ : “ between the title proper and other title
“Cataloguing : theory and practice”.
e) Statement of Responsibility: Record statement of responsibility in the form in which they
appear in the chief source of information. The statement of responsibility should be preceded by
a diagonal slash. If there is more than one statement of responsibility, record them in the order
indicated by their sequence on or by the layout of the chief source of information. If the
statement of responsibility is taken from outside enclose it in square brackets.
“Cataloguing practice / by S R Ranganathan”.
f) Edition: This area should be preceded by a full stop, space dash space “. – “. The statement of
responsibility should be preceded by a diagonal slash, and then each subsequent statement of
responsibility should be preceded by a semi-colon. The standard abbreviations and numerals in
place of words should be used.
“2nd ed”, “3rd ed”, “New ed”, “Rev ed”, “Rev and enl ed”.
g) Place: If a publisher has many offices in more than one place, always prefer the name of the
first place and omit all other places. If the place of publication, distribution, etc is uncertain, give
the probable place with a question mark in square brackets.
If, no place or probable place can be given, put the abbreviation sl (Sine loco) in square
brackets “[s.l.]”. “Sine loco” means “no place” in Latin.
“[s.l.]: Vikas, 2001”.
h) Publisher: After the place of publication, use the shortest form of the publisher in which it
can be understood and identified internationally. If the book has two or more publishers, record
the first named place and publisher. If the name of the publisher is not known, the abbreviation
sn (sine nominee) is given in square brackets. Example: “[s.n.]”.
i) Date of Publication: Give the year of publication in Arabic numerals preceded by a comma.
“, 2001”.
If there is no date, the copyright date is given.
“, c 1999”.
If the date of publication is not known then n.d. (no date) is written in square brackets.
j) Physical Description Area: This paragraph starts from the second indention and continues
from the first indention. This area consists of pagination, illustrative matter and size of the
document expressed in cm.
If the volume is without pagination, ascertain the total number of pages and give the
number in square brackets. The sequence of describing page information is
“Preliminary pages, Roman pages, Arabic pages.”.
“xii, 786 p.”.
When preliminary pages are not numbered it should be in the form of : “[xii], 786 p.”.
The connecting symbol between pagination and illustrative matter is a colon “:”. The
illustrated printed monograph is described as “Charts”, “Maps”, “Music”, “Plans”, “Portraits”,
“Samples”, or simple as “ill”.
“786 p. ; ill.”.
The connecting symbol between the illustrative matter and the height of the document is
semi colon “;”. The height of the document is written in cm.
“786 p. : ill.; 18 cm.”.
k) Series: The series are preceded by a full stop space dash space “. - “. Series statement is
recorded in circular brackets. The series statement may consist of name of the series, statement
of responsibility relating to series and number of series.
“. - (Ranganathan series in Library Science; 4)”, “. - (Research monographs / Institute of
Economic Affairs; 3)”.
l) Notes: Notes may be given to explain the nature, scope or artistic form of the item, language
of the item, sources of the title proper, variation in title, accompanying material, contents, etc.
m) Standard Number: If the item contains ISBN / ISSN, record International Standard Book
Number (ISBN) or International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) for the item. Example: “ISBN :
n) Tracing: Tracing is the record of the heading under which an item is represented in the
catalogue. The information about the added entries should be recorded in a paragraph starting
from the second indention.
Before going for tracing, the subjects of the document need to be determined. In the main
card, the added entries for subject should be numbered in Arabic numerals (Example “1”, “2”)
whereas, the other entries should be numbered in Roman numerals (Example “I”, “II”). Another
point to be noted is that, in the added entries for subject, the names of the subject are written in
all capital letters. Example: “LIBRARY SCIENCE”.

6. Sorting: In a title catalogue, one can distinguish two sort orders-

a) Grammatic Sort Order: In the grammatic sort order, the most important word of the title is
the first sort term. The importance of a word is measured by grammatic rules; for example, the
first noun may be defined to be the most important word.
The most important word of the title is also a good keyword and it is the word most users
remember first when their memory is incomplete. This is an advantage in favour of grammatic
sort order. However, it has the disadvantage that many elaborate grammatic rules are needed, so
that only expert users may be able to search the catalogue without help from a librarian.
b) Mechanic Sort Order: In the mechanic sort order, the first word of the title is the first sort
term. Most new catalogues use this scheme. Still, the mechanic sort order includes a trace of the
grammatic sort order as they neglect an article (A, An, The etc.) at the beginning of the title.
c) Alphabetic Sorting: Here entries are arranged alphabetically.
In a subject catalogue, one has to decide on which classification system to be used. The
cataloguer will select appropriate subject headings for the bibliographic item and a unique
classification number (class number).
7. Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC): The catalogues which are available for searching
online are known as OPAC. Such OPAC may be searched from a terminal within the originating
library or at a terminal elsewhere in the organization or remotely via national or international
telecommunication network. Now the scenario is that these databases are available over web.
OPAC has two different meaning-
a) Access to library housekeeping especially circulation (primarily for library staff use) and
which could also serve as rudimentary catalogue for the library user.
b) Access to machine readable bibliographic records from which card and computer output in
Microform (COM) can be generated.
a) Definition: The A. L. A. Glossary defines OPAC as “a commuter based and supported library
catalogue (bibliographic database) design to be accessed via terminal so that library user may
directly and effectively search for and retrieve bibliographic records without the assistance of a
human intermediary such as a specially trained member of the library staff”.
b) Types of OPAC: OPAC can generally be viewed being of two types-
i) First Generation OPAC: First generation OPAC has been derived from traditional catalogues
or computerized circulation system. They are also referred to as phase – indexed or pre-
coordinated OPACs and it demands exact matching between the search term and pre-coordinate
phrase. The number of access keys is limited and they are similar to that of manual catalogue i.e
author, title, class number and possibly subject heading.
ii) Second Generation OPAC: Second generation OPAC originated from common
bibliographic information retrieval system and so there is a growing similarity between second
generation OPAC and traditional information retrieval system. This generation OPAC provides
key word searching that is post coordinate searching together with phrase searching or pre-
coordinate subject heading.
c) Components of OPAC: There are three main components of OPAC. They are-
i) Computer and Terminal: The hardware requirement for OPAC i.e computer terminal and
server from which databases can be accessed.
ii) Software Enabling Networking: The network enabling software which will be able to
manage the entire database.
iii) Database: The database of books, serial, dissertation, etc can be generated by two different
ways. One is developing database by direct entry and the other is developing database through
retrospective conversion process.
d) Searching and Browsing OPAC: When the searcher knows precisely what he wants i.e.
when user information need is fairly well defined he/she can use word truncation, range search,
field level search, Boolean combination, word adjacency / proximity operator, etc. which are of
generally two types.
i) Phrase Searching: Phrase searching is done on pre-coordinate subject heading.
ii) Keyword Searching / Post Coordinate Searching: When a query is formulated using
Boolean expression.
iii) Browsing: Browsing is used when user’s information needs are not precisely defined. By
browsing one can determine the exact forms of entry of a subject heading or author name.
e) OPAC Vs Card Catalogue: The difference between OPAC and card catalogue are
represented in the following table.
Characteristic OPAC Card Catalogue

Time OPAC allows rapid retrieval. It is a time consuming job.

Access point It provides multiple access to the Access is only through entry
database and helpful for Boolean point and a build in cross
searches reference structure.
Indexing techniques Support both pre-coordinate and post Support only pre coordinate
coordinate searching. searching.

User Friendliness It is more user friendly and guides the The user has to decide himself
user in a step by step manner to find the how to find the required card.
Current Status OPAC provides the current status of the It does not provide current
item being search i.e whether a status of the document.
document is on the shelves, on loan, on
reservation or at binders or the
document is lost.
Enhance Feature OPAC provides acquisition of titles, to Such types of facilities are not
reserve material and to send found in a card catalogue
personalized SDI, overdue/ recall /
collect notices and messages by Email.
Union Catalogue Helps to develop centralized database It is very difficult to achieve
and resource sharing among different resources sharing through card
libraries. catalogue

f) OPAC vs Information Retrieval System: The difference between OPAC and Information
Retrieval System are -
Characteristic OPAC Information Retrieval System

Coverage OPAC database includes one or Its coverage is limited in subject

more than one library’s scope either to a single subject or
collection; hence its coverage is to a range of discipline linked to a
on wide variety of discipline and particular mission.
subject areas.
Abstract Records in the OPAC mostly lack Information retrieval systems
abstract and subject descriptor is records are well indexed and are
inadequate. supported usually with abstract.
Indexing System OPAC provides pre-coordinate Information retrieval system
phrase searching and browsing mostly provides post coordinate
option. searches.
Underlying Assumptions The most searches will be on Searching will be for document
known document i.e searches for containing information of a
document whose bibliographic particular subject.
details are known at least
Skill OPAC is designed for end-user It is not designed for end user and
and so menu driven and provides required the skills of information
facilities like on-line help professional. The search
message, on-line index with negotiations are carried out by the
different approach points (author, librarian. He/she should interact
ISBN, class number, etc.) with the user to know their
information need then formulate
search strategy using vocabulary
control devices and modify the
search if required.

g) Advantages of OPAC: The main advantages of OPAC are -

i) OPAC searching is speedier and user friendly than that of manual cataloguing.
ii) Provides multiple access to the database and more or less designed as an information retrieval
iii) Guides the user in a step by step manner for retrieving the specific information.
iv) Supports the post coordinate searcher, Boolean operation, etc.
v) Provides the current status of the item being search i.e. whether a document is on the shelves,
on loan, on reserved for some one, at the binder or whether it is lost.
vi) Designed as an integrated library management system.
vii) Helps to develop centralized database and resources sharing among different libraries.
h) Limitation of OPAC: Different in user and system vocabulary is a major reason for user
dissatisfaction with OPAC.
Library Automation
Library Automation: Library is a growing organism that requires constant positive changes to
meet the need of its user. The invention of computer has brought in a rapid change in the society.
Therefore, automation has become the need of the hour. Library automation not only improves
the image of the library staff but also provides additional services to the users with the existing
staff. The impact of automation on the library is quite obvious; it creates new environment where
each function redefines the traditional organizational structure and transforms it into new
institutional entries. In this unit a brief overview is given about library automation.
Automation is defined as a technique, a process, or a system which operates automatically.
According to the Encyclopaedia of Library and Information Science, “Automation is the
technology concerned with a design and development of the process and systems that minimize
the necessity of human intervention in their operation.”
Swihart Stanley S and Hefley Beryl F have defined the term ‘library automation’ as “the
processing of certain routine clerical function in the library with the assistance of computer or
other mechanized or semi automatic equipment”. It may also be defined as a process of
mechanization of all the housekeeping operation of a library which is repetitive in nature. The
housekeeping operation includes acquisition, cataloguing, circulation, serial control, references
and administration work.
To go with the library automation, the willingness of the librarian and library committee
is a must. The library should also have proper planning and adequate finance. The availability of
hardware (server, UPS, scanner, printer, storage media, etc.), software (operating system, system
software, application software, library automation software, etc.), and also trained manpower
together form the prerequisite for the library automation.
The first computer network was perhaps the OCLC (Online Computer Library Centre).
Although the microcomputer made its first appearance in 1971 it was not before 1981 that they
made an impact on libraries. The reason was limited storage capacity of the computer and
scarcity of good software for library applications. The development of OPAC in 1980s is a
remarkable addition to the field of library automation.
Library Association (LA)
Library Association (LA): The Library Association (U.K) was founded in October 05, 1877
during the first international conference of librarians held at Brussels. The name of the
association was changed from “Library Association of the United Kingdom” to Library
Association in 1896. It receives a Royal charter in 1898. The L.A. becomes a wholly professional
Association in 1962 when new bye laws come into operation. The headquarters of L.A. is located
at 7 Ridgmount street, store street, London.
a) Objectives: The L.A. has the following objectives.
i) To unite all persons engaged or interested in library work by holding conferences, seminar etc.
ii) To promote the better administration of libraries.
iii) The promotion of legislation.
iv) The encouragement of research.
v) The better training of librarians.
b) Organization: The association is controlled by a 60 member council elected by the members.
The L.A. has a number of departments devoted to various aspects of librarianship and library
service. The association is advised by four committees.
i) Executive coordinating.
ii) General purpose.
iii) Library service and
iv) Professional development and education.
c) Membership: Membership is not confined to any country or to library profession. It is open
to individuals and institutions interested or engaged in library work.
d) Source of Finance: Main financial support for programmers comes from the membership
subscription and publication of the association. However grants for specific projects are also
received from other sources.
e) Functions and Activities
i) Conferences and Seminars: L.A. holds annual conferences regularly. In addition to this, its
branches and groups also arrange their own seminars, conferences etc.
ii) Continuing Education: L.A. organizes continuing education programmers. It also organized
short courses, workshop and seminar to up date members regarding recent development in the
iii) Library Legislation: L.A. took active initiative in enacting the public library act of 1892 and
1919 and revising the bye-laws of the public libraries and museums act of 1964. It has been
active in clarifying issues arriving from legislation. It has kept a watchful eye on censorship and
iv) Standards in Libraries: It has promoted a code of ethics for the library profession. It has
taken interest in evolving standards and guidelines of techniques, procedures, equipments etc and
has been working for the betterment of salary, status and service conditions of library personnel.
The association also approved and published standards for hospital libraries in 1965.
v) Professional Registry: L.A. maintains the professional register of chartered librarians
(professionally qualified members are known as chartered librarians and are of two categories
* Associates who are fully trained and professionally educated librarians and
* Fellow (FLA) who have successfully completed additional work at an advanced level to prove
their ability in special areas of librarianship.
Now in U.K. L.A. in the main body which is authorized to conduct the examination in
vi) COMLA: In 1971 the L.A. was approached by the commonwealth foundation to assist in
setting up a commonwealth Library association (COMLA). COMLA was inaugurated at Lagos,
Nigeria in November 1972 with full support from W.A.
L.A. also plays a role in the establishment of British Library in 1973.
vii) Research Programme: It sponsors numerous projects on its own initiatives and resources.
viii) Awards: The L.A. has a scheme of instituting awards to recognize excellence and
outstanding performance in library and information science. Some of such programmes are
* Wheat ley medal for outstanding index.
* Besterman Medal for outstanding bibliography and
* Mecoliven Medal for best reference book.
ix) Publication: Some noteworthy publication of LA are
* Library association record (Monthly)- official journal.
* Library and information science abstract (Bi-Monthly).
* Journal of librarianship (Quarterly).
* Information Science (Quarterly).
* Current research in library and information science (three issues)
* Wetland’s guide to reference material (An important publication of WA)
* British Humanities index (Quarterly).
* Current Technology index (Monthly)
x) Co-operation: L.A. makes bilateral contacts with the A.L.A., supports the work of IFLA and
The Library Association (LA) and the Institute of Information Scientists (IIS) unite to
form the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals (CILIP) on 1 April 2002.
Library Association
Library Association: The existence of a profession rests on the bonds among the practitioners
and these bonds can take the shape of a formal association. So the professional associations are
by and for the professionals in the concerned field. It serves as a forum for coordinate efforts for
the concerned profession.
In the context of libraries, the association means the organization of the library staff members,
persons or institutions related to the library matter and profession. The library associations are
those professional organizations of learned people which foster a spirit of public service among
the members, promote the library services, and protect the interest of their members and builds
up the image of the library profession in the society.
Based on the coverage of geographical area library associations can be grouped into
International, National, State and Local. Library associations can also be grouped based on the
particular area of activities as Special and General. The special library association can again be a
medical library association, school library association, rural library association, and the like.
Most professional librarians belong to at least one professional organization.
a) Historical Account: In 1852 a group of librarians, scholars, teachers and clergymen met
in New York for the foundation and management of a collection of books or knowledge for
public use. In May, 1876 a few library devotees, by taking the hint from the meeting of 1853,
proposed a like gathering in connection with the great exhibition in Philadelphia. The
announcement of the meeting that would be held in October 4, 1876 was sent to the leading
libraries and to the leading librarians abroad. As a result of this gathering, the American Library
Association (ALA) was formally inaugurated on October 4, 1876 and this was followed only a
year later by the Library Association (LA) in the United Kingdom.
b) Functions and Activities of Library Associations: The functions of a library association
depend upon the particular pursuit for which the association is formed. Generally a library
association performs the following functions-
i) Act as a Common Forum: Library association acts as a common forum for library
professionals for exchange of information, ideas, experience and expertise.
ii) Library Movement: Library association works as the backbone of library movement in a
country. It spreads knowledge and information.
iii) Planning: The library association puts a behavioral future planning of the present position of
libraries, library staff and library services after proper evaluation of its present state of affairs.
iv) Force the Authority: The association forces the government to accept their demand by the
right movement for the welfare of the library staff, like enacting the library legislation.
v) Development of the Profession: The association works for the betterment of salaries, grades,
service and working conditions for the library professionals and also for improving their status in
the society.
vi) Problem Solving: Library association works hand in hand to find out solution for the adhoc
professional problem.
vii) Conduct Survey and Research: Library association conducts surveys and research of
library facilities and services to ascertain the existing conditions so as to take necessary steps for
viii) Code of Conduct: Library association prepares the code of conduct for the librarians and
other library staff to maintain the professional standard.
ix) Resource Sharing: It works for the sharing of resources to avoid duplication of efforts.
x) Make General Public Conscious: Library association makes the general public conscious
towards the utility of the library and information centers.
xi) Holds Conferences, Seminars, Meeting, and Lectures: To discuss and exchange ideas and
experiences library associations hold conferences, seminars, meeting, lectures, etc.
xii) Training Courses: They also conduct training programmes for self improvement of the
xiii) Standardization: A library association establishes and encourages the adoption of standards
to improve the quality of library services.
xiv) Institute Prizes, Rewards, Fellowship: Library association institutes prizes, rewards for
library science students and professionals in recognition of their contribution to the profession.
xv) Publication: A library association creates and publishes professional literature in the subject
xvi) Cooperation: Maintains cooperation and healthy relation with other professional
associations of various levels within and outside the country.
In the following sections we are going to discuss the different library associations and
their functions.

Let Us Sum Up: The professional associations address issues like financial support for libraries,
censorship, and cooperative acquisition of library materials. They also attempt to influence
legislation that affect libraries, establishes policies and standards relating to libraries and
librarians, and support continuing education for librarians. Almost all of these organizations
publish journals or monographs relating to their particular areas of interest. Professional library
associations hold conferences on a regular basis so that librarians may come together in order to
develop policies and share ideas.
Private foundations also promote increased and improved library services around the
world. Private philanthropic organizations also provide leadership in the establishment and
maintenance of libraries around the world. In the early 20th century the Carnegie Corporation of
New York was instrumental in establishing free public libraries in Africa, Latin America, and the
South Pacific, but the organization stopped this programme in 1917. Today the Ford Foundation,
based in New York City, provides vital financial support for libraries in the developing nations of
Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
Library as a Social Institution
Library as a Social Institution: In modern societies all activities of the people are organized
through institutions. So, social institution is a product of the society. It is created to work as a
medium for expressing its social processes and it carries them out through its techniques
developed for the purpose. It is a form of social order.
Lowell Martin states: “A social institution is an integrated pattern of human relationship
established by the common will and serving some vital human need.” This definition indicates
that social institution deals with the integrated pattern of human being in the society. Their
pattern is caused through the interaction among the people as a vital social need. For example,
religious institution looks after the belief and unity, educational institution like school, college,
and universities promote knowledge, skill and socialization processes of the society. These
institutions incorporate a body of formal or informal rules and regulations through which
activities of a society are carried out or regulated.
1. Need of Library as Social Institution: We are living in an information age in which
information plays an important role in the complex, economic, political and social environment.
Information plays a crucial role in keeping the citizens well informed so that they can exercise
their right as citizens of a democracy properly. It is the information which allows us to change
and improve the society. Decision makers always seek information. Modern executives, farmers
in the field, workers in the factory and others need information while launching a new product,
plugging the field or building a skyscraper about the state of resources and knowledge about the
uncertain future events that may have to face. The researcher, the teacher, the student, the
administrator, the industrial and business managers, the entrepreneur, the farmers, the workers in
a factory etc all need information to equip themselves better for the fruitful pursuit of their
respective vocation.
In a modern society, every human activity is organized through institution. The society
also needs the institution to look after the above matters. The said institution in the broadest and
most practical sense should be a force for social betterment. No one can imagine other social
institutions except the library that can be entrusted with such type of responsibilities.
Libraries and other similar type of institutions collect, process, organize and disseminate
information and knowledge recorded in document. Since knowledge and information are vital for
all round development of human beings, libraries and other institutions that handle and manage
information and knowledge are indeed invaluable for the welfare of the society.
The libraries acquire, organize, offer for use, and preserve the reading material
irrespective of the form in which it is packaged (print, CD-ROM/DVD, Web form) in such a way
that, when it is needed, it can be retrieved and put into use. No other institution carries out such
long-term, systematic work.
a) It Represents the Society: The study of libraries as an institution provides us an approach to
analyze the past of a society. Its growth is not an isolated instance of society. It originated and
grew out of the necessities of life and in response to the society’s needs i.e. library grows with
the society. The location, the population served, the demand made upon the library, the nature of
collection, financial support, status of librarian, attitude of authorities towards the library, all
over a period of time reflects the growth pattern of the society. The story of the library gives
indication of the educational, social, economic and technological changes. Library collections in
the different countries represent their cultural identities. Language is at the heart of these
institutions. They are the collectors and stewards of our heritage.
b) It Represents the History of Civilization: Library history is an essential chapter in the
history of the intellectual development of civilization. It parallels the history of writing and
forms a component of the history of human civilization. It is the basic metaphor with which the
cycle of civilization began the step from the dark into the light of the mind.
The story of the growth and development of libraries forms an integral part of the history
of the peoples being served by it. A library does not exist for its own sake. Its objectives, role,
functions, services and kinds depend upon the needs of the people served by it. It is an extension
of the human memory. It is the repository of human culture, oral and written. The heritage of
man has been preserved for posterity in different containers of information.
2. Preconditions for the Emergence and Development of Libraries: Libraries tend to prosper
when a combination of certain social, political and economic conditions exist in a society. The
following are the preconditions for the emergence and development of libraries in any country:
a) Recorded Literature: Existence of recorded literature and the one worthy of being preserved.
b) Need of Preserving and Transmitting the Knowledge: Political and cultural maturity in a
society which recognizes the necessity of preserving, transmitting, and enlarging the body of
c) Literate Population: The existence of a literate population and the willingness on the part of
the community to use its resources create a proper environment for the creation and development
of libraries. The cultural and intellectual interest to stimulate the use of the library also plays a
great role.
d) Leisure Time: Nowadays the individual has both the leisure and the means to “cultivate the
finer arts and improve the common stock of knowledge”.
e) Secure Society: Library develops during stable social climates where there are periods of
relative peace and tranquility that enable the individuals to pursue leisure activities, and when the
country or an institution becomes stable and the security of tenure offers permanence and
f) Financial Support: Economic prosperity and a surplus of wealth are needed to provide the
financial support for the growth of the library. The economic prosperity provides a sizeable
section of individuals and the corporate world with wealth and encourages philanthropic giving.
When society’s other institutions- its school, college or universities – need to educate and
inform its members, libraries also become an important supplement to the former.

3. Social Origin of Library: Looking back it may be observed that at different stages of history
the social forces have made their impact on the origin and development of libraries. Before the
advent of printing technology the manuscripts libraries were strictly restricted both in form and
content to the scholars in the community. In the 17th century the Kings, Emperors and Noble men
maintained their libraries as symbol of prestige and aristocracy in the society. It was by the
middle of the last century that the social forces came into play to revolutionize the character of
the library movement making it more and more a public institution. Among a vast number of
forces behind the library movement the following are three chief social forces at work:
a) Religion: It was the religious belief in our country that free gift of knowledge would bring
credit for the knowledge givers in the next birth. Manu, the codifier of law in
ancient India prescribed that gift of books was the highest of all gifts. So, religious forces are
also instrumental in the growth and development of libraries.
b) Industrial Revolution: The industrial revolution made great impact on the concept of
libraries transforming it from royal and personal library to democratic one for the benefit of the
people. Due to industrial revolution every country faced with the emerging problems of
increased leisure, high standard of living and greater accumulation of private and community
wealth. These conditions supported the creation and development of public institutions like the
library for the benefit of the people.
c) Information Revolution: Since the invention of printing, there has been a continuous
revolution in the generation, transfer and communication of information. The role of information
further receives new proportions with the acceleration of research, mounting social and
population pressure and so on.

4. Organization of Library as a Social Institution: A social organization has four parts of

which each is supposed to perform a definite function. Since, library is a social institution it also
has the following parts.
a) Authority: In case of public library -municipal committee or corporation etc., in case
of university library- university authority, and for special library- Board of Directors etc serve as
the authority.
b) Material: Library tries to procure all types of reading materials expected to be relevant to its
patron. It procures books, periodicals, C.D. etc to suit the different information needs of different
c) Service Personnel: The professionally qualified library staff is an integral part of the library.
d) Clientele: In case of public library - the general public, for a university library- students,
teachers, research scholars, administrative staff, etc. and for special library- researchers,
specialists etc are the clientele of the library.

5. Social Responsibility of Libraries: In the establishment of libraries the social purpose is

paramount viewing it as a social obligation. Many of the basic functions such as education,
research, recreation, information etc performed by libraries are also carried out by other agencies
and groups. But a library is the only agency devoted solely to the purpose of collecting, making
available and securing the widest and most effective use of the record of civilization, by the
society of which it is a part. Since the library is intertwined in purpose and function with the
society’s needs any piece or items of recorded material is a potential library acquisition and no
part of the social structure, regardless of the stages of its development is outside the scope of the
library. The main purposes of libraries are
a) Reach All People of the Society: The public library system with its network of branches and
book mobiles establishes an active reader contact and its aim is to reach the majority of the
population who are not library users.
b) Free Service: It provides free service so that no user should be required to pay any
subscription, fee or any other charges as far as possible.
c) Respond to Social Issues: Library anticipates and responds to social issues before these
issues reach a crisis point. It provides the facilities for life long self education, proper use of
leisure, advancement of culture and so on. It is the public library which can provide access to
documents / information free of charge for all in the community irrespective of any restriction. In
this way, it contributes to the welfare and progress of the community served by it; thereby it
becomes a social force.
d) Form the Link in the Communication System: Library is created to form a link in the
communication system that is essential to any society. In fact, without communication there can
be no society. It builds socially oriented information system and tries to procure information /
document on all subjects including local, national and international affairs to serve economic,
political and social welfare. Libraries secure the communication of culture; it secures the
communication of culture between the ages.
e) Preserve the Record of Civilization: There can be no enduring culture without some forms
of record and a means for the preservation of that record. The library preserves the records of
civilization, preserves the literary heritage for posterity. The public library is a necessary unit in
the social set up so organized and planned as to transmit the accumulated knowledge and
experiences of mankind and provides challenging and often unorthodox material.

6. Role of Library in Society: A library does not exist for its own sake. It exists to serve the
need of the community or the parent organization. Its objectives are the same as those of its
parent body. It assists in the achievement of those objectives as detailed below.
a) Communication of Knowledge: The information and knowledge has become increasingly
complex and at the same time the means of communication of information and knowledge are
also becoming equally complex. For the growth and development of a modern society,
communication of knowledge has become increasingly important. All citizens must be able to
find and use information. It is the key raw material and the libraries are the access points to it. A
library is concerned with the communication of information and knowledge and helps in
communication through user friendly devices by providing repackaging of information. It
disseminates information according to the needs of the individuals on anticipation or on demand.
b) Information Centre: We are living in an information age in which information plays an
important role in today’s complex, economic, political and social environment. The researcher,
the teacher, the student, the administrator, the industrial and business managers, the entrepreneur,
the farmer, the workers in a factory, etc all need information to equip themselves better for the
fruitful pursuit of their respective vocation. It can help farmers to improve production by using
different agricultural information. It enables businessmen to improve their business prospects. It
can help students of all ages. It provides job information for the unemployed youth, helps people
looking for better prospects and so on.
c) Education: Education is considered the most important activity forming the backbone of the
progress of a nation. Education strengthens the very fabric of a nation. It helps to produce men of
integrity, vision, character and, above all, democratically conscious citizens.
i) Formal Education: Formal education is the hierarchically structured, chronologically graded
education system, running from primary school through the university. Formal education is the
one that an individual attains by enrolling himself in an educational institution like a school or a
college or a university and through constant teacher student contact.
In formal education, libraries support the courses of study by providing systematic
collection at all levels. They recognize the requirement of teacher and student alike. It is through
the extensive reading of a variety of books bearing on a subject that a student will be able to
acquire in-depth knowledge of the subject. By being able to analyze and compare different view
points as expounded in different books a student will be able to develop his capacity for
analytical and critical thinking. This will enable him to formulate independent view points and
opinion. The basic function performed by academic libraries is to support formal education.
Public libraries also collect such material to cater to the students’ need in some cases.
ii) Non-formal Education: Non-formal education is an organised educational activity outside
the established formal system - whether operating separately or as an important feature of some
broader activity - that is intended to serve identifiable learning clienteles. In non-formal
education one educates oneself through courses offered by the distant education mode with the
help of either other methods of learning or through self study materials. The main responsibility
of supporting the non-formal education rests with the public library system.
Education of Illiterates: The public libraries work for the education of the illiterate people in its
community through the audio-visual media especially the video tape. It also establishes learning
clubs and organizes other programmes of oral communication for educating its illiterate clients.
Education of Working Groups: Public libraries stock books relevant to the needs of the people
engaged in different vocations in its area. By reading such books they will become better
informed and better educated in their areas of work. They may be sufficiently interested to
increase their work efficiency which will lead to greater productivity.
Education of Physically Handicapped: In recent years public libraries have provided reading
materials and other documents to the handicapped readers to alleviate their miseries, have
assisted the disadvantaged members of society in gaining a rightful place in society besides
educating and rehabilitating them in society.
iii) Informal Education: Informal education is a lifelong process whereby every individual
acquires attitudes, values, skills and knowledge from daily experience and the educative
influences and resources in his or her environment - from family and neighbours, from work and
play, from the market place, the library and the mass media. Informal education can contribute to
learning a new job or transferring skills which were not necessarily the principal skills for a
previous job. These include communication, organizational and time management skills and the
ability to set priorities. Sometimes only a few weeks or a month of "on-the-job training" can
assist an individual to be able to perform a new job. Informal education also includes learning
and specialized skill development pursued in job-sponsored orientation courses (e.g. computer
training courses, project management).
iv) Lifelong Learning (LLL): The whole idea of education is to stress more and more
independent learning and acting. All learning activities are undertaken throughout life, with the
aim of improving knowledge, skills and competencies within a personal, civic, social and/or
employment-related perspective. The necessary implication is that the professional and
vocational competence of the members must be maintained with the changing needs of the
d) Research: Research extends the frontiers of knowledge. Human beings appear to stand alone
among the earth’s creatures in their desire to understand their environment better and the world
around them. This requirement can be partially satisfied by the knowledge gained as a result of
daily occurrence. The formulation of generalization takes place on the basis of first hand
experience and the use of logical reasoning. A more effective approach to expand knowledge
however is the conduct of planned and structured investigation- a process known as research.
Both material and cultural progress of the society depends on research. It is now recognized as
the life blood of the modern society.
Access to existing knowledge and information is essential for research. Every library
attached to an institution collects the knowledge that is newly created and primarily
communicated through journals, research reports and other similar publications to support its
own research programmes.
e) Safeguard Democracy: Libraries have been identified as one of the key elements for open
access to information, which is crucial to democratic society for its growth and development. It
safeguards democracy, creating political awakening, bringing social awareness, and fostering
creative leisure activities.
f) Recreation and Leisure: The healthy use of leisure is a matter of great importance in
community life so that leisure time is not devoted to negative and destructive activities. The tired
and bored people like to escape from their drab little world to identify themselves with romantic
excitement and creative recreation. The libraries provide for one and all harmless and elevating
use of leisure. Novels and other similar forms of literature, works of arts, books of travels,
popular magazines, etc. are primary books of recreation and they have found a place in every
kind of libraries. Besides, public libraries organize programmes for healthy recreation and
entertainment like the performing arts, musical concerts, etc.
g) Cultural Centre: A society cannot function without some cohesive forces to hold it together.
That force is known to the anthropologist as culture. Ancient Byzantines and the Arabiaess used
libraries primarily to preserve their recorded cultural heritage for the posterity. Libraries attached
to medieval monasteries also perform this function admirably. In today’s context also local
libraries should undertake to take care of books and other material related to local history and
other subjects of local interest. A national library holds the national output. Besides, it preserves
the cultural heritage of the human race as represented by the books and other documents it holds.
It also plays a cultural role in two other senses. Firstly, it makes available books which would
bring to expression the creative talents of individuals and develop their faculties for aesthetic
appreciation. Secondly, it also organizes cultural programmes like music concerts, dances,
dramas, paintings competitions for children, exhibition of painting etc and thus enriches the
cultural life of the community.
h) Religious and Moral Instruction: The use of libraries for religious and moral instruction was
practiesed by all early civilizations. Monastery libraries established during the Middle Ages and
the libraries attached to ancient churches, ashramas, mutts, satras and other religious bodies have
primarily existed to support religious and moral instruction. All public libraries also possess
spiritual and religious books, books that propound ideological themes, and other books of
permanent value which may be described as classics. These types of collections are for
inspiration. They meet the spiritual, religious and theological needs of their followers. Every
other kind of library has also a representative collection of books of this type to inspire people to
high ideas in life and inculcate values in them.
i) Inspiration Centre: A public library can create in children a love for reading, which can lead
to formation of reading habits at an early age. It prepares people for disciplined and cooperative
social life.
j) Instrument of Social Change: Information is power and at present it is being regarded as a
national resource perhaps as fundamental as energy or matter or water and air, which affects all
human activities. It is indispensable and so it needs to be put in the service of the whole

7. Changing Role of Library and Information Science Centres: The information society
demands to re-define and re-evaluate the position and objectives of all the institutions which
work with information, knowledge, and culture. In modern society special emphasis is laid on
literacy, adult education, formal education, life long education, dissemination of information, etc.
so that every person may make the best use of their life in the society, becomes good citizen and
discharge their social responsibilities besides supplementing their traditional knowledge and
experience about their own vocation or calling.
Above all, modern libraries are information centres. Nowadays it does not restrict itself in
procuring the books only but goes to the extent of CD ROM, DVD, network information, sharing
information among the like minded institution in the form of consortia and so on. The change
can be viewed from four angles.
i) Change in demand: A change from just in kind to just in time is a major shift.
ii) Change in structure of libraries: Emergence of the concept of data centre, data bank, data
consolidation and evaluation centre, learning resource center, documentation centre, clearing
house, information analysis centre, referral centre, etc.
iii) Change in services: Providing CAS, SDI, consultant, literature search, information broker,
gate keeper of information, etc services.
iv) New Information products: Emergence of the digest, newsletter and such others.
8. Let Us Sum Up: In modern societies cultural values are changing. A new social awareness
has emerged as we become more diverse, more independent and more highly educated. More
than ever before the modern societies acknowledge the right of every individual to be free, to
participate in democratic processes, and to strive for achieving his or her fullest potential. When
we consider such high expectations of the society in respect of man as individual, we realize the
full potential of the library as a social institute.
The culmination of centuries of advances in the printing press, cast-iron type, paper, ink,
publishing, and distribution, combined with an ever growing middle-class, increased commercial
activities and consumption, new radical ideas, massive population growth and higher literacy
rates forged the public library into the form that it is today.

Library and Information Science Education in India

Library and Information Science Education in India: In the early 19th Century, young people
learned librarianship by working under the more experienced practitioners. But, gradually the
tasks performed by librarians became more complex and more dependent on technology. As a
result, the study of library science has moved from the work-setting to professional schools in
Universities. The first ever library school was started by Melvil Dewey in USA in 1887 at
Columbia College (now Columbia University). In 1889 the programme moved to the New York
State Library in Albany when Dewey became the Director there. The success of Dewey’s training
programme and the publication of Training for Library Service, a book by the economist Charles
Williamson in 1923, led other universities, institutes of technology, and large public libraries to
establish their own professional degree programmes in library science.
1. First Course of Library Science in India: In India the existence of in service training was
initiated by John Macfarlane, the first librarian of the Imperial Library (Now National Library) at
Calcutta from 1901-06, as mentioned in some reports. In subsequent years, the training
programme was opened to the staff of other libraries and even those interested in librarianship
who deal with books and other documents.
i) Baroda School: In 1911, Siyaji Rao Gaikwad (1862-1939), the ruler of Baroda state called the
American librarian Mr. William Allenson Borden (1853-1931), a disciple of Melvil Dewey to
create a cadre of men for the newly established libraries in the state library system. In 1912, he
initiated the first training school in library education in India. In 1913, another training class for
working librarians of town libraries was started. These classes continued even after the departure
of Borden.
2. Certificate, Diploma, and Training Courses
i) Lahore School: In 1912, the Punjab University called another librarian Mr. Asa Don
Dickinson (1876–1960) from USA. He started the second educational course of three month
duration in library science in the year 1915. This happens to be the first university course
in India. Mr. Asa Don Dickinson later become the Librarian of
Panjab University, Lahore (now Pakistan) during 1915–1916.
ii) Andhra Desa: The Andhra Desa Library Association (founded in 1914) started conducting
“training classes for the library workers” at Vijayawadain 1920. The classes covered a module on
running adult education classes in addition to library technique.
iii) Mysore State: In 1920, a course for the training of librarians was conducted
at Bangalore under the “program of library development” initiated by the then Dewan of Mysore
Mr. M. Visweswaraya.
iv) Madras Library Association: A summer school for college librarians and lecturers in charge
of college libraries in Madras was held in 1928 and repeated in 1930. The Madras Library
Association also organized a regular certificate course in library science from 1929. Then in
1931, University of Madras took up the training course of MALA in 1931 and started offering
the course on a regular basis.
v) Andhra University: Andhra University started a certificate course in 1935, which was leter
vi) Imperial Library, Calcutta: The Imperial library, Calcutta started a training class under the
supervision of its librarian Mr. K. M. Asudulah in 1935. It was a full time regular Diploma
course in librarianship at the Imperial Library, Calcutta (now National Library, Kolkata). It
continued till 1946.
3. Post Graduate Diploma
i) University of Madras: University of Madras, in 1937, introduced a one year Post Graduate
Diploma course in place of the certificate course of three month duration. This was the first P G
Diploma in library science in India.
ii) Banaras Hindu University: The second university to start a post graduate diploma course was
the Banaras Hindu University in 1942.
iii) Bombay University: University of Bombay initiated a diploma course similar
to Banaras Hindu University in 1943.
iv) Government of India’s in-Service Training Course: A training course for the staff working
in various government organizations was started in 1953. This course was recognized as
equivalent to the university diploma courses.
4. Degree Courses
i) Aligarh Muslim University: In 1947, Aligarh Muslim University started B.Lib. Science
Course for the first time in the country.
ii) University of Delhi: University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full fledged
Department of Library Science in 1946. It also instituted the first post diploma degree course in
1948. In 1949, the structure was changed. The programme of Master of Library Science was
introduced as a two year course with the first year leading to Bachelor of Library Science.
In between 1956-59, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim
University, MS University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University
and Vikram University.
iii) Madras University: In 1960, Madras University replaced its full time one year diploma
course to B.LibSc. Degree course. By mid 1960, many other universities had fallen in the line
of university of Madras following the recommendation of Review Committee Report of UGC in
introducing different degree courses.
iv) Government Polytechnique for Women: The Government polytechnique for women,
Ambala, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Delhi, Jullandhur, Rourkela started post matric (class X)
diploma courses of two years duration in late 1960s.
v) Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC): In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan
established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Previously DRTC
courses were of 14 month duration which was later on moved to two years programme.
vi) Indian National Scientific Documentation Centre (INSDOC): INSDOC conducted a short
term course for Asian Documentalists in 1963. In 1964, it started a one year post graduate course
in Documentation and Reprography leading to “Associateship in Documentation and
Reprography”. In 1977, the programme was renamed as “Associateship in Information Science
(AIS)”. On September 30, 2002, INSDOC merged with the National Institute of Science
COMmunication (NISCOM) and was renamed as National Institute of Science Communication
and Information Resources (NISCAIR). At present, it is conducting “Courses in Information
The DRTC and NISCAIR in Delhi concentrate on the training of professionals for special
and industrial libraries and information centers. Their course contents are biased toward
information science and technology. The programme of these two institutes is a class apart from
other similar programmes offered by various institutes.
In India advanced professional education has remained attached to universities, though
there are some regional library associations conducting certificate courses of a few months
duration and women polytechnics offering post-masters two year diplomas in library science to
train paraprofessionals. At present, about 107 institutions, mostly university colleges and
polytechnics, have library science education courses. Out of these, the M.Lib.I.Sc. course is
being offered by more than 75 universities.
5. Five Year Integrated Course in LIS: In 2010, University of Calcutta introduces five year
integrated course in Library & Information Science and thus becomes the first university to
launch such course in LIS domain. The entry qualification for this course was set at Higher
Secondary (10+2) in Arts / Science or Commerce. Launching of this course will force the
learners to choose the LIS by choice and not by chance. It will again help the students to grasp
and understand the contents for LIS in a better and exhaustive way.
6. Present Status of LIS Education in India: A few departments and associations provide
Certificate Courses in Library and Information Science (CLIS) and Diploma in Library and
Information Science (DLIS). The others provide BLISc and MLISc courses. In most of the
universities, the prerequisite for admission into the Bachelor or Master degree course in Library
and Information Science is 10+2+3 years of education from any faculty (arts, science, commerce
etc). The majority of the universities generally conduct two separate courses for the Bachelor’s
degree followed by the Master of Library and Information Science of one year (or two
semesters) duration each. In recent years, some institutions have offered two years of integrated
courses of four semester duration. The University of Calcutta went a step ahead and introduced
five years integrated course in LIS with entry qualification as 10 +2.
Specialization: Students in most schools of library and information science have the opportunity
to develop at least some degree of specialization. Some may take advanced courses in particular
library functions, such as reference work, while others may take courses related to a particular
type of library, such as a course in medical librarianship or public librarianship or academic
librarianship. In simple, there are many different courses available in LIS. It makes the
professionals available to work at all levels of library irrespective of type, structure and function.
Syllabus: The University Grants Commission (UGC), from time to time recommended the
broader outlines of courses of Library and Information Science. The latest effort has been
through a UGC Curriculum Development Committee (1993). The UGC and other higher bodies
now give emphasis to semester system rather than annual system, and credit-based rather than
marks-based system. Every university being autonomous is free to frame its own course of
studies, and syllabi of many universities / schools are quite modernized.
All programmes to educate librarians share certain characteristics. Programmes typically
offer courses in the history of books and librarianship to give students a background in the
profession’s past. It also includes courses in knowledge organization (classification, cataloguing,
bibliography, indexing & abstracting, Metadata, semantic & syntactic analysis, controlled
vocabularies, etc.), collection development (acquisition), information seeking behaviors of users,
search strategies, library services (dissemination of the acquired library materials, reference), and
management of the collection (preservation & conservation of documents). It also includes
contents related to scholarly communication (bibliometrics, informetrics, scientometrics,
webmetrics), digital libraries and ICT.
* ICT as an Integral Part: Technology is entering in a very big way to LIS where it has been
used extensively to store and retrieve information in different forms and structures. This new
dimension is reflected in the course structure of almost all universities that provides courses in
LIS. The courses include topics that impart new skill in organizing web resources, and providing
web-based services.
* Practical Exposure: All courses provide scope of practical knowledge rather than restricting
to only theory. Even some universities make it compulsory for their learners to undergo some
apprenticeship courses before practicing the librarianship.
Problems with Present LIS Education and Research
* Limited Accommodation Capacity: All universities which provide Library and Information
Science courses witness a great flow of learners. But they are able to accommodate only a
limited number of such desired students.
* A Very Competitive Entrance Examination: In most of the universities, students desire to
study the LIS has to go through a very competitive entrance examination for admission.
* Limitation as a Professional Subject: LIS is a professional course and so it has the limitations
of any other professional courses. The non-inclusion of Library and Information Science in
UPSC, Civil Service / State Public Service Commission examination, SET / SLET is a very
The other problems include lack of a standard cohesive syllabus of LIS and low level of
awareness among the general people about this course.
7. LIS Research in India: The LIS research briefly means the collection and analysis of original
data on a problem of librarianship, done within the library school according to scientific and
scholarly standard. Research in this connection broadly includes investigation, studies, surveys,
academic work at the doctoral, post doctoral and research staff level, It also includes in house or
action research by practicing librarians, information personnel and documentalist, etc. The aim of
research in LIS, like any other discipline is to contribute towards the advancement of subject and
contribution to the existing knowledge.
a) Dr. S. R. Ranganathan’s Effort: The era of LIS research in India started with S. R.
Ranganathan. He has done individual research for several years. His works that lead to some of
the fundamental and theoretical principles have dominated the research activities for five
decades. His idea of classification and cataloguing becomes the area of research in different
library schools all over the world. The library and academic community of those days, even
today also respect him as a pioneer researcher in LIS. Some of his worth notable contributions
a) Five laws of library science
b) Colon Classification
c) Prolegomena to library classification
d) Classified Catalogue Code
e) Documentation and its facets
f) Library administration, etc.
b) M. Phil Programme
i) University of Delhi: University of Delhi was the first to introduce M. Phil programme in
Library and Information Science in 1980. Today more than 11 universities offer the M.Phil
programme. The duration of M. Phil programme in almost all universities in this country is one
c) Ph.D. Programme
i) University of Delhi: The credit for introducing the doctoral degree programme in library
science in India goes to Dr. S. R. Ranganathan (1892–1972). In 1951, he started the same in
Delhi University in 1958. The university offered first doctoral degree in Library science to D. B.
Krishan Rao for his “Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture” under the guidance
of Dr. S. R. Ranganathan. In 1977, Panjab University, Chandigarh offered the second Ph.D.
Today more than 35 Universities in India have Ph.D. research facilities.
ii) Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC): In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan
established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Since its inception, it has
been carrying out research studies on documentation and related areas.
iii) Library Associations: The contribution of library association of India towards research
activities is negligible. They restrict their activities in the field of publication of journals,
organization of seminars, conferences and workshop, etc. only. The ILA, IASLIC are the
mentionable among them.
iv) Funding of LIS Research in India: The University Grant Commission (UGC) is promoting
LIS research by awarding different kinds of fellowship to the students. Indian Council of Social
Science Research (ICSSR) and Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre
(DESIDOC) are also promoting LIS research programme by awarding scholarship to doctoral
Till March, 1997, 350 theses have been awarded under various Indian universities.
d) D.Litt Programme: In 1992, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar awarded D.Litt. to Dr. B. B.
Shukla. It claimed to be the first such degree in library science all over the world.
8. Let Us Sum Up: The library and information science deals with all aspects of information and
knowledge which includes acquisition of materials, classification and cataloguing, searching
tools, information retrieval, preservation and conservation of documents and so on.
The library and information science closely related to all other subjects. It forms its own
foundation by taking the help of some other subjects.
Dr. S. R. Ranganathan in a pionner in the field of Library and Information Science in the
world as a whole and India in particular. He contributed almost to all aspects of the library
science. Nowadays many university and colleges provides different courses in Library and
Information and its related subjects. It ranges from certificate course to PhD.
Library and Information Science as a Profession
Library and Information Science as a Profession: In modern usage, professions tend to have
certain qualities in common. A profession is always held by a person, and it is generally that
person's way of generating income. Dalton E. Mc Farland in “Management Functions and
Practices” mentions some characteristics of a profession. Along with the characteristics,
necessary arguments are given below to justify whether librarianship is a profession or not.
a) Entrance is Competitive: All professions maintain rigid rules and high standard of
qualification for the new entrants into the profession. As entrance into professions is highly
competitive an entrant typically has to have above-average mental skills.
When we consider the employment aspect in libraries, at junior professional level, the
entry is direct, but even before that proper orientation into the system, service and professional
ethics is provided in many organizations. At the senior professional level the entry is by selection
among the experienced professionals.
b) Body of Specialized Knowledge and Technical Skill: A specialized knowledge of the
concerned field is needed by the professional. Those persons who are engaged in a library should
have the required academic background although; some of them may not possess a LIS degree.
To practise librarianship also requires extensive knowledge and technical skill such as an
extensive knowledge of classification or cataloguing without which one may find it difficult to
run a library.
c) Formal Training and Experience: Professions also require rigorous training and schooling
beyond a basic college degree for acquiring the needed skill and methods to put the knowledge
into work. Nowadays there is a large body of growing literature on library and information
science for training and educating the professionals to acquire specialized knowledge and skill in
the field of library science. Specialized journals have also started coming out in recent years. It
has also its own indexing and abstracting services.
d) An Ethical Code or Standard of Conduct: A set of principles, a social code or ethics is
needed for the professional. Many organizations have codified their conduct, often designated
“code of ethics”, and what they require for entry into their organization and how to remain in
good standing. Some of these codes are quite detailed and make strong emphasis on their
particular area or expertise; for example, journalists emphasize the use of credible sources and
protecting their identities, psychologists emphasize privacy of the patient and communications
with other psychologists, anthropologists emphasize rules on intrusions into a culture being
studied. Most of the codes do show an overlap in such concepts as, “do no harm”, “be honest”,
“do not use your position for private gain”, etc. In different parts of the world different
professional bodies of Library and Information Science codified such rules. In India also Indian
Association of Special Libraries and Information Centre (IASLIC) has evolved a code of conduct
and ethics for special librarians in India.
e) A Commitment to Public Service: A professional needs to work with the prime purpose of
rendering a public service rather than for monetary gain. It has also been suggested that some
professionals feel an obligation to society, beyond their client relationship. Doctors may not
merely sell their service if a procedure is medically inappropriate, however much the client may
want it undertaken; architects may refuse to work on a project that would be detrimental to its
surroundings, and lawyers may refuse to take cases which are merely exploitative. The obligation
to educate the client is often seen as a key part of the definition. Librarianship is a service
oriented job and the user of a library is regarded a king.
f) Guarantees of the Service Rendered: The concepts of professionalism may be inferred from
guarantees. But these are inferences only. The idea behind a guarantee is that the person offering
the guarantee is accountable to the extent of damages that will be compensated. One thing these
sources hold in common, implicit or explicit, is the idea of accountability. Those who are
members of these organizations or professions are held accountable for what they do.
g) Formal Organization: An organization generally binds all the members of a group, calling or
vocation together for concerted opinion, to achieve high standard in performance, and to act as a
force to achieve common goal.
The formal organization of librarianship started with the establishment of the American Library
Association in 1876. At modern times library association are there at different levels i.e.
international, regional, national, state and local. Many associations covering specialized interest
have also come into being. For example, Indian Association of Special Library and Information
Centre (IASLIC), Medical Library Association of India (MLI), Indian Association of Teachers of
Library and Information Science (IATLIS), etc.
h) Licensing of Practitioners: Membership in the profession is usually restricted and regulated
by a professional association. For example, lawyers regulate themselves through a bar
association and restrict membership through licensing and accreditation of law schools. Hence,
professions also typically have a great deal of autonomy, setting rules and enforcing discipline
themselves. Professions are also generally exclusive, which means that laymen are legally
prohibited from practising the profession. For example, people are generally prohibited by law
from practising medicine without a license and would be likely be to practice well without
acquiring the skills of a physician.
Generally, professional library jobs require an academic LIS degree as certification. In
the United States, the certification usually comes from a Master's degree granted by an ALA-
accredited institution. In the United Kingdom, however, there have been moves to broaden the
entry requirements to professional library posts, so that qualifications in, or experience of, a
number of other disciplines have become more acceptable.
Library Association (LA), UK maintain the professional register of chartered librarians
(professionally qualified members are known as chartered librarians and are of two categories
i) Associates who are fully trained and professionally educated librarians and
ii) Fellow (FLA) who have successfully completed additional work at an advanced level to prove
their ability in special areas of librarians.
Librarianship is as old as the book itself. However, librarianship started assuming some
of the characteristics of a profession from 1876 onwards. This was the year when American
Library Association was established, the American Library Journals was launched, and the first
edition of the DDC and the C. A. Cutter’s Rules for making a dictionary catalogue were

Library and Information Science

Library and Information Science: Library and Information Science is concerned with the body
of knowledge relating to the origin, storage, retrieval, transmission and utilization of information.
The term “library science” first appeared in the early 1930’s, in the title of Dr. S. R.
Ranganathan’s “The Five Laws of Library Science” and in the title of Lee Pierce Butler’s 1933
book “An Introduction to Library Science”. In 1959, Information Science began to be used in
USA as a general brand for documentation which is summarized as a discipline that investigates
properties as well as behavior of information, forces governing the flow of information and the
means for processing information for optimal accessibility and usability. In recent years, the
trend is to term the subject as “Library and Information Science (LIS)” by merging both the
concepts, and it is the study of issues related to libraries and the information science. This
includes academic studies regarding how library resources are used and how people interact with
library systems. These studies also tend to be specific to certain libraries at certain times. The
organization of knowledge for efficient retrieval of relevant information is also a major research
goal of LIS.
According to Borko, Information Science is an interdisciplinary science that investigates
the properties and behavior of information, the forces that govern the flow and use of
information and the technique, both manual and mechanical, of processing information for
optimal storage, retrieval and dissemination. He further stated that information science has both
pure science components which enquire into the subject without regard to its application and
applied science components which develop services and products. Librarianship and
documentation are also the applied aspect of information science.
According to J. H. Shera, Librarianship is the generic term and information science is an
area of research which draws its substance, method and techniques from a variety of disciplines
to achieve and understand the properties, behaviour and flow of information. Information science
contributes to the theoretical and intellectual base for the librarians operation.
According to C. G. Viswanathan, Information science is concerned with the principles
and techniques governing the transfer and communication of organized thought (knowledge)
from one human to another and ultimately to society.
According to P. B. Mangla, Information science is a discipline which is concerned with
the study of the properties and behaviour of information as well as the forces influencing the
flow of information.
According to P. H. William both library science and information science are swiftly
developing subjects and so the relation between them is in a constant stage of change.
However, there are many thinkers who see the library science and information science as
overlapping discipline.
The Library and Information Science is at the cross road of science seeking a basic
principle which would bring together the knowledge in a general framework in which each
discipline would have its own place and in which its relationship with other discipline would be
clearly perceived. The activities and programmes in LIS often overlap with the activities of
computer science, various social sciences, statistics, and system analysis.
Many practicing librarians do not contribute to LIS scholarship but focus on daily
operations of their own library systems. Other practicing librarians, particularly in academic
libraries, do perform original scholarly LIS research and contribute to the academic end of the
field. On this basis, it has sometimes been proposed that LIS is distinct from librarianship, in a
way analogous to the difference between medicine and doctoring. In this view, librarianship, the
application of library science, would comprise the practical services rendered by librarians in
their day-to-day attempts to meet the needs of library patrons. Some other scholars are of the
view that the two terms do not make any distinction and can be treated as synonyms.
Library and Information Policy at the National Level
Library and Information Policy at the National Level: A Policy is a statement of commitment
to a generic course of action necessary for the attainment of a goal which in our case is library
development. A policy is conditioned on the political, economic, social, and cultural milieu.
Policies are value in a number of ways such as they standardise activities, facilitate decision
making, minimise confusion, coordinate the activities of various units, conserve time in training
etc. Policy statements are to be formulated at the institutional, regional, state, national and
international level. It comprehends a set of basic issues which are infrastructure development,
information services development, utilisation of new technologies, manpower development and
other general recommendations. Many countries have adopted a library policy which helped
them undertake library development with a certain commitment and assurance. Policies in
certain sectors of the national economy have also had their implications for library development.
1. Meaning and Definition: The concept of Library and Information Policy is new. Here, we
are going to discuss, how the concept of “Policy” originated in the field of Library and
Information Science. Today’s society is known as an Information Society which require
information at every step. In modern society, information is treated as a very important source in
all areas of development whether it is social, political, economic, cultural etc. The progress of
any nation depends on the information generation, disseminating it to the users, and putting it to
work. Lack of information is going to adversely affect the development. It is because of the ever
increasing demand for information from all walks of life that the need of a policy is felt. And
since, this information is being imparted or disseminated via the Libraries, Documentation
Centres, Information Analysis and Consolidation Centres etc. they are the means for collecting,
storing, and organizing information. Thus, the policy had to be formulated on Libraries and
Information Systems. In almost all countries, national governments are the major investors and
disseminators of information. As such, each country should evolve a national policy of its own
taking into consideration the developments at national and international level.
In the context of India, a National Information Policy must necessarily be governed by
and form an integral and harmonious part of the social, economic, educational, research and
development and other related policies, which get formulated at various stages of our national
development. Further, the Information Policy needs to be properly made compatible with the
Five Years National Plans of the country.
“A National Information Policy is a set of decisions taken by a government, through
appropriate laws and regulations, to orient the harmonious development of information transfer
activities in order to satisfy the information needs of the company. A National Information Policy
needs provision of necessary means or instruments such as financial, personnel, institutional for
concrete implementation”. (UNISIST: II Main Working Document).
A National Information Policy would ensure access to professional and specialized
knowledge at the global level as the development of any country directly depends upon the
planning and policies followed by the government of the country.
2. Library Information Policy at National Level for India: Libraries in our country function
under a variety of ownerships and jurisdiction. There is generally no coordination in their
development. The progress of libraries has been very slow because of the following factors:
a) Neglect of library services during the British period
b) Resource constraint in the post-Independence era
c) Sole dependence on Government funds for library development.
Due to above said reasons and many more, the need for an integrated library system or
policy for India was felt and in this direction, first step was taken by Dr. S. R. Ranganathan,
Father of Library Science, in 1944. He suggested that “library edifice of postwar India should be
so planned that primary libraries are attached to regional centres, regional centres to provisional
central libraries, these again to the national centre libraries of other countries and international
The Government of India made various attempts to improve library services. Under the
National Library of India Act, 1948, the Imperial Library was renamed to National Library. In
1951, Delhi Public Library was set up. Indian National Scientific Documentation Centre
(INSDOC) was established in 1951. Five Year Plans included funnels for their improvement. In
1957, the Advisory Committee suggested library services “free to every citizen of India.”
National Policy on Library Information System was formulated by the Raja Ram Mohan
Roy Library Foundation (RRRLF) which was set up in 1972 and also by Indian Library
The Department of Culture, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of
India, appointed a Committee of senior library scientists and other specialists with Prof. D. P.
Chattopadhyaya as Chairman, to prepare a draft document on the National Policy on Library and
Information System in October 1985. The Committee completed its assignment and submitted a
draft document to the Government on May 31, 1986. The draft policy document consists of 10
To implement the recommendations of the committee, Government appointed an
Empowered Committee under the chairmanship of Prof. D.P. Chattopadhyaya, in October 1986.
The committee submitted its report in March 1988.
The recommendations of the committee are:
a) Constitution of National Commission on Libraries.
b) Creation of All India Library Services.
c) Active role of Central Government in Public Library Development in State.
d) Public Library Development has also to be supported by agencies involved in education,
social and rural development.
e) National Library of India, Calcutta should be strengthened.
f) Development of system of national libraries.
3. Salient Features: A number of features that constitute the National Information Policy are
given below:
i) To establish, maintain, and strengthen the free public libraries. A network of libraries would
result with a district library being the apex library in district, with public libraries at city, town
and village levels. These would, then be part of the national network with each state having its
own library legislation.
ii) Every school or college established should have a library and a qualified librarian. The policy
states that science libraries are essential part of education. There must be a state level agency for
proper development of school libraries of the state and a national agency for coordination at the
national level. The policy gives University Grants Commission, the authority for college and
university libraries and suggests that all these institutes form a network and share the resources
by signing Memorandum of Understanding (MOU).
iii) Expansion of national, regional, sectoral, and local levels of NISSAT (National Information
System for Science and Technology). The policy recommends that national, regional, sectoral,
and local levels of NISSAT scheme should be further strengthened and expanded.
iv) Similar systems are organized in Social Sciences, Humanities and Languages.
v) Development of information system and data banks in different fields.
vi) Parent bodies should be committed to provide support and infrastructure for libraries.
vii) The policy recommends for a system of national libraries consisting of The National Library
at Calcutta, National Depository Libraries, National Subject Libraries and National
Documentation/Information Centres, National Databases of Manuscripts, etc. A National Library
Board should be set up by the National Library of India for effective inter-relation among all
these national libraries and also between libraries, archives and museums.
viii) Manpower, planning and development. The policy also recommends specialized information
personnel who could apply modern management techniques to Information Services.
ix) Library legislation and regulation of information flow. To meet effectively, with the changing
information needs of society, the policy recommends a national library act to be enacted and
supplemented by model library legislation at the state level.
x) Use of technology. Information revolution is undisputably caused by the unprecedented
advances in technology. These advancements have made accessibility to world information and
knowledge possible, almost from any part of the world. All these developments in information
technology have far reaching implications for National Information Policy. It recommends the
access and use of technology for enhancing the existing services and to exploit and utilise the
available resources to its optimum.
xi) Removal of communication barriers. Information, being an important resource, any barrier in
its free flow should be removed for easy access and maximum use.
xii) National network of libraries. The National Information Policy recommends the setting of a
National Commission for Libraries and Information System by the Government. This would take
charge of the national network of libraries, within which, would be accommodated libraries of
different levels from the rural society to the modern society, from the school to the research
organisations. The policy states that the necessary financial support 6 to 10% of the education
budgets for systems will be made available by the Government of India and state of
4. Other Library and Information Policies: UNESCO has been advocating the adoption of a
National (Science) Information Policy by all the countries of the world. In this connection,
UNESCO held some regional meetings and seminars in India. NISSAT, which is the focal point
in India for the UNISIST/UNESCO programme, is expected to take interest in framing
information policy. The Society for Information Science in India has done considerable spade
work for preparing the National (Science) Information Policy.
Even, in India or other nations, there are various Associations formulated at state and
district levels for e.g. Library Association for Chandigarh and so on, contributing in formulating
and implementing the Library and Information Policies for the betterment of the Nation as a
The policies which have been adopted by Government in a few other sectors have direct
impact on Library field such as National Policy on Education 1986, National Book Policy 1986,
Scientific Policy Resolution 1958, Technology Policy 1983, Information (Communication)
Policy, National Knowledge Commission, 2005.
The primary objective of a national policy is to achieve a progressive upliftment of the
socioeconomic development of the country through the provision of access to and availability of
information and knowledge with speed and efficiency to all those who are involved in activities
for national development. Planning and programming endeavours are essential to aim at a
systematic and assured development. The formulation of a National Policy on Library and
Information System are epoch-making measures in the library movement in the country. If the
policy recommendations are faithfully implemented, a new phase in library development in India
towards a far better performance and achievement is sure to come about. A National Library
Policy is also necessary to have a commitment to provide library service to all the people as it is
suggested by the Advisory Committee. The Five Year Plans have given a great deal of attention
to library development and informatics and the Ninth Plan has made appropriate provision. If
implemented rigorously library development will get assured success.
Library: Libraries are congenial homes of ideas to be enjoyed, valued and used regularly by all.
Libraries almost invariably contain long passageway to rows of books. It has materials arranged
in a specified order according to a library classification scheme, so that items can be located
quickly and collections can be browsed efficiently. Some libraries have additional galleries
beyond the public ones, where reference materials are stored. These reference stacks may be
open to selected members. Others require patrons to submit a “stack request”, which is a request
for an assistant to retrieve the material from the closed stacks. In today’s context, most of the
libraries provide open access to its entire collection.
Technical services work behind the scene. It includes selection, acquisition, cataloguing
and classification of new arrivals and weeding out of obsolete and unused materials. Collection
development orders materials and maintains materials budgets. Larger libraries are often broken
down into departments staffed by both para-professionals and professional librarians. Circulation
handles user accounts and the loaning / returning and shelving of materials. Reference staffs in
the reference desk provide answer to user questions (using structured reference interviews),
instruct users and develop library programming. Reference may be further broken down by user
groups or materials such as youth, teen, or special collections.
Since the advancement in technology made it possible to store information and media in
the form other than books, many libraries now act as repositories and access points for a variety
of microfilm, microfiche, audio tapes, video tapes, CDs, and DVDs, and provide public facilities
to access CD-ROM and subscription databases over the Internet. Thus, modern libraries are
increasingly being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats
and from many sources.
1. Definition: The word “library” comes from the Latin word liber=Book. Library means a
collection of written, printed or digital reading material organized to provide different services to
the user with the help of a trained staff. It is a collection of sources, resources, and services, and
the structure in which it is housed; it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an
institution, or an individual. However, with the sets and collection of media and of media other
than books for storing information, many libraries are now also repositories and access points for
maps, prints, or other documents and various storage media such as microform
(microfilm/microfiche), audio tapes, CDs, cassettes, videotapes, and DVDs. Libraries may also
provide public facilities to access subscription databases and the Internet. Although mostly free
to access and use, some libraries assess service charges for some services, such as checking out
new fiction, DVDs, interlibrary loan, Document Delivery Service, etc.
ALA glossary of Library and Information Science has defined library as “a collection of
materials organized to provide physical, bibliographical and intellectual access to a target group,
with a staff that is trained to provide services and programmes related to the information needs of
the target groups.”
According to Dr. S. R. Ranganathan, the father of library science in India, “a library is a
public institution or establishment charged with the care of collection of books, the duty of
making them accessible to those who require the use of them and the task of converting every
person in its neighborhood into a habitual library goers and reader of books.”
The word “Library Collection” is synonymous with holdings. It is the total accumulation
of books and other materials owned by a library, organized and cataloged for ease of access by
its users. Encyclopaedia of Library and Information Science describes library collection as “the
sum total of library material – books, manuscripts, serial, government documents, pamphlets,
catalogues, report, recording, microfilms reels, micro cards and microfiche, punched cards,
computer tapes etc. that make up the holding of a particular type of library.”
Modern libraries are increasingly being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to
information in many formats and from many sources. They are understood as extending beyond
the four walls of a building, by including material accessible by electronic means, and by
providing the assistance of librarians in navigating and analyzing tremendous amounts of
knowledge with a variety of digital tools.
2. Types of Libraries: No single library can contain the information sought by every potential
user; as a result, different types of libraries exist to serve different needs. Libraries can be
divided into categories by the following methods.
2.1 Based on Mission: The following are the main types of libraries based upon their mission.
a) National Library: The mission is to preserve the cultural heritage of a Nation. Eg. The
National Library of India, Kolkata.
b) Public Library: A free informational and recreational institution. Its mission is to provide
reading materials to people without any fee.
c) Academic Library: The libraries that are attached with educational institutions are known as
academic library. Its mission is to help the students, researchers, faculties in their study or
research. The primary mission is to support the educational and research need of the parent
institution. Academic libraries may be of the following types:
i) University Library
ii) College Library
iii) School Library
d) Special Library: Libraries attached to special institution i.e. industrial firm, insurance
company, All India Radio, Dordarshan Kendra, etc. belong to this category. Their aim is to
support the parent organization.
e) Personal / Private Library: A library owned by an individual or family or a a library with
reading materials collected, maintained and intended to be used by a single person or a family.
f) Archives: An organized collection of the noncurrent records of an institution, government,
organization, or corporate body, or the personal papers of an individual or family, preserved in a
repository for their historical value.
2.2 Based on Technology: A shift from the traditional library to digital library has already taken
place. The traditional closed access libraries are shifting towards open access library. The open
access libraries are shifting towards automated library, the automated one towards the
electronics, the electronics to digital and finally end in virtual library. Is it really true? The truth
is that nobody knows what will be the future of libraries. Still, based on the technology used in
processing of information as well as in providing services to the user community, the libraries of
present times can be grouped into the following types
a) Library (Traditional): The collection of the traditional libraries is mostly print material,
manuscripts etc and the collections are not well organized and the documents are deteriorating at
a rapid rate. The information sources are also hard to locate and so does not easily reach user.
Again, the traditional libraries confine themselves within a physical boundary.
b) Automated Library: A library with machine-readable catalogues, computerized acquisition,
circulation and OPAC are called as automated library. The holding of this type of libraries is
same as that of traditional libraries.
c) Electronic Library: When an automated library goes for Local Area Networking (LAN) and
CD-ROM networking then it is known as electronic library. The resources of the electronic
libraries are in both print and electronic forms, but resources are not available over the web. The
electronic Media is used for storage retrieval and delivery of information.
d) Digital Library: The Digital Library (DL) is a later stage of electronic library. When an
electronic library started procuring e-journal and other similar kind of publications and access is
over the web, then it is termed as digital library. In digital library, high speed optical fibres are
used for LAN and the access is over WAN and it provides a wide range of internet based services
i.e. audio and video conferencing etc. The majority of the holding of a digital library is in the
computer readable form. They have their own computer readable database and act as a point of
access to other on line sources. A DL, like a traditional library, is also a collection of books and
reference materials along with its associated services. But, unlike a traditional library, however,
the collection of a digital library is in digital form, and is usually served over the World Wide
e) Virtual Library: Virtual Library refers to the scientifically