Love, D. J Percolation Behaviour of a Cane Diffuser.







By D.J. Love and P.W. Rein Huletts Sugar Limited Mount Edgecombe, South Africa


ABSTRACT The percolation behaviour of a cane diffuser has been investigated in both pilot plant and full scale diffusers. A wide range

of factors was investigated and correlations have been developed from the pilot plant experiments which relate the percolation rate at which flooding occurs to the bed height, specific surface, mean particle size and fibre content of the cane. The dispersed plug

flow model was found to fit the results of tracer tests on both the pilot plant and full scale diffusers, providing measures of the percolation velocity and the dispersion coefficients.

2. INTRODUCTION Flooding is probably the most serious operating problem encountered in moving bed diffusers. Flooding occurs when more

liquid is sprayed onto the top surface of the bed than is able to percolate downwards through the bed, and its occurrence causes a noticeable drop in extraction as the countercurrent extraction process is destroyed. However it has been shown9 that high liquid flow rates through the cane bed are highly desirable, as these conditions promote high rates of mass transfer. Ideally then the

diffuser should be operated at all times with liquid flow rates at a maximum but just slightly below levels at which flooding occurs. The maximum percolation rate is therefore a very impor-

tant operating parameter. A considerable amount of work has been done on bagasse diffusion, and maximum percolation rates were shown to be dependent on degree of preparation and bed Payne



has stated that higher percolation rates should be obtainable

in cane diffusers, due to the less dense beds with a more fibrous type of preparation. Experience with running a bagasse diffuser

at Empangeni as a cane diffuser for a limited period tended to reinforce these ideas.

However, operation of a cane diffuser at Amatikulu has resulted in fibre packing densities ± 20% higher than originally anticipated, and percolation rates well below expected values, lower even than obtained in bagasse diffusers. A program was therefore initiated to investigate the nature of flooding in a cane diffuser.

3. Rein8 developed a correlation for predicting the maximum percolation rate attainable without flooding. THE NATURE OF PERCOLATION IN A CANE DIFFUSER Flooding in a packed bed Most work on flow through packed beds is in relation to either single phase fluid flow through packed beds (filters. no gas flow). and specific surface (or fineness) of prepared cane S : (1) The form of this correlation is based on the work of Lavin who considered single phase flooding as a special case of flooding in countercurrent gas-liquid flow (i. An alternative approach is to consider flooding as a special case of single phase flow through a packed bed. By drawing an analogy between viscous flow in packed beds and viscous flow in pipes. Appendix 1 details the modification of this equation for the . in a bagasse diffuser from the results of pilot plant experiments.e. catalyst beds. U. the well known Kozeny Carman Equation can be derived. as a function of bulk fibre density D. Work was concentrated in two areas : 1) Pilot plant plant experiments aimed at establishing the factors affecting maximum percolation rates and 2) Measurements of percolation behaviour in a full scale diffuser via tracer testing. fluidised beds) or countercurrent gas-liquid flow through packed beds (absorption or distillation columns).

The solution to this equation for the concentration of tracer in the liquid leaving a packed bed of length i when a pulse of . 1 Flow patterns in a pilot plant diffuser The residence time distribution of liquid flowing through a packed bed (as measured by tracer tests) has been successfully modelled by the axially dispersed plug flow model The differential equation describing tracer dispersion in an axially dispersed plug flow system is : where Ez is a dispersion coefficient in the direction of flow. based on the Kozeny Carman equation.4. : Nomenclature used is listed at the end ot the paper. This equation is not directly applicable to fibrous beds due to the presence of static liquid hold-up and. Insert Fig. Fig. For v is the percolation velocity which is dif- ferent from the percolation rate (superficial velocity) due to the reduced open area for flow in the bed. and higher values indicate a greater spread in residence times. 1 outlines the factors which affect flooding in a cane diffuser and the mechanism by which this takes place. plug flow liz = 0. trapped air . in the case of percolation. The voidage of a cane bed cannot thus be simply considered as the volume fraction of the bed unoccupied by fibre. case of flooding percolation rate through a packed bed viz.

is applied at the inlet to the bbd at time t = 0 is : The flow model used by Rein8 in work on a pilot plant bagasse diffuser was that of plug flow with exchange with stagnant regions. The differential equations describing tracer dispersion under these conditions are : .5.

that the value of these tests would be greatly enhanced if (1) a rapid method of performing tracer tests with continuous tracer monitoring could be devised and (2) a mathematical model could be derived to analyse the results.6. Fig. Flow patterns in a moving bed diffuser It has been shown that in a moving bed type diffuser extrac- tion may be increased by increasing the amount of juice recirculation. It was felt however. Juice recirculation must how- ever not be increased to the point where flooding occurs as this drastically reduces extraction. The axially dispersed plug flow model which was investigated in the pilot plant was extended to a model postulating both axial and lateral dispersion superimposed on plug flow. The increased juice recirculation gives higher flow rates through the bed increasing the liquid solid contact efficiency and thus allowing more of the sucrose to be extracted by washing and less by diffusion. The use of tracers is a well known method of determining flow patterns in process equipment and has already been used to investigate flow patterns in moving bed type diffusers. 2 represents the physical situation and the differential equation for this model in rectangular co-ordinates is : .

The direct cane analysis figures were utilised for the corresponding consignment. Juice flow to the pilot plant diffuser is controlled by a pneumatic valve operated from a manual loading station. The column is hung from a beam which is counterbalanced by the dial mechanism of a platform scale. To perform a test. This allows the mass of liquid held up in the column during operation to be measured. Insert Fig. 3. a constant head tank is provided.7.42 m high. . diagram of the pilot plant is given in Fig. 3 The sample of shredded cane is held in the column which is 0. The flow A juice distri- butor is provided at the top of the column to ensure even distribution of juice over the surface of the bed. a consignment of cane was selected and a sample of sliredded cane was taken from the cane sampling hatch.32 m in diameter and 2. Appendix 2 shows how the equation is solved and how the concentrations of tracer from the various diffuser trays are calculated. The temperature of juice in the storage tank is regulated by thermostatically controlled direct steam injection. To maintain a con- stant flow for any valve setting. is measured by an orifice plate and d/p cell. with excess juice overflowing back to the storage tank. The column is provided with A schematic plastic windows down one side so that percolation and thus the occurrence of flooding could be observed. EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS Pilot plant diffuser tests A pilot plant diffuser was constructed in which percolation rates could be measured under controlled conditions.

Conductivity probes (Beckman type 414) were placed in the discharge lines of three consecutive stage pumps. The mass of cane was recorded. The flow to the column was manually adjusted to give the maximum flow without flooding occurring on the surface of the bed. The conductivity of the juice leaving the bottom During of the column was recorded on a chart recorder for 20 mins. The probes were Samples were taken for particle size connected to conductivity transmitters (Bekcman Model SM 222) and recorders to give a permanent record of the tracer peaks appearing in each tray during a tracer test. Percolation was started and the bed allowed to compact as a result of the weight of the juice holdup in the bed and softening of the fibres with increased temperature. this flow rate was recorded as the maximum percolation rate. and the bed height was measured. 100 gms of NaCl was added as a 10% solution to the distributor at the top of the column. the juice leaving the column was run to drain to prevent any interference from recycled salt. The pilot plant diffuser column was filled with this cane to a level selected to give the desired bed height after compaction. This maximum flow When the bed had stabilised. this time. Tracer tests in full scale diffuser Some initial experiments showed that NaCl could be used for tracer experiments in a full scale diffuser with conductivity being used as the measurement technique for monitoring the tracer. Cane preparation was varied by altering the speed and/or clearances in the shredder. analysis. rate decreased with time as the bed compacted. To perform a tracer test on the pilot plant diffuser. .8.

the test. Approximately To start 70 kg of NaCl was dissolved in 180 litres of hot water. The bed height was measured at the windows at the side of the diffuser. . In tests at Amatikulu the feed rate of cane to the diffuser could be measured by a belt weigher. Although an analysis of the cane and measurement of tops and trash was undertaken.9. of variety NCo 376. the salt solution was added rapidly to the last of the three monitored juice trays (tray R in Fig. 2 ) . the measurable factors which were varied in a test program to develop correlations for use in optimising diffuser performance were bed height and level of cane preparation. to monitor the natural variations in background conductivity. Therefore all tests were undertaken on Apart from cane analy burnt cane consignments. Bed speed was recorded. The concentra- tion of tracer appearing in each of the three trays was thus automatically recorded. sis. these measurable factors do not characterise cane quality adequately. One of the factors which was anticipated to have a substantial effect was cane quality. PILOT PLANT DIFFUSER TESTS Due to the large number of factors which can affect percolation rates and the complexity of their effects. the conductivity meters and recorders were switched on about 15 minutes before salt addition. only some of them could be investigated quantitatively. To perform a test.

the column was filled to the same level. replicate test. Table 1 shows good agreement of packing density and percolation rate for the five duplicate tests performed. Initial tests were undertakeh to check reproducibility of the measurements.61 m in diameter was constructed for comparative tests using duplicate samples of the same prepared cane. Qualitative investigations. keeping the method of packing as consistent as possible.10. These tests do not include the effects of any error in the analysis of the cane as only one sample of cane was analysed for each set of duplicate tests. a column 0. Insert Table 1 . . To check whether there was an effect on either packing density or percolation rate. since the column diameter/ particle size ratio was well over the minimum value of 12 quoted by Gunn . Packing method Two variations in the method of packing the pilot plant column were compared with the normal method in duplicate tests. It was not anticipated that wall effects due to the size of the column would be significant. Sufficient cane was sampled from a single For the consignment of cane to allow a test to be duplicated. No evidence of any wall effect could be established A number of other effects were checked qualitatively to determine whether they have a significant effect on percolation rate. Compaction of the cane bed using high initial flows (approximately 3 to 4 times the percolation rate achieved after compaction of the bed) had no noticeable effect on the percolation rate achieved after compaction.

air. In a moving bed diffuser pith particles washed out of the bottom of the cane bed are re-deposited on the surface of the bed. Sucrapol was tested in the reThis was however not confirmed commended concentration range of 9 to 20 p. by the results of subsequent tests. and Sucrapol. water and steam were injected into the bottom of the bed through the perforated plate. whilst Teepol was tested to the level where foaming became excessive. No effect on percolation rate was measured.m. Initial tests on filling the column with water from the bottom before starting percolation (to remove all air from the bed) indicated that this resulted in an increased percolation rate after compaction of the bed. Agitation of bed In an attempt to reduce the bed density at the bottom of the bed and thereby increase percolation rate. Surface tension of juice Teepol. were tested for their ability to increase percolation rate by lowering surface tension of the juice (thus reducing the quantity of stagnant liquid and air in the b e d ) . a low foaming surface tension reducer. Bagacillo addition to surface of bed Bagacillo was added to the surface of the cane bed in the pilot plant diffuser to simulate conditions in the full scale diffuser.p.11. a detergent.8 kg/m 2 . the quantity of pith deposited on the surface of the bed (excluding that added with press water) was estimated to be 1. From measurements of pith content in stage juice in the Amatikulu diffuser. . Neither of these products had any effect on percolation rate when added to the percolating juice after the bed had compacted and the percolation rate stabilised.

Insert Table 2. The effect of lime CpH) on percolation rate cannot thus be explained by its effect on fibre packing density alone. In the tests were lime was added to the surface of the bed after the percolation rate had stabilised. that only the surface of the bed might be compacting.9 kg/m2 caused a reduction in percblation rate of 15%. (Table 3) it was added to the water. however. When lime was used in the duplicate tests. Table 2 gives the results of two tests where lime was added after the percolation rate had stabilised. whilst as can be seen from Table 3. It appeared. before starting percolation. pH of juice The effect of pH on percolation rate in the pilot plant was investigated both by adding lime after the bed had compacted and the percolation rate stabilised to check for any decrease in percolation rate. The cane bed thus compacted evenly without the surface of the bed experiencing high lime concentrations. and by doing duplicate tests at different pH's. the bed density was only 2% higher than in the duplicate without lime. resulting in a small region of high density on the surface of the bed. The addition of bagacillo to the pilot plant equivalent to 2. lime was added to the water before starting percolation. . This would cause the re- duction in percolation rate without a significant drop in the overall bed density. In this test where lime was used. The following results were obtained : Insert Table 3.12. as in the other tests. In duplicate tests performed on sub-samples of the same cane sample. the percolation rate was 33% lower. some compaction of the bed occurred.

is a more direct measure of cane preparation and is also more directly applicable to the percolation behaviour of the cane. . is difficult to quantify. Normally cane quality is measured in terms of tops and trash but since burnt cane of a single variety was used in the tests. 2) Cane preparation Although the level of preparation of cane is usually measured in terms of P. Measurement of cane quality and Cane preparation To develop numerical correlations for percolation rate it was necessary to quantify both cane quality and cane preparation. particularly in terms of its effect on percolation rate in a diffuser. 1) Cane quality Cane quality. they cannot be used directly for correlating with percolation rate.I. this applies to the extractability of the cane and not to its percolation behaviour.13. variance and skewness) and the specific surface of the shredded cane were calculated (See Appendix 3 ) . Since the results of the sieving analysis consist of five points on a cumulative size distribution curve. The percentage of fibre in the cane was found to correlate well with densities obtained in the cane bed. By numerically fitting a smooth curve to this cumulative size distribution.. measured by sieve analysis. Particle size distri- bution. Fibre % cane has thus been selected as an arbitrary measure of cane quality for these tests. the moments of the distribution (mean. tops and trash were found to be very low and did not vary much between samples.

14. Correlation of percolation testing results As previously described the equation has been used as a basis for correlating the results o± the percolation tests. .

15.1 % level.3. If it is assumed that bed density is inversely related to mean particle size. 4. despite the fact that these tests included a wide range of levels of cane preparation.58 and b = 4. Unfortunately the tests for which particle size analyses are available. the correlation was found to be significant at the 0. In linear correlations of bed density with measures of the particle size distributions. only have a small variation in bed height and the dependence of density on bed height must be correlated separately by including other results over a wider range of bed height. From a linear regression. which is significant at the 0. with a = 0. the dependence of bulk fibre density (D) on fibre in cane. bed height and level of preparation must be obtained.1 % level. solid line in Fig. with a finite maximum density for infinitely . the best correlations were obtained with the inverse of the mean particle size. This is shown as the To complete the correlation of percolation rate with the factors varied in the tests.

. the following relationship for density can be expected : where M is the mean particle size (mm). Insert Fig.16. Fig. small particle sizes.998. Tracer testing in the pilot plant diffuser To analyse these results. 5 Since a better fit was obtained with the axially dispersed plug flow model.5 21. a smooth curve was drawn through the conductivity trace on the recorder chart and data points read off this curve. These data points were used for performing computerised nonlinear regressions to fit the flow models to the experimental results. Insert Table 4. axially dispersed plug flow and plug flow with exchange with stagnant regions. this model was used in preference to the plug flow with exchange model. 5 shows the fit of the two flow models viz.2 with a correlation coefficient of 0. relative to the base-line conductivity. are given in Table 4. The results of tracer tests (determined by fitting the model to the experimental data).to a set of experimental data. Using the previously determined values of a and b in a non-linear regression on the results for which particle size analyses are available yields c g = = 26.

the volume fraction of the bed available to the flowing liquid. This is probably due to the decreased void spaces at higher bed densities although there Insert Fig. 7 . No correlation is evident between this estimate of bed voidage and either bed density or mean particle size.e. 6 For comparison with other work on dispersion in packed beds. Liquid holdup in bed The total liquid holdup in the bed during percolation expressed as mass of liquid per unit mass of fibre was found to decrease with increasing bed density (Fig. 7 ) . Fig. The ratio of percolation rate (U) to percolation velocity (V) is thus a measure of the voidage of the bed i. the results must be compared in terms of Pcclet and Reynolds numbers dispersion in a cane bed is far greater than that normally found in a granular bed. The percolation velocities determined from the tracer tests are larger than the percolation rates (superficial velocities) due to the reduction in flow area in the bed. However the average value of the voidage of 0.17. Insert Fig. The axial dispersion coefficient (E7) is a measure of the amount of mixing in the bed in the direction of fluid flow.70 is of interest because the positioning of sprays in a moving bed type diffuser depends on the percolation velocity and not the percolation rate. 6 shows how the dispersion coefficient increases with increasing percolation velocity.

The fit of the model to the experimental results is shown in Fig.26 m/min reported by Payne7 in Hawaii. 6 and 7 of the diffuser which contains 13 stages. The equations previously developed from the model of plug flow with dispersion (see Appendix 2) were fitted to these data points using a computerised non-linear regression technique. and data points read off this curve relative to the base line conductivity. FULL SCALE DIFFUSER TRACER TESTS A typical conductivity recording during a tracer test on the full scale diffuser at Amatikulu is shown in Fig. However the effects of bagacillo addition and lime addition are large enough to explain these differences. the percolation rates are still considerably lower than those obtained in the pilot plant. The tests were all performed on stages 5. The reason for this large discrepancy has not yet been adequately explained. might be some effect resulting from the lower percolation rates at higher bed densities. Insert Table 5.18. smooth curves were drawn through the conductivity trace on the recorder chart. . and lower than the value of 0. 8. Insert Fig. Although some of these tracer tests were undertaken when flooding was not occurring to any great extent. 9 The results obtained by fitting the model to the data from tracer tests on the Amatikulu diffuser are shown in Tabic 5. Insert Fig. 9.8 To analyse these results.

19. Since in the Tongaat diffuser. This can be explained by a more tortuous bed or a bed which is not uniform across its whole width. 10 The deviation from stagewise percolation is in all but one of the tests. This indicates that the diffusersprays have been advanced too far towards the head end of the diffuser in an attempt to reduce flooding. The axial dispersion coefficients calculated for these tests are significantly higher than those measured in the pilot plant diffuser. The results show an increase in dispersion with increasing percolation velocity which is greater than that found with the pilot plant results as shown in Fig. Because of the great width of the Amatikulu diffuser (11 m) . Since bed densities of comparable value have been obtained in the pilot plant and the diffuser on the same cane. Tracer tests were also performed on the Tongaat cane diffuser for comparison purposes. and this could well account for the increased spread in residence times which the higher dispersion coefficient implies. 5 and 6. 10 below. in the form of bypassing rather than recycle. it is difficult to ensure an even bed across this length. It is most likely that the direction of the horizontal percolation of the juice from the point where the juice is added will be towards the feed end of the diffuser since the bed on the discharge side of this point has just passed under the weir and should thus be saturated with juice. the former is unlikely. . Insert Fig. on stages 4. juice is added to the top of the bed from weirs (and not from sprays which effectively cover the whole surface of the bed) there must be some horizontal percolation of juice to compensate for the overloading of the bed directly below the weirs.

It was not possible to establish how the shredder should be operated to give the optimum type of preparation for diffusion. bed height and the fibre content of the cane has been produced.0 m of bed length from below the weir towards the feed end of the diffuser. The percolation velocities measured are on average similar to those measured at Amatikulu although significantly lower values have been measured at Amatikulu (See Table 5 ) A single sample of shredded cane from Tongaat was analysed for particle size by the same grading method used for all tests at Amatikulu. fibre density. The effect of this horizontal percolation was compensated for by assuming. The shredded cane was found to be coarser than any used in the pilot plant percolation tests. are not as good as those achieved when analysing the Amatikulu data. in the mathematical model used for analysing the results. that the juice is added over 2. Preparation has a further effect in that it affects bulk a correlation for density in terms of preparation. The fits of the model to the experimental data. From visual ob- servations.6 m. The results are tabulated below : Insert Table 6.20. which correlates percolation rates with degree of preparation and bulk fibre density. even with this empirical correction. CONCLUSIONS A correlation has been developed from the Kozcny Carman equation for flow through packed beds. the actual length of bed over which the juice is added from the weir is only about 0. Low bulk densities and coarse preparation lead to higher maximum percolation rates. Degree of cane preparation was varied by changing the shredder speed and the clearance between hammers and anvils. to achieve both a high degree of fineness and an open bed promoting high percolation .

21. This yields information on the Ratios of applied actual liquid velocities through the bed. Other factors which were investigated included the effects of method of packing the pilot plant column. Percolation velocities are on average significantly lower in the full scale diffusers than those measured in the pilot plant. . The variance and the skewness of the particle size dis- tribution did not appear to affdct bed density in a consistent way. Of interest is the large degree of flow bypassing necessary to reduce flow rates to a point where flooding is not a problem. In addition a greater degree of dispersion is present. Tracer tests have been undertaken in full scale diffusers. rates.70. none of which had a significant effect. In addition dispersion coefficients are These indicate that the degree of dis- persion occurring is very much larger than that found in beds of more conventional packing materials. but the pH of the percolating liquid does have a very significant effect. Use has been made of the dispersion model to analyse tracer tests in the pilot plant column. obtained from the model. surface tension and agitation of the bed. This investigation has provided significant insight into the flow processes. The dispersion model has been applied to these tests as well. The quantity of bagacillo deposited on the top surface of a diffuser should not have a substantial effect on the maximum percolation rate. liquid percolation rates to actual percolation velocities were found to average 0. and appears to adequately describe the flow process. which may be caused by unevenness in the diffuser bed. and the experimental techniques have been used to optimise diffuser spray positions.



Transport phenomena 2. M. 11.P. (1977). REFERENCES 1.C.J. Sci. Jager (1959).S. A study of the cane sugar diffusion process PhD thesis. Charpentier and J. Sci. Rein.E. (1968).1523- a diffuscr usinga mathematical model. Engr (London) 219 : 153. Lightfoot (1960). 780 p Carslaw U.P. P.M. 3. J. John Wiley New York. 24 : 1097. Thesis Polytechnic Inst. J.. Rein. of Natal 330 p. Chemical Reaction Engineering John Wiley New York. Van Swaaij (1969). ISSCT 16 : 2187 . (1974). Bird. 501 p 6.24. Van Swaaij. (1962). Stewart and E. Chem. Lavin. (1972). W. Chem. Villermaux. ISSCT 15 . Residence time distribution in the liquid phase of 'trickle flow in packed columns. G. and J.W.W.B. Conduction of heat in solids Oxford University Press Oxford. 0. Univ. Proc. Villermaux (1969). 9. Prediction of the extraction performance of Proc. 5. 1537.. Mixing in packed and fluidised beds Chem.S. Eng. W. Eng. Gunn.N. of Brooklyn Levenspiel. . D. R. 10.C. P.E. R. Ap- plication a l'ecoulement ruisselant dans des colonnes d'anneaux Raschig. and W.2197 8. 4. Matthesius. 24 : 1083. Modele representatif de la distribution des temps de sejour dans un reacteur semi-infini a dispersion axiale avec zones stagnantes.M. (1964). An investigation of juice flow behaviour in cane and bagasse diffusers.

. The Kozeny Carman equation The Kozeny Carman equation is giVen by : . 25. 25 * The specific surface of the bed is related to the specific surface of the particles by : Sb = SD Thus for constant liquid density and viscosity.APPENDIX 1 . .

across the full width of the bed. Solution of two dimensional dispersion V is the fluid velocity in the Z direction. The co-ordinates are fixed relative to this point of tracer addition as shown in Fig. The initial conditions for this equation are obtained by considering the conditions during a tracer test.26. At time t = 0. D and R relative to the cane bed are given by : . Under these conditions. 2. T. a pulse of tracer is added to the surface of the bed over a length of bed. APPENDIX 2. the solution to the differential equation is At any time t the position of the juice trays B.

estimates of the percolation velocity v and the dispersion coefficients Ey . 5T. 2 that to achieve stagewise percola- tion without recycle or bypassing.Vt y = A + 2L .5L .Vt to to to y = A + L .Vt y = A + L . Tray B Tray D Tray R from from from y = A .0.5T. the bed must have travelled a distance A + 1. .5T and for 100% bypassing the bed will have travelled A + 0.0.Vt The concentration of tracer leaving a tray at time t may be equated to the average concentration of tracer leaving the cane bed directly above the tray By fitting this equation to the results of the tracer tests.27.5L .Vt y = A + 2L .'.Vt y = A + 3L .5L . It can be seen from Fig. Ez can be obtained. . For 1001 recycle the bed will have travelled A + 2. the percentage of recycle or bypassing is given by : where +ve -ve value indicates recycle value indicates bypassing.0.

. The frequency distribution of particle sizes is thus given by The moments of the distribution may be calculated from : It can be shown that the specific surface of the shredded cane is given by : Since it is difficult to estimate the actual volume and surface shape factors. a relative value for specific surface may be obtained by arbitrarily setting A computer program is available to evaluate the moments and the specific surface when given the points on the cumulative size distribution curve from the grading analysis. APPENDIX 3 Particle size distribution calculations The results of a grading test are available as the mass fraction of particles less than five given sizes. It has been found that these results can be fitted by a curve of the form : y = exp (ax3 + bx2 + cx)-1 where y is the mass fraction of particles less than a given size x.28.

6. Effect of lime on percolation rate 4. Reproducibility test results Effect of lime addition on percolation rate 3. Results of tracer tests on Amatikulu diffuser. Results of pilot plant tracer tests 5. Results of tracer tests on Tongaat diffuser . 2.List of Tables 1.

6 72.75 0.84 1 .24 0.6 61.96 0.18 0.3 B 65.54 A 63.23 0.81 0.24 0.7 75.4 62.25 0.76 1 .18 0.75 1 .29 Table 1 : Reproducibility test results Bed height (m) Bed density (kg fibre/m3 ) Percolation rate (m/min) B A 0.18 0.71 1 .33 .85 0.33 B 0.6 A 0.1 75.9 75.54 0.18 0.8 75.4 69.

8 8.3 5.147 0.1 pH after lime addition 7.084 .248 Percolation rate after lime (m/min) 0. Table 2 : Effect of lime addition on percolation rate Initial pH 5.6 Percolation rate before lime (m/min) 0.30.335 0.

6 Percolation rate (m/min) 0.2 7.31 .134 .200 0. Table 3 : Effect of lime on percolation rate pH Without lime addition With lime addition 5.

47 5.47 1.7 68.15 0.9 87.85 14.74 0.25 (m/min) 0.43 14.20 15.50 1.21 0.015 0.13 4.018 0.36 58.45 1.70 1 .6 _ 63.0 82.31 0.36 1.045 0.29 0.29 0.031 0.38 0.0 78.22 0.037 0.45 0.8 Percola.52 1.42 5.70 0.5 80.66 0.024 0.041 0.24 0.40 0.63 0.34 (m2 /min) 0.22 - 5.39 14.3 5.9 63.037 0.4 14.86 12.21 0.39 1.70 12.23 0.71 0.52 1.79 6.68 0.coeffilocity cient (m/min) 0.17 45.58 1.19 0.7 Fibre in cane (%) 16.7 49.21 0.24 0.70 .72 0.76 17.029 0.7 0.6 49.1 79.71 0.44 Variance of particle size (mm ) 62.70 0.26 14.3 55.28 0.Percola.6 75.90 15.21 0.5 74.02 4.031 0.17 0.30 0.32 0.Table 4 : Results of pilot plant tracer tests Bed height Mean particle size (mm) 6.45 62.32 0.021 Ratio of percolation velocity to percolation rate (m) 1 .8 6 £.71 0.31 0.14 10.4 0.62 Packing density (kg fib/ m3 ) 83.53 1 .Dispersion tion rate tion ve.022 0.4 72.74 Mean 1.

16 0.12 0.6 89.1 84.70 0.60 Mean 1.70 350 364 373 400 366 468 0.70 0.2 72.65 0.62 0.7 1.6 1 .66 0.23 0.17 0.20 0.17 0.14 0.66 0.12 0.10 0.7 1.60 1.80 0.75 0.65 0.63 0.4 0.7 1 .20 0.13 0.10 0.19 -20 3 -33 -100 -48 .70 1 . Table 5 : Results of tracer tests on Amatikulu diffuser Bed height Bed speed (m/min) Cm) Cane throughput (tons/hr) Percolation Velocity (m/min) Recycle or bypass (%) * Bed density (kg/fib/ m3) Percolation rate (m/min) ^ 1 .9 78.33.5 -52 -85 -17 -52 -42 72.14 0.14 0.60 1 .63 0.13 ^ Assuming * 70% voidage -ve value indicates bypassing +ve value indicates recycling .9 77.21 0.14 0.55 1.10 0.70 1 .15 0.14 0.20 0.18 0.28 0.7 1 .7 66.

01 1 .34.18 Recycle * or bypassing -45 % -43 % -12 9 0 .25 1 .00 1 .22 0.25 1 .00 1 .20 1 . Table 6 : Results of tracer tests on Tongaat diffuser Bed height (m) 1 .03 Percolation velocity (m/min) 0.1% * -ve values indicate bypassing .22 0.18 0.25 Bed speed (m/min) 1 .

List of Figures Fig.46 m. . Bed height 1. Fig. 5. 6. Fig. Fit of models to experimental results of a tracer test on the pilot plant diffuser. Fig. 1. Fig. 7. 2. Fig. 3. Axial dispersion coefficients measured in a pilot plant cane diffuser. Schematic diagram of a moving bed cane diffuser.55 m. Dependence of percolation rate on specific surface and bulk density. Bed speed 0. percolation rate 0. 4.66 m/min. 10. Axial dispersion coefficients measured in full scale diffusers. Fig. Pilot plant diffuser. Solid line represents maximum liquid holdup based on a fibre density of 1520 kg/m3 Typical conductivity record for a tracer test on the Amatikulu diffuser. 9. Fig.206 m/min. The effect of bulk fibre density on total liquid holdup in a pilot plant cane diffuser. Mechanism of flooding in a cane diffuser. Fig. 8. Fit of model to results of a tracer test on the Amatikulu diffuser. Bed height 1. Fig.


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