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A. Background Of Study
National and international scale social ethics can not be separated
from the procedures for banquets or Table Manners. Table Manners are
rules that must be done when dining together at the dinner table. Studying
etiquette at the dinner table is not just knowing manners when eating or
using cutlery. Mastering table manner is also a form of self-image, even
professionalism. A good understanding of table manner even affects career
or business success.
The dining table is the most important place where your etiquette is
highlighted. Other people will recognize, see, and assess yourself from the
professionalism shown at the dinner table. This is why we need to learn table
Furthermore, we as students must understand and know how to
behave in several countries so that when we visit abroad we do not
experience culture shock because their eating habits are different from ours.

B. Problem Statement
1. What is the definition of Table Manner?
2. How about Table Manner in England?
3. How about Table Manner in Korea?
4. Why do we have to learn about Table Manner?

C. Purpose Of Paper
1. To find out the definition of Table Manner.
2. To find out about Table Manner ini England.
3. To find out about Table Manner in Korea.
4. To find out the importance learn about Table Manner.



Table Manner is a rule that must be done when asked together at the
dinner table. Table manner was introduced by the Europeans which is a standard
rule when meeting together at official events or joint meals in large families.
Although the extent of this Ethics existed before European civilization spread
throughout the world. If you are able to show courtesy at the dining table, it
actually does not directly show the quality of relationships, intellectuality and
ethics of one's association. Table manner suddenly arrived. The quality of table
manner must be done from the age of children and adolescents. With daily
habits by doing good eating ethics, it is a very good learning process. When
table manner governs instantly it will produce an ethical quality that is awkward
and inflexible. If anyone is invited, a famous restaurant or an official dinner
with a dining table that has been approved beforehand must be approved by the
rules of good food. Every country has different rules that are different for
Indonesian society, specifically in the professional, the most widely adopted
table is from American standards. Although of course it remains with the habits
of the Indonesians themselves.1


There are some things that must be known in a table manner in the
England, including:
1. The first thing to know about eating habits in England is the first taste must
be done by the host. Unless there is an order from the host to let us taste it
2. Furthermore, Unique in England. The addition of pepper or salt at the time
of eating is strictly prohibited. This is considered insulting to the chef or
the host because it is considered unable to prepare food perfectly. So when

Lugina Khaerunnisa. “Table Manner” (
accessed on March, 9th 2019 Time 2.20 PM

we are invited to eat, do not occasionally add or ask for more salt in the
prepared food.
3. The meal will begin with prayer. Then followed by saying thank you to the
owner of the meal. Furthermore, when eating together, make sure everyone
has sat down and got the dish in front of them, after that we can eat the
dish. Suppose someone has not obtained food in front of him, wait a

How to Eat in England

1. If there are many knives or forks on the table when you start eating, you
must use the knife or fork that is the farthest away from your plate.3

2. The left hand is used to hold the fork. While the right hand is used to hold
the knife. Knives are used to cut food or help direct food to a fork.4

inLine “Tata Cara Makan, Table Manner di Inggris” (
manner-ala-inggris.html) accessed on March, 9th 2019 time 2.35 PM
Table manner in England (
english-75417.php) accessed on March, 9th time 2.40 PM
inLine “Tata Cara Makan, Table Manner di Inggris” (
manner-ala-inggris.html) accessed on March, 9th 2019 time 2.35 PM

3. Even though in the England the polite eating procedure is to use a spoon,
fork, or knife, but specifically to eat asparagus English people usually
eat it by hand. They will usually cut the base of the asparagus by hand
and not eat it because the texture is hard. The uneaten portion will be
left on the plate until the eating procession is finished. This way of eating
shows good ethics.5

4. If the food is soup, the spoon is used in the right hand. Then the spoon
is used to take the soup from the bowl. When taking soup, don't take it
in the soup. Put the spoon into the bowl, then lift it towards the edge of
the bowl. And immediately lifted vertically.

5. Do not put the soup spoon into the mouth. But stick the spoon edge on
the lips and breathe in the soup. Likewise with the knife, don't let the
knife go into the mouth especially until you lick the remaining sauce or
food on the knife.

Teen, “5 Negara Ini Punya Table Manner Yang Unik! Negara Apa Saja?”
accesesed on March, 9th 2019 time 3.20 PM

6. When bread is served and must be eaten with butter. In taking butter
from a butter container, use a bread knife. Don't use a knife to take butter
to rub on the bread. Because it could be left with bread crumbs left on
the knife.
7. When eating, do not talk when there is food in your mouth. Every food
must be chewed with the mouth closed. Don't lick leftovers in your hand.
One more meal at normal speed. Don't be too hasty, or don't eat slowly.
8. If you have finished eating, the knife and fork are placed on the plate
together. The fork is placed on your left. This indicates that you have
finished. Uniquely, the fork is placed facing up. Use the napkin
provided, put the napkin back to its original place after using it. When
you want to leave the dining table, ask permission from the owner.6

Table Manner is a rule of etiquette used when eating, and includes the proper

use of tableware. There are several table manner rules that must be studied.
What to do in a table manner in England:
1. Sit properly (and straight) in your chair
2. Talk about pleasant things
3. Place your napkin on your lap
4. Wait until everyone is seated before starting to eat
5. Ask someone to pass the food, rather than reach across the table
6. Chew with your mouth closed

inLine “Tata Cara Makan, Table Manner di Inggris” (
manner-ala-inggris.html) accessed on March, 9th 2019 time 2.35 PM

7. Don't talk with your mouth full
8. Use a knife and fork to cut your meat
9. Say "excuse me" or "I'm sorry" if you burp
10. Say "no thank you" if you don't want a certain dish or are full
11. Say "may I please be excused" before leaving the table

That should not be done in a table manner in England:

1. Don't talk about gross things
2. Don't ask for seconds before others have had firsts
3. Don't take more than your fair share
4. Don't overload your fork or plate
5. Don't gobble your food
6. Don't chew with your mouth open
7. Don't talk with your mouth full
8. Don't play at the table
9. Don't hum or sing at the table
10. Don't tip your chair or lean on the table
11. Don't eat with or lick your fingers
12. Don't push your plate away when you're finished7

For formal events there will usually be three menus served.

1. Appetizer
Before the appetizer is served, usually bread is served first on the
table. Appetizers generally consist of two types, namely the hot appetizer
and cold appetizer. The hot appetizer that is served is usually soup, while
the cold appetizer can be a salad. The characteristics of a food can belong
to the type of appetizer which is relatively mild and appetizing, and can
stimulate appetite.

2. Main dishes

Manners, ( accessed on march, 9th 2019 time 3.40 PM

The main dishes are mainly meat / seafood dishes. Main dishes can
be eaten in two ways, namely the American and European ways. When
using the American method, the meat is usually cut first before being
eaten. Meanwhile, when using the European method, the meat is usually
cut using a knife in the right hand and immediately eaten with a fork in
the left hand.
3. Dessert
After eating the main course, it's time to eat dessert. Dessert is
generally in the form of cakes, pudding or some kind of cold drink such
as cocktails, ice cream or juice

Rules for Putting Tableware on a Formal Banquet8


Jessica, “tata cara dalam etika makan (table manner)”
accessed on march, 9th 2019 time 3.50 PM

Manners are very important for Koreans and there are many traditional
emphases from ancestors on various foods and drinks.
Although some of the older traditions have been made rather relaxed in
recent years.
This is a little procedure for eating in Korea, including some old etiquette that
is still used today.
1. Wait to sit down
Wait for the oldest person / more senior person to sit first before you take
a chair at the table.
2. Before you start
Before you eat, especially in someone's house, it is polite to say that you
are very happy to eat at their place. In Korean, they usually say
Jalmukesumneda (I am very glad to eat).
3. Early eating
Wait for the oldest person / more senior person to lift their spoon or
chopsticks before you start eating.
4. During meals
Don’t scratching noise on the table.
5. Don't rush or linger
Try to eat at the same speed as other people, especially the elders.
6. Soup and rice bowl
During meals, do not / never hold a bowl of soup or rice (as you might do
in other Asian countries such as China or Japan).
7. Take many times
Korean food has many communal sides to the cuisine, so it is not polite to
stir a bowl and touch many other foods when you take food for yourself.
8. Refill your glass, Always pour drinks for other people first, especially for
those who are senior to you.9
9. Offer alcohol

RSS, “Table Manners in Korea” (
manners-di-korea/) acceesed on March, 9th 2019 Time 2.33 PM

It is not considered polite to refuse alcoholic beverages offered to you,
especially from elders.
10. Receive dishes or drinks
When someone more senior pours drinks for you, hold your cup with both
hands to accept (this also applies to someone who wants to take a side dish
or something else at the table).
11. Pouring drinks
When you pour a drink for someone who is senior to you, place your other
hand under the pouring hand or under your elbow.
12. Placement of equipment on the table
Don't stick / put your chopsticks directly into your bowl, like following a
traditional Korean ancestral ceremony, when you're done, return the
tableware (chopsticks or spoons) on the table.
13. Don't waste food
Don't take a lot of food that you can't spend, because this behavior is
considered wasteful, so you are considered polite when you consume all
the food you take.
14. Respect the host
If someone has invited you to his house or invited to eat outside, there is a
custom to say thank you after eating. In Korean, people say
masegaemugusuyo (I ate well).10

Procedures for processing food in cultural life in Korea.

In people's lives in Korea there are some ethics or manners that need to be
considered compilation
1. The oldest must first be lifted and chopsticks, then if it has started new
meals taken by others.
2. Not making a sound compilation of meals.
3. A bowl of rice and vegetables must be placed on the table, no compilation
of rice bowls should be removed.
4. Do not eat while standing.


5. You may not put side dishes that have been put into your mouth.
6. Spiny or repeated food is carried out by compilation with spines or bones
that are not shown to others, and are attempted to be disposed of in trying
other tissues or bowls.

In addition, there are some exercises that are considered NOT PROPERTIES
if a meal compilation is done:11
1. Exhale from the nose to the table.
2. Prior to eating before people participate.
3. Establish chopsticks or spoons to the top, because they symbolize incense
that was burned at the ceremony of death.
4. Plug food with chopsticks and take food by hand (there are foods that can
be taken with your fingers, but panchan is not permitted).
5. Use chopsticks and spoons at the same time (only with one hand).
6. Using chopsticks or spoons with your left hand, making noise when
chewing food or releasing it with cutlery.
7. Stirring rice or soup with sauce / chopsticks.
8. Stirring side dishes with spoons / chopsticks.
9. Finish eating too fast or too slow.
10. Drink a drink facing an elderly person (this person is very disrespectful,
the person must rotate the position towards another person / next to him).
11. Receive a drink from a parent and receive with both hands, the left hand
is taken on the chest and the hand holds the drink.
12. In informal situations, this regulation is less important.
13. In family meals, children are taught by parents about traditional eating
methods and etiquette.12

Makanan Korea, “Etika makan orang Korea” (http://resep-makanan- ) accessed on March, 10th 2019 Time
2.23 PM

1. Tteokbokki

This one food is often eaten as a snack because it is generally sold on

the roadside. But at a restaurant, you can order tteokbokki as an appetizer
menu. In addition to rice cakes, generally tteokbokki in the restaurant is also
equipped with fish cake, eggs, sausages, and various other side dishes so it
is more filling.
2. Mandu

This one dish is indeed similar to gyoza in Japanese cuisine. Even

though the shape is slightly different, the portion of the contents is made of
minced meat mixed with mushrooms, onions, and leeks then steamed.
Because it is usually served in large quantities, perfect for enjoying with a
large family.13

beauty nessia, “5 Meu Makanan Korea Khas yang Jadi Makanan Pembuka
( accessed on March, 11th 2019 Time 2.10 PM.

1. Hot and watery foods are placed on the right side and cold and dry foods
are placed on the left side.
2. The rice bowl is on the left, and soup bowl is on the right, with other bowls
placed in the middle.
3. The spoon is on the right side and chop sticks are behind the spoon and
placed a little towards the outside of the table.
4. Place kimchi dishes in the back row, stew dishes on the right, sauces in
the middle of the front row, meat dishes on the right side, and vegetables
on the left side.14


1. Do not hold the spoon and chopsticks together in one hand.
2. Do not suck the chopsticks and do not hold spoon and chopsticks at the
same time.
3. When using chopsticks, place the spoon on the table.
4. The spoon and chopsticks should not rest on any bowl or dish during the
Use spoon for rice and watery foods and chopsticks for other side dishes.

1. Right way to use spoon


Life in Korea, “Korean Table Manners (
accessed on March, 10th 2019 Time 3.45 PM

2. How to use chopstics:
a. Place one chopstick inside of thumb and reach to 4th finger.
b. Place the other chopstick between the index finger and middle finger
and hold by pressing with your thumb.
c. Freely move chopsticks by pressing thumb and only using your index
and middle fingers.15


An identical table manner with ethics at the dining table. Being calm,
polite and clean at the dining table indicates you are a caring person. Table
manner is generally held as an official western style dinner. So table manner is
not related to eastern culture. But there is nothing wrong for you to try to
understand the ethics at the dinner table. Because maybe someday you will get
an invitation for an official dinner.
The table manner itself has different rules between countries. But there
is an ethic of eating at a common dining table to use as a standard, among
others, as follows:
1. Sit straight and do not lean on the chair. When you want to sit you can take
sarbet in front of you and place it on your lap. If the needle is large it can
be folded into two parts.
2. If you use a bag, then place the bag beside the right side of your chair.
3. While waiting for the dinner to be brought by the waiters, do not place your
hands on the dining table. And occasionally don't talk excessively.
4. Don't forget to always say thank you and words please when you want to
ask your friends for help.
5. After the food comes usually the meal consists of three stages, namely
appetizer, main course and dessert. In the use of eating utensils, use from
the outside inward. During meals you should avoid the sounds.


Those are some standard rules that are generally done at the dining
table. By knowing the standard rules, you will find it easier to get benefits
from table manner. The following is a review of manfat from table manner:16
1. Make it easy to adjust
Rules in a table manner in accordance with western culture are
contrary to eastern cultures such as Indonesia. If in Indonesia alone when
eating using hands but in western culture eat using spoons, forks and
knives. For the type of food itself also varies. But by understanding calm
western culture the procedure for eating at the dining table makes it easy
for you to adjust yourself. Where possible at other times there is the
opportunity to attend invitations with western themes. Usually this banquet
is held by elite circles. At the present time table manner itself is not only
western culture that uses it. Some people with eastern culture also often
signify a banquet with this western theme because it seems more polite at
the dinner table.
2. Increase self-confidence
The next benefit of the table manner itself is increasing self-
confidence. By knowing the general description of how to eat at the dinner
table, you no longer need to feel clumsy and funny when a dinner will start.
This is important because clumsiness and guile can arise because you are
not familiar with how to eat like that. And the worst thing is that you can
become even more awkward if at the dinner event you are only alone who
looks less clever in understanding table manner. So there is no harm in
learning this table manner because the benefits are very much in everyday
3. Get to know western culture
The rules in table manner are from western culture. Westerners prefer
to eat using utensils rather than using hands. Whereas eastern cultures prefer
to use hands when eating. Various countries have their own culture. This

Desy ana putri, “4 Manfaat Table Manner yang Dimiliki (
manner) accessed on March, 10th 2019 Time 4.30 PM

complex cultural diversity is not a problem if you want to learn it so that
knowledge and insight become more numerous.
4. Teach manners
Table manner the next benefit is to teach manners. With the existence
of general rule standards in table manner can be a reference to teach
manners. Wherever courtesy must be carried out because many people are
very captivated by manners and language.17



Manner table is a learning method that can understand the rules of etiquette
at the dining table and is also part of everyone's standard and important
knowledge. From the above learning the authors can conclude that the need to
know table manner in several countries. And each country has rules regarding
each table manner, table manner is important so that we are not underestimated
in a formal meal, and do not make us embarrassed if we really experience it all.

Critical and suggestion are always expected to increase the quality of this
paper. The authors hope this paper will help the reader to enhance the readers`
knowledge. Furthermore, the writers realize that this paper is not perfect
enough. The writers are always expected any kind of suggestion and critical that
the writers hope can make this paper be better. The readers need to read another
book about “Table Manner” to get the good result in learning Table Manner.
The authors hope this paper will help the readers to understand Table Manner
as one of the course in english.


Lugina Khaerunnisa.“Table Manner ” (

_manner) accessed on March, 9th 2019 Time 2.20 PM
RSS, “Table Manners in Korea” (
/11/29/table-manners-di-korea/) acceesed on March, 9th 2019 Time 02.33
Makanan Korea, “Etika makan orang Korea” (http://resep-makanan- ) accessed on
March, 10th 2019 Time 2.23 PM
beauty nessia, “5 Meu Makanan Korea Khas yang Jadi Makanan Pembuka
( accessed on March, 11th 2019 Time 2.10 PM
Life in Korea, “Korean Table Manners (
manners.cfm) accessed on March, 10th 2019 Time 3.45 PM
Desy ana putri, “4 Manfaat Table Manner yang Dimiliki
( accessed on March, 10th 2019
Time 4.30 PM
inLine “Tata Cara Makan, Table Manner di Inggris”
accessed on March, 9th 2019 time 2.35 PM
Table manner in England (
english-2/exercise-english-75417.php) accessed on March, 9th time 2.40
Teen, “5 Negara Ini Punya Table Manner Yang Unik! Negara Apa Saja?”
unik-negara-apa-saja) accesesed on March, 9th 2019 time 3.20 PM
Manners, ( accessed on march, 9th 2019
time 3.40 PM
Jessica, “tata cara dalam etika makan (table manner)”
makan-table- manner/) accessed on march, 9th 2019 time 3.50 PM