Priority Academic Student Skills

LANGUAGE ARTS OVERVIEW English language arts education incorporates the teaching and learning of reading, writing, speaking, listening, and viewing. Integration of language arts occurs in multiple ways. First, curriculum, instruction, and assessment reflect the integration of listening, speaking, viewing, reading, and writing. The language arts are not perceived as individual content areas, but as one unified subject in which each of the five areas supports the others and enhances thinking and learning. Secondly, there is integration of the teaching and learning of content and process within the curriculum. The common human experiences and the ideas, conflicts, and themes embodied in literature and all oral, written, and visual texts provide a context for the teaching of the processes, skills, and strategies of listening, speaking, viewing, reading, and writing. Finally, literacy educators believe the knowledge, skills, and strategies of language arts are integrated throughout the curriculum, enabling students to solve problems and think critically and creatively in all subject areas. Language arts is the vehicle of communication by which we live, work, share, and build ideas and understandings of the present, reflect on the past, and imagine the future. Through language arts, we learn to appreciate, integrate, and apply what is learned for real purposes in our homes, schools, communities, and workplaces. An effective language arts program should encompass process and content—how people communicate as well as what they communicate. Process includes skills and strategies used in listening, speaking, reading, writing, and viewing. Content includes the ideas, themes, issues, problems, and conflicts found in classical and contemporary literature and other texts, such as technical manuals, periodicals, speeches, and videos. Ideas, experiences, and cultural perspectives we discover in texts help us shape our visions of the world. The insight we gain enables us to understand our cultural, linguistic, and literary heritages. In Grades K-12, a locally developed language arts curriculum, embodying these content standards, will ensure all students are literate and can engage successfully in reading, discovering, creating, and analyzing spoken, written, electronic, and visual texts which reflect multiple perspectives and diverse communities and make connections within language arts and between language arts and other fields. READING/LITERATURE The revised reading standards in the Priority Academic Student Skills (PASS) reflect scientifically-based reading research and are organized in the following related strands: Print Awareness Phonological/Phonemic Awareness Phonics/Decoding Vocabulary Fluency Comprehension/Critical Literacy The National Reading Panel has revealed that the most reliably effective approach is systematic and explicit instruction. Skills are taught in a logical sequence and teachers clearly state what is being taught. These reading skills are interrelated and need to be developed in the context of a core curriculum that applies effective reading strategies to achieve success in all academic areas.

Oklahoma State Department of Education


Grade 2

Priority Academic Student Skills
PRINT AWARENESS - is the ability to understand how print works. This includes knowing that the print on the page represents the words that can be read aloud and distinguishing between various forms and purposes of print, from personal letters and signs to storybooks and essays. PHONOLOGICAL/PHONEMIC AWARENESS - is an oral prerequisite to phonics and one of the best predictors of later reading success. It is the understanding that words and syllables can be broken down into smaller units or phonemes. Research indicates that poor phonemic awareness is a major underlying cause of reading difficulty. A student’s progress should be monitored throughout the kindergarten year by administering informal phonemic awareness assessments. PHONICS/DECODING - instruction provides students with a consistent strategy to apply soundsymbol relationships to assist in the identification of unfamiliar words. The goal of teaching children phonics is to teach children to decode unfamiliar words easily and automatically as they read. Children must be encouraged to use this strategy on their own. VOCABULARY - knowledge is essential to reading because a reader's understanding comes chiefly from his or her vocabulary base. Vocabulary development can be achieved through reading, direct instruction, and student-centered activities. A balanced vocabulary program contains all three of these strategies. READING FLUENCY - research refers to two stages of reading development. The first is the “decoding stage” where the student learns how to change printed symbols into sounds. During the next stage called the “fluency stage,” the student continues to work on decoding skills to the point where the child becomes “unglued” from the print. Word recognition becomes easy, and fluent reading is characterized by a lack of trouble with word identification. Easy word recognition frees a student’s attention to comprehend the text. Achieving speed and accuracy in recognizing words is reading fluency. COMPREHENSION/CRITICAL LITERACY - is understanding the meaning or point of the text; it is the essence of reading. Comprehension is a complex process. As readers mature they become more strategic in their process to construct meaning from text. Comprehension involves understanding what is read, what is meant, and what is implied. Students read for a variety of purposes, to locate information, to be informed, entertained, persuaded, and so on. Students use a wide range of strategies to help them meet their purpose. These strategies include making predictions, activating prior knowledge, skimming text for literal information, drawing inferences and conclusions, interpreting meaning, summarizing information, analyzing and evaluating text, monitoring reading, and using correction strategies. Reading requires the coordination of cues as sources of information: sound/symbol relationships, syntax, semantics, and context. When reading, readers use three cueing systems. They derive semantic cues from the text’s meaning, syntactic cues from the text’s grammatical structure, and graphophonic cues from sound-letter relationships and patterns. Cueing systems are important and are constantly in motion to enable readers to construct meaning. They help readers answer questions such as: Does this make sense? Does this sound right? Does this look right? Readers use a variety of strategies to ensure comprehension. They predict what they think the text is about to convey and confirm their prediction by checking to see if meaning is maintained. Readers monitor understanding and take action when meaning breaks down by choosing to self-correct or continue to read ahead only to return later to reconstruct meaning from previously read text.

Oklahoma State Department of Education


Grade 2

Priority Academic Student Skills
As a result of the work of State Superintendent Sandy Garrett's Reader Leader initiative and the work of the Phonics Task force, Oklahoma's core curriculum in reading has been revised to add more detail to reading instruction requirements for Grades 1-3. Local districts will select assessments, materials, and instructional strategies and activities to meet each student's individual reading needs. Districts should also provide current, research-based reading training for all Grade 1-3 teachers. Research supports ensuring that all student's have a minimum of ninety minutes of uninterrupted language arts instruction. In addition, students should have other opportunities to self-select reading material and read independently every day. LITERATURE Literature is the heart of the English language arts and the touchstone for all language learning. It represents the unique human gift of composing and communicating ideas through language. All students should read a rich variety of fiction, poetry, drama, and nonfiction from different time periods and cultures, relating them to human aspirations and life experiences. All students should engage in study of the British, American, and world literary traditions that define our common culture. An effective English language arts program teaches students to respond to a rich variety of literature with increasing sophistication and to communicate their interpretation of what they have read, heard, and seen through various means of expression. Literature should reflect the diversity of our nation and the world, as well as the interest and abilities within each classroom. It is important to remember that no single author or piece of literature can represent an entire culture; no one situation represents all situations of a given culture. Therefore, relying solely on textbooks is limiting to both teachers and students. Many types of literature and instructional materials should be used to enable individual students to meet high standards and expectations. In a comprehensive literature curriculum, students learn that there are many approaches to the interpretation of literature and that no one approach is “privileged.” Throughout their academic experiences, students should have opportunities to test out different theories of literary criticism and learn that a text and its influence can be viewed from more than one perspective. RESEARCH AND INFORMATION Developing research skills are important to be able to gather, organize, and interpret information. Students should be able to locate appropriate print and nonprint information using text and technical information. WRITING Writing, as defined by the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE), is “the process of selecting, combining, arranging, and developing ideas in effective sentences, paragraphs, and often, longer units of discourse.” Writing requires coping with a number of variables: mode, tone, form, purpose, and audience. Mode (method of development) includes narrative, descriptive, argumentative, and expository writing. Tone (the voice of the writer) may range from very personal to quite formal. Form (the shape of the work) may include essays, poetry, letters, and research papers. Purpose (the reason for writing) indicates the writer’s intention to discover and express personal feelings and values, to conduct the business of everyday life, to acquire, retain, and communicate information, and to describe, entertain, and persuade. Audience (the intended public) consists of oneself, peers, colleagues, teachers, relatives, and others. During the process, writers must select from and combine these variables as appropriate to the writing tasks.

Oklahoma State Department of Education

Grade 2 the process that helps the writer get ready to write. describe processes.the student’s work is essential to the composing process. delete. the topic is generated and purpose. PREWRITING . PUBLISHING . Publishing is an important motivator in working through the stages of the composing process.” REVISING . writing becomes thinking made refining of content. or a learning log. Thus. cubing. free putting ideas down on paper with a focus on content. drafting. and sentence structure so that errors in conventions do not interfere with a reader’s ability to understand the message. Since revising can be internal and unobservable. capitalization. express emerging understandings. Because writing is recursive. but the writer may revert to an activity characteristic of an earlier stage. DRAFTING . Activities may include class discussion. It is best achieved in an interactive setting with the teacher or a group of peers. not mechanics. Students gather ideas and organize them. thinking. spelling. drawing. Instruction should encourage whole pieces of writing for real purposes and real audiences (and should include all stages of the writing process). revising skills can be taught by modeling the questions asked by critical readers. Without some type of publication. observing.” While writing to learn. students discover connections. the stages may not occur in a linear sequence. EDITING . However. revising. modeling. It is conceivable that the prewriting stage will take more time than any other stage in the process. Writers should think again about the choices made for content and add. This process is “a valuable tool for learning for all students in all subject areas at all ages. and begins with notes or ideas generated during prewriting. THE WRITING PROCESS WRITING . students learn content in science or social studies through keeping a response or process the stage in which the writing is made suitable for publication. and brainstorming. writing center. Publication provides an opportunity for the writer’s product to be shared with and/or evaluated by the intended audience or reader in general. Oklahoma State Department of Education 4 Grade 2 . Revision (“to see again”) begins during the prewriting activity and continues through the final draft. The teacher’s role is to encourage students to “get it down. An authentic audience. Students are to locate and correct errors in punctuation.should be taught as a natural and integral part of the curriculum. predicting. audience. During this stage. Peer editing in writing groups helps teach and reinforce proofreading skills. writer’s notebook. raise questions. each student should be encouraged to develop some pieces of writing thoroughly enough to be published. and find answers. or on a computer disk. and publishing. The purpose of publishing is to reinforce the idea that writing is an act of communication. usage. is necessary for effective writing. The stages of the writing process include prewriting. word banks. Students are also encouraged to explore a topic without grammatical inhibitions or over concern about spelling or punctuation. or rearrange the material.Priority Academic Student Skills Writing is also a means of learning. The first draft may be kept in a journal. editing. Writers critically read their own writing and become their own reader. one with whom the students want to communicate. For example. Positive reinforcement is more effective than corrective comments to improve the quality of writing. students may forget or never realize that their writing is meaningful communication. and form are clarified. It is important to note that not every piece that a writer begins will be carried through the entire writing process and polished for publication. remembering. clustering/webbing. student notebooks.

writing. and corporate managers spend about 60 percent of their time in communicating orally in meetings or on the telephone. It gives students an opportunity to develop personal voice and style upon which they can reflect. Fortunately. Children who have experienced positive feedback to their efforts to use language. even with sophisticated electronic communication devices. People in the workplace devote one-third of all working time carrying on face-to-face talk. It is important to understand that temporary spelling is not in conflict with correct spelling. the primary means of acquiring and transmitting information. Although the “school” emphasis on reading and writing may create the impression that oral language skills are not as important. HANDWRITING/PENMANSHIP Young children need an awareness of print to communicate effectively. as well as. Writing should reinforce the fact that language has meaning. Through writing. size and proportion of letters. are better prepared to use oral language as a foundation for their reading and writing development. reading leads to mastery in writing. Combined instruction leads to improvement in both reading and writing. oral language is still the main way of passing culture from one generation to another. First grade children should be expected to correctly spell previously studied words and spelling patterns. However. not all children come to school with equal opportunities to develop language skills. and have had opportunities to hear language used in a variety of social contexts. how to express thoughts in the written word. Oklahoma State Department of Education 5 Grade 2 . ORAL LANGUAGE/LISTENING/SPEAKING There is clearly a need for schools to spend more time teaching speaking and listening. and reading are interrelated and coherent. therefore can recognize them. Temporary spelling of common spelling patterns should progress toward more conventional spelling by the end of second grade with the students mastering the conventional spelling of increasing numbers of words. Phonetic spelling develops and reinforces knowledge of phonics.Priority Academic Student Skills SPELLING Spelling. Oral language is now. and uniform steadiness and thickness of line. When children use temporary spelling. Moreover. Writing leads to mastery in reading. Elements of legible handwriting include letter formation. Handwriting/ penmanship is that method for forming letters that comprise a writing system. Research indicates that as children use temporary or phonetic spelling. Students must be aware of the importance of legibility to facilitate communication of the intended message. More than 75 percent of all communication is devoted to the oral communication process. almost two-thirds of young people have difficulty explaining how to get to a local grocery store in directions that can be understood. extensive reading and writing help students become good spellers. and. spacing. students begin to learn oral language skills naturally. children form a muscular and visual memory of the letters and words. Spelling instruction should help students understand how words are put together (word patterns). Even with this demonstrated need for effective oral communication. Therefore. They listen to the sounds of adults and other children and internalize language patterns quite early in order to communicate orally themselves. this is not the case. they are practicing their growing knowledge of phonemes. slant. and is even more likely to be in the future. alignment of letters on the baseline.

models. all children can improve their oral language ability with instruction and guidance. signs. both in comprehending and composing. cartoons. learners will need to become engaged in a variety of viewing experiences. and compose visual messages. It is essential that oral language instruction begin in kindergarten and continue throughout school. NOTE: Asterisks (*) have been used to identify standards and objectives that must be assessed by the local school district. creative movement. advertisements. Viewing is an ongoing lifetime activity that extends knowledge and experiences and provides enjoyment and pleasure. paintings. evaluate. All other skills may be assessed by the Oklahoma School Testing Program (OSTP). logos. charts. posters. carvings. Therefore. diagrams. compose visual language statements. Students are best served when these are taught in collaboration and cooperation between the classroom teacher and the library media specialist. graphic aids in oral presentations. Students learn attitudes. filmstrips. transparencies. Visual literacy is essential for survival as consumers and citizens in our technologically intensive world. Oklahoma State Department of Education 6 Grade 2 . Book icons ( ) identify Information Literacy skills. pictures. The media for visual communication may include: field trips. Visually literate persons are able to read visual messages.Priority Academic Student Skills Since some children have limited opportunities for oral language in their home environments and since oral language development continues through at least age twelve. behaviors. television. It is an important goal of education for learners to be able to critique and use the dominant media of today. and questions to ask which enable them to think abstractly and analytically. newspapers. picture books. photographs. dances. and computers. maps. videotapes. memos. labels. VISUAL LITERACY Visual literacy (both viewing and representing) refers to the ability to comprehend. graphic displays. plays. and translate from visual to verbal and vice versa.

wh. ou. Structural Analysis a. and r-controlled vowel sounds.and two-syllable words. Book icons ( ) identify Information Literacy skills. Phonics/Decoding – The student will apply sound-symbol relationships to decode unknown words. rimes. and final positions. “ir” in bird. contractions. a. Standard 1: Phonological/Phonemic Awareness – The student will demonstrate the ability to hear. Example: blends – cr. thr Example: digraphs – ch. sh. rhyming words. Example: salad = /s/ /a/ /l/ /a/ /d/. Demonstrate an awareness of the sounds that are made by different letters by distinguishing beginning. evaluate. Use consonant sounds in beginning. middle. Oklahoma State Department of Education 7 Grade 2 . ow 2. st. digraphs.Priority Academic Student Skills Language Arts Grade 2 Reading/Literature: The student will apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend. and base words using prefixes and suffixes. Students are best served when these are taught in collaboration and cooperation between the classroom teacher and the library media specialist. appreciate. identify. interpret. sk. and individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words. /s/ /a/ /l/ /a/ /d/ = salad b. “ur” in turn. sw. b. th. happy is the baseword of unhappy NOTE: Asterisks (*) have been used to identify standards and objectives that must be assessed by the local school district. Substitute a phoneme change to a word. and manipulate words. change the /p/ to /m/ = slam Standard 2: 1. 1. long. ph Example: diphthongs – oi. oy. syllables. Build and understand compound words. Segment and blend the phonemes of one. Example: short – CVC pattern – rob Example: long – VC final e – robe Example: r-controlled – “er” in her. and clearly pronouncing blends and vowel sounds. Use short. and diphthongs. Example: compound words – straw + berry = strawberry Example: contractions – I am = I’m Example: prefixes – un + happy = unhappy Example: suffixes – care + ful = careful Example: care is the base word of careful. onsets. Phonetic Analysis a. medial. “ar” in car and “or” in port c. and ending sounds in words. and respond to a wide variety of texts. All other skills may be assessed by the Oklahoma School Testing Program (OSTP). squ. Example: slap. Use blends.

3. synonyms (words with the same meanings). Accurately and fluently read 200-300 high frequency and/or irregularly spelled words in meaningful text. Antonyms.. b. make predictions. activate prior knowledge. Example: In unhappy. Standard 3: 1. the suffix "ed" changes play to past tense. Use prereading strategies to preview. question marks.Expand vocabulary in language and writing by reading and listening to a variety of text and literature. Fluency – The student will identify words rapidly so that attention is directed at the meaning of the text. 2. Ask and respond to questions to aid comprehension about important elements of fiction and nonfiction. In played. Read and comprehend both fiction and nonfiction that is appropriately designed for second grade. 3. Literal Understanding a. bear and bare). graphic organizers)..Priority Academic Student Skills b. 5. Standard 4: 1. Use punctuation cues in text (i. Words in Context . 2. periods. commas. 1. c. and establish the purpose for reading (i. Standard 5: Comprehension/Critical Literacy – The student will interact with the words and concepts in a text to construct an appropriate meaning. Example: VC-CV – rab-bit = rabbit Example: V-CV – pi-lot = pilot Example: VC-V – cab-in = cabin Vocabulary – The student will develop and expand knowledge of words and word meanings to increase vocabulary. Synonyms. Apply knowledge of basic syllabication rules to decode words in text. the "un" means not.Know the meaning of simple prefixes and suffixes. Oklahoma State Department of Education 8 Grade 2 .e. and exclamation points) as a guide to understanding meaning. use picture clues.e. Affixes ..g.Understand and explain common antonyms (words with opposite meanings). and homonyms/homophones (words which sound the same but have different spellings and meanings. Read regularly in independent-level text (text in which no more than 1 in 20 words is difficult for the reader) effortlessly and with expression. Read regularly in instructional-level text that is challenging yet manageable (texts in which no more than 1 in 10 words is difficult for the reader). Engage in repeated readings of same text to increase fluency. and Homonyms/Homophones . 4. e.

Inferences and Interpretation a. 2. Literary Elements – Demonstrate knowledge of literary elements and techniques and how they affect the development of a literary work. Summary and Generalization a. Make comparisons and draw conclusions based on what is read. 9 Grade 2 Oklahoma State Department of Education . plays. multicultural tales. Describe character traits. folk tales. informational text. Analysis and Evaluation a. and how to identify the main idea and significant supporting details of a text.. Example: Recognize defining characteristics of a variety of texts (e. what.e. fables.g. poems. legends. fables. Literary Genres – Demonstrate knowledge of and appreciation for various forms (genres) of literature. characters. syntax.. 5. Infer the lesson or moral in a variety of texts (e. and relationships. 3. author studies).g.. legends. Standard 6: 1. and graphophonic cues to gain meaning from the text. Identify cause and effect relationships in a text. why. settings. and fairytales). Monitoring and Correction Strategies . predictable books. 3. Make inferences about events. b. Compare different endings to stories and identify the reasons and the impact of the different ending.Integrate the use of semantics. 4. where. and characters presented in several texts by the same author (i. b. changes. Support interpretations or conclusions with examples taken from the text. Retell or act out narrative text by identifying story elements and sequencing the events. c. Figurative Language and Sound Devices – The student will identify figurative language and sound devices in writing and how they affect the development of a literary work. b. Example: semantic – Does it make sense? Example: syntax – Does it sound right? Example: graphophonic – Does it look right? Literature: The student will read to construct meaning and respond to a wide variety of literary forms. and ideas in fictional texts by connecting knowledge and experience to the story. when. Compare plots. c. and myths). a. b. Produce oral or written summaries of text selections by discussing who.Priority Academic Student Skills 2.

"] in poetry). Recognize that language has many uses such as informing. persuading. Alphabetize to the second letter. Identify the purposes of various reference materials such as a dictionary. Use guide words to locate words in dictionaries and topics in encyclopedias. b. Present a logical sequence of events. c. drafting. Accessing Information – Select the best source for a given purpose. Write brief personal descriptive narratives (stories) that: a. Research and Information . to organize and summarize information. table of contents. and alliteration (using words with repeating consonant sounds [e. Writing/Grammar/Usage and Mechanics: The student will express ideas effectively in written modes for a variety of purposes and audiences. and ending. b. Organize related ideas together to maintain a consistent focus by establishing a beginning. Use a process approach to write coherently. and publishing or sharing. d. rhyme. revising. 2.The student will conduct research and organize information. Use details to support the main idea. Example: Use graphic organizers. a. c. and an atlas. Develop a main idea. maps. 3.Priority Academic Student Skills Example: Identify the use of rhythm. Use title page. using developmentally appropriate steps of the writing process: prewriting.. 2. Interpreting Information – Analyze and evaluate information from a variety of sources. 2. Modes and Forms of Writing – The student will communicate through a variety of written forms and for various purposes and to a specific audience or person.g. Use and interpret charts. and index to locate information. "Silly Sally went to town. glossary. Standard 7: 1. e. such as webbing and mapping. Oklahoma State Department of Education 10 Grade 2 . Standard 2: 1. Create a list of topic ideas for writing. middle. a thesaurus. graphs. Standard 1: 1. schedules. and entertaining. editing or proofreading. and directions. Writing Process – The student will use the writing process to write coherently.

g. Capitalize all proper nouns (names of specific people or things. and Jan. Correctly use end punctuation. f. 4.. greetings. Standard 3: 1. Oklahoma State Department of Education 11 Grade 2 .. d. c. b. Grammar/Usage: Students are expected to recognize and use correctly nouns.. 5. a. Make journal entries. Write “thank you” notes. and initials of people. Mrs. Indian. Jeep). Capitalize correctly the first word in a sentence and the pronoun “I. Example: Mr. titles (Dr. h. Example: Write in complete sentences using a noun. and Miss).. months and days of the week. g. a. Mon. Dr. d. Mr. Create simple rhymes and poems. Punctuation: writing. Mrs. Mechanics: Students are expected to demonstrate appropriate language mechanics in writing..” Students are expected to demonstrate appropriate punctuation in b. a. c. b. contractions.. Use apostrophes correctly in contractions.. such as Mike. Use commas correctly in dates. verb. 4. Sentence Structure: The student will demonstrate appropriate sentence structure in writing. You're) 2. and details. Singular and plural nouns Common and proper nouns Pronouns Subjects (naming part) and predicates (action part) Present and past tense verbs Helping verbs Adjectives Contractions (e. verbs. Use period in common abbreviations. and invitations. 3.Priority Academic Student Skills 3. friendly letters (identifying the five parts). e. Grammar/Usage and Mechanics: The student will demonstrate appropriate practices in writing by applying Standard English conventions to the revising and editing stages of writing.. and adjectives in their writing. Use quotation marks to show that someone is speaking. I'm. e.

d. Standard 2: 1. 2. Speaking – The student will express ideas and opinions in group or individual situations. or making instructions. c. Handwriting: Students are expected to demonstrate appropriate handwriting in the writing process. giving directions. Example: Form letters correctly and space words and sentences properly so that writing can be easily read by another person. 3. Give. Group Interaction – The student will use effective communication strategies in pairs and small group context. 2. illustrators. and follow simple two. such as making announcements. Visual Literacy: The student will interpret. Ask and answer questions related to the topic and make contributions in small or large group discussions. Use verbal and nonverbal communication in effective ways. correct usage. b. Listen attentively and ask questions for clarification and understanding. a. evaluate. 2. 6. Oral Language/Listening and Speaking: The student will demonstrate thinking skills in listening and speaking. Spell correctly words with short and long vowel sounds. r-controlled vowels. represent meaning. Standard 1: 1. Standard 3: 1. and news photographers. Recognize the use of homophones/homonyms in spelling.and three-step directions. and consonant vowel patterns. Oklahoma State Department of Education 12 Grade 2 . Standard 1: Interpret Meaning – The student will interpret and evaluate the various ways visual image-makers. and compose visual messages. enunciation and volume. Listening – The student will listen for information and for pleasure.Priority Academic Student Skills 5. Provide descriptions using correct sequence of events and details. including graphic artists. Show respect and consideration for others in verbal or physical communication. Spell frequently used words with irregular spelling patterns. restate. Speak articulately and audibly using appropriate language. Spell prefixes and suffixes correctly. Spelling: Students are expected to demonstrate appropriate application of spelling knowledge to the revising and editing stages of writing.

read Cinderella and watch film). Identify differences in the presentation or depiction of characters and plot that tells of characters in American and other cultures through listening. as compared with print media. viewing.g. Standard 2: 1. 2. advertisements. Oklahoma State Department of Education 13 Grade 2 . Identify the differences in facts and opinions in print and nonprint media. and safety and drug public service announcements. 2. Make connections between illustrations and print. Compare and contrast the two..Priority Academic Student Skills 1. or reading (e. Distinguish between telling and selling messages in such things as commercials. such as film. Evaluate Media – The student will evaluate visual and electronic media.

u. stress on both skill and application of skills.. A balanced reading program includes reading to whole groups of students.the joining of the sounds represented by two or more letters with minimal change in those sounds. or root of a word to form a fresh word or stem.a word to which a prefix or suffix may be added to form a new word (e. or sentence (e. shared reading.a device commonly used in poetry and occasionally in prose: the repetition of an initial sound in two or more words of a phrase. th.story about the achievements of others.Priority Academic Student Skills GLOSSARY affix . CVC .g. sports. hot and cold).”). reading aloud (e. line of poetry.words which have opposite meanings (e. the arts.consonant/vowel/consonant choral reading . consonant blend . The prefix un. makes unbalanced. consists of two or more consonants sounded together in such a way that each is heard (e. biography .the letters of the alphabet (excluding a. consonants . alliteration .. sp) consonant digraph . o. helps students see history as the lives and events of real people and to appreciate the contribution of all cultures. base word . effectiveness depends on accuracy.g. A balanced reading program includes instruction in word identification skills as well as instruction in reading comprehension strategies. Oklahoma State Department of Education 14 Grade 2 . archetype . e. and other disciplines. subjects include explorers.. wh).g. analogies .consists of two consonants that together represent one sound (e.g..g.a descriptive detail. and an appealing narrative style. ch. balanced reading program .is an affix which added to element added to the base. i. Principal kinds of affix are prefixes and suffixes. plot pattern.comparisons of the similar aspects of two different things. authenticity. gr. structure may follow a 2-4-6-8-2 syllable pattern or may follow a simpler form using words per line in a 1-2-3-4-1 pattern. represented by a single sound made by a partial or complete obstruction of air. The suffix -ed is an affix which. One such archetype that appears in Shakespeare’s Macbeth is the battle between the forces of good and the forces of evil. “Our souls have sight of that immortal sea. and independent reading by individual students. and achievers in literature. compound word . character type. political heroes and heroines.. or theme that recurs in many different cultures. sh.poetic form. go + ing = going).g.the biography of a person written by oneself. bl.a word made by putting two or more words together (e. science. choral reading may be used with a group to develop oral fluency or to make a presentation to an audience). cowboy). guided reading activities with groups of students..g. usually including w and y).dual emphasis. antonym . autobiography .. added to wish makes wished. cinquain .

three participles. or idea using vivid details. stately. and argue for or against it.One of four chief composition modes.g..a social or regional variety of a particular language with phonological. the center of action revolves around the relationship between the heroic figure and the gods.Sources of information used by readers to construct meaning. cooperative learning . life in the 12th century England. or essay form.the study of the origins of words. an account of the history of a particular word. two adjectives. and/or reaching conclusions.Priority Academic Student Skills context clue .the ability to perceive spatial orientation accurately (left to right). compare it. The language cueing system includes the graphophonic system — the relationship between oral and written language (phonics). three participles. many were originally written as poetry or songs.a vowel sound produced when the tongue moves from one vowel sound toward another vowel in the same syllable.poetic form. the syntactic system — the relationship among linguistic units such as prefixes.the information from the immediate textual setting that helps identify a word or word group. and clauses (grammar). four related nouns. associate it. epic literature .documentary records on diverse topics such as slavery. descriptive writing . apply it. dialect . analyze it. or songs of the American Revolution. two vowel sounds that come together so fast they are considered one syllable (e.accepted practice in written language. essays . or a phrase of four words. cues/cueing system . decode . diamante . Writing which paints a picture of a person. Oklahoma State Department of Education 15 Grade 2 . phrases. suffixes. thing. cannot = can’t).a method for discovering ideas about a topic by using six strategies (in any order) to investigate it: describe it. ou. structure follows a diamond shape of seven lines as follows: one noun. grammatical. contraction . and the semantic system — the meaning system of language. cubing .g. leaving out one or more letters and replacing the missing letters with an apostrophe (e. seeing other points of view. reflective thinking that is focused on deciding what to believe or do. words. and lexical patterns that distinguish it from other varieties. language is lyrical.. letter. directionality .activities in which students work together in groups to achieve a common goal. content is based upon or adapted from an original document in diary.a short way to write two words as one by writing the two words together. convention . It may include analyzing arguments. ow. etymology .to analyze spoken or graphic symbols of a familiar language to ascertain their intended meaning. diphthong .logical. oi/oy). the main character symbolizes the ideal characteristics of greatness. place. critical thinking . and one noun. and rich with images.long narratives detail the adventures of a single heroic figure. two adjectives.

and exaggeration. or maintain a position (e. the ability to produce words or larger language units in a limited time interval. fiction . The novel.questioning that requires the reader to use experiential background knowledge in conjunction with information explicitly stated in the text (e.. the. characters and their actions appeal to young children. Writers use figurative language to express ideas in vivid or imaginative ways (e.g. .. technique. supernatural helpers.g. These symbol-sound-association skills can be used as an aid in recognizing a word that is not firmly fixed in sight vocabulary.. It covers all compositions which do not primarily describe an object. expository . rhyme and repetition encourage reading aloud. genre .. of.g. pointing. automaticity.the technique of giving clues to coming events in a narrative. said. the short story. fairytale . determining the sound of the initial letter or two and the use of context may be all that is needed to recognize a word). fluency . fast-paced and predictable.. “Once upon a time in a faraway castle .characters or settings depart from what is realistic.. “the apple of my eye.the technique of disrupting the chronology of a narrative by shifting to an earlier time in order to introduce information. content-area textbooks. animals exhibit human qualities and behaviors. defines. heroes and heroines with magical powers. fables .Priority Academic Student Skills evaluative . characters include humanized animals.. stories are not intended to be accepted as true.”).. magic. Oklahoma State Department of Education 16 Grade 2 . usually by form. editorials. folktales .g. good and evil stereotypes. story line is frequently a series of recurring actions.the relationship between graphemes and the phonemes they represent. magazine articles. grapheme . or content.time and place are generic (e. and the lyric poems are all genres.g. nonsense. . tell a story. story and language appeal to sense of humor through word play.a word that appears many more times than most other words in spoken or written language (e. flashback .a written or printed representation of a phoneme (e. for).a reading or writing selection which explains.a category used to classify literary and other works. plots use predictable motifs (e. surprise. characters are one-dimensional. ogres. high frequency words .plots are simple. and interprets. the author makes the impossible believable. illustrations contribute to story line.g.” “forever chasing rainbows”).a folktale about real-life problems usually with imaginary characters and magical events.tales concern human conduct with moralistic overcomes. quests).g.writing or speech not meant to be taken literally.freedom from word-identification problems that might hinder comprehension in silent reading or the expression of ideas in oral reading.g. foreshadowing . figurative language . illustrations encourage participation through naming. b for /b/ and oy for /oi/ in boy) graphophonic cues . especially if used in conjunction with other cues (e. essays). reading beyond the line). fantasy . and seeking.

journal . mood .the readability or grade level of material that is easy for a student to read with few word-identification problems and high comprehension. independent reading level .g.a figure of speech in which a comparison is implied by analogy but is not stated. homonyms .g.g.a reasoned assumption about meaning that is not explicitly stated (e. description. I could care less). a figure of speech not intended to be taken literally.. It is more readily shared. beliefs. stories are usually secular and associated with wars and victories. Hyperboles are often used for dramatic or comic effect. literal .the emotional state of mind expressed by an author or artist in his or her work. Example: “He died a thousand deaths.the gist of a passage. allows more flexibility. bow of a ship). narration).” “The discussion lasted an eternity.. that the actual situation is quite different from that presented. the emotional atmosphere produced by an artistic work.information directly from the text (e. to have the upper hand has nothing to do with the hands). characters’ actions. hyperbole .words which are spelled alike but have different sounds and meanings (e.. instructional reading level .a less private form of diary.” idiom . metaphor .. argumentation.g. bear. dialogue. legends expression that does not mean what it literally says (e. bow and arrow vs.obvious and deliberate exaggeration.the use of language to create vivid pictures in the reader's mind. exposition. and values are true to the historical period. reading between the lines). medial . etc.any of the major types of writing (e. story.a figure of speech of which the literal meaning of the word is the opposite of its intended meaning (e. central thought.coming in the middle of a word.the reading ability or grade level of material that is challenging. novel. and is more adaptable as a teaching tool.g. Oklahoma State Department of Education 17 Grade 2 . irony . inferential .words which sound the same but have different spellings and meanings (e. homographs . mode of writing . bare)..stories are grounded in history but not restricted by it.g. but not frustrating for the student to read successfully with normal classroom instruction and support. imagery .. through plot or character.). It is especially useful when used to elicit responses to reading.plots record deeds of past heroes.Priority Academic Student Skills historical fiction . on the line). a literary technique for implying. literature – text created for a specific purpose (poem. an extravagant statement. main idea . and events under study. stories are presented as true. issues. the historical setting is an authentic and integral part of the story.g.

phoneme .all of the sounds in a word that come before the first vowel.. accounts frequently explain natural phenomena.a minimal sound unit of speech that distinguishes one word from another (e. to change its meaning (e.a syllable or group of syllables attached to the beginning of a word.setting one’s own reading rate by using a pattern appropriate for the reading task.g.g.g. Brown Bear). organization follows a logical pattern and may include textual aids. legends..ability to manipulate. and change sounds in spoken language (precedes phonics instruction). phonics . bang. zoom). plots are fastpaced and frequently involve foreshadowing or flashback. lace.a reading or writing selection which tells a story (e. prior knowledge . predictable text . clatter. prefix . neologism . hiss. or intrigue. crackle.tightly woven plots have elements of suspense. prediction strategy .books with dramatic cumulative repetitions and dependable schemes of rhyme and language that help children anticipate and thereby decode the printed page (e. unpack.metaphorical figure of speech in which animals. personification .information is factual and may be presented by detailed descriptions or examples. detect. events. reprint. for an established word. and things are represented as having human qualities. murmur..the way in which an author reveals a perspective/viewpoint. sizzle. nonfiction . narrative .. and ideas in telling a story. Brown Bear. danger.g. onset . plots are usually associated with theology or ritual. or a new meaning of. ideas. Oklahoma State Department of Education 18 Grade 2 . Note: prior knowledge is a key component of schema theories of reading and comprehension.Priority Academic Student Skills mystery . such as a fresh new interpretation of the Bible or of some other work of literature. twitter. point-of-view . as in characters. Neologism also applies to new doctrines.the formation and use of words that suggest by their sounds the object or idea being named (e. phonemic awareness . tall tales. bow wow.a person’s use of knowledge about language and the context in which it occurs to anticipate what is coming in writing or speech. fairy tales. onomatopoeia . myths .a new word or phrase. the ability to associate letters and letter combinations with sound and blending them into syllables and words. buzz. dislike).a way of teaching reading and spelling that stresses symbol sound relationships. fables.knowing that stems from previous experience. short stories. novels). lake).g.stories are seen as true in the represented society.. or root. pacing .

. it is usually soft. open it to any page.relies on hypothesized scientific advancements and raises questions about the future of humanity. structural analysis . r-controlled vowels .a word with no prefix or suffix added. One finger is raised for each unknown word.A mark showing an absence of a vowel sound.. recursive processes might include rereading earlier portions in light of later ones. probably it is a good idea to select another book.the presentation aspect of viewing. e. or. though sometimes subtly.g.any word recognized by memory only. representing . (. schwa . may also be referred to as a base word. sight word .g. soft as a kitten). Students select a book. of swim.moving back and forth through a text in either reading or writing.reading to oneself. and usually by one-sided rather than objective argument (e. Readers Theatre . usually using the words like or as (e. silent e . e. as a story. It is nonverbal depiction of communication. drafting.a method students can use to make their reading selections. The neutral vowel sound of most unstressed syllables in English. science fiction . endings. and affixes to decode words.a performance of literature.g. care.semantic cues involving word-meaning knowledge and a general sense of the test’s meaning.the process of using knowledge of root extreme form of written or spoken persuasion intended to influence the reader..the part of a syllable that contains the vowel and all that follows it (e. If they encounter more than five words that they cannot pronounce. poetry read aloud expressively by one or more persons. -im). soft c and g rule . semantic cues . i. recursive processes include moving back and forth among the planning. or y.the modified sound of a vowel immediately preceding /r/ in the same syllable. looking ahead to see what topics are addressed or how a narrative ends. sir. simile . and revising phases of writing. recursive process . rime . advertising propaganda to sell a product). In reading a text. root word . rather than acted. In creating a written composition. can be a useful vehicle for examining issues related to human survival in an uncertain future.when c or g is followed by e.g.Priority Academic Student Skills propaganda . for this sound.a combination of two things that are unlike. Rule of Thumb . This is the symbol. Oklahoma State Department of Education 19 Grade 2 .an e that makes no sound that is usually found in the final position of an English root word. and read. as new ideas are developed or problems encountered. and skimming through text to search for particular ideas or events before continuing a linear reading. sound of a in ago or e in agent.. subvocalize . the rime of bag is -ag. play.g.. never.

specifically the use of symbols to represent ideas in concrete ways.g.two vowels pronounced in such a way that the letters together stand for one sound (e.a. transitional spelling . and often humorous way (e. syllable . justice). and only certain kinds of words fit into particular slots in our sentence patterns (e..a minimal unit of sequential speech sounds made up of a vowel sound or a vowel consonant combination and always contains a vowel sound.the result of an attempt to spell a word whose spelling is not already known. sharing time. sustained silent reading.Priority Academic Student Skills suffix . writer’s workshop . Sustained Silent Reading/Drop Everything and Read . made without any air obstruction. y as a vowel rule . text – any printed material.. follows SSR/DEAR.a folder or notebook that contains writing generated during the various stages of the writing process. ed. syllabication . and small teaching groups.g.. Only certain word sequences are allowable in English. the implied meaning of a literary work. the baseball player the ball. synonyms .words which have the same meaning. ing).instructional time that includes mini-lessons.g. y has a sound almost like long e. Paul Bunyan). VC . based on a writer’s knowledge of the spelling system and how it works.a syllable or group of syllables attached to the end of a word. if y is the only vowel at the end of a word of more than one syllable. approximately 2 minutes. syntactic cues .g.a topic of discussion in writing. e. u and sometimes y and w. matter-offact. that are designed to show the relationship among ideas or topics in text or to plan for writing: cognitive mapping. author’s chair. theme . process writing.the division of words into syllables. or root.syntactic cues involve implicit knowledge of word order and the functions of words. webbing . to change its meaning (e. peer/teacher conferences. symbolism . A major idea broad enough to cover the entire scope of a literary work of art. The missing word must be a verb).a story about an impossible or exaggerated happening related in a realistic. A brief pair discussion. Oklahoma State Department of Education 20 Grade 2 . o. writing folders .if y is the only vowel sound at the end of a one-syllable word. vowels .instructional activities.vowel/consonant vowel digraph . A theme can be a noun or phrase (e.g.child reads self-selected literature 1030 minutes daily.. tall tales . y has the sound of long i. i.use of one thing to suggest something else. particularly graphic ones. /a/ in sleigh). friendship. s.

Require appropriate reasoning and problem-solving experiences from the outset. Include a broad range of content by incorporating an informal approach to measurement. have efficient computation strategies. to detect patterns. NOTE: Asterisks (*) have been used to identify standards and objectives that must be assessed by the local school district. Student success depends largely on the quality of the foundation that is established during the first years of school. All other skills may be assessed by the Oklahoma School Testing Program (OSTP). Develop newly introduced mathematics concepts by beginning instruction with concrete experiences. Actively involve children in doing mathematics with extensive and thoughtful use of manipulatives (concrete materials) in an environment that encourages children to develop. This helps students see the usefulness of mathematics and establishes a foundation for further study. instilling in students a sense of confidence in their ability to think and communicate mathematically. Programs should fit the needs of the learner. Calculators do not replace the need for students to be fluent with basic facts.g. Oklahoma State Department of Education 21 Grade 2 .5 Developmentally appropriate mathematics curriculum for Grades 1 . discuss.5 must encourage the exploration of a wide variety of mathematical ideas and promote in-depth levels of understanding by focusing on the key concepts and processes. data analysis. and to investigate realistic applications. geometry. and to analyze data. and apply ideas.. be able to compute mentally.Priority Academic Student Skills OVERVIEW MATHEMATICS Grades 1 . Emphasize the power of mathematics in helping children understand and interpret their world and solve problems that occur in it. to focus on problem-solving processes. space. The mathematics curriculum for Grades 1 . progressing to pictorial representations and culminating with abstract symbols. and patterns (algebra). Provide appropriate and ongoing use of technology by enabling children to explore number ideas and patterns. and do paper-and-pencil computation. and situational problems by designing explorations and investigations that make use of everyday objects and specially designed materials (e. test. base-10 blocks).5 must: Help children develop conceptual understanding of number.

Distinguish between necessary and irrelevant information in solving problems (e. students explain verbally why an answer makes sense. diagrams. use concrete. Verify and interpret results with respect to the original problem (e.. write riddles with sufficient information. Formulate problems from everyday and mathematical situations (e. how can we share/divide these cookies?. Process Standard 2: Communication 1. act out situations. and symbols to mathematical ideas.Priority Academic Student Skills MATHEMATICS PROCESS STANDARDS Grades 1-5 The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) has identified five process standards: Problem Solving.g.g. graphical. how many forks are needed?. devise a plan. and apply strategies to solve a variety of routine and nonroutine problems (e. make a problem simpler. 3.g. “repeated addition” becomes “multiplication”. identify unnecessary information in written story problems). Start by relating everyday language to mathematical language and symbols and progress toward the use of appropriate terminology (e.. Use problem-solving approaches (e. 2. “add more” becomes “plus”. Connections. trial and error). make a table. explain in a written format why an answer makes sense.. test. 3.. Using these processes students are actively involved in deepening mathematical understandings which lead to increasingly sophisticated abilities required to meet mathematical challenges. verify the validity of each step taken to obtain a final result). models or manipulatives. 4. Develop. pictures. NOTE: When examples are given there is a progression in levels of difficulty from basic to more complex skills.. and Representation. look back). and read mathematical ideas and concepts. 2. how many students are absent?. pictorial. Process Standard 1: Problem Solving 1. and others (e. carry out the plan. Represent. play games and discuss “best” clues.g.. write. Communication.g. “fair share” becomes “divide”.g.. Following is an outline of the five process standards and associated objectives. understand a problem. Relate manipulatives. Extend mathematical knowledge by considering the thinking and strategies of others (e. with verbal ideas. agree or disagree. analyze another student’s explanation).. 4.g. oral. Express mathematical ideas coherently and clearly to peers. how many different ways can we find to compare these fractions?). or symbols). Reasoning and Proof. written. look for patterns. process of elimination. “balance the equation” becomes “solve the equation”). and/or algebraic models.g. pictures. discuss. represent problems with drawings and lists. Oklahoma State Department of Education 22 Grade 2 . rephrase another student’s explanation. teachers. 5.

Demonstrate thinking processes using a variety of age-appropriate materials and reasoning processes (e. inductive [specific to general]. Explain mathematical situations using patterns and relationships (e. tables. dramatizations.. manipulatives.g. Oklahoma State Department of Education 23 Grade 2 . clap. Make predictions and draw conclusions about mathematical ideas and concepts. charts. clap with symbols A B B. use symmetry in art work. logical reasoning [“and” “or” “not”] and recursive reasoning). Recognize relationships among different topics within mathematics (e. the length of an object can be represented by a number. models. explore fractions in quilt designs and to describe pizza slices). Link concepts to procedures and eventually to symbolic notation (e. use two colors of cubes to represent addition facts for the number 5.g. pictures. 2 4.g.. proportional. divide a candy bar into 3 equal pieces that represent one piece as 1 ).g.Priority Academic Student Skills Process Standard 3: Reasoning 1. graphs). 3. 3 2. 2.g. use base-10 blocks to represent decimals). social. Predictions become conjectures and conclusions become more logical as students mature mathematically. identify patterns in situations. record. Create and use a variety of representations appropriately and with flexibility to organize.... Use representations to model and interpret physical. translate between diagrams. Use mathematical strategies to solve problems that relate to other curriculum areas and the real world (e. and communicate mathematical ideas (e. use a timeline to sequence events. and mathematical situations (e. spatial. 3. manipulatives. extend patterns to connect with more general cases). demonstrate 3 • 4 with a geometric array.5 and 50%). multiplication facts can be modeled with geometric arrays. Relate various concrete and pictorial models of concepts and procedures to one another (e. graphs. properties and relationships. drawings. relate patterns on a hundreds chart to multiples. geometric models. tables. 2.. represent actions like snap. diagrams. Process Standard 4: Connections 1. deductive [general to specific]..g.g.g. known facts. symbolic representations). tally marks. number sentences. 1 can be written as . represent patterns in a variety of ways. counters.. Process Standard 5: Representation 1.

create patterns by combining different shapes and taking them apart). describe and extend patterns. spoons.g. and connections to other concepts when possible so that all students have accessibility to and an understanding of these concepts. Develop an understanding of linear measurement facility in measuring lengths.g. Number Sense and Operation . Formulate and record generalizations about number patterns in a variety of situations (e. and ones to develop the concepts of place value and link the concepts to the reading and writing of numbers (e. Second Grade Suggested Materials Kit: snap cubes. up to the hundreds place. counters. pattern blocks.. School Improvement 24 Mathematics . coins. Recognize and apply the associative property of addition (e. keys. build a table showing the cost of one pencil at 10 cents. children’s books.The student will use numbers and number relationships to acquire basic facts and will compute with whole numbers less than 100. graph mats.Priority Academic Student Skills MATHEMATICS CONTENT STANDARDS Grade 2 The following concepts and skills should be mastered by all students upon completion of second grade. calculators. 2 pencils at 20 cents). cups. Standard 2: 1. containers. Develop quick recall of addition facts and related subtraction facts (fact families) as well as fluency with multi-digit addition and subtraction. rods. The Major Concepts should be taught in depth using a variety of methods. macaroni. base-10 blocks. rulers. links.g. buttons. dominoes. beans.. 3 + (2 +1) = (3 + 2) + 1). 3. repeating and growing patterns made up of sets of shapes or designs. tape measures. geoboards. cans.The student will use a variety of problem-solving approaches to model. 1. clocks. and create patterns using symbols. Describe. or designs (e. 2. fabric. Number Sense a. balance scales. addition and subtraction patterns. objects from nature. Find unknown values in open number sentences with a missing addend and use to solve everyday problems. base-10 blocks). even and odd numbers. painted beans or two-color counters Standard 1: Algebraic Reasoning: Patterns and Relationships . tangrams. attribute blocks. extend. 4... MAJOR CONCEPTS Develop an understanding of the base-ten system and place value within that system.g. Use concrete models of hundreds. applications. straws. shapes. tens.

Use strategies to estimation and solve sums and differences (e.g. 425 > 276. Write a number sentence to compare numbers less than 1. Tell time on digital and analog clocks on the quarter-hour. 3. Standard 3: 1.g. d. Geometry .g. 753 is between 700 and 800). Number Operations a. compose.Priority Academic Student Skills b.The student will use appropriate units of measure in a variety of situations. Measurement . thirds.e. use knowledge of 10 to estimate quantities and sums [two numbers less than 10 cannot add up to more than 20]. and numerical symbols) fractional parts including halves. Time a. b. Money School Improvement 25 Mathematics .The student will use geometric properties and relationships to recognize and describe shapes. 2..) c. b.. Select and use appropriate units of measurement in problem solving and everyday situations. inch. page 351 comes after 350. decompose and regroup numbers. Use concrete models to develop understanding of multiplication as repeated addition and division as successive subtraction.. b. or year and problems involving weeks in a month and year. Investigate and predict the results of putting together and taking apart twodimensional shapes.g. 2. and half inch). measure length to the nearest foot. Measure objects using standard units (e. 75%. c. pictures. 15+3=18 and 18-3=15).. d. Linear Measurement a. Represent a number in a variety of ways (e. Demonstrate fluency (i. Identify symmetric and congruent shapes and figures. Solve problems involving number of days in a week. Solve two-digit addition and subtraction problems with and without regrouping using a variety of techniques. memorize and apply) with basic addition facts to make a maximum sum of 18 and the associated subtraction facts (e. and 100%). Standard 4: 1.. Demonstrate (using concrete objects. write 25 as 2 tens + 5 ones or as 1 ten + 15 ones). 2. 73 < 107. write 15 as 8 + 7.. fourths and common percents (25%. 50%.g. month.000 (e.

organize. b. Summarize and interpret data in charts. Data Analysis .The student will demonstrate an understanding of data collection. bar graphs. and tables.Priority Academic Student Skills a..g. and interpretation. Data Analysis a. Recognize and write different amounts of money using dollar and cent notation. collect data on teeth lost and display results in a chart). and display data in charts. Standard 5: 1. sort. School Improvement 26 Mathematics . bar graphs. Collect. display. Identify and count money up to a twenty dollar bill. b. and tables (e.

where each number. .. . 3. composite numbers . congruent . in numeric terms: 2. it changes the probability of the other event. and hyperbolas which can all be represented by passing a plane through a hollow double cone. color.. take six tiles and arrange two long and three wide to form a rectangle). the cosine of an acute angle is the ratio of the length of the leg adjacent to the angle to the length of the hypotenuse. function machine . except the first the addition problem 3 + 2 + 6 = 11. where a and b are real numbers and i equals the square root of -1. size. exponential function .. If one of the events occurs. 21.37.Priority Academic Student Skills GLOSSARY addend . dependent events . parabolas.characteristics (e.a statement believed to be true but not proved. exponential function with base b is defined by y = bx. attribute . weight).a selection of objects without regard to order.4 . algorithm .the set of all the first elements or x-coordinates of a relation. 8. Fibonacci sequence . exit 5. 1.any positive integer exactly divisible by one or more positive integers other than itself and 1.(rectangular) an orderly arrangement of objects into a rectangular configuration (e.g.circles. 2. ellipses.g. rule: add 2).a relation in which each element of the domain is paired with exactly one element of the range.numbers of the form a + bi. and 6. combinations .in a right triangle. enter 3. function . array . Students guess the rule that produced the second number (e. conjecture . 5. complementary angles .the sequence of numbers. analog time . In algebraic terms: 2m + 3x. the addends are 3.time displayed on a timepiece having hour and minute hands. complex numbers . is the sum of the two preceding numbers. numerals and variables. .step-by-step procedure for solving a problem. Oklahoma State Department of Education 27 Grade 2 .a mathematical phrase that can include operations.g.two angles whose measure have a sum of 90 input/output box (often made with milk cartons. where b > 0 and b is not equal to 1. 13. domain of a relation .events that influence each other. expression .geometric figures having exactly the same size and shape. or drawn on the board) to show one number entering and a different number exiting. cosine . 2. conic sections . 1. boxes.

a measurement determined by the use of nonstandard units like hands. Oklahoma State Department of Education 28 Grade 2 .. then do multiplications or divisions. paper clips. intercepts (x & y) .events that do not influence one another. or the mean of the two middle numbers. spinners. etc. imaginary number . 4.addition. cotton balls. attribute and pattern blocks. . etc. dot paper) to use in mathematical calculations. -2. ordinal . cba). . 0. interlocking cubes.. the sum of the numbers divided by n.a number in a set of data that occurs most often. b not equal to 1). square root of 2.g. .logarithmic function with base b is the inverse of the exponential function.nonterminating. bca. 6 and 9 are multiples of 3). 2.. referents for quantities and measurements used in everyday situations.a number that is the product of a given integer and another integer (e. b > 0. order of operations . nonrepeating decimals (e. etc. multiplication. fifth). . fractions pieces. . rulers. . base-10 blocks.rules for evaluating an expression: work first within a set of n numbers. integers . subtraction. .the x (y)-coordinate of the point where a graph intercepts the x (y).a bar graph of a frequency distribution. geoboards. manipulatives . number sense .(counting numbers) 1.g. counters. bac. inverse operations . balances.g. beans.. -1. then calculate all powers. independent events . nonstandard measurement . cab. from left to right.the middle number in the set.involves the understanding of number size (relative magnitude). acb. mean . 3. c have the following permutations: arrangement of a set of objects in a particular order (the letters a. permutation . beans. from left to right. first. mode . b. buttons.concrete materials (e. and is defined by x = logb y (y > 0.any complex number. 2. for which a = 0 and b does not = 0. from left to right. number representations. natural numbers . when the numbers are arranged in order from least to greatest.g.axis. multiplication and division are inverse operations). logarithmic functions . geometric models.g. then do additions and subtractions. .Priority Academic Student Skills histogram . median . pi). 1. addition and subtraction are inverse operations.a number that is used to tell order (e. irrational numbers .operations that undo each other (e. operation .. Each event occurs without changing the probability of the other event. multiple . a + bi. division. number operations. egg and milk cartons.

the comparison of two quantities by division. then x = −b± b −4ac . .a set of numbers arranged in a pattern. .an integer greater than one whose only positive factors are 1 and itself (e. 7.. the sine of an acute angle is the ratio of the length of the leg opposite the angle to the length of the hypotenuse.the study and measure of the likelihood of an event happening. b and c are real numbers and a is not equal to 2 0.the set of all rational and irrational numbers.the four regions formed by the axes in a coordinate plane.patterns in which each number is found from the previous number by repeating a process (e. 3.a set of one or more pairs of numbers. recursive patterns . quadrants . scatter plot . ratio ..quotients of integers (commonly called fractions . y2). where a. 2a range of a relation .the size of an object or number compared to other objects and numbers.g.g.the ratio of the change in y to the corresponding change in x. 11. b and c are real numbers and a is not equal to 0. real numbers . slope of a line . 13 . rational numbers . Fibonacci numbers). y1) and (x2. probability . relative magnitude . Oklahoma State Department of Education 29 Grade 2 . quadratic formula .if ax2 + bx + c = 0.includes both positive and negative numbers).an equation of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0. sine .for all real numbers a.a dot or point graph of a right triangle.x1) . For any (y2 . relation . 2. m = (x2 . b and c: commutative property: a + b = b + a and a • b = b • a associative property: (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) and (a • b) • c = a • (b • c) distributive property: a(b + c) = (a • b) + (a • c) identity property: a + 0 = a and a • 1 = a inverse property: a + (-a) = 0 and a • 1 = 1 a proportion .a statement that ratios are equal.the set of all the second elements or y-coordinates of a relation is called the range. where a. 5. quadratic equation .).Priority Academic Student Skills prime number . properties of arithmetic . sequence .y1) two points (x1.

Oklahoma State Department of Education 30 Grade 2 .in a right triangle. 3. standard deviation . 77.involves building and manipulating mental representations of 2.motion of a geometric figure (rotation [turn]. and 75 would be displayed as 9 | 6. the tangent is the ratio of the length of the leg opposite the angle to the length of the leg adjacent to the angle.0.measures how much each value in the data differs from the mean of the data.(act of supposing) making a statement or assumption without proof. and reflection [flip])..Priority Academic Student Skills spatial sense . 85. statistics . .g. 87.the study of data. student scores on a test were 96. translation [slide]. 93.a frequency distribution made by arranging data in the following way (e. 2. transformation . 5 supplementary angles . whole numbers . 5 7 | 7. 4. stem-and-leaf plot . 3 8 | 7. . 85.two angles whose measures have a sum of 180 degrees. 1. 5.and 3-dimensional objects and ideas. . supposition . tangent .

and Earth/Space Science. Relevant use of developmentally appropriate technology facilitates the inquiry process. This integrated approach will provide students with a coordinated. The blueprints show the approximate number of items and the approximate percent of the test for each standard and objective in this document that is assessed on the state level test. Although material can be added to the content standards. All of these state level assessments are based on the standards in this document. The objectives presented in the “Science Processes and Inquiry” standards are included at all grade levels. After the standards for each of the tested grade levels is an Oklahoma Core Curriculum Test Blueprint. The science standards are not a scope and sequence or a district curriculum guide. using only a portion of the standards will leave gaps in the scientific understanding expected of students. They are arranged by grade level at Grades 1-8. inquiry-oriented learning experiences that emphasize the processes of science and major science concepts.12 The science framework presented in this outline is what students should know.Priority Academic Student Skills SCIENCE OVERVIEW ORGANIZATION The Priority Academic Student Skills (PASS) are organized by Science Process and Inquiry Standards and Content Standards which include Physical Science. Inquiry builds conceptual bridges between process and scientific knowledge. they are designed to be used as a whole. Because each of the content standards subsumes the knowledge and skills of the other standards. because the understandings and abilities associated with these concepts need to be developed throughout a student’s educational experience. Quality science teaching requires direct. Life Science. coherent understanding of the necessary skills and knowledge of scientifically literate citizens. and be able to do in the natural sciences. They provide a framework for schools to develop an aligned science curriculum and for teachers to develop their own classroom lessons. earth/space) are designed to facilitate conceptual development by building on the content knowledge introduced at the Kindergarten level. Each standard is followed by two or more objectives to accomplish each standard. The science standards in this document were developed Oklahoma State Department of Education 31 Grade 2 . The Oklahoma State Testing Program assesses the Science Priority Academic Student Skills (PASS) with a 5th and 8th grade criterion-referenced test and a Biology I End-of-Instruction test. life. The following standards provide a framework to achieve the above goals. understand. life and earth/space sciences are explored while more emphasis is placed on in-depth understanding. The content standard areas (physical. Consistent with national standards. Students combine process and knowledge as they use scientific reasoning and critical thinking to develop their understanding of science. The attainment of scientific literacy is the result of a sequential curriculum that is dependent on quality science teaching at each grade level beginning in prekindergarten. and by course subject area at the high school level. Students should be provided with science experiences at each grade level from all areas of the content standards. SCIENCE STANDARDS Grades 1 . fewer concepts in physical.

Students are best served when these are taught in collaboration and cooperation between the classroom teacher and the library media specialist. NOTE: Asterisks (*) have been used to identify standards and objectives that must be assessed by the local school district.Priority Academic Student Skills based on the National Science Education Standards by the National Research Council and the Benchmarks for Scientific Literacy by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Book icons ( ) identify Information Literacy skills. will enable the nation and the state of Oklahoma to meet this goal. All other skills may be assessed by the Oklahoma School Testing Program (OSTP). These national publications. The United States has established a goal for all students to achieve scientific literacy. developed by science and education experts. Oklahoma State Department of Education 32 Grade 2 .

NOTE: Asterisks (*) have been used to identify standards and objectives that must be assessed by the local school district. or event. and interrelationships.g. paper clip. and Earth/Space Sciences. and/or events using developmentally appropriate nonstandard units of measurement (e. Plan and conduct a simple investigation.g. *2. centimeters. familiar organisms and/or observable events.. and observe phenomena. All other skills may be assessed by the Oklahoma School Testing Program (OSTP). Compare and contrast similar and/or different characteristics in a given set of simple objects. and Earth/Space Science The Priority Academic Student Skills (PASS) should be taught by investigating broad concepts. Physical. Life. or events in the environment. Life. familiar organisms. 2. Oklahoma State Department of Education 33 Grade 2 . Experiment and Inquiry . 1. students must have the opportunity to ask a question. familiar organisms. Classify a set of simple objects. meters. The student will accomplish these objectives to meet this process standard.Experimenting is a method of discovering information. Observe and measure objects. Opportunities for observation are developed through the use of a variety of scientific tools. Ask a question about objects. Classify .Priority Academic Student Skills SCIENCE Grade 2 Standards for Inquiry. Arrange simple objects.e. book) and Systems International (SI) units (i. formulate a procedure. Process Standard 3: *1. and events are classified based on similarities. organisms.. Measurement allows observations to be quantified. Objects.Observing is the first action taken by the learner to acquire new information about an object.Classifying establishes order. and/or observable events by observable properties. tallest to shortest). and degrees Celsius). organisms. Process Standard 2: 1. 2. The student will accomplish these objectives to meet this process standard. The student will accomplish these objectives to meet this process standard. hand. Book icons ( ) identify Information Literacy skills. Inquiry can be defined as the skills necessary to carry out the process of scientific or systemic thinking. In order for inquiry to occur. It requires making observations and measurements to test ideas. organisms. SCIENCE PROCESSES AND INQUIRY Grade 2 Process Standard 1: Observe and Measure . and principles of major themes in Physical. least to greatest.. organism. differences. and/or observable events in a serial order (e. Students are best served when these are taught in collaboration and cooperation between the classroom teacher and the library media specialist.

or magnetism. 2. reproducing. written. Physical properties of materials can be changed by tearing. Magnetic force passes through materials such as paper. and other visual representations. glass. color.Priority Academic Student Skills *3.Interpreting is the process of recognizing patterns in collected data by making inferences. 4. recording.Life cycles represent the stages an organism passes through from its own birth to the birth of the next generation. and/or tables. offspring resemble their parents. Generally. or conclusions. Objects can be described in terms of the materials of which they are made. 2. LIFE SCIENCE Grade 2 Standard 2: Life Cycles and Organisms . texture. predictions. Employ simple equipment and tools such as magnifiers. *3. and eventually dying. graphs. Interpret and Communicate . Process Standard 4: 1. The student will engage in investigations that integrate the process standards and lead to the discovery of the following objectives: 1.Characteristics of objects can be described using physical properties such as size. Interactions change the position and motion of objects. The student will accomplish these objectives to meet this process standard. 2. or pounding. Interpret pictures. or mathematical and includes organizing ideas. The details of this life cycle are different for different organisms. PHYSICAL SCIENCE Grade 2 Standard 1: Properties and Interactions of Objects and Materials . Communicating is the process of describing. tables. and/or written and oral language. simple bar graphs. using appropriate vocabulary. shape. The student will engage in investigations that integrate the process standards and lead to the discovery of the following objectives: 1. and rulers to gather data. Communicate the results of a simple investigation using drawings. Magnets attract and repel each other and certain other materials. graphs. Plants and animals have life cycles that include developing into adults. Communication may be oral. sifting. Motion and interaction of objects can be observed in toys and playground activities. Recognize potential hazards and practice safety procedures in all science activities. Recognize and describe patterns. and water. Oklahoma State Department of Education 34 Grade 2 . 3. thermometers. sanding. then make predictions based on patterns. and reporting experimental procedures and results to others.

Priority Academic Student Skills EARTH/SPACE SCIENCE Grade 2 Standard 3: Properties and Changes of Earth and Sky . The sun appears to move across sky in the same way every day. soils. and air.Earth materials consist of rocks. The size and shape of shadows change at different times of the day. The student will engage in investigations that integrate the process standards and lead to the discovery of the following objectives: 1. Earth materials can be used as resources (e. water. 2. building materials and for growing plants).g. Oklahoma State Department of Education 35 Grade 2 ..

inquiry .quantitative observations describe the amount of mass. observing and measuring . or odor. experimenting .observing is the first action taken by the learner to acquire new information about an object or event. Quantitative observations require the use of numbers. organisms. graphs. modeling . recording.modeling is the active process of forming a mental or physical representation from data. Oklahoma State Department of Education 36 Grade 2 . and mathematical equations. relating to.Priority Academic Student Skills GLOSSARY classifying .interpreting is the process of recognizing patterns in collected data by making inferences. and time.classifying establishes order. using appropriate vocabulary. or involving quality or kind. qualitative observations . Examples include texture. color. or relationships to facilitate understanding and enhance prediction. safety .serial order refers to the task of ordering objects from least to greatest and greatest to least.experimenting is a method of discovering information. In order for inquiry to occur. volume. length. It requires making observations and measurements to test ideas. Measurement allows observations to be quantified. quantitative changes .qualitative observations describe property such as color.quantitative changes can be measured by quantity or amount. and taste (as appropriate). Examples include mass. texture. Qualitative observations utilize descriptive language. predictions. or conclusions. and reporting experimental procedures and results to others. and temperature. Objects. interpreting . patterns. differences. or mathematical and includes: organizing ideas. formulate a procedure. qualitative changes .safety is an essential part of any science activity. odor.qualitative changes refer to any characteristics of. and interrelationships. and events are classified based on similarities. other visual representations. Opportunities for observations are developed through the use of a variety of scientific tools. students must have the opportunity to ask a question. Communication may be oral. quantitative observations .communicating is the process of describing. and observe phenomena. serial order . Safety in the classroom and care of the environment are individual and group responsibilities. written.inquiry can be defined as the skills necessary to carry out the process of scientific or systemic thinking. temperature. communicating . weight.

Geography has more to do with asking questions and solving problems than with rote memorization of isolated facts. Economics provides students with an understanding of how individuals. The primary purpose of social studies is to help young people develop the ability to make informed and reasoned decisions for the public good as citizens of a culturally diverse. revealing how individuals and societies resolved their problems and disclosing the consequences of their choices. and sociology. students are prepared to become informed. geography. social studies as a field of study incorporates many disciplines in an integrated fashion. By studying the choices and decisions of the past. economics. Civic competence is the knowledge. A social studies education encourages and enables each student to acquire a core of basic knowledge. They help students understand the workings of their political system and that of others. civics. Thus equipped. mathematics. now. and participating citizens in this democratic republic. the relationships between people and environments. and social studies. A clear Oklahoma State Department of Education 37 Grade 2 . and nations allocate their sometimes scarce resources. United States history.” as Thomas Jefferson called it. political science. History focuses on the written record of human experience. As a discipline. geography.Priority Academic Student Skills SOCIAL STUDIES Overview Social studies is the integrated study of the social sciences and humanities to promote civic competence. and in the future.” or it may be taught as a series of separate discipline-based classes.” within a social studies department. perhaps called “social studies. contributing. This content area typically appears in courses and units focusing on Oklahoma history. politics. law. students can confront today’s problems and choices with a deeper awareness of their alternatives and the likely consequences. archaeology. the United States of America. Social studies may be taught as a blend of history. and the connections between people and places. psychology. and government in one class. philosophy. and is designed to promote civic competence. As a subject area. Oklahoma schools teach social studies in Kindergarten through Grade 12. Economics. and Government give students a basic understanding of civic life. Civics. and how they interact with other things -. Social studies draws upon such disciplines as anthropology. regional histories. geography provides the skills to help students answer questions about where things are. and social studies. and a way of thinking drawn from many academic disciplines. because it is at once multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary. and responsible citizens who are politically aware and active and committed to the fundamental values and principles of American constitutional democracy. skills. economics. It is the study of the earth’s surface and the processes that shape the past. and natural sciences. history. religion. economics. and government. how they got there. social studies may be difficult to define. democratic society in an interdependent world. geography. states. world geography. as well as the relationship of American politics and government to world affairs. The goal of civics and government is to develop informed. communities. civics. such as “United States History” and “World Geography. world history. history. This content area typically appears in courses and units dealing with geography. competent. and attitudes required of students to be able to assume “the office of citizen. Core Content Areas A foundational curriculum concentrates on the following social studies core content/subjects: history. an arsenal of useful skills. and government. However it is presented. as well as appropriate content from the humanities.

geography. problems of democracy. economics. Build an understanding of a citizen’s role. identified by the National Council for the Social Studies http://www. Demonstrating how each of the disciplines in social studies affects students’ lives. K-12 Social Studies Themes Oklahoma’s social studies framework centers on a series of instructional themes.html. The key goal of social studies is “promoting civic competence. Oklahoma State Department of Education 38 Grade 2 .Priority Academic Student Skills understanding of economics enables students to comprehend the economic forces that affect them everyday and helps them to identify and evaluate the consequences of personal decisions and public policies.socialstudies. and social Students need a solid basis in history.” Together the core content areas: • • • Build an understanding of human history. Develop a sense of the social studies disciplines and the connections across them. Oklahoma schools must provide strong course offerings in these core content areas. Students then will understand how a democratic market economy functions. consumers. and citizens. Providing a flow and understanding of the human story. Note: Some social studies terms used here appear with appropriate definitions and examples at the end of this section of PASS. law. These themes. The social studies themes strengthen curriculum and student learning by: • • • Building connections with course content to help students develop an understanding of human history and their civic role. they discover a strong connection with the core content areas and the supporting subject areas encompassed within the social studies classroom. encouraging connections between social studies and the subject areas. and government to live and work in their communities today and tomorrow. All other skills may be assessed by the Oklahoma School Testing Program (OSTP). Asterisks (*) have been used to identify standards and objectives that must be assessed by the local school district. economics. Book icons ( ) identify Information Literacy skills. provide the platform for this framework. This content area typically appears in courses and units dealing with civics. which better prepares them to be producers. Students are best served when these are taught in collaboration and cooperation between the classroom teacher and the library media specialist. now and in the future. When teachers and curriculum leaders explore the Oklahoma K-12 Social Studies Framework themes. political science. The themes help coordinate the social studies curriculum. American government.

Priority Academic Student Skills
SOCIAL STUDIES Grade 2 The primary focus for second grade is community. Second graders study the features of neighborhoods and the community in more detail, and are introduced to Oklahoma and the United States with references to the rest of the world. They continue to develop map skills, explore history through familiar events, and examine the basic ways goods and services are exchanged. Standard 1: 1. 2. 3. The student will develop and practice the process skills of social studies.

Use information located in resources such as encyclopedias, timelines, visual images, atlases, maps, globes, and computer-based technologies. Use children’s literature to compare and contrast one’s own community to others. Identify the order of events on a simple timeline (e.g., holidays, school events, and the student’s life). The student will examine communities from a spatial perspective.

Standard 2: 1.

Name major landmarks in the community; construct simple maps showing some of these landmarks, the roads connecting them, and directional indicators (north, south, east, and west), and give titles to the maps (e.g., the name of the town). Describe the landmark and cultural features of the community (e.g., historic homes, schools, churches, bridges, parks, and neighborhoods) and compare these with similar features in other parts of the United States. Identify locations on a basic map, write directions for going from one location to another, and use directional indicators to describe locations on the map using both cardinal and intermediate directions. Identify basic landforms and bodies of water (e.g., plains, mountains, rivers, and gulfs), the four oceans, the seven continents, human-made features (e.g., roads and towns). Locate and identify the following on a map of the United States: Oklahoma, the six surrounding states, the Mississippi River, the Great Lakes region, the Rocky Mountains, the Appalachian Mountains, the Great Plains, and the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The student will analyze the human characteristics of communities.





Standard 3: 1.

Identify examples of rules in the classroom and community, and relate the purposes of those rules (e.g., to help people live and work together safely and peacefully) and the consequences of breaking them.

NOTE: Asterisks (*) have been used to identify standards and objectives that must be assessed by the local school district. All other skills may be assessed by the Oklahoma School Testing Program (OSTP). Book icons ( ) identify Information Literacy skills. Students are best served when these are taught in collaboration and cooperation between the classroom teacher and the library media specialist.

Oklahoma State Department of Education


Grade 2

Priority Academic Student Skills
2. 3. 4. Provide examples of honesty, courage, patriotism, and other admirable character traits seen in United States history. Explain and demonstrate good citizenship (e.g., obeying classroom rules, taking turns, and showing respect for others and their belongings). Study how history involves events and people of other times and places through legends, folktales, and historical accounts (e.g., Paul Revere’s ride, Johnny Appleseed, Betsy Ross, John Henry, and Paul Bunyan) in children’s literature. Identify examples of interesting Americans through exposure to biographies of important people of the past (e.g., George Washington, Sacajawea, and Harriet Tubman). The student will examine the interaction of the environment and the people of a community.


Standard 4: 1. 2.

Describe how location and weather affect the way people live. Identify the choices people make about food, clothing, shelter, occupation, transportation, and recreation.

Standard 5: The student will understand basic economic elements found in communities. 1. 2. 3. Distinguish between basic needs (food, clothing, and shelter) and wants (luxuries), and explain how needs and wants can be met (e.g., earning money, saving, and gifts). Describe the occupations and roles of people in the neighborhood and community who provide goods and services. Describe ways people are paid (e.g., by check, in cash, and with goods), the places to keep their money safe (e.g., the bank), and ways they pay for goods and services (e.g., check, cash, credit card, and barter [trading goods and services]).

Oklahoma State Department of Education


Grade 2

Priority Academic Student Skills
GLOSSARY absolute location - the location of a point on earth’s surface which can be expressed by a grid reference (i.e., latitude and longitude). B.C.E. - before the Common Era; the culturally neutral equivalent of B.C. (before Christ) used extensively by world historians and social scientists. Bill of Rights - first ten amendments to the Constitution which limit governmental power and outline basic rights and liberties of individuals. biomes - very large ecosystems made up of specific plant and animal communities interacting with the physical environment (climate and soil). They are usually identified with the climate and climax vegetation of large areas of the earth’s surface (e.g., the Equatorial and Tropical Rain Forest Biome). boundary - the limit or extent within which a system exists or functions, including a social group, a state, a country, or physical feature. C.E. - the Common Era; the culturally neutral equivalent of A.D. (Anno Domini: in the year of our Lord) used extensively by world historians and social scientists. checks and balances - constitutional mechanisms that authorize each branch of government to share powers with the other branches and thereby check their activities. citizen - member of a political society who owes allegiance to and is entitled to participation in and protection by and from the government. contour map - a representation of some part of the earth’s surface using lines along which all points are of equal elevation above or below a fixed point, usually sea level. culture - learned behavior of a people, which includes their belief systems and languages, their social relationships, their institutions and organizations, and their material goods (i.e., food, clothing, buildings, tools, and machines). democracy - form of government in which political control is exercised by all the people, either directly or through their elected representatives. demography - the study of population statistics, changes, and trends based on various measures of fertility (adding to a population), mortality (subtracting from a population), and migration (redistribution of a population). desertification - the spread of a desert condition in arid and semiarid regions resulting from a combination of climatic changes and increasing human pressures, such as overgrazing, removal of vegetation, and cultivation of marginal land. developing country - an area of the world that is changing from uneven growth to more constant economic conditions, and that is generally characterized by low rates of urbanization, relatively high rates of infant mortality and illiteracy, and relatively low rates of life expectancy and energy use. federalism - form of political organization in which governmental power is divided between a central government and territorial subdivisions (e.g., among the national, state, and local governments).

Oklahoma State Department of Education


Grade 2

The GIS collects data about places on earth.000. and major mountain ranges and valley systems. or something else of value. which give it a measure of homogeneity and make it different from surrounding areas.000. situation .division of governmental power among several institutions that must cooperate in decision making.000 means one unit (mile or kilometer) on the map and represents 1.g. places . cattle production. convergence. The divergence. ocean basins. In order to test hypotheses.locations having distinctive characteristics which give them meaning and character. in the United States. and the states. supreme power in a state which. the scale 1:1. political party . food. Oklahoma State Department of Education 42 Grade 2 .doctrine that permits federal courts to declare unconstitutional acts of Congress. remote sensing . and slipping side-by-side of the different plates is theoretically responsible for present-day configurations of continents. rests with the people. and manipulates the information on command to answer questions and solve problems. or globally? separation of powers . including its physical setting (e. sovereignty . or climates of the world).a geographic database that contains information about the distribution of physical and human characteristics of places or areas. is one looking at something at a local scale. or topic (e. and distinguish them from other locations. For example.a map representing a specific spatial distribution. region .000 similar units on the earth’s surface..Priority Academic Student Skills geographic information system (GIS) . even a ruler.the specific place where something is located. judicial review .the general location of something in relation to other places or features of a larger region (e. industrial product. For example. rule of law ..ultimate. thematic map . maps of one characterization or a combination can be produced from the database to analyze the date relationships. aspect of the physical environment that people value and use to meet a need for fuel. resource .any group that seeks to elect government officials under its label. site . on a flood plain). in the center of a group of cities). stores it.g. plate tectonics . must obey the area with one or more common characteristics or features. population density.on maps the relationship or ratio between a linear measurement on a map and the corresponding distance on the earth’s surface. the executive.information gathering about the earth’s surface from a distance (usually referring to the use of aerial photography or satellite images). Also refers to the size of places or regions being studied. national scale. scale .the theory that the earth’s surface is composed of rigid slabs or plates. regional scale..principle that every member of a society.g.

Visual Art and General Music objectives are grouped into the following four standards: General Music Language of Music Music History and Culture Music Expression Music Appreciation Visual Art Language of Visual Art Visual Art History and Culture Visual Art Expression Visual Art Appreciation Throughout the ages the arts have been used to express happiness. cultural. The arts are often asked to express that which cannot be expressed through words. Research confirms that every individual has innate creative potential. Oklahoma State Department of Education 43 Grade 2 . this expression is unique. a life force.Priority Academic Student Skills OVERVIEW THE ARTS Since 1990 The Arts have been part of core curriculum in Oklahoma. or aesthetic sense? Should students be encouraged to create meaningful. Students are best served when these are taught in collaboration and cooperation between the classroom teacher and the library media specialist. it is necessary to teach and assess all the competencies at each grade level. it will never exist through any other medium and will be lost. A quality fine arts program can contribute greatly to the development of each student’s creative thinking and problem-solving skills. all students should be actively engaged in the creative process. Why is it important for each student to understand the significance of the arts in a historical. or creative expressions? Will meaningful arts instruction give students the confidence they need to explore and create at the very highest of educational standards? Anthropologists have found evidence of the use of art for purposes of discussion as early as 70. love. Inspiring creative and imaginative confidence in our students will enable them to address the challenges of the future. The Priority Academic Student Skills (PASS) in The Arts is a basic curriculum framework. The Priority Academic Student Skills (PASS) suggest benchmarks in the understanding of the arts for all students. interpretive. original. In order for this potential to be actualized. a quickening. Consequently. and because there is only one of you in all time. and many other very real human emotions. an energy. sorrow. NOTE: Book icons ( ) identify Information Literacy skills.” (Martha Graham) A balance of instructional activities will provide students with a basic understanding of their knowledge of Visual Art and General Music.000 years ago. that is translated through you into action. The arts that are created today will one day be our contribution to this ongoing discussion of the human experience. And if you block it. “There is a vitality.

4. ) Standard 2: 1.g.. 3.The student will appreciate visual art as a vehicle of human expression. Standard 4: 1. sculpture. subject). paint. shape. original. ( Identify connections between characteristics of visual art and other art disciplines. movement. basic media and techniques in making original art including drawing. Name and describe elements of art. painting.The student will identify visual art terms (e. times and places. Understand art reflects the culture of its origin. contrast. Identify specific works of art produced by artists in different cultures.The student will observe. portrait. Demonstrate respect for personal artwork and the artwork of others. select. 2. rhythm. Students are best served when these are taught in collaboration and cooperation between the classroom teacher and the library media specialist. NOTE: Book icons ( ) identify Information Literacy skills. form. weaving. ( ) Visual Art Expression . balance. and ceramics. collage. Use art media and tools in a safe and responsible manner. 2. 4. 3. Demonstrate thoughtfulness and care in completion of artworks. line. Standard 3: 1.Priority Academic Student Skills VISUAL ART Grade 2 Standard 1: Language of Visual Art . 3.The student will recognize the development of visual art from an historical and cultural perspective. 3. center of interest (emphasis) and repetition. Use appropriate art vocabulary. Visual Art Appreciation . Demonstrate beginning skills of composition using the elements of art and principles of design. Oklahoma State Department of Education 44 Grade 2 . Experiment in color mixing with various media. 2. color. design. Name and describe the principles of design. Use the elements of art and principals of design to communicate ideas. 1. Demonstrate appropriate behavior while attending a visual art exhibition in a museum or art gallery. and utilize a variety of ideas and subject matter in creating original works of visual art. Visual Art History and Culture . texture. value and space. Use a variety of subjects. 2.

AB) e. different tone quality of an individual or group) f. Students are best served when these are taught in collaboration and cooperation between the classroom teacher and the library media specialist.. koto. melody patterns. repeated phrases) b. Recognize basic rhythm patterns by using rhythm syllables (quarter note. gradually louder and softer. eighth note.action songs. Recognize basic features of familiar and unfamiliar songs: a. high and low. suddenly faster and slower) h. Dynamics . upward and downward. African talking drum). 3. 3. Identify the elements of music: a. maracas. Melody (steps. solo/chorus. Oklahoma State Department of Education 45 Grade 2 . singing games of different cultures Standard 2: 1.The student will read. tympani. Tempo (fast and slow. Dynamics (loud and soft. Harmony (accompaniment and no accompaniment. Tempo . violin. ( ) Sing and perform action songs. coda.e. rhymes. 2. gradual change of faster and slower c.loud and soft. half note. (i. whole note patterns and the corresponding rests). Language of Music . Music History and Culture . repetition/contrast. long and short sounds. gradually faster and slower. holiday songs and music from different countries. Styles . ( ) NOTE: Book icons ( ) identify Information Literacy skills. Tone Color (classroom percussion instruments. motives. rhythm patterns in songs and ostinatos) c. and repeated tones. ostinato patterns) and slow. suddenly louder and softer) 2. Identify music and instruments from different cultures. Recognize music from our country. gradual change of louder and softer b. meter in 2/4 and 3/4.The student will recognize the development of music from an historical and cultural perspective. identify trumpet. Form (introduction. notate and interpret music.Priority Academic Student Skills GENERAL MUSIC Grade 2 Standard 1: 1. work songs. leaps. chord changes. Pitch ( higher and lower) g. clarinet. Rhythm (strong and weak beats. Native American flute. singing games and dances from a variety of cultures. chants.

4. galloping. Respond to the beat or rhythm in music by clapping. imitate. Recognize and practice appropriate audience or performer behavior appropriate for the context and style of music performed. Music Expression . walking. Respond to unfinished short melodic patterns using voice or classroom instruments. 3. 7. While listening to a musical piece. Play simple melodies by rote on instruments. Match pitches. Perform solos and in groups. Standard 4: 1.Priority Academic Student Skills Standard 3: 1. skipping. use directional hand movements to follow the melodic contour (sound or progression of single tones). Play simple rhythmic patterns using sounds and silences on classroom percussion instruments to accompany songs and rhythm activities. 6. or chanting. Discuss likes and dislikes of music of different styles. Demonstrate respect for music performed by the student and by other students and professional performers. sliding. hopping. compose a variety of music within specific guidelines. running. 2. Music Appreciation . Oklahoma State Department of Education 46 Grade 2 . 3.The student will perform. Participate in music through singing (echo singing) and/or playing instruments (body percussion and melodic ostinatos). such as bells or xylophones. 5. 8. playing classroom instruments. sing in tune (C-scale range) and use appropriate tone and expression. 2.The student will learn to appreciate music and expand listening beyond music currently familiar to the student.

a vertical line dividing measures on the staff. bar line . accelerando . such as trumpet. The first and last sections are the same.a musical plan that has three sections. A ballet is characterized by conventional steps.a compositional device in which a melodic line is repeated in longer note values. cornet. The middle section is different.relating to the sense of hearing. acoustic instruments . ballad . Oklahoma State Department of Education 47 Grade 2 . poses. brass family . allegro . and French horn.a walking pace. ABA form . usually accompanied by music. acoustics . trombone. guitar. body percussion .a type of American country music using acoustic instruments. ballet .traditional musical instruments that produce sound and amplify it by natural means (piano.the lowest male singing voice. aural . as opposed to instruments that produce and amplify sound electronically (synthesizers. alto . hardship and longing. etc.the consistent pulse that occurs throughout a rhyme. bluegrass .a quick and lively tempo.). euphonium. or sections.g. clap. etc. slap. tap. whistle). stomp. sound modules. blues .wind instruments made out of metal with either a cup or funnel-shaped mouthpiece.a musical plan that has two different parts.sounds produced by the use of the body (e. song or recorded musical selection. beat . tuba.the lowest female voice. articulation . and graceful movements including leaps and spins.return to the previous tempo. often involving a narrative or plot sequence. andante . stamp.symbol placed on the five-line staff in traditional notation that tells you that the fourth line of the staff is the note F. listening.the degree to which notes are separated or connected such as staccato or legato. bass clef . bass . a flowing tempo.. a tempo .a dance performance.). augmentation . snap. bugle.a narrative song.a genre of African-American music often expressing suffering. trumpet.the science of sound generation.gradually faster.Priority Academic Student Skills MUSIC GLOSSARY AB form .

Synonymous with diminuendo.a person who writes music. keyboard.a signal given by the director of a performing group to begin either at the beginning of the music or after they have concluded a section at rest. classroom instruments . conductor .a combination of three or more tones sounded simultaneously. chord . simple percussion. composer . clef .Priority Academic Student Skills cadence .to the end. D.4/4 meter. contour .how long a sound lasts. common time .the repetitive part of a song that occurs between the verses. dal segno. including. al fine .symbol placed at the beginning of the staff to indicate the pitch of the notes on the staff (treble clef and bass clef).the direction of a musical line. autoharp.instruments typically used in the general music classroom.repeat from the sign to fine (the end). composition .gradually louder.a vocal part which contrasts with the main melody. section or composition which gives the feeling of a temporary or permanent ending. also a large group of singers.director of an orchestra or chorus. chorus . Oklahoma State Department of Education 48 Grade 2 .meter in which there are two beats in each measure and a half note receives one beat. mallet instruments.a piece for a soloist and orchestra.a musical performance for an audience.a chordal or melodic progression which occurs at the close of a phrase. dimunition . decrescendo . requiring the cooperation of several musicians. D. and electronic instruments.gradually softer.the completed arrangement of music. al fine .closing section of a composition. duration .S. C.the shortening of note values. call and response .a composition performed by two performers. coda .a song style that follows a simple question and answer pattern in which a soloist leads and a group responds. for example: recorder-type instruments. cue . crescendo . countermelody . cut time . concerto . concert . duet .

glockenspiel. trumpet. harpsichord . melody . and include tympani. triangle. Many of these instruments are pipes perforated by holes in their sides. Forte . opera. English horn. clarinet. flat – b . texture . percussion instruments – musical instruments that are struck or shaken to produce a sound. cellos (or cello).the organization of musical composition. c. originally transmitted orally. and saxophone. trombone. gongs. oboe. contrast.ff – very loud (dynamic). and double bass. dynamics .two or more tones sounding together. all of which have metal instrument bodies and mouthpieces. brass instruments – include the French horn.varying degree of loud and soft. bassoon.the speed or pace of music.the organization of a musical composition according to its sections of repetition. sforzando). h. rhythm . bass drum.a keyboard instrument of European origin. fortissimo . snare drum. sometimes as a rhythmic accompaniment to manual work or to mark a specific ritual. Oklahoma State Department of Education 49 Grade 2 .music of a particular people.Priority Academic Student Skills dynamics . four sections of an Orchestra: woodwind instruments – include the flute. harmony . All of these have strings that produce sound when stroked with a bow or plucked. cantata. such as symphony. string instruments – include the violin.the highness or lowness of a particular note. fortissimo. concerto. strings.the quality of sound of an instrument or voice. form . etc. nation or region. e. harmony – two or more tones sounding together. pitch .f .number of sounds occurring simultaneously. form . g. elements of Music: a.a succession or pattern of musical tones or pitches. xylophone and marimba. string quartet.e. variation or development. mezzo piano. tempo . b. resembling a piano and having horizontal strings plucked by leather or quill points connected to the keys. folk music .loud (dynamic).the movement of music through time. i. contrabassoon. piano. f. cymbals. viola. tone color . genre . which produce musical sound when the columns of air within them vibrate by blowing on a mouthpiece. brass.a symbol that lowers the pitch of a note one-half step. forte. mezzo forte.a category of musical composition. instrument groupings or instrument families – classification of instruments by the way or material by which sound is made (i.varying degrees of loud and soft (pianissimo. and tuba. percussion. wind). d.

meter – the grouping of accented and unaccented beats in a pattern of two (ONE. improvisation. major scale – a scale built on the pattern of two whole steps.e.medium soft. movement – the principal division or section of a musical composition. mezzo piano – mp . eighth notes. jazz – a popular style of music characterized by strong. In Western culture. sixteenth notes). motive . usually presented in the form of a fraction. melody – a succession or pattern of musical tones or pitches. prominent meter.medium loud. the notes and rests comprised between two vertical bar lines. intonation – the degree to which pitch is accurately produced in performance. key signature – the sharps and flats placed at the beginning of a composition or line of music denoting the scale on which the music is based. set off by vertical lines. three. indicating specific pitches and the duration of each pitch.small decorative low-powered binoculars for use by people in the audience at theatrical.a short melodic or rhythmic pattern. measure – a group of beats in written music.a theatrical performance involving a drama. ONE. mezzo forte – mf . and one half step. notation – method in which music is written down. one half step. note – a musical symbol that denotes both pitch and duration. this system works just like fractions (i. the text of which is sung to the accompaniment of an orchestra. The standard specifications that enable electronic instruments to communicate with one another and with computers. Arranging these pitches creates a specific tonal and rhythmic succession of sounds that makes each piece recognizable and expresses a musical idea or tune. three whole steps. consistency and flow to the music. opera . meter signature – an indication at the beginning of a musical work. operatic. and two whole steps. quarter notes. two) or three (ONE. and dotted or syncopated patterns. MIDI – an acronym for Musical Instrument Digital Interface. minor scale – a scale built on the pattern of one whole step. usually on a staff. by musicians in an ensemble. or ballet performances. half notes. two. whole notes. three) or combinations of two and three. the lower of which indicates the unit of measurement and the upper number of which indicates the number of units that make up a measure (see also “time signature”). two. two. one half step. which gives internal organization.Priority Academic Student Skills interval – the difference in pitch between two tones. ONE. two whole steps. Oklahoma State Department of Education 50 Grade 2 . opera glasses .. one half step.

chimes. overture . piano . phrase .an extended orchestral introduction to an opera. polyphony . xylophone. ballet. pianissimo .Priority Academic Student Skills orchestra .the principal female singer in an opera. rhythm . quartet .a relatively short portion of a melodic line which expresses a musical idea. refrain . phrasing – dividing musical sentences into melodic and/or rhythmic sections. wind.pitches from low to high which a singer or instrumentalist may perform.a large musical instrument consisting of a wooden case with wires stretched inside it and a row of white and black keys. Oklahoma State Department of Education 51 Grade 2 . bass drum.a composition for four instruments or voices. Beats per measure. triangle.sounds made by striking.the term which denotes the organization of sound in time or the proportion or duration of notes.Jamaican dance music. repetition .” pitch .an introductory movement of a piece. marimba. repertoire . brass and percussion instrument groupings. pianissimo –pp – very soft (dynamic).instruments that produce sounds of definite or indefinite pitch when shaken or struck including tympani. prima donna .a short section of repeated music which occurs at the end of each stanza.very soft. reggae .soft. percussive sounds .very fast. Italian for “soft. or similar type of musical presentation. presto . cymbal.the highness or lowness of a particular note.the simultaneous combination for different melodies and rhythms. or almost the same. mixing African and Caribbean rhythms.a variety of musical that is the same. rhythm pattern . shaking and/or scraping. range .group of musicians playing together on instruments. snare drum. piano – p . as music that was heard earlier rests . In Western music.symbols used to represent silence between notes. comparable to a line or sentence in poetry. similar to the effect of punctuation in language. prelude . percussion family .a group of long and short sounds. the orchestra typically includes string.

playing or singing alone. The lines are counted from the bottom up. score .gradually slower.playing notes in a distinct. scale . 5 by Beethoven).the plural of staff. staccato . separated manner. row.g. “Row. bowed.Priority Academic Student Skills ritardando . synthesizer . development. solo . and a cello.instruments with strings that produce sound when plucked. cello. symphony . The five parallel lines on which music is written.a piece for a large orchestra usually in four movements(e.the musical ladder made up of a set of five parallel lines and four spaces on which music is written and makes it easy for you to tell how high or low a sound is. style . Oklahoma State Department of Education 52 Grade 2 .a return form consisting of three sections: exposition..g. string quartet . sonata .the repetition of a melodic ensemble with the parts layered vertically and rhythmically aligned. staff .deliberate shifting of the pattern of strong and weak beats.A symbol which raises the pitch of a note one-half step.the distinctive or characteristic manner in which the elements of music are treated.# .an ensemble of four stringed instruments including two violins. Staccato is represented by dots placed directly above or below the notehead.the written depiction of all the parts of a musical ensemble with the parts layered vertically and rhythmically aligned. staves . sequence . also music performed by the ensemble..a period of music from 1935 to 1945. or struck including violin.a song imitated at the same pitch by a second (or third) group of singers who begin at a designated time during the song (e. soprano .an organization of pitches in ascending or descending sequence. rondo . a viola. viola. and recapitulation. detached. soul music .a form of rhythm and blues. syncopation .an instrumental piece in several movements. sharp . string instrument family .allegro form . row your boat”).a composition consisting of a recurring theme alternating with contrasting sections.a machine that produces sound electronically.the highest female voice. round . A solo performer is called a soloist. Symphony No. and bass. swing era . sonata .

adagio (slow).a slight wavering or pulsating of tone. in which sound is produced by the vibration of air including piccolo. tempo. flawless technique. waltz . transposition .A theme is an important melody that is heard and repeated several times throughout a musical composition.e. made famous in Vienna in the late 1800s. tone poem .the way individual parts of music are layered or the number of sounds occurring simultaneously. time signature .a dance in triple meter.the meter (number of beats per measure and kind of note getting one beat. moderato (moderate). Musical tempos are expressed in Italian and include lento (very slow).The speed or pace of music. theme . treble .) timbre . allegro (lively). virtuoso . vibrato . woodwind instrument family . (key changes. tenor . clarinet.the key or tone center of a piece of music. melodic elaborations. presto (fast). Oklahoma State Department of Education 53 Grade 2 . English horn.a melody that assumes importance in a composition because of its central and continued use. saxophone. texture . unison . treble clef .songs written for performance by two distinct voices.the highest male voice.. oboe. theme and variation . etc.a performer with brilliant.symbol placed on the five-line staff in traditional notation indicating the pitch of the notes and locating G on the second line from the bottom. i. vivace (very fast). Variations occur when the theme is stated and then altered in successive statements.instruments originally made of wood.high in pitch. 2/4 or 3/4 or 4/4 meter).two or more parts performing the same pitches or melody simultaneously.quality of sound of an instrument or voice. flute.the process of changing the key of a composition. two-part songs .Priority Academic Student Skills tempo .programmatic work for a symphony. tonality . bassoon and contrabassoon.

Music was heard in church as well as the households of the aristocracy and upper classes. as in the Medieval times. Contemporary – There are many different musical trends occurring simultaneously. Ludwig van Beethoven. and cantata. and a balanced clear musical form of short. There were parallels to the artwork of the time in the “feeling” of lightness and exoticism in the music. Instrumental music surpassed vocal music in popularity. Classical – Referred to as the “Age of Enlightenment”. New instrumental forms (solo sonata. where there are two or more melodic lines sounding simultaneously. Richard Wagner. Noted composers of the time include Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Romantic – During the nineteenth and early twentieth century Romantic music was expressive and exciting. overture. and phony – sounds). oratorio. Aaron Copeland. Baroque – Secular music predominated over sacred music and there was a certain “theatrical” spirit of elaborate design in the music. regular phrases. and Peter Tchaikovsky. More attention was given to dynamic shading (getting gradually louder or softer). Composers experimented with: new coloristic effects in instruments and the voice and in harmonies. and Maurice Ravel. Noted composers of the time include Gabrielli.) and vocal forms (aria. Monteverdi. etc. The composers developed a new musical “language” that has affected music even to the present day. American jazz/blues. etc. Palestrina. and Handel. There was more of a tendency to use major/minor tonality rather than modality. Oklahoma State Department of Education 54 Grade 2 . Vocal music predominated but instrumental music had increased interest as an independent style. Some of the broader tendencies of modernism are Neoromanticism. Noted composers of the time include Johannes Brahms. and Franz Joseph Haydn. expanded harmonies of new chords and progressions. including music for film and television. Expressionism. painting. new combinations of scales and rhythms. the meaning of “classicism” in music relates to the ancient Greek ideals of objectivity. Noted composers of the time include Claude Debussy. Dissonant sounds were resolved into consonant sounds.Priority Academic Student Skills Major Periods of Music in Western Culture from the Renaissance to the Present 1400-1600 – Renaissance 1600-1750 – Baroque 1750-1820 – Classical 1820-1900 – Romantic 1880-1918 – Impressionism 1900-present – Contemporary Renaissance – This period is referred to as the “Golden Age of Polyphony” (poly – many. recitative. and stressed the expression of feeling using of a wide dynamic range. and Duke Ellington. Noted composers of the time include Igor Stravinsky.) were developed. concerto grosso. Vivaldi. Franz Schubert. emotional restraint. Neoclassicism. Impressionism – This style was centered mostly in France. and popular music for Broadway and film. and architecture. Polyphony and counterpoint from the Renaissance still predominate but homophonic texture (melody with chordal accompaniment) gains importance. opera. Noted composers of the time include Bach. Robert Shumann.

such as paper. Architecture is common to all cultures throughout history. The pottery is produced using this process and is then fired in a kiln to make it stronger. a naturally occurring earth substance.message or theme the artist is trying to communicate in a particular work of art. easel .organization.a nontoxic. including the social. shapes.part of the picture plane that seems furthest from the viewer usually in the upper portion of the image. fabric. art history .. office buildings. aesthetics . or other work of art. usually of an original concept or idea. etc. background .making visual art from clay. churches.graphic art produced for purposes such as advertising and packaging.the process of producing works of visual art using various materials. colors in a work of art. photographs. philosophical. content . string. etc.arrangement of objects.the art form of designing and planning the building of structures such as homes. aesthetic and technological factors which influence changes in their production over time. engraving .the field of inquiry into the origins of visual art in worldwide and/or specific cultures. collage . composition . interprets and evaluates works of visual art. texture.outline or outside edge of shapes. elements of art (design) . media and techniques. plan or arrangement of a work of art. ceramics .an intaglio printmaking method in which a sharp tool called a burin is used to scratch lines into a metal plate. art criticism . This technique is used to create a print. and involving higher-order thinking skills.the art of representing objects. drawing .the field of inquiry that describes. water-based pigment available in tubes or jars and may be washed out of brushes. shopping centers. architecture . and space. crayon. ideas. create .the observable components of which all works of visual art are comprised. marker. color. and provides a criteria by which works of art are analyzed and evaluated. value (light and dark). cultural. commercial art . etc.that branch of philosophy which focuses on the nature and value of art. often by making comparative judgments. Oklahoma State Department of Education 55 Grade 2 . form.twentieth-century technique of making art in which various materials. painting.a freestanding upright support for a painter’s canvas. includes: line. schools. bridges. design . are pasted on a flat surface. on a surface using pencil. the nature of beauty. Contour lines will define something in a drawing. contour . pen. shape.Priority Academic Student Skills VISUAL ART GLOSSARY acrylic paint . religious. or other marking material to make lines or values usually on a flat surface.

visual and sensory awareness. film. wood. paint brush .used to apply paint to the surface of different support materials.area of a picture between foreground and background. modern art . and literature. foreground . feelings and meanings through selective use of the communicative possibilities of visual art folk art . or other work of art. materials . mixed media . shell.paintings and decorative objects made in a naïve style.pigments (color) mixed with oil or water.the resources used in (1) the creation of works of visual art.Priority Academic Student Skills expression .machine or frame for weaving.the latest styles of art.system for giving the illusion of three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional surface. often associated with revolutionary ideas and styles in art. mountains.modeling material made of mashed newspaper and liquid paste. such as canvas. slides.material used by an artist to produce a work of art. fabrics. mosaic . filmstrips.person using the technique of photography to capture optical images on light sensitive surfaces. Prominently used during the Renaissance. paint. images and feelings. discrimination and integration of impressions. lakes. foreshortening . such as film. or glass set into plaster or cement. medium . such as art reproductions.a way of drawing or painting an object or person (using linear perspective) so that it seems to go back in space. ceramic. architecture.creating artwork that uses more than one medium or technique in combination. fibers. drawing. The art that developed in the early 20th century as a reaction to traditional forms. conditions and relationships with regard to objects. loom .part of the picture plane that seems closest to the viewer. perception .visual artworks are grouped according to the materials used to produce them. oils. etc. pencils and watercolors. pen and ink. media .artwork not copied or imitated from the work of someone else.a process of conveying ideas. landscape . paper maché . May also refer to the liquid mixed with pigment to make paint. etc. usually in the lower portion of the image.a painting. and (2) the study of works of art. photographer . clay.. paper. paint . videocassettes. books. which shows natural or outdoor scenes. or trees. middle ground . such as rivers. original . etc. perspective .floor or wall decoration made of small pieces of stone. photograph. Pigment particles in paint stick to the surface of the support material on which the paint is applied. Oklahoma State Department of Education 56 Grade 2 .

seascapes. and are used to create the illusion of form. presses. Several basic printing processes used in the classroom include stencil. landscapes. often typical of a cultural group or time period.a painting. or cast. printmaking . red + blue = violet.a complex operation involving a number of methods or techniques. etc. shade . emphasis.the basic colors of red. secondary colors . rhythm. symbol . repetition. portrait . constructed. modeled. such as abstractions. Although. lasers and video equipment. such as the additive/subtractive process in sculpture. they were not created according to these principles and should not be judged by them.surface of a painting or drawing. etc. still life . artist's or group of artists’ characteristic way of making art or expression. drawing. technologies . and then fired in a kiln. blue + yellow = green. human figures. such as: balance.a three-dimensional work of art.technique of transferring textural qualities of a surface to paper by placing the paper over the surface and repeatedly rubbing over the top of the paper with crayon or pencil until the image is clearly visible on the paper. techniques .shaded areas in a drawing painting photograph.refer to the different ways the elements of design may be used in works of art in the Western European tradition. computers. process . genre (people in everyday activities). Shadows show the surface of the subject that reflects the least light. or the etching/intaglio processes in printmaking. or other work of art that shows an arrangement of inanimate objects.visual image that stands for or represents something else.the art process used to produce an impression from one surface to another and may be repeated one or more times to produce identical images. cityscapes. Opposite of a tint. such as lathes. yellow. shadow .dark value of a color made by adding black to it. or other work of art.image of a person's face. sculpture . which may be carved. style .the processes by which art materials and media are used to create/produce works of visual art. painting. principles of design .the three colors obtained by mixing equal parts of two primary colors: red + yellow = orange. rubbing .complex equipment used in the study and creation of art. and blue from which it is possible to mix all other colors on the color wheel. Oklahoma State Department of Education 57 Grade 2 . print. block. works from cultures that are not part of the Western European tradition may give evidence of such principles. such as carving. Opposite of highlight. printing. subject matter .Priority Academic Student Skills picture plane . pottery . variety. and monoprint. contrast. and unity.the categories for identifying the type of content in visual works of art. movement.ceramic container made from clay. primary colors . drawing. animals. center of interest.

architecture and environmental art such as urban.light value of a color made by mixing the color with white. painting. and works of art such as ceramics. works in wood. perspective. Having only two qualities of height and breadth. interior and landscape design. brayers. fibers.flat. easels. carving tools and cameras. graphics and product design. folk art. tint .having three qualities including depth. jewelry. paper and other materials. for example.instruments and equipment used by students to create and learn about art. two-dimensional . as in a sculpture. such as brushes. Oklahoma State Department of Education 58 Grade 2 . visual art.Priority Academic Student Skills three-dimensional . scissors. television. printmaking and sculpture. tools . as in a drawing or painting. the point at which receding lines seem to converge and vanish. communication and design art such as film. such as drawing. and breadth.a broad category that includes the traditional fine art. for example. kilns. vanishing point .

Artists emphasized light. Noted artists included Paul Cezanne.Prehistoric to approximately A. Noted artists include Edgar Degas. Greek Roman including architecture. Oklahoma State Department of Education 59 Grade 2 .A style of painting started in France in the 1860s. These artists rejected the use of proportion and emphasized the flatness of the painted subject and subjects are sometimes shown from several viewpoints at the same time. Pierre Auguste Renoir. This style of art emphasized the effect of sunlight on objects and used small dabs of paint that are blended in the viewer’s eyes to imitate reflected light. Post-Impressionism . in which subject matter is broken up or separated into cubes and other geometric shapes. Vincent van Gogh and Paul Gauguin.A revival or rebirth. portrait sculpture. Egyptian .A twentieth-century art movement begun in the 1900s. Noted artists include Piet Mondrian. Renaissance . Sphinx. and color and added dimensions of psychological depth and emotional involvement in their art. and mosaics. in the 1880s and 1890s. Mary Cassatt and Claude Monet. Wassily Kandinsky and Jackson Pollack. hieroglyphics. pottery/vase decoration and sculpture.including the Pyramids. An art movement during the fourteenth and fifteenth century.Priority Academic Student Skills Major styles of visual art in Western Culture Ancient Art . Impressionism . Noted artists include Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque. Note: There are many other artists and styles of art and the classroom teacher or visual art specialist is encouraged to expand on those listed above.A twentieth-century art movement which is nonrepresentational and in which the elements and principles of design may be stressed or shapes of real objects may be simplified or distorted. shadow.D. including panel paintings. during which time advances in painting were made. Abstract Art . Noted artists of the time include Leonardo Da Vinci.A French art movement that immediately followed Impressionism. Michelangelo and Raphael. including perspective and foreshortening. columns and wall paintings. Cubism . 330 (artifacts listed are a few of the noted contributions of these ancient cultures).

leaves. center of interest . Other shapes may be freeform such as natural objects (i. for example. or objects closer to the viewer are made to appear to have more vibrant color and detail than objects further away. asymmetrical and radial (from a center point). shapes or colors to lead the eye of the viewer from one direction to another. color . value (how light a color is). smooth or rough. emphasis. repeated.The surface quality or feel of an object. movement . It may be thick or thin. value . Examples of types of geometric shapes include circle.The degree of dark or light tones or colors. light or dark.A two-dimensional area defined by an outline or change in color. They may be the focus of individual lessons or used as the theme for creating original works of art. rhythm . or crosshatching.Hue (name of the color). A line may define the edge of a shape.Area within. yellow.A three-dimensional object with the qualities of length. Variation of size or value and the use of converging lines are also used to suggest space. Oklahoma State Department of Education 60 Grade 2 . sphere. i. and purple. Examples of geometric forms include a cone. or cylinder. and blue. Understanding these concepts will provide a basic art vocabulary and ideas by which works of art can begin to be analyzed.The accent or important area used to attract the viewers' attention..Significant degrees of difference between lines. texture . around. values or textures. square.e. contrast . overlapping of shapes.The path of a moving point. Pale yellow against charcoal black has a greater degree of contrast than yellow against white. Principles of Design balance . or oval. Space or distance may be suggested in visual art by using perspective or other strategies such as placement of objects on the picture plane. colors. Basic types of balance are symmetrical (mirror image). triangle. form . it can create texture or value. cube.. short or long. Primary colors are the three colors from which all other colors may be made: red. above or below objects and shapes.Priority Academic Student Skills Elements of Art The elements and principles of art may be considered the basic language of visual art. Secondary colors are the result of mixing any two primary colors: orange. space . green. flowers. between. hatch marks (small repeated lines in the same direction). colors. line .Regular repetition of lines. and intensity (amount of brightness) produced through the reflection of light to the eye.The arrangement of the elements of art in a composition.Use of lines. rectangle. shapes or pattern. clouds) or invented free-form shapes that might be created by doodling. width and depth. Value may be created by simple shading. shapes.e. A value scale shows the gradual changing of a tone from the darkest to the lightest or white. Texture may be actual (rough or smooth) or implied visually. shape .

Priority Academic Student Skills variety – Refers to the different elements of art used to create interest (difference). of things belonging together and making up a coherent whole.Repeated use of an element such as color. Oklahoma State Department of Education 61 Grade 2 . shape or line within a work of art. which may be found in manufactured or natural objects. repetition . Repetition creates pattern. unity – Sense of oneness.

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