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Institute of Technology, Bombay, Powai, MUMBAI – 400 076 (India)

Phone: 91 22 2576 7527 (O) / 2576 8527 ®; ssjoshi@me.iitb.ac.in

1

Product Design for Manufacturing

Aspects Aspects Aspects Dependability

Product Design

Aspects Aspects Aspects

2

Role of Metrology in Design for Manufacturing

Manufacturing

Aspect Fit: It is the interrelation between

dimensions of mating parts

Key Functional before their assembly

Requirements

parts

Tolerances, dimensions on

mating parts

Cost

Manufacturing Processes of

Mfg.

& Sequences

Cost of Manufacturing

Tolerance

3

Fig. 2 Implications of Manufacturing aspects

Evaluation for Limits and Fits

Selection of an Appropriate FIT

based on functional requirement

shaft and hole

4

Fig. 3 Evaluation of Limits of Tolerances

Introduction

• Precision and Accuracy:

– Precision refers to repeatability

– Accuracy refers of result to the true value

where, systematic error =True value- mean of set of readings

5

Limits and Fits - Definitions

Hole

Shaft

Limits and Fits - Definitions

Zero Line: It is a line along which represents the basic size and zero

(or initial point) for measurement of upper or lower deviations.

Basic Size: It is the size with reference to which upper or lower limits

of size are defined.

Shaft and Hole: These terms are used to designate all the external and

internal features of any shape and not necessarily cylindrical.

(excluding I, L, O, Q, W and adding Js, Za, Zb, Zc) - 25 nos. Indian

Stds

(excluding i, l, o, q, w and adding js, za, zb, zc) - 25 nos.

7

Definitions

Upper Deviation: The algebraic difference between the maximum limit of

size (of either hole or shaft) and the corresponding basic size, like ES, es.

Lower Deviation: The algebraic difference between the minimum limit of size

(of either hole or shaft) and the corresponding basic size, like EI, ei.

Fundamental Deviation: It is one of the two deviations which is chosen to

define the position of the tolerance zone.

Tolerance: The algebraic difference between upper and lower deviations. It is

an absolute value.

Limits of Size: There are two permissible sizes for any particular dimension

between which the actual size lies, maximum and minimum

Basic Shaft and Basic hole: The shafts and holes that have zero fundamental

deviations. The basic hole has zero lower deviation whereas, the basic shaft

has zero upper deviation.

8

Selection of Fits

Definition of Fit: It is the relation between dimensions of two mating parts

before their assembly.

Selection of Fits

Systems of Fit: There are two systems by which a fits can be accomplished –

1. Hole basis system

2. Shaft basis system

Transition fit

Holes Interference fit

‘H’ Hole

‘h’ Shaft

Interference fit

b. Shaft Basis system

10

Fig. 7 [a-b] Systems of Fit

Schematic for grades in Indian Stds.

and holes with reference to the

zero line

11

Limits and Fits - Definitions

A

D H

FD

Zero line

Holes Z

P Zc

V

v

p zc

z

Shafts Zero line

FD h

d

a

Schematic of position of various shafts and holes with12

reference to the zero line

Fig. 7 Fundamental deviations for various shafts and holes

Holes

Shafts

13

Grades of Tolerance

grades of tolerances – IT01, IT0, IT1 to IT16

IT01 to IT4 - For production of gauges, plug gauges, measuring instruments

IT5 to IT 7 - For fits in precision engineering applications

IT8 to IT11 – For General Engineering

IT12 to IT14 – For Sheet metal working or press working

IT15 to IT16 – For processes like casting, general cutting work

14

Grades of Tolerance

‘standard tolerance unit’, (i) in µm, which is a function of basic size [3].

i = 0.45 3 D + 0.001D

where, D (mm) is the geometric mean of the lower and upper diameters of a

particular diameter step within which the chosen the diameter D lies.

Diameter steps in I.S.I are: (a-b, where a is above and b is up to, Refer Table in

the following sheet)

1-3, 3-6, 6-10, 10-18, 18-30, 30-50, 50-80, 80-120, 120-180, 180-250, 250-

315, 315-400 and 400-500 mm

15

Table for Sizes

16

Grades of Tolerance

It is understood that the tolerances have parabolic relationship with the size of

the products. As the size increases, the tolerance within which a part can be

manufactured also increases.

IT01 – 0.3 + 0.008D

IT0 – 0.5 + 0.012 D

IT1 – 0.8 + 0.020D

IT2 to IT4 – the values of tolerance grades are placed geometrically between

the tolerance grades of IT1 and IT5.

IT6 – 10 i; IT7 – 16i; IT8 – 25i; IT9 – 40i; IT10 – 64i; IT11 – 100i; IT12 –

160i; IT13 – 250i; IT14 – 400i; IT15 – 640i; IT16 – 1000i.

17

Formulae for

fundamental

deviations of

shafts up to size

500 mm

18

Formulae for fundamental deviations of shafts up to size 500 mm

19

Formulae for fundamental deviations of shafts up to size 500 - 3150 mm

20

Selection of Holes

21

Selection of Shafts

22

Selection of Fits

Clearance Fits (Hole Basis System):

Shafts Grades Description of fit Application

a, b, c 11 Very large clearance Generally not used

d 8, 9, 10 Loose running Loose pulleys

e 7, 8, 9 Loose clearance Electric motor bearings, heavily

loaded bearing

f 6, 7, 8 Normal running Lubricated bearings (with oil or

grease), pumps and smaller motors,

gear boxes

g 5, 6 Precision running Lightly loaded shafts, sliding spools,

accurate bearings

h 5 to 11 Extreme clearance Sockets and spigots of joints

(preferably for non-

running parts)

Preferred Clearance fits (in practice) [1] : H11/c11, H9/d9, H8/f7, H7/g6 (Guide Fit), 23

H7/h6, C11/h11, D9/h9, F8/h7, G7/h6

Selection of Fits

js 5, 6, 7 Slight clearance to Very accurate location, couplings,

slight interference spigots, gears,

k 5, 6, 7 No clearance to Precision joints likely to be

little clearance subjected to vibrations

m 5, 6, 7 Slight interference Forced assembly is required

(on average)

n 5, 6, 7 Slight interference Semi-permanent or tight fit

and very little assemblies

clearance

Preferred Transition fits [1]: H7/k6, H7/n6, K7/h6, N7/h6

24

Selection of Fits

p 6, 7, 8, True interference Fixing bushes, standard press fit

(light)

r 5, 6, 7 Interference (but Tight press fit. Keys in key ways

can be dismantled)

s 5, 6, 7 Semi permanent/ Valve seating, collars on shafts

permanent fit

t, u ---- High degree of Permanent assemblies

interference

Preferred Interference fits [1]: H7/p6 (Press fit), H7/s6, H7/u6, P7/h6, S7/h6, U7/h6

25

Example #1

Evaluate limits and fits for a pair of – Diameter 6 H7/g6

Solution: The size 6 mm lies in the diametral step of 3-6, therefore, D is given

by – D = 3 × 6 = 4.24mm

i = 0.45 3 D + 0.001D

i = 0.45 3 4.24 + 0.001× 4.24

i = 0.7327 µ m

Limits of tolerance for hole H7

The standard tolerance is – 16 i = 16x0.7327 = 11.72 = 12 µm

The fundamental deviation H hole is – 0

The standard tolerance is – 10 i 10x0.7327 = 7.327 = 8 µm

Fundamental deviation for g shaft = −2.5 D 0.34 = −2.5(4.24)0.34 = −4.085 = −4µ m

26

Example #1

6.012

12 µm H7 Hole

6.000

4 µm

5.996 g6 Shaft 8 µm

5.988

Disposition of tolerance zone around the zero line

Fit

Maximum clearance = Maximum size of hole - Minimum size of shaft

= 6.012 – 6.988 = 0.024 mm = 24 µm

Minimum clearance = Minimum size of hole - Maximum size of shaft

= 6.000 - 6.996 = 0.004 mm = 4 µm

The type of fit is Clearance.

27

Example #2

Calculate the limits of sizes for φ 20 P7/h6 and identify the fit.

Therefore, D is given by –

D = 18 × 24 = 20.78mm

The fundamental tolerance unit i is given by –

The fundamental deviation P7 hole – IT6 + 0 to 5 =10 i + 5

10 ×1.258 + 5 = 17.58 = 18µ m

For grade 7 the standard tolerance is – 16 i = 16x1.258 = 20.128 = 21 µm

28

Example #2

Limits evaluation for h6 Shaft

The fundamental deviation for h shaft is – 0

For grade 6 the standard tolerance is – 10 i = 10x1.258 = 12.58 = 13 µm

20.000

18 µm h6 Shaft

19.982 19.987

21 µm P7 Hole

19.961

Disposition of tolerance zone around the zero line

Fit

Maximum clearance = Maximum size of hole - Minimum size of shaft

= 19.982 – 19.987 = - 0.005 = - 5 µm

Maximum Interference = Minimum size of hole - Maximum size of shaft

= 19.961 - 20.000 –= - 0.039 mm = - 39 µm

The fit is Interference. But it can become Transition if you choose some value

29

of FD for p shaft between IT7 + 1 to 5 µm

Taylor’s Principle of Gaging

• The no-go gage checks the individual sections

Go gage:

• Plug gage for maximum material

dimension, i.e., smallest hole

• Testing the function, i.e.,

shape and pairing dimension

No Go gage:

• Ball gage for minimum material

dimension, biggest hole

• Testing the maximum dimension

30

References

1.http://www.mitcalc.com/doc/tolerances/help/en/tolerances.htm

2. http://www.ecs.umass.edu/mie/labs/mda/dlib/fit_tol/fitandtol.html

3. R. K. Jain, Engineering Metrology, Khanna Publishers, New Delhi (India)

31

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