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# ME 216: Engineering Metrology

## Dr. Suhas S. Joshi, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian

Institute of Technology, Bombay, Powai, MUMBAI – 400 076 (India)
Phone: 91 22 2576 7527 (O) / 2576 8527 ®; ssjoshi@me.iitb.ac.in

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Product Design for Manufacturing

## Marketing Functional Operational Durability and

Aspects Aspects Aspects Dependability

Product Design

## Economic Manufacturing Aesthetic

Aspects Aspects Aspects

## Fig. 1 Typical Stages in a Product Life Cycle

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Role of Metrology in Design for Manufacturing

Manufacturing
Aspect Fit: It is the interrelation between
dimensions of mating parts
Key Functional before their assembly
Requirements

## Fit between the mating

parts

Tolerances, dimensions on
mating parts
Cost
Manufacturing Processes of
Mfg.
& Sequences

Cost of Manufacturing
Tolerance

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Fig. 2 Implications of Manufacturing aspects
Evaluation for Limits and Fits

## Steps involved in the Evaluation of Limits of Tolerances

Selection of an Appropriate FIT
based on functional requirement

shaft and hole

## Evaluation of Limits of Tolerances

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Fig. 3 Evaluation of Limits of Tolerances
Introduction
• Precision and Accuracy:
– Precision refers to repeatability
– Accuracy refers of result to the true value

## Accuracy = (Repeatability) 2 + ( Systematic error ) 2

where, systematic error =True value- mean of set of readings

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Limits and Fits - Definitions

Hole

Shaft

## Fig. 4 Tolerance Zones [1] 6

Limits and Fits - Definitions
Zero Line: It is a line along which represents the basic size and zero
(or initial point) for measurement of upper or lower deviations.
Basic Size: It is the size with reference to which upper or lower limits
of size are defined.
Shaft and Hole: These terms are used to designate all the external and
internal features of any shape and not necessarily cylindrical.

## Hole Designation: By upper case letters from A, B, … Z, Za, Zb, Zc

(excluding I, L, O, Q, W and adding Js, Za, Zb, Zc) - 25 nos. Indian
Stds

## Shaft Designation: By lower case letters from a, b, … z, za, zb, zc

(excluding i, l, o, q, w and adding js, za, zb, zc) - 25 nos.
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Definitions
Upper Deviation: The algebraic difference between the maximum limit of
size (of either hole or shaft) and the corresponding basic size, like ES, es.
Lower Deviation: The algebraic difference between the minimum limit of size
(of either hole or shaft) and the corresponding basic size, like EI, ei.
Fundamental Deviation: It is one of the two deviations which is chosen to
define the position of the tolerance zone.
Tolerance: The algebraic difference between upper and lower deviations. It is
an absolute value.
Limits of Size: There are two permissible sizes for any particular dimension
between which the actual size lies, maximum and minimum
Basic Shaft and Basic hole: The shafts and holes that have zero fundamental
deviations. The basic hole has zero lower deviation whereas, the basic shaft
has zero upper deviation.

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Selection of Fits
Definition of Fit: It is the relation between dimensions of two mating parts
before their assembly.
Selection of Fits

Systems of Fit: There are two systems by which a fits can be accomplished –
1. Hole basis system
2. Shaft basis system

Transition fit

## Clearance fit Transition fit

Holes Interference fit
‘H’ Hole

‘h’ Shaft
Interference fit

## a. Hole Basis system

b. Shaft Basis system

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Fig. 7 [a-b] Systems of Fit
Schematic for grades in Indian Stds.

## Disposition of all the shafts

and holes with reference to the
zero line

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Limits and Fits - Definitions
A

D H
FD
Zero line
Holes Z
P Zc
V

v
p zc
z
Shafts Zero line

FD h
d
a
Schematic of position of various shafts and holes with12
reference to the zero line
Fig. 7 Fundamental deviations for various shafts and holes

Holes

Shafts

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## Grade of Tolerance: It is an indication of the level of accuracy. There are 18

grades of tolerances – IT01, IT0, IT1 to IT16
IT01 to IT4 - For production of gauges, plug gauges, measuring instruments
IT5 to IT 7 - For fits in precision engineering applications
IT8 to IT11 – For General Engineering
IT12 to IT14 – For Sheet metal working or press working
IT15 to IT16 – For processes like casting, general cutting work

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## Standard Tolerance: Various grades of tolerances are defined using the

‘standard tolerance unit’, (i) in µm, which is a function of basic size [3].

i = 0.45 3 D + 0.001D

where, D (mm) is the geometric mean of the lower and upper diameters of a
particular diameter step within which the chosen the diameter D lies.

Diameter steps in I.S.I are: (a-b, where a is above and b is up to, Refer Table in
the following sheet)

1-3, 3-6, 6-10, 10-18, 18-30, 30-50, 50-80, 80-120, 120-180, 180-250, 250-
315, 315-400 and 400-500 mm
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Table for Sizes

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It is understood that the tolerances have parabolic relationship with the size of
the products. As the size increases, the tolerance within which a part can be
manufactured also increases.
IT01 – 0.3 + 0.008D
IT0 – 0.5 + 0.012 D
IT1 – 0.8 + 0.020D
IT2 to IT4 – the values of tolerance grades are placed geometrically between
the tolerance grades of IT1 and IT5.
IT6 – 10 i; IT7 – 16i; IT8 – 25i; IT9 – 40i; IT10 – 64i; IT11 – 100i; IT12 –
160i; IT13 – 250i; IT14 – 400i; IT15 – 640i; IT16 – 1000i.

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Formulae for
fundamental
deviations of
shafts up to size
500 mm

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Formulae for fundamental deviations of shafts up to size 500 mm

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Formulae for fundamental deviations of shafts up to size 500 - 3150 mm

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Selection of Holes

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Selection of Shafts

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Selection of Fits
Clearance Fits (Hole Basis System):
Shafts Grades Description of fit Application
a, b, c 11 Very large clearance Generally not used
d 8, 9, 10 Loose running Loose pulleys
e 7, 8, 9 Loose clearance Electric motor bearings, heavily
f 6, 7, 8 Normal running Lubricated bearings (with oil or
grease), pumps and smaller motors,
gear boxes
g 5, 6 Precision running Lightly loaded shafts, sliding spools,
accurate bearings
h 5 to 11 Extreme clearance Sockets and spigots of joints
(preferably for non-
running parts)
Preferred Clearance fits (in practice) [1] : H11/c11, H9/d9, H8/f7, H7/g6 (Guide Fit), 23
H7/h6, C11/h11, D9/h9, F8/h7, G7/h6
Selection of Fits

## Shafts Grades Description of fit Application

js 5, 6, 7 Slight clearance to Very accurate location, couplings,
slight interference spigots, gears,
k 5, 6, 7 No clearance to Precision joints likely to be
little clearance subjected to vibrations
m 5, 6, 7 Slight interference Forced assembly is required
(on average)
n 5, 6, 7 Slight interference Semi-permanent or tight fit
and very little assemblies
clearance
Preferred Transition fits [1]: H7/k6, H7/n6, K7/h6, N7/h6

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Selection of Fits

## Shafts Grades Description of fit Application

p 6, 7, 8, True interference Fixing bushes, standard press fit
(light)
r 5, 6, 7 Interference (but Tight press fit. Keys in key ways
can be dismantled)
s 5, 6, 7 Semi permanent/ Valve seating, collars on shafts
permanent fit
t, u ---- High degree of Permanent assemblies
interference

Preferred Interference fits [1]: H7/p6 (Press fit), H7/s6, H7/u6, P7/h6, S7/h6, U7/h6

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Example #1
Evaluate limits and fits for a pair of – Diameter 6 H7/g6
Solution: The size 6 mm lies in the diametral step of 3-6, therefore, D is given
by – D = 3 × 6 = 4.24mm

## The value of fundamental tolerance unit is given by –

i = 0.45 3 D + 0.001D
i = 0.45 3 4.24 + 0.001× 4.24
i = 0.7327 µ m
Limits of tolerance for hole H7
The standard tolerance is – 16 i = 16x0.7327 = 11.72 = 12 µm
The fundamental deviation H hole is – 0

## Limits of tolerance for g6 shaft

The standard tolerance is – 10 i 10x0.7327 = 7.327 = 8 µm
Fundamental deviation for g shaft = −2.5 D 0.34 = −2.5(4.24)0.34 = −4.085 = −4µ m
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Example #1

6.012
12 µm H7 Hole
6.000
4 µm
5.996 g6 Shaft 8 µm
5.988
Disposition of tolerance zone around the zero line
Fit
Maximum clearance = Maximum size of hole - Minimum size of shaft
= 6.012 – 6.988 = 0.024 mm = 24 µm
Minimum clearance = Minimum size of hole - Maximum size of shaft
= 6.000 - 6.996 = 0.004 mm = 4 µm
The type of fit is Clearance.
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Example #2

Calculate the limits of sizes for φ 20 P7/h6 and identify the fit.
Therefore, D is given by –
D = 18 × 24 = 20.78mm
The fundamental tolerance unit i is given by –

## The fundamental deviation for p shaft is – IT7 + 0 to 5

The fundamental deviation P7 hole – IT6 + 0 to 5 =10 i + 5
10 ×1.258 + 5 = 17.58 = 18µ m
For grade 7 the standard tolerance is – 16 i = 16x1.258 = 20.128 = 21 µm
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Example #2
Limits evaluation for h6 Shaft
The fundamental deviation for h shaft is – 0
For grade 6 the standard tolerance is – 10 i = 10x1.258 = 12.58 = 13 µm
20.000
18 µm h6 Shaft
19.982 19.987
21 µm P7 Hole
19.961
Disposition of tolerance zone around the zero line
Fit
Maximum clearance = Maximum size of hole - Minimum size of shaft
= 19.982 – 19.987 = - 0.005 = - 5 µm
Maximum Interference = Minimum size of hole - Maximum size of shaft
= 19.961 - 20.000 –= - 0.039 mm = - 39 µm
The fit is Interference. But it can become Transition if you choose some value
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of FD for p shaft between IT7 + 1 to 5 µm
Taylor’s Principle of Gaging

## • The go gage should be designed to check the form

• The no-go gage checks the individual sections

Go gage:
• Plug gage for maximum material
dimension, i.e., smallest hole
• Testing the function, i.e.,
shape and pairing dimension

No Go gage:
• Ball gage for minimum material
dimension, biggest hole
• Testing the maximum dimension

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References

## References and other study material are available at –

1.http://www.mitcalc.com/doc/tolerances/help/en/tolerances.htm
2. http://www.ecs.umass.edu/mie/labs/mda/dlib/fit_tol/fitandtol.html
3. R. K. Jain, Engineering Metrology, Khanna Publishers, New Delhi (India)

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