GENETIC RESOURCES OF TROPICAL UNDERUTILIZED FRUITS IN INDIA

S.K. Malik Rekha Chaudhury O.P. Dhariwal D.C. Bhandari

National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi 110 012, INDIA

GENETIC RESOURCES OF TROPICAL UNDERUTILIZED FRUITS IN INDIA

S.K. Malik Rekha Chaudhury O.P. Dhariwal D.C. Bhandari

National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi 110 012, INDIA

The National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR), is a nodal organization under the aegis of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) for the management of plant genetic resources in India. NBPGR operates as per the
mandate of the Government of India and actively contributes to global efforts in ensuring food and nutritional security. The institute also recognizes the need to integrate ex situ and in situ conservation approaches in a network mode with all its stakeholders. NBPGR's mission is to ensure the country's agricultural growth and development by ensuring unrestricted availability of germplasm and associated information for use in research and utilization as per the national and International legislations.

Citation: Malik SK, Chaudhury R, Dhariwal OP and Bhandari DC. 2010. Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India. NBPGR, New Delhi, p.168.

Published by: The Director, National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi-110 012 © National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi, 2010

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National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR) and Coordinator South Asia. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (rechristened as Bioversity International).Dedicated to This publication is dedicated to Dr.an excellent plant scientist who dedicated his life to the study of plants. Former Officiating Director. Rajeshwar Kumar Arora. especially in the area of plant genetic resources of underutilized native species .

chironji. I compliment the authors for bringing out this informative publication and to the NBPGR for always championing the cause of plant genetic resources. Information on genetic resources and on identified quality genotypes. I am sure this publication would be a useful source of information to scientists. general description of species. Production and productivity of many crops have increased manifold. wherever provided in the text need to be further utilized and germplasm to be established in the field and to be multiplied using vegetative propagation for commercial utilization. But the challenges of malnutrition. etc. are directly interwoven in the socio-economic fabric of rural masses and especially of tribes dwelling in remote hot. The information has been generated in the field and experiments conducted on seed physiology and developing conservation techniques in the laboratory are discussed along with information drawn from the available literature. has been undertaking explorations and collections in consultation and collaboration with scientists of relevant horticultural institutes of ICAR and SAUs for a holistic approach for PGR collection and utilization. karonda. underutilized crops appear to be the crop of future and need focused attention as it can meet nutritional needs and sustain the effect of climate change. National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR). which has to be addressed. ker.Foreword Indian agriculture. The aim is to ultimately facilitate the PGR utilization by the collaborators and other stakeholders. uses and genetic resource management undertaken at NBPGR and other centres. The underutilized fruit crops of Indian origin like bael. khirni. passing through various revaluations has achieved unprecedented development. These potential crops of the future are awaiting their full utilization now. propagation methods. lasora. arid and fragile ecosystems. policy makers. . income to farmers and threat of climate change continue. jamun. teachers and students and would pave the way for their popularization and utilization. In this publication the authors have provided the details of explorations and collections conducted by them from various states of India and basic information on origin and distribution. cultivars/selections. In this context. especially horticulturists. the nodal national organization responsible for plant genetic resources management in India. mahua.

Besides their importance as potential horticulture species these plants are incidentally store houses of genes for adaptation to hot and hardy climates. salt tolerance. Mango. potential in horticulture and importance as future fruit crops.Preface India is endowed with a rich genetic diversity of tropical fruits. Genetic resource management on these species being undertaken under AICRP on Arid Fruits and work being done at various horticultural institutes and state agricultural universities has been duly presented.C. DHARIWAL D. social and religious importance. only 16 genera have been elaborated based on their diverse usages. Himachal Pradesh. S. These fruit species have been grown as commercial crops in organized way in orchards and prospered continuously due to their economic. explorations and collections and from interaction with local people. The less important. citrus. diseases tolerance and several essential nutritional values. so-called underutilized fruits remained uncared for and remained confined mainly to natural wild. out of large number of underutilized tropical fruits. popularising these species to farmers with due market support for fruits and value added products would only ensure the commercial cultivation of these fruits and bring them in mainstream of Indian horticulture. The exploration and collections undertaken mainly in the states of Rajasthan. banana and guava due to the presence of vast diversity and acceptable flavour and taste were supported and improved by local fruit growers and horticulturists for wide adoption.P. Karnataka. Authors believe that this humble effort is only a beginning of gigantic task we have ahead to identify the desirable genotypes from this vast genetic wealth based on detailed characterization and evaluation. tribals. Jammu and Kashmir and some northeastern states have led to the assemblage of sizeable genetic diversity of 16 fruit species which has still remained untapped. Gujarat. The information originally generated at NBPGR during various surveys. farmers and forest staff along with laboratory data on physico-chemical characterization and seed physiology. semi-wild and semi-domesticated conditions albeit with large ever increasing variability. Uttar Pradesh. Authors welcome any valued suggestion from the readers for the improvement of presented information. This would add required value to these resources to make them worthy for intensive utilization. seed storage behaviour and cryopreservation has been presented.K. Developing vegetative propagation methods. BHANDARI . In the present publication. We profusely thank all the past Directors of NBPGR who encouraged and spurred us to undertake these studies. MALIK REKHA CHAUDHURY O. Many of these fruits have got due attention since time immemorial and became popularised due to their larger appeal and ethos. Efforts have been made to assemble the basic and relevant information scattered across various publications. Haryana. We gratefully acknowledge everybody who had assisted wholeheartedly in preparation of this publication. Madhya Pradesh. The role of agricultural scientists and horticulturists is to make these species profitable for farming and provide suitable place in the changing farming patterns due to inevitable climate change which alone would save them from extinction.

Nerwal. NBPGR. Dr. Mr. PPV & FRA. Udaipur 5. CISH. NBPGR RS. Honorary Research Fellow. TCCU. TCCU. New Delhi. Kalia. New Delhi 12. Bioversity International. New Delhi 15. Singh. Ex Director. CCSHAU. Senior Scientist. NBPGR. V. Dr. Dr. Dr. Abraham.Acknowledgments Authors sincerely acknowledge the Indian Council of Agricultural Research and National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources for providing the facilities and funding for undertaking the work on genetic resources of tropical underutilized fruits. N. NRCAF (now CIAH). Centre for Plant Biotechnology. Sr. 9. NBPGR RS. Jyotsna Joshi. CHES (CIAH). Mr. Associate Professor. Principal Scientist and Officer In-charge. N. Mr. TCCU. Ravish Choudhary. Dr. Regional Research Station. We sincerely acknowledge the help rendered by following persons for their valuable input: 1. Dr. We are thankful to Project Coordinator and partners of ICAR funded project on “National Network on Underutilized Fruits” under which some of the explorations and work has been undertaken. Lucknow for encouragement to work on underutilized fruits. Hisar 10. Dhurendra Singh. Sanjay Singh. NBPGR. R. SRF. Digvender Pal. Dr. Rajwant K.K. Dr. Devender Kr. CISH. Anang Pal Singh. NBPGR. Bikaner 6. R. Our sincere thanks are due to Dr.S. MPUAT.P. Principal Scientist. Reddy. Bangalore and Dr. New Delhi 16. NBPGR. Jodhpur 7. A. NBPGR. Technical officer. SRF. B. Ex-Director. CIAH. Dr. Dr. Senior Scientist. New Delhi 11. Z. Rakesh Singh. RA. Dr. NBPGR. Lucknow 4. Thrissur 2. Technical officer. Head. Mr. Deswal. Principal Scientist. Sr.S. New Delhi . New Delhi 14.P. TCCU. Kaushik. Principal Scientist and Officer In-charge. SRF. Bikaner. Susheel Kumar. O. Ramanatha Rao. New Delhi 18. Horticulture Division. NBPGR.M. Mr. Dr. Pareek. NBPGR. Ms. New Delhi 17.A. Rakesh Srivastava. Dr. Rome & Adjunct Senior Fellow. Senior Scientist. New Delhi 13. TCCU. Sushil Kumar. CCSHAU. Godhra 3.K. Panwar. TCCU. Dwivedi.C. Bawal 8.

5. market demand and indigenous technical knowledge Description of fruit species 3.14 Syzygium cumini (Jamun) 3.4 Carissa species (Karonda) 3.3 Capparis decidua (Ker) 3.1 Conservation strategies 2.3.1 Exploration and collection 2.3. iii.3.1 Aegle marmelos (Bael) 3.8 Garcinia species (Kokam. 4.Contents i.12 Pithecellobium dulce (Manila tamarind) 3.3. Foreword Preface Acknowledgements Introduction Genetic resource management 2.3 Ex situ conservation 2.5 Cordia species (Lasora) 3.3 Conservation 2. 1.9 Grewia subinaequalis (Phalsa) 3. Future perspective References Annexure Acronyms 154 156 .2 Genebank and cryogenebank conservation 2.16 Ziziphus species (Ber) 1 3 3 5 7 7 8 9 9 9 11 18 18 25 38 47 54 64 70 75 88 93 100 114 120 132 139 147 3.2 In situ conservation 2.11 Manilkara hexandra (Khirni) 3.3.13 Salvadora species (Pilu and Miswak) 3.2 Characterization and evaluation 2. 2.3.15 Tamarindus indica (Tamarind) 3.6 Diospyros melanoxylon (Tendu) 3.1 Field genebanks 2. ii. Malabar tamarind and Mysore gamboge) 3.3.10 Madhuca indica (Mahua) 3.7 Emblica officinalis (Aonla) 3.4 Nutritional value.2 Buchanania lanzan (Chironji) 3.

large-scale urbanization and developmental projects. In view of the great importance of these underutilized fruit species and urgent need to strengthen the genetic resources and improvement work. large scale developmental activities taking place in developing economies like India is leading to alarming loss of genetic resources of these species. arid and semi-arid ecosystems having high potential for mitigating inevitable climate change scenario.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 1. Several other factors such as change in climatic conditions. These genetic resources are well adapted to the stressed. characterization and conservation programme has been undertaken for identification of promising germplasm and to support the improvement programmes being undertaken in these fruit species. promotion and conservation of these species is of immense importance. vegetables and also have therapeutic and medicinal properties. Despite the vast genetic diversity of these fruits. Organized production and processing for value addition of products would enhance income of small and marginal farmers and also help in on-farm conservation of valuable germplasm. only important fruits like mango. Indian Council of Agricultural 1 . 1995). and hence need immediate attention. market demand and low and erratic bearing in many cases. Genetic resources of such fruits are facing a great threat of extinction due to climate change. Genetic resources of tropical underutilized fruits have not been given desired attention due to their comparatively less commercial importance and limited research on genetic improvement of cultivars. At NBPGR an extensive collection. introduction of new irrigation methods and canals. These species have multipurpose uses as fruits. Many of the indigenous tropical and temperate fruits have still remained underexploited due to the lack of awareness of their potential. while the Hindustani region of diversity represents 344 species of fruits having vast potential for new crops (Arora. banana. This area has been the center of origin of a number of tropical and temperate fruit species. Introduction Southeast Asia is represented by more than 500 species of fruits (Arora and Rao. 1995). citrus and guava have gained in the productivity and acceptability by the people. To safeguard the existing diversity of underutilized fruits and to achieve sustainable development based on use of available genetic wealth. Opening of the world markets and development of new biotechnological methods of genetic modifications in high value commercial fruits would further keep the attention away from these traditional underutilized fruits leading to great loss in genetic diversity of these fruits. most of which are still growing in wild or semi-wild state.

tamarind. sixteen important underutilized fruits namely Aegle marmelos (Bael). 2 . Chettalli and CARI.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Research launched a “National Network Project on Underutilized Fruits” to collect. Bikaner. CIAH. Syzygium cumini (Jamun). have been collected and characterized and several promising genotypes have been identified. Garcinia species (Kokam. Diospyros melanoxylon (Tendu). bael. CISH. etc. Tamarindus indica (Tamarind) and Ziziphus species (Ber and Jharber) have been discussed. introduce. Cordia species (Lasora). CHES. In the present publication. There is a need to further evaluate these identified genotypes and release the cultivars for respective areas. Salvadora species (Pilu and Meswak). Malabar tamarind and Mysore gamboge). Lucknow. Carissa species (Karonda). Grewia species (Phalsa). Manilkara hexandra (Khirni). Garcinia. wood apple. Buchanania lanzan (Chironji). Emblica officinalis (Aonla). Capparis decidua (Ker). NBPGR. characterize. Pithecellobium dulce (Manila tamarind). Besides these some other indigenous species which are of substantial importance in Indian context are Feronia limonia (Wood apple). conserve and utilize the genetic resources of these species. karonda. Phoenix sylvestris (Wild date). Genetic resource management and related issues in the 16 Indian tropical underutilized fruits and their related species have been discussed. evaluate. mahua. New Delhi. Under this project germplasm of khirni. jamun. Alangium salvifolium (Ban jamun) and Ficus palmata (Wild fig). Madhuca indica (Mahua). Andaman and Nicobar are the partners in this project.

Gujarat. Capparis decidua (118). Besides the ICAR institutes (Central Institute of Arid Horticulture. Besides this large number of collections of these fruit species are being maintained in the field genebanks at various national and state institutes and horticulture research organizations where national identity is still to be obtained.1 Exploration and collection Germplasm collection of underutilized fruit crops has received less priority in comparison to the field crops. Therefore. Salvadora species (207). Overall 2552 accessions of 16 underutilized fruits being discussed in this publication have been collected by various organizations in India and national identity (IC Numbers) have been obtained from the NBPGR since 1976. These include Aegle marmelos (57). their nutrition and health standard at 13 centres of ICAR Institutes and State Agricultural Universities as detailed below (Table 1): At NBPGR systematic exploration programmes to collect the germplasm of important underutilized fruits have been undertaken since last twelve years. 3 . Garcinia species (541). Himachal Pradesh (foot hills of Himalayas). Genetic Resource Management 2. The targeted fruit species were collected from wild and semi-wild areas of forest. central and south Indian states of Rajasthan.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 2. west. Pithecellobium dulce (24). Syzygium cumini (198). Buchanania lanzan (187). Madhya Pradesh. Diospyros melanoxylon (24). most of these fruit crops are being managed under the All India Coordinated Project on Arid Fruits for developing fruit growing technology to build a viable commercial cultivation in the arid regions and to improve the economic condition of the people. Bikaner. Lucknow) and some state universities. Haryana. Uttar Pradesh. Germplasm of these fruits species have been collected at various horticultural organizations to identify promising genotypes for high yield and good fruits quality. Kerala. Central Institute of Sub-tropical Horticulture. Karnataka and Maharashtra for the collection of several underutilized tropical and sub-tropical fruits. Emblica officinalis (159). Twenty specific exploration and collection missions have been executed in the north. Cordia species (134). Manilkara hexandra (74). Grewia species (36). Carissa species (50). reporting the exact number of collections and assessment of germplasm diversity in collected germplasm in these fruits species requires collective efforts of various stake holders. Madhuca indica (153). Tamarindus indica (248) and Ziziphus species (342).

palmyra palm. phalsa. bael. Vegetative cuttings or bud wood was also collected in some of the fruits for establishment in the field genebanks of respective institutes. custard apple. Tamarind Pomegranate marginal forest lands. Godhra NRC Pomegranate. pomegranate Date palm Pomegranate. aonla. Lucknow CHES. aonla. selective sampling strategy was used and an indigenous collection number (IC number) allotted to an individual accession. Mandate crops and centres of All India Coordinated project on Arid Fruits Center Name Abohar Anantapur Aruppukottai Bangalore Bawal Bikaner Faizabad Jobner Mundra Rahuri SK Nagar CIAH. custard apple and pomegranate Aonla. phalsa. aonla Ber. jamun Ber. pomegranate. Bikaner CISH.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Table 1. date palm Date palm Aonla. aonla. In most of these fruits species elite trees were identified based on phenotypic characters. breeding behavior and associated indigenous technical knowledge on use was gathered. aonla. fig Ber. Ber. homestead gardens. importance and uses of these fruits species has been provided under the description of individual fruits. ber. Details of fruiting period. fig. Custard apple. orchards and from farmers fields. Passport data of individual fruits and variability collected at NBPGR has been described under the individual descriptions of species. tamarind Ber. 4 . Area of collection of these fruit species is depicted in the map (Fig. Bael Bael Aonla. pomegranate. tamarind Pomegranate. ber. Solapur (Source: CIAH. custard apple. 1). status of natural populations. probable threats to species. Fruits from selected plants were collected and after initial characterization of fruits the data was shared with the horticulturists to facilitate the utilization of these genotypes. For collection of germplasm. During the explorations general field observations. Bikaner) Crop Date palm Ber. Custard apple. pomegranate.

Characterization and evaluation of fruits especially tropical underutilized fruits has not been undertaken in a 5 .2 Characterization and evaluation Tropical fruit species are mostly heterozygous due to high degree of outcrossing and require systematic morphological characterization backed by the molecular characterization to study the extent of variability and utilization of existing germplasm. Systematic characterization of physico-chemical characters of available germplasm would provide the extent of genetic diversity in the fruits species and facilitate in identifying the superior genotypes with desired characters. 1: Collection sites of tropical underutilized fruits from India 2.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Fig.

Characterization and evaluation work is also limited due to the availability of these fruits species only in the natural wild and semi-wild conditions. wherever available. phalsa. initial characterization and establishment of superior genotypes in the field genebanks for detailed evaluation. karonda. ber. 6 . selection of elite genotypes or cultivars in most of these fruits is lacking. Information generated have been shared with the concerned horticulture scientists on the elite and promising collections for undertaking further characterization and evaluation of such genotypes for utilization and commercialization. the efforts have been made to undertake the systematic collection. Further the fruits were carried to the laboratory in sufficient numbers to characterize and extract the seeds to be used for various experiments and cryopreservation. the efforts have now been initiated at several crop based institutes and at NBPGR to characterize the available germplasm using molecular markers to analyze the existing genetic diversity for the efficient utilization of germplasm. ICAR website) For physico-chemical characterization the fruits were carried to the laboratory. 2002) were used. For morphological characterization. Due to the perennial nature and specific climatic and edaphic needs of these fruits it takes many years in flowering and fruiting in field genebanks causing delay in the characterization and evaluation. therefore. During the present study efforts have been made to attempt preliminary characterization of fruits and seeds of the collected germplasm for important qualitative and quantitative characters. 1996. khirni. Due to highly perishable nature of fruits. some of the characterization data has been undertaken in the field during the collection and exploration. wherever possible. mahua and tamarind have been undertaken at various locations (Pathak and Pathak. Recently. minimum descriptors developed by NBPGR (Mahajan et al. Some important phenotypic plant characters desirable in the specific fruit species were also recorded and specified in the passport data. bael.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India systematic way till now. Recently the characterization and evaluation of some collected germplasm and identified cultivars or released varieties of important underutilized fruits namely aonla.. In some important underutilized fruit species vegetative propagation methods have been developed recently and field establishment of identified genotypes by using the scion from the original sources on local rootstocks have been undertaken. Another reason for the limited information on these aspects is the less priority to these fruits in comparison to high value major fruit species. jamun. Molecular characterization studies have also been lacking in the tropical underutilized fruits. Field performance and multi-location trials of indentified cultivars or selections of several arid fruits is extensively being undertaken at various centers of AICRP on Arid Fruits and performance is being reported regularly for recommendation of suitable cultivars for particular region or state (Pareek and Nath. However. Singh et al. 1993. 1999).

3. mechanism of propagation. 2). possess diverse mechanisms of reproduction and regeneration. Selection of suitable conservation strategy depends upon reproductive and breeding mechanism and physiology of seeds and plant propagules. comprising a wide range of useful plant species. Plant genetic resources.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 2. the in situ and ex situ ensuring conservation in the natural habitat and in man made genebanks. different conservation strategies have been suggested and utilized by conservation biologists for achieving successful conservation of targeted species (Fig. and the appropriate conservation technologies to be applied. Horticulture genetic resources of underutilized fruits comprise following candidates for conservation based on their biological status and propagation method (Fig. respectively. Within this group of underutilized fruit crops specific conservation strategy is to be developed and adopted based on extent of genetic diversity available. Accordingly. reproductive biology of species and present biological status of the species. 3). Fig. suitable in situ and ex situ conservation methods are be employed to achieve the successful conservation. These factors determine the sample size of the propagules to be stored.1 Conservation strategies Conservation of plant genetic resources is attempted using two basic approaches. 7 . 2: Conservation strategies for horticultural genetic resources (HGR) Conservation of horticulture genetic resources (HGR) and specifically the underutilized fruit species which are still grown as natural wild and in semi-wild conditions would require adoption of complementary conservation strategies where.3 Conservation 2.

8 . making it a dynamic system. Emblica officinalis. S. Tamarindus indica and Pithecellobium dulce.2 In situ conservation In situ conservation involves promoting growth of plant species in their natural habitats where evolutionary processes continue to operate. Cordia species. Fruit species and possible protected area for in situ conservation are to be finalized based on diversity maps and biodiversity conservation policy of respective state government. persica. Such species are Aegle marmelos.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Fig. Carissa species. Salvadora oleoides. Manilkara hexandra.3. Majority of the underutilized fruits grow in the diverse climatic and edaphic conditions and are adapted to arid and semi-arid conditions. In situ conservation is important for underutilized fruit species still occurring as natural wild or in the semi-domesticated conditions using following two approaches: 1) Conservation in the natural habitats like protected areas and national reserves: Specific area based on presence of natural diversity are to be identified for species found as only natural wild. Diospyros melanoxylon. For species where both natural wild and cultivated genotypes are available wild populations are to be protected immediately. Capparis decidua. Grewia species. Priority species in this category are Buchanania lanzan. 3: Candidates for conservation in HGR and their propagation methods 2. Madhuca species and Ziziphus species.

RAU. Rajasthan. IIHR. Bangalore and at several state agricultural universities and their regional stations namely CCSHAU. In India field genebanks of citrus. Sardar Krushinagar. 2. Underutilized fruits where such selections are indentified and available are Syzygium cumini.3. Presently several field genebanks for diverse horticultural species are operational throughout the world. CISH. Germplasm of tropical underutilized fruits species where the seeds are relatively larger and have high moisture content at the time of shedding pose problems 9 . Udaipur. Lucknow.3. some important institutes are CIAH. MPKV. tree species with long juvenile phase. Hisar and Regional Station. or produce recalcitrant seeds whose laboratory conservation technology has not been standardized so far. These local selections are being grown as isolated plants or in small numbers in the homestead gardens. Cordia myxa. Faizabad. Jodhpur. species that do not produce true-to-type seed. Haryana. mango. ANDUAT. Andhra Pradesh and other states. Rahuri. RAU. Jodhpur. backyards or in the common panchayat lands in villages. Bawal. Field genebanks have an important place in conservation and maintenance of clonally propagated species. Tamarindus indica. Gujarat. Emblica officinalis and Ziziphus species. GAU. Maharashtra. Conservation of plant germplasm in the form of seeds is the most convenient and reliable method being practiced in genebanks. cultivars and farmer’s varieties. Bikaner. evaluation and on-farm conservation. Rajasthan.2 Genebank and cryogenebank conservation Conservation of underutilized fruit species is being undertaken in the laboratory in genebank and cryogenebank at NBPGR. mulberry. CAZRI.3. Aegle marmelos. MPUAT. New Delhi. In some of underutilized fruits local selections or farmers varieties have been developed or identified since time immemorial.1 Field genebanks Ex situ conservation of underutilized fruits is important to safeguard the genetic wealth and to use germplasm for the genetic improvement to develop desirable cultivars or varieties. Uttar Pradesh and state horticulture stations at Tamil Nadu. oil palm and several other fruit species have been established and are being maintained at state and ICAR horticultural institutions or state agricultural universities at different locations. Such selections need urgent attention for further characterization. As far as underutilized fruits are concerned field genebank conservation has been recently undertaken especially under the AICRP on Arid Fruits at various ICAR institutes and their regional stations.3.3. Rajasthan.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 2) In situ on-farm conservation would be an ideal approach for conserving local natural selections. 2. farmers fields. NBPGR Regional Station. Jobner. SKN College of Agriculture.3 Ex situ conservation 2. Bikaner.

2004). there is need to study their basic seed physiology. Orthodox seeds can be desiccated to desired moisture contents and can be conserved in the conventional genebanks comprising of cold storage modules maintained at –20oC. Many plant species especially of tropical origin.and long-term seed storage only after correct identification of seed storage behaviour. Seed storage behaviour in several cases is misinterpreted because of scanty data generated on survival and longevity of seed and lack of detailed information on physiological characteristics. As most of these species are found natural wild or semi-wild and propagated through seeds in nature. Several different methods based on cryopreservation have been developed for genebank conservation of such non-orthodox seeded species (Malik et al. dormant buds and somatic embryos. Conservationist can recommend and adopt short-. needs to be protected safely and timely. where the behaviour is in between orthodox and recalcitrant. In most of these fruit species farmers or local people are propagating progenies of these fruits using seeds as no commercial cultivars are available and even if few have been identified. conservation of their vegetative tissues to achieve true-to-type conservation can be attempted using in vitro methods. (1990) and termed intermediate. and thus. Various research groups in different countries are undertaking research on this aspect mainly on their indigenous species. only ensures the genepool conservation of these species due to the heterozygous nature of seeds. is the only method available for the long-term conservation of non-orthodox seeds and several vegetative explants such as shoot apices. Cryopreservation. several Citrus species. e. require special conservation protocols. meristems. Once the promising genotypes or cultivars are identified in these species. Later another category of seed storage behaviour was designated by Ellis et al. longevity and seed storage behaviour. Conservation of germplasm in the form of seeds for underutilized fruits species which are predominantly cross pollinated. clonally developed planting material is not available. Hence.. Information on this is available for only about 3% of the higher plant species (Hong and Ellis. Seed storage behaviour in its simplest form is measured in terms of survival and longevity of seed under various storage conditions.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India in traditional conservation. medium. Seed storage behaviour has broadly been divided into three categories. cocoa. conservation of available genetic variability essentially required for the selection of desired genotypes therefore. Madhuca species produce such seeds. rubber. Garcinia species. 1996). being sensitive to desiccation and suffering chilling injury. jackfruit. It is to emphasize here that conservation of vegetative tissues in these tropical woody species would be an enormous 10 .g. While non-orthodox (intermediate and recalcitrant) seeds are not amenable to conventional genebank regimes. Initially Roberts (1973) defined two categories namely orthodox and recalcitrant. storage of biological materials at ultralow temperatures (-196°C).

Some of them are not easy to eat out of hand. emphasized that a complementary conservation strategy (Rao. squashes. market demand and indigenous technical knowledge Human body cannot synthesize vitamin-C like other animals and depends on food sources to obtain it. chutney. It is. However. therefore. 1998) involving the use of more than one relevant approach would be the best option for achieving safe conservation of these underutilized fruit species facing severe threat of extinction. 4 and 5. collected and characterized elite genotypes are presently being conserved in the field genebanks at various horticultural organizations. 11 . In the present publication information generated since last 15 years at the cryolab of Tissue Culture and Cryopreservation Unit of NBPGR. Humans since its evolution. pulp etc. depended heavily on the natural food and diversity of plants growing around them.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India task as most of the species are known for their recalcitrance as far as in vitro establishment is concerned and equally difficult task would be to successfully cryopreserve the vegetative tissues excised from in vitro cultures. Fruits and vegetables are the main source of various vitamins. because of high acidity and/or strong astringent taste. all these fruits have unlimited potential in the world trade in their processed form. 1951-52). these are the last domesticated plants and still several wild fruit species are under domestication once local people recognised them to be important for their use and commercial value (Burkill. Europe and to several other countries as per their demand and found important place in super markets along with other Indian products.4 Nutritional value. are being exported to targeted Indian populations living in other countries. It is. minerals. dried form of fruits. desiccation and freezing sensitivity and developing cryopreservation protocols of sixteen genera has been provided in tables 2. recommended to conserve the available genetic diversity of such economically important species in the best possible ways to fulfill the objective of safe guarding these indigenous species from genetic erosion. For example Malabar tamarind is being exported to countries wherever Malayalees are settled in the World as this makes an important ingredient of their food preparations especially fish curries. 2. 3. pickles. domesticated first. therefore. other products prepared and processed under small scale industry are exported to USA. Such plant species were. New Delhi on seed germination. Presently various value added products such as jam. A few are not acceptable as a fresh fruit. People prefer to have fruits with good taste and having less unpleasant tannins and glycosides which are amply available in the wild fruits. antioxidants and soluble fibers. As far as fruits are concerned. Similarly. For genetic improvement and genotype conservation. Therefore. seed storage behavior. Many of these fruits are highly perishable and difficult to store in the fresh form. Another preference is for the larger fleshy or edible part and no or less seediness in fruits. therefore. longevity.

2 20. TP (Pretreated with 25% HCl for 8 min.1 6. TP.9 85 40 65 20.Top of paper. in vitro culture Grewia spp.0 34.2 10 64.Critical Moisture Content 12 . Cordia spp.5 75 65-70 95. TP. BC. TP.2 BP. moss grass TP Peat moss.5 6.0 70 70.4 0 70-100 50 42.After Cryo.5 3.0 65.5 80 72. Emblica officinalis Garcinia spp. BP BP. in vitro BP. BP TP.0 9.5 65.5 Moss grass In vitro 50 35 0 12. TP.) Madhuca indica Seed Embryonic axis Manilkara hexandra Pithecellobium dulce Salvadora oleoides Syzygium cumini Tamarindus indica Ziziphus nummularia Seed Seed Seed Seed Seed Seed 6.4 5. CMC.5 45 40 Viability (%) at CMC BC AC Aegle marmelos Buchanania lanzan Capparis decidua Carissa spp. moss grass TP.5 0 Diospyros melanoxylon Seed Embryonic axis 8. moss grass In vitro culture Peatmoss. moss grass BP. moss grass BP. Seed Embryo Seed Seed Seed Seed Seed Seed 4.Before Cryo. moss grass TP 85.3-12. embryo and embryonic axes of different underutilized fruits.5 50 77 70-80 100 75 70 33. TP.5 43.5 58.5 83. TP BP. in vitro culture BP.7 7.5 75 46. Seed 9.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Table 2.5 82.4 6-8 6-8 6-8 11. soilrite.Between paper. moss grass BP. Species name Explant CMC Germination substrata/ medium TP. Effect of liquid nitrogen exposure on germination of seed.2 BP.96 6. AC.2 BP.

20) 97.40) 44.40) 85.2) 5.02) 78.09) 100 (±0.55 (±0.33 (±4.00 (±2.79) 7.Table 3.4 (±1.89 (±3.78) 81.78 (±0.78 (±6.06 (±0.66 (±8.00 (±1.77) 68.40) 0.29) 28.99) 91.0 50.30 (±2.26 (±1.78) 96.33 (±4.1) 58.00 (±3.55 (±0.22 (±9.62) 9.39) 97.00 (±2.96 (±1.77) Buchanania lanzan Capparis decidua Carissa carandas Cordia myxa Diospyros melanoxylon Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 13 Emblica officinalis Garcinia spp.53) 37.00 (±7.67 (±5.98 (±3.70 (±4.22 (±0.64 (± 0.36 (±0.75 (±3.14) 18.34) 0.12) 75.22 (±2.88) 71.28) 31.94 (±1.33 (±4.33) 86.63) 18.65) 89.33) 80 (±1.78) 52.70) 96.89 (±3.78 (±2.81) 97.24) 75.00 (±4.0 93.88) 90 (±0.32) 6.52 (±2.80) 40.0) 73.11 (±2.67 (±3.43 (±4.0 (±2.09) 71.79) 83.33 (±14.02 (±0.30 (±1.48) 16.4 (±2.11(±3.11 (±2.52 (±2.48) 24.65 (±1.42) Viability (%) at DMC Viability (%) after cryoexposure 84.95) 35.5 (±1.82 (±2.64) 25.5) 93.88) 67.25 (±0.45 (±0.24) 10.00 (±2.3 (±1.44 (±2.51) 6.40) 87.25) 22.89) 50.77) 88.11(±2.30 (±0.74 (±3.81) 54. Initial viability (%) Desiccated moisture content (%) 5.65) 29.89 (±3.44) 95.82) 64.89 (±8.63) 51.78) 20.63) 11.5) 51.22 (±2.42 (±6. Grewia subinaequalis Madhuca spp.11(±2.2) 11.66 (2.08) 7.36 (±5.37(±0.09) 37.33) 34.25) 81.98 (±2.41) 8.78) Species Initial moisture content (%) Aegle marmelos 7.41) 53.09) 86.68 (±0.35 (±1.17) 72.6 (±0.85) 45.88) 90.30) 83.73 (±0.40) 52.34) 50.45 (±1.32) 5.89) 26. Manilkara hexandra Pithecellobium dulce Salvadora oleoides Syzygium cumini Tamarindus indica Ziziphus nummularia .89 (±2.5 (±2.22 (±2.00 (±2.20 (±2.78 (±7.40) 6.16) 40.24) 7. Desiccation and freezing sensitivity in underutilized fruit species.

78 11. Grewia subinaequalis Madhuca indica Manilkara hexandra 10 months 20 days 4 months 7 days 45 days CMC=Critical Moisture Content O=Orthodox I=Intermediate R=Recalcitrant also reported by Parihar et al.42 13. Desiccation and freezing sensitivity and longevity of seeds as a parameter to ascertain seed storage behaviour in underutilized fruit species.97 40 15.79 0.46 80 10. 2001 *** also reported by Agroforesrty Tree database **** also reported by Hong et al.15 0.5 30 O R Seed Seed & Embryonic axis Syzygium cumini Tamarindus indica Ziziphus nummularia 30 days 18 months 24 months * 80 2.90 100 1.49 80 22. Species Storage % decline % decline Seed Accessions period in viability in viability storage cryostored at ambient after after LN behavior in the form temperature desiccation exposure ascertained of seed/ (25-32ºC) to CMC by our embryo/ till 50% studies embryonic viability axes (in months) 24 months 5 months 6 months 3 months 6 months 1.67 5 4.52 R O O**** Nil Seed Seed Aegle marmelos Buchanania lanzan Capparis decidua Carissa carandas Cordia myxa Diospyros melanoxylon 10 months Emblica officinalis Garcinia spp.57 5.07 11.63 15 11.85 3.54 I* I ** I*** I I I O R I R I Seed & Embryo Seed Seed Seed Seed Seed Seed Nil Seed Embryonic axis Seed & Embryonic axis Pithecellobium dulce Salvadora oleoides 14 months 15 days 11.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Table 4.15 2.84 8. 2010 ** also reported by Naithani.68 13.27 100 1.60 5.28 15.50 12. 1996 14 .

rothii G. rotundifolia Z. rugosa Z. tiliaefolia Madhuca indica M. edulis C. obliqua C. of accessions Cryogenebank in the form of seed/ embryo/ embryonic axes Aegle marmelos Buchanania lanzan Capparis decidua Carissa carandas C. oenoplia Z.grandiflora C. xylopyrus 36 months 11 months 14 months 5-6 months 80 127 88 9 1 1 3 24 3 1 9 16 31 0 13 1 1 2 12 46 14 23 12 0 10 15 3 1 15 5 3 at ambient temperature cryostored in the 3-4 months 15 months 19 months 30-45 days 6-7 months 7 days 4 months 24 months 2-3 weeks 30 days 20 months 22 months 15 .e. longifolia Manilkara hexandra Pithecellobium dulce Salvadora oleoides S.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Table 5. crenata C. longevity (25-34ºC) No. oxyphylla Z. spinarum Cordia myxa C. Seed longevity and number of accessions cryostored of underutilized fruit species Species Shelf life i. rothii Diospyros melanoxylon Emblica officinalis Garcinia sp. persica Syzygium cumini Tamarindus indica Ziziphus nummularia Z. Grewia subinaequalis G. tiliaefolia var.

Most of the tropical underutilized fruits are often available only in the local markets and are rarely known in other parts of the country. since the time immemorial. These fruit species have the ability to grow under stressed and adverse conditions and are also known for their medicinal. juiciness and have very attractive appearance. underutilized fruit plants rich in vitamins. Yoga & Naturopathy. minerals. Many of these species have been used as traditional medicinal plants and some of them have found important place in the Indian Systems of Medicine and in Unani. Demand for natural. Unani. Urban consumers today are becoming increasingly conscious and aware of their health and nutritional aspects of their food due to prosperity and awareness. There is an increased emphasis by government and non-government agencies to popularise the traditional and natural products. Tribal populations particularly children and women of these localities are fulfilling their nutritional requirements by consuming these fruits available freely in their vicinity. In view of all these recent developments in traditional health sector. In India the Department of Ayurveda. There is always a good market demand all over the world for new food products especially which are highly nutritious and delicately flavoured. some of these fruits have excellent flavour. Nutritional status of fruits being discussed in this publication is given in the table 6. In addition. Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH). Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Government of India has been effectively taking up the cause of protecting and popularising the Indian System of Medicines for the benefit of large population due to its being nature friendly and affordable. Because of their curative and nutritional properties. market potential and strong campaigning is necessary to create awareness and consciousness among the producers and consumers of underutilized tropical fruits. The underutilized tropical fruits discussed in this publication have an important role to play in satisfying the present day market demands. herbal and non-synthetic food products is increasing among urban middle and upper middle class of developing and developed countries. anti-oxidants and with other medicinal properties have bright market future. Apart from processing. Several private organisations have established naturopathy and herbal clinics based on the natural products extracted from these underutilized fruits to increase immunity and also to cure various ailments. these fruits have been used by local people for nutrition and curing several diseases. therapeutic and nutritive values. 16 .Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India organised processing and export of these fruits would provide an opportunity to consumers all over the world to enjoy these tropical fruits in the form of processed products.

Table 6. Food value of some promising underutilized fruits per 100 g edible portion
Fat (g) (g) 1.8-2.62 19.0-21.6 5.9 0.39-1.1 1.8-2.0 0.07-0.5 1.3-1.58 1.37 0.48 2-3.3 6.0 0.7 2-3 2.0 1.0 93 0.6 41.1-61.4 0.15-0.3 14-16 2.0 76 2.0 0.3-0.9 2.9 2.0 0.4-0.5 18.2-19.6 1.1-1.2 2.42 27.74 83 13 630 8-15 34-94 60 1.61 22.69 45 0.90-1.82 14.78 1.2-1.77 129 0.1-0.2 15-21.8 1.9-3.4 12.5-20 26.0 39 22 17 42 167 15-16.2 34-78 120 1.0 12.2 0.3 40 60 2.57.4.63 0.51-2.9 0.62-1.81 21 28 0.48-0.5 3.1 1.1 0.92 0.5 8.0 1.2-1.62 0.2-0.9 7.0 1.23 20.87 153.8 50.8 2.0 59.1 12.1 3.8 279 528 8.5 0.2-0.39 28.1-31.8 2.9 85 50 0.6 (mg) 91.6 1619 17 800 512 675 25 80 Carbo hydrates Fibre (g) Calcium Phos(mg) phorus Iron (mg) Vitamin Ascorbic A (IU) acid (mg) 1.1 5.0 133 9-11 500-625 22 40.5-42 15.67 138 2.0 5.7-18 44 88

Fruits

Calories Protein (g) (Kcal)

Aegle marmelos

137

Buchanania lanzan

656

Capparis decidua

100

Carissa carandas

42.59.4

Cordia myxa

65

Emblica officinalis

65

Grewia subinaequalis 72.4

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India

17

Madhuca indica

-

Manilkara hexandra -

Pithecellobium dulce 78.8

Salvadora oleoides

-

Syzygium cumini

62

Tamarindus indica

-

Ziziphus nummularia -

Source: Pareek et al., 1998

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India

3. Description of fruit species

3.1 Aegle marmelos (Bael)
Botanical name: Aegle marmelos (L) Correa. Common name: English - Bengal Quince; Hindi – Bael, bel, belli etc. Family: Rutaceae Origin and distribution: It is native to India (Zeven and de Wet, 1982) and found throughout southeast Asia. In India this fruit is grown in indogangetic plains and subHimalayan tracts, north-east India and dry and deciduous forests of central and southern India. Besides occurring as natural wild, bael is commonly grown in the homestead gardens, backyards, religious places and in the farmer’s fields. Main growing states are Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttaranchal and Orissa. General description: Bael is a medium sized tree attaining the height up to 20 ft. with deciduous and hardy nature (Fig. 4A, B). This is a thorny tree with dimorphic branches and trifoliate leaves and erenate leaflets. Flowers are whitish-green, scented and bisexual. Fruits are of small to very large size with varying shape from oblong to ovate, round, globose and elongated containing hard outer cover (skull) and soft creamy pink to reddish pulp full of hairy seeds. Seeds have hard and hairy seed coat, flat in shape and mucilaginous. Polyembryony is also reported in this species. Propagation: Bael is mainly propagated by seeds due to which the vast genetic variability is present in the nature. Vegetative propagation using patch budding, shield budding, and chip budding have been successfully demonstrated. Whip grafting has also been successfully undertaken in bael (Maiti et al., 1999). Cultivars/selections: Some important seedling selections have been made based on place of occurrence namely, Gonda selection, Mirzapuri, Kagzi, Sewan large etc. and NB selections made by ANDUAT, Faizabad and Pant cultivars by GBPUAT, Pantnagar. Some promising selections have also been identified from the germplasm collected from West Bengal (Mazumdar, 2004). Bael fruit is gaining lot of importance and due to the high market demand in the summer months for fresh fruits and squash, organized

18

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India

orcharding of this fruit crop is picking up in the parts of eastern Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan and other parts of country. The demand for good planting material of suitable cultivar would also increase in future due to large scale commercial cultivation. Important uses: Bael tree is of historical importance in Indian culture and various uses have been described in the literature. Pulp of the fruit is consumed raw and also processed to make diverse value added products, most common are sharbat, squash, murabba, jam, etc. In the various states fresh juice of bael is sold in the market especially in the summers and taken as soft drink. Dried pulp is also used in several parts of country. Pulp has several medicinal properties and commonly used for the cure of diarrhoea, dysentery and other stomach ailments. Leaves, root and bark also have medicinal properties and used widely in the Indian System of Medicine. The crystalline substance known as ‘marmelosin’ extracted from fruits have therapeutic properties (Mazumdar, 2004). Trifoliate leaves are used in prayer /puja of Lord Shiva.

Genetic Resource Management
Collection: Germplasm of bael has been widely collected from several states especially from the parts of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal by ANDUAT, Faizabad, and CIAH, Bikaner, CISH, Lucknow, CCSHAU, Regional Research Station, Bawal, CAZRI, Jodhpur and NBPGR Regional Station, Jodhpur. Diversity of bael has been collected from east-central India (Jharkhand and Bihar) and 33 genotypes were collected (Nath et al., 2003). Several promising collections have been identified from the germplasm collected from Faizabad, Basti, Lucknow, Gonda, Mirzapur, Deoria, Varanasi and Agra districts of Uttar Pradesh and evaluated for physico-chemical characters and field performance. At NBPGR explorations for the collection of bael germplasm have been made from wild and semiwild locations of Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. 15 accessions have been collected from various sites as indicated in the Fig. 5. Sizable variability in fruits size, shape, pulp, flavour, TSS, seeds size, shape and colour was recorded. Detailed passport data of germplasm collected by NBPGR is presented in the Table 7. Characterization: Germplasm diversity of bael collected from various districts of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar have been characterized and evaluated at ANDUAT, Faizabad and Fruit Research Station, Basti. Several promising cultivars and selections have been made based on bearing, medium size of fruit, optimum skull thickness, less number of seeds, less mucilage and fiber content. Some important selections made are NB-4, NB-5 and NB-9, out of these NB-5 has been adjudged the best selection (Pareek and Nath, 1996). Several other selections made from the collected germplasm are

19

Average seed weight was about 0. Lucknow (44). TSS value ranged from 34. Faizabad (22).21 to 45. Deoria. Conservation: Conservation of genetic resources of bael is being undertaken at various field genebanks of ICAR institutes and state agricultural universities.72 cm and diameter from 1. Mirzapuri. GBPUAT. Seeds were small and light weight with length verifying from 0. Fruits were large with length varying from 6. Bikaner (16). lightest fruit being of 144 gm and heaviest of 378 gm. Fruit weight showed vast variation.6 ºB. Jodhpur (5) and also at NBPGR Regional Station.14 cm and width from 6.33 to 8. Bael collections made at NBPGR were characterized for various physico-chemical characters and details have been given in the Table 8.62 to 0. CIAH. CISH.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Haryana Rajasthan Madhya Pradesh Fig. Sewan large.96 cm. 20 .. Haryana and Madhya Pradesh Gonda selection. A total of 4 varied accessions were characterized for fruit and seed characters.64 cm. Regional Research Station. CAZRI. Pantnagar (10). Jodhpur. 5: Collection sites of bael from Rajasthan.1 gm for all accessions. etc.63 to 1. (2003) identified five promising genotypes of bael on the basis of fruit characters and bearing behavior from the germplasm collected from Jharkhand and Bihar. ANDUAT. Sizable collection is being maintained at CCSHAU. The heaviest fruits with highest TSS were recorded for IC546120 followed by those in IC546131. Nath et al. Etawah Kagzi. Bawal (10).28 to 8.

Desiccation of seeds to 5. 21 . Gonda Selection and several wild types have been cryostored in the Cryogenebank at NBPGR. The seeds retained viability well upto 2 years of storage at ambient temperature. Intermediate seed storage behavior has been ascertained by our studies (Table 4). (2010) who observed that seeds had short viability and showed chilling sensitivity as majority of seeds lost viability after 12 months storage at -20OC.6% moisture content before cryostorage resulted in high survival of about 95% (Table 3). A total of 80 diverse accessions including Kagzi.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Basic studies on seed germination. Freshly harvested seeds of diverse accessions showed germination from 60-100% with moisture content varying from 12-20% (Table 3 and 4). Embryos and embryonic axes also survived Liquid nitrogen (LN) exposure with 75% survival (Table 2). seed storage behavior and longevity have been undertaken at NBPGR. However. Our results are similar to that reported by Parihar et al. exposure to LN resulted in 11% decline in viability indicating chilling sensitivity. Mirzapuri.

41 Aegle marmelos Beal Wild Rewari Haryana 28.16 27.08 72.827 552934 3 MD .86 Aegle marmelos Billa Wild Neemach Madhya Pradesh 24.34 25.72 79. Collector IC No.10 24.73 Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan 24.85 24.72 74.50 74.42 73. Passport data of Aegle marmelos (Bael) germplasm collected from various states Crop Name Bael Bael Bael Bael Bael Bael Bael Bael Bael Bael Bael Bael Bael Bael Bael Aegle marmelos Aegle marmelos Aegle marmelos Billi Bel Beal Aegle marmelos Bille Aegle marmelos Bille Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Aegle marmelos Bel Wild Aegle marmelos Bel Wild Sirohi Sirohi Udaipur Udaipur Udaipur Udaipur Alwar Aegle marmelos Bel Wild Udaipur Aegle marmelos Belpather Wild Chittorgarh Aegle marmelos Belpather Wild Chittorgarh Aegle marmelos Bel Wild Chattarpur Aegle marmelos Bel Wild Chattarpur Aegle marmelos Billi Wild Neemach Madhya Pradesh 24.41 73.34 24.17 Name Name Name Status 76.40 73.40 74.09 79.73 Madhya Pradesh 24.32 Botanical Vernacular Biological District State Latitude Longitude S.43 Madhya Pradesh 24.34 24.61 73. Number Number 1 MKD-101 524057 2 MD .75 76.17 24.32 24.Table 7.87 75.87 73.42 73.32 24.843 552950 4 MD-332 437020 5 MD-333 437021 6 MD-06/20 546103 Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 22 7 MD-06/22 546105 8 MD-06/32 546115 9 MD-06/37 546120 10 MD-06/47 546130 11 MD-10/1 584550 12 MD-10/2 584551 13 MD-10/4 584553 14 MD-167 417234 15 MKD-90 524046 .

66 42.21 6. No.96 1.62 Fruit Width (cm) Weight (gm) TSS Length (cm) Seed Diameter (cm) 1.72 0.28 7.70 0.14 8.13 0.64 0.67 1.60 6.54 8. IC No. Length (cm) 7.08 6.63 Weight (gm) 0.61 144.64 378.46 34.Table 8.70 6.31 43.51 178. Coll.65 0. Characterization data of Aegle marmelos (Bael) germplasm based on fruits and seeds characters S.33 168.15 45. No.08 1 MD-06/20 546103 Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 23 2 MD-06/22 546105 3 MD-06/32 546115 4 MD-06/37 546120 .06 0.68 1.07 0.

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 24 .

Trees have the alternate bearing nature as present in the mango. Flowering is in the month of JanuaryFebruary and fruits ripen in April-May. Orissa. Leaves 6-10 inches. Rajasthan and Maharashtra. Jharkhand. Locally chironji is known as achar or charoli and nut is known as guthali. flowers whitish green. Chhattisgarh. high with a straight trunk (Fig.2 Buchanania lanzan (Chironji) Botanical name: Buchanania lanzan Sperg. 1982).Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 3. Piyal Family: Anacardiaceae Origin and distribution: Chironji originated in the Indian sub-continent (Zeven and de Wet. It is a very common tree species of forests of Madhya Pradesh. Common name: Chironji. B. Charoli. Gujarat. Propagation: Chironji is propagated through seeds. Vegetative propagation through soft wood grafting and chip budding is successful but rarely tried as there is no demand for planting material for commercial cultivation. Tree shows deciduous nature for short time in summer and new leaves come in the late May. oblong. western and central India mostly in the states of Madhya Pradesh. cross pollinated fruit crop and seedling selections are required to be identified with desirable characters. D).6A). Fruits are generally collected at green stage to extract the kernels. syn. 25 . Chironji makes an important contribution to the tribal economy of these states alongwith two other species namely Madhuca indica (Mahua) and Diospyros melanoxylon (Tendu). Chawar. 6E). Fruits juicy with moderate sweet and acidic pulp. Chhattisgarh and Gujarat. Bihar. Most of the tribals are collecting the fruits directly from the forest area. fruit drupe. Andhra Pradesh. It is a highly heterozygous. Presently the trees are available only in the forest or marginal lands near the villages. green when immature and dark black at ripened stage (Fig 6C. These trees play very important role in the socio-economic condition of tribal population of this area (Fig. All these three species are available in the conjunction in the forest and during summers fruits are collected. latifolia Roxb. sessile. The tree is found as natural wild in the tropical deciduous forests of north. Cuddapah almond. General description: Buchanania lanzan is medium size tree. Achar. obtuse. upto 40-50 ft.

Godhra collected 30 variable accessions from Gujarat (Singh. Recently. 8 collections have been found promising for important horticultural traits and are being evaluated for field performance at CHES (CIAH). Kernel is of very high value and fetch Rs.00 per Kg in market. Gujarat. Godhra. Separated seed is an economically important part of the plant used as dry fruit in traditional sweet dishes. 7 and Table 9. There is an urgent need to identify superior selections /cultivars in chironji for promotion of this highly potential indigenous horticultural fruit crop. total soluble solids. Seed is collected and kernel is extracted either at home or in the large quantity taken to the local market for mechanical extraction of kernel by breaking the nut using modified floor mills. 2008). (2006). Fruits are washed and nuts are dried (Fig. sub-acid flavour and consumed by local people and also sold in the nearby village markets. Characterization: 30 accessions collected from Gujarat has been characterized for physico-chemical characters at CHES (CIAH). Maharashtra. Godhra by Singh et al. Fruit is eaten raw having pleasant. very limited collections have been made. Germplasm already collected and preliminary characterized may be used for the further detailed characterization and evaluation for field performance. CHES (CIAH). New Delhi have taken up specific exploration and collection missions in the diversity rich areas of Madhya Pradesh. Bihar. Bihar have been characterized for fruit weight. Chhattisgarh and Rajasthan for the collection of chironji and 74 accessions have been collected. Details of area surveyed and passport data is given in Fig. which is highly nutritious. Maharashtra. sweetish. Work is in progress to identify and release some high yielding. 2007). Chhatisgarh and Rajasthan by CHES (CIAH). Lucknow. Germplasm collected from the parts of Uttar Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh. NBPGR. dwarf and suitable selections of chironji at CHES (CIAH). 6F) and stored for selling in the market. 1982). 26 . protein content and earliness (Rai. At CISH. Kernel is rich in protein content (20-30%) and have high oil content (40-50%). CISH. Godhra. Annual report. acidity.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Cultivars/selections: No identified cultivars or selections identified in this important minor fruit at present as no organized commercial cultivation is practiced. Genetic Resource Management Collection: Genetic resources of chironji have not been given due attention till now. Genetic diversity of chironji has been collected from Gujarat. New Delhi. Godhra and CISH. Lucknow 8 accessions of chironji have been identified and collected from Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh (CISH. 300-400. Lucknow and NBPGR. Important uses: Bark of tree is used for tanning. therefore.

No organized cultivation of chironji is practiced and fruits are directly collected from the natural wild trees occurring in the forest and marginal lands. therefore.18 cm x 1. Many of the populations have been completely wiped off in the recent past due to developmental activities and want of agriculture land by farmers.3 cm and weighed from 0. 2007). Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh A large collection of 52 accessions were characterized for fruit and kernel character to analyze the existing variability in chironji (Table 10).03 to 0.65 gm. 27 .8 cm to 1.4 cm x 0. the species is facing a great threat. Occasionally the trees are cut partly or completely by the tribals to collect the fruits. 2007). When propagated by seed for root stock preparation.1 cm x 1. The fruit weight also showed variation from 0. 2007).52 cm exhibiting a large variation. There are no standard cultivars available in chironji since little work has been done to exploit genetic resources. Accordingly the kernel also had similar variation with length x width ranging from 0. 80-85% germination is achieved.21 to 0. The fruit length x width ranged from 0. 7: Collection sites of Chironji in Rajasthan.66 gm.36 cm x 0. Sulphuric acid treatment promoted the seed germination (Singh. Conservation: Chironji is facing severe genetic erosion as a result of activities related to afforestation in tribal inhabitated areas (Singh.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Rajasthan Gujarat Madhya Pradesh Fig. A number of seedling strains with a lot of variation provide scope for selection of better varieties (Singh.54 cm to 1.

Freshly shed seeds showed 7-8% moisture and about 90% germinability (Table 3). pers. The critical moisture content was reported by Naithani (2001. The seeds at 6. describe recalcitrant seed storage behaviour of chironji seeds. 127 accessions collected from different agroclimatic zones have been successfully cryopreserved at NBPGR (Table 5).4%.).Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India In studies at NBPGR a short shelf life of chironji seeds of upto 11 months was noted. 28 . Naithani (2001. comm.3 and 12. Lower recovery percentages were seen for seeds exposed to LN at suboptimal moisture levels. however. Based on the desiccation sensitivity and tolerance to freezing. Seeds on desiccation to about 6% moisture showed a decline in viability by 11-13%. a 8% further decline in viability was apparent. pers.) to be between 6. comm. pers. Naithani (2001.) recorded similar observations and reported that Buchanania lanzan seeds stored at fresh moisture content of 16% showed decline in viability to 35-68% after 280 days of storage and those stored at 10 and 7% moisture showed decline in germinabilty (58-88%) on 280 days of storage.02% moisture after cryostorage showed about 70% recovery. comm. intermediate seed storage behaviour has been ascertained. On exposure to LN.

41 21.68 73.Table 9.816 552923 Chironji 6 Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji MD .825 552932 13 MD .41 22.68 73.818 552925 8 MD .09 74.25 21.41 21.37 74.41 21. Collector No.41 21.826 552933 .63 21.68 75.37 22.10 73.849 552956 9 MDS-10/16 584565 10 MDS-10/17 584566 11 MDS-10/18 584567 12 MD .26 22.19 73.41 21.812 552919 Chironji 2 MD .41 22.814 552921 Chironji 4 MD .20 22.68 73. Passport data of Buchanania lanzan (Chironji) germplasm collected from various states Botanical Name Name Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Chawar Chawar Charoli Charoli Chawar Chawar Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Chawar Wild Chawar Wild Vadodara Vadodara Dahod Vadodara Vadodara Vadodara Dhar Dhar Chawar Wild Vadodara Chawar Wild Vadodara Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Chawar Wild Vadodara Gujarat Chawar Wild Vadodara Gujarat Chawar Wild Vadodara Gujarat Status 22. Number IC Number Crop Name 1 MD .817 552924 Chironji Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 29 7 MD .13 74.68 74.813 552920 Chironji 3 MD .68 73.815 552922 Chironji 5 MD .38 Vernacular Biological District State Latitude Longitude S .38 75.68 73.

19 79.97 23.56 24.95 Achar Wild Raisen Madhya Pradesh 23.49 78.22 78.80 15 Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji MD-305 436993 Chironji 16 MD-306 436994 17 MD-307 436995 18 MD-309 436997 19 MD-311 436999 20 MD-312 437000 21 MD-313 437001 Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 30 22 MD-314 437002 23 MD-315 437003 24 MD-316 437004 25 MD-320 437008 26 MD-323 437011 27 MD-324 437012 28 MD-325 437013 29 MD-326 437014 .33 77.33 77.34 24.11 79.42 23.35 78.75 78.62 22.87 23.20 77.45 77.73 Achar Wild Sehore Madhya Pradesh 23.81 80.80 MD-302 436990 Chironji Buchanania lanzan Achar Wild Raisen Madhya Pradesh 23.62 21.08 75.00 22.31 24.43 78.08 78.18 24.75 77.62 23.14 Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Achar Achar Achar Achar Achar Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Achar Wild Achar Wild Sagar Sagar Sagar Panna Panna Panna Chattarpur Achar Wild Betul Achar Wild Hoshangabad Achar Wild Hoshangabad Achar Wild Hoshangabad Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Achar Wild Hoshangabad Madhya Pradesh Achar Wild Raisen Madhya Pradesh 23.60 22.56 80.

30 22.44 78.46 31 Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji MD-334 437022 Chironji 32 MD-335 437023 33 MD-336 437024 34 MD-337 437025 35 MD-06/24 546107 36 MD-06/25 546108 37 MD-06/26 546109 Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 31 38 RS/NSP-22 553215 39 RS/NSP-23 553216 40 RS/NSP-25 553218 41 RS/NSP-26 553219 42 RS/NSP-27 553220 43 RS/NSP-28 553221 44 RS/NSP-29 553222 45 RS/NSP-30 553223 .38 22.21 78.23 78.24 22.58 24.37 78.32 22.27 22.27 78.70 74.40 74.21 22.91 24.66 79.30 Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Achar/Char Wild Achar/Char Wild Achar/Char Wild Achar/Char Wild Achar/Char Wild Achar/Char Wild Achar/Char Wild Achar/CharWild Chhindwara Chhindwara Chhindwara Hoshangabad Hoshangabad Hoshangabad Hoshangabad Hoshangabad Chironji Wild Chittorgarh Chironji Wild Chittorgarh Chironji Wild Chittorgarh Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Achar Wild Chattarpur Madhya Pradesh Achar Wild Chattarpur Madhya Pradesh Achar Wild Chattarpur Madhya Pradesh 24.63 79.16 MD-327 437015 Chironji Buchanania lanzan Achar Wild Chattarpur Madhya Pradesh 24.24 22.40 79.32 24.32 24.40 74.86 24.78 79.40 78.23 78.36 78.53 79.46 Achar Wild Chattarpur Madhya Pradesh 24.38 22.

46 Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Achar/Char Wild Achar/Char Wild Achar/Char Wild Achar/Char Wild Achar/Char Wild Achar/Char Wild Achar/Char Wild Raisen Raisen Raisen Sehore Sehore Sehore Seoni Achar/Char Wild Raisen Achar/Char Wild Narsinghpur Achar/Char Wild Narsinghpur Achar/Char Wild Narsinghpur Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Achar/Char Wild Narsinghpur Madhya Pradesh Achar/Char Wild Narsinghpur Madhya Pradesh 22.50 20.50 20.47 20.47 20.47 23.06 23.04 23.07 23.28 22.48 22.52 22.52 22.32 Achar/Char Wild Narsinghpur Madhya Pradesh 22.51 79.19 79.21 79.23 79.24 79.24 79.24 77.54 77.55 77.55 77.34 77.40 77.43 77.43 79.35 Achar/Char Wild Hoshangabad Madhya Pradesh 22.42 77.55

RS/NSP-31

553224

Chironji

Buchanania lanzan

Achar/Char Wild

Hoshangabad

Madhya Pradesh

22.41

78.09

47 Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji

RS/NSP-32

553225

Chironji

48

RS/NSP-4

553197

49

RS/NSP-5

553198

50

RS/NSP-7

553200

51

RS/NSP-8

553201

52

RS/NSP-9

553202

53

RS/NSP-10

553203

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India

32

54

RS/NSP-1

553194

55

RS/NSP-2

553195

56

RS/NSP-3

553196

57

RS/NSP-37

553230

58

RS/NSP-33

553226

59

RS/NSP-34

553227

60

RS/NSP-35

553228

61

RS/NSP-11

553204

62 Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Chironji Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Buchanania lanzan Achar/Char Wild Achar/Char Wild Achar/Char Wild Buchanania lanzan Achar/Char Wild Buchanania lanzan Achar/Char Wild Chhindwara Chhindwara Chhindwara Chhindwara Bhopal Buchanania lanzan Achar/Char Wild Chhindwara Buchanania lanzan Achar/Char Wild Vidisha Buchanania lanzan Achar/Char Wild Vidisha Buchanania lanzan Achar/Char Wild Seoni Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Buchanania lanzan Achar/Char Wild Seoni Madhya Pradesh Buchanania lanzan Achar/Char Wild Seoni Madhya Pradesh 22.00 22.00 21.54 23.65 23.40 22.24 22.24 22.24 22.24 22.24 23.24 Buchanania lanzan Achar/Char Wild Seoni Madhya Pradesh 22.17 79.34 79.30 79.29 79.31 78.15 78.07 78.37 78.37 78.37 78.37 78.37 77.32

RS/NSP-12

553205

Chironji

Buchanania lanzan

Achar/Char Wild

Seoni

Madhya Pradesh

22.19

79.32

63

RS/NSP-13

553206

64

RS/NSP-14

553207

65

RS/NSP-15

553208

66

RS/NSP-16

553209

67

RS/NSP-38

553231

68

RS/NSP-39

553232

69

RS/NSP-17

553210

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India

33

70

RS/NSP-18

553211

71

RS/NSP-19

553212

72

RS/NSP-20

553213

73

RS/NSP-21

553214

74

RS/NSP-36

553229

Table 10. Characterization of Buchanania lanzan (Chironji) germplasm based on fruits and seeds characters
Fruit Length (cm) 0.94 (±0.02) 1.05 (±0.05) 1.22(±0.03) 0.98(±0.05) 0.9(±0.03) 1.16(±0.04) 1.16(±0.02) 1.08(±0.02) 1.08(±0.02) 1.22(±0.02) 1.4(±0.03) 1.43(±0.04) 1.00(±0.03) 1.18(±0.02) 1.09(±0.02) 0.43(±0.18) 1.16(±0.03) 1.00(±0.01) 1.03(±0.04) 1.2(±0.00) 1.1(±0.03) 0.44(±0.01) 0.58(±0.03) 0.55(±0.02) 0.31(±0.02) 0.51(±0.02) 0.35(±0.01) 1.1(±0.020) 0.39(±0.01) 1.1(±0.020) 0.39(±0.01) 1.16(±0.04) 0.47(±0.03) 1.16(±0.02) 0.56(±0.02) 0.86(±0.02) 0.76(±0.02) 0.68(±0.02) 0.74(±0.02) 0.74(±0.02) 1.3(±0.00) 1.15(±0.02) 0.66(±0.00) 0.78(±0.02) 0.67(±0.02) 0.82(±0.08) 0.39(±0.02) 0.62(±0.02) 1.18(±0.03) 0.49(±0.04) 0.54(±0.04) 1.16(±0.02) 0.61(±0.03) 0.78(±0.03) 0.54(±0.02) 0.72(±0.04) 0.5(±0.04) 0.66(±0.02) 0.57(±0.02) 0.48(±0.02) 0.58(±0.04) 0.54(±0.02) 1.1(±0.00) 0.83(±0.02) 0.47(±0.00) 0.58(±0.01) 0.51(±0.03) 1.04(±0.05) 0.37(±0.02) 0.68(±0.04) 0.52(±0.03) 1.08 (±0.02) 0.44 (±0.02) 0.70 (±0.03) 0.50 (±0.00) Width (cm) Weight (gm) Length (cm) Width (cm) Wt (gm) 0.07 (±0.00) 0.06(±0.01) 0.25(±0.15) 0.07(±0.01) 0.21(±0.09) 0.1(±0.01) 0.06(±0.01) 0.06(±0.00) 0.09(±0.01) 0.08(±0.00) 0.36(±0.01) 0.24(±0.01) 0.06(±0.00) 0.11(±0.01) 0.07(±0.01) Seed

S.No. Coll. No.

IC No.

1

MD-812

552919

2

MD-813

552920

3

MD-814

552921

4

MD-815

552922

5

MD-816

552923

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India

34

6

MD-817

552924

7

MD-818

552925

8

MD-825

552932

9

MD-826

552933

10

MD-849

552956

11

MD-06/24

546107

12

MD-06/26

546109

13

MD-10/16

584565

14

MD-10/17

584566

15

MD-10/18

584567

02) 0.76(±0.92(±0.02(±0.08(±0.03) 0.03) 0.16(±0.03(±0.00) 0.05) 0.06(±0.06(±0.08(±0.00) 0.02) 0.07) 0.05) 0.32(±0.62(±0.00) 17 RS/NSP – 2 553195 18 RS/NSP – 3 553196 19 RS/NSP – 4 553197 20 RS/NSP – 5 553198 21 RS/NSP – 7 553200 22 RS/NSP – 8 553201 23 RS/NSP – 9 553202 24 RS/NSP – 10 553203 25 RS/NSP – 11 553204 Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 35 26 RS/NSP – 12 553205 27 RS/NSP – 13 553206 28 RS/NSP – 14 553207 29 RS/NSP – 15 553208 30 RS/NSP – 16 553209 31 RS/NSP – 17 553210 32 RS/NSP – 18 553211 33 RS/NSP – 19 553212 34 RS/NSP – 20 553213 .02) 0.52(±0.98(±0.05(±0.48(±0.76(±0.03) 1(±0.05) 1(±0.58(±0.02) 0.54(±0.01) 0.03) 0.03) 1.94(±0.07) 0.46(±0.03) 0.46(±0.29(±0.03) 0.06(±0.05) 0.01) 1.96(±0.02) 0.7(±0.33(±0.8(±0.52(±0.03) 0.24(±0.02) 0.01) 0.16 1.08(±0.58(±0.02) 0.02) 1(±0.08(±0.92(±0.02) 1.04) 1.01) 1.04) 0.68(±0.48(±0.03) 1(±0.04(±0.04) 0.94(±0.03) 0.14(±0.47(±0.01) 0.02) 0.00) RS/NSP – 1 553194 1.00) 0.01) 0.02) 1.02) 1(±0.82(±0.66(±0.02) 0.04) 0.01) 0.03) 0.06(±0.02) 0.04(±0.9(±0.02) 0.08(±0.98(±0.01) 0.9(±0.98(±0.05(±0.03) 0.41(±0.02) 0.02) 0.02) 0.04(±0.01) 0.02) 0.44(±0.42(±0.03) 0.02) 0.62(±0.08(±0.42(±0.45(±0.04) 0.86(±0.04(±0.02) 1.00) 0.02) 1(±0.96(±0.00) 0.4(±0.02) 0.02) 0.07(±0.04) 0.24(±0.72(±0.3(±0.29(±0.04) 1.06(±0.28(±0.37(±0.01) 0.02) 0.06(±0.76(±0.03) 0.03) 0.06(±0.06(±0.44(±0.36(±0.7(±0.01) 0.00) 1.01) 0.5(±0.00) 0.5(±0.54(±0.6(±0.03) 1.94(±0.02) 0.08(±0.46(±0.01) 0.05) 0.02) 1.7(±0.04) 0.02) 0.02) 0.64(±0.6(±0.05) 0.02) 0.04(±0.01) 0.02) 1(±0.05) 0.03) 0.04) 0.7(±0.02) 1.03) 0.56(±0.05) 0.02) 0.62(±0.01) 0.48(±0.02) 0.5(±0.02) 0.08(±0.01) 0.01) 0.04) 0.02) 0.02) 0.46(±0.02) 0.01) 0.07) 0.5(±0.58(±0.78(±0.08(±0.05(±0.12(±0.01) 0.03) 0.29(±0.04) 1.03) 0.28(±0.06(±0.02) 0.03) 0.04) 0.28(±0.32(±0.05) 0.02) 0.92(±0.06(±0.02) 0.

04) 1.03) 0.08(±0.08(±0.96(±0.05(±0.02) 0.02) 0.46(±0.16(±0.00) 0.88(±0.06) 1.01) 0.02) 0.68(±0.02) 0.05) 1.41(±0.01) 0.07(±0.01) 36 RS/NSP – 22 553215 37 RS/NSP – 23 553216 38 RS/NSP – 25 553218 39 RS/NSP – 26 553219 40 RS/NSP – 27 553220 41 RS/NSP – 28 553221 42 RS/NSP – 29 553222 43 RS/NSP – 30 553223 44 RS/NSP – 31 553224 Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 36 45 RS/NSP – 32 553225 46 RS/NSP – 33 553226 47 RS/NSP – 34 553227 48 RS/NSP – 35 553228 49 RS/NSP – 36 553229 50 RS/NSP – 37 553230 51 RS/NSP – 38 553231 52 RS/NSP – 39 553232 .02) 0.02) 0.06) 0.01) 0.07(±0.07(±0.54(±0.02) 0.28(±0.03) 0.02) 0.00) 1.04) 0.7(±0.06(±0.02) 1.05) 0.05) 0.01) 0.44(±0.00) 0.05(±0.1(±0.05) 0.78(±0.04) 0.52(±0.26(±0.1(±0.00) 0.06(±0.35 1.02) 1.42(±0.73(±0.02) 0.27(±0.36(±0.03) 1.02(±0.06) 1(±0.04) 0.02) 0.94(±0.02) 0.02) 0.51(±0.02) 1.03) 1.03) 0.06(±0.04) 0.02) 0.03) 0.14(±0.02) 1.64(±0.05) 0.92(±0.21(±0.01) 0.01) 0.92(±0.00) 0.53(±0.02) 1.7(±0.5(±0.66(±0.96(±0.57(±0.08(±0.00) 0.02) 0.07(±0.00) 0.98(±0.04) 0.08(±0.02) 0.04) 0.6(±0.02) 0.65(±0.1(±0.56(±0.72(±0.06(±0.03) 1.04) 1.52(±0.86(±0.03) 1.54) 0.66(±0.63(±0.5(±0.02) 0.08(±0.12(±0.44(±0.00) 0.05(±0.04(±0.02) 0.02) 0.02) 0.1(±0.47(±0.02) 0.98(±0.06) 0.68(±0.01) 1.03) 0.02) 0.02) 0.2(±0.03) 0.52(±0.04) 1.02) 0.02) 0.66(±0.06(±0.04) 0.07) 1.01) 0.04(±0.08(±0.03) 0.1(±0.27(±0.54(±0.04) 0.06(±0.68(±0.1(±0.6(±0.54(±0.02) 1.42(±0.01) 0.06) 0.96(±0.84(±0.08) RS/NSP – 21 553214 1.08(±0.00) 0.48(±0.04) 0.88(±0.03) 0.02) 1.02) 1.54(±0.52(±0.64(±0.02) 0.07) 0.03) 0.66(±0.02) 1.04) 0.05) 0.05) 0.04) 0.74(±0.02) 0.04) 1(±0.06(±0.03) 0.02) 0.04) 1.1(±0.04) 0.28(±0.01) 0.08(±0.74(±0.52(±0.52(±0.53(±0.18(±0.03) 0.04) 0.00) 0.9(±0.39(±0.98(±0.49(±0.02) 0.06(±0.

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 37 .

Fruits globose or ovoid berry with many seeds. This species is highly tolerant and adapted well to extreme temperatures and drought conditions. syn.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 3. however. Leaves are present only in the young shoots. General description: C. Cultivars/selections: No identified cultivars or selections have reported in this species till now. These collections are to be evaluated and suitable selections or cultivars are to be released for organized cultivation of this highly economically important fruit species. Seeds show dimorphism with variable morphological features. aphylla Roth. decidua is a succulent. this species is widely distributed in the drier parts of Gujarat. Propagation is also reported through root suckers in nature. Bikaner. Propagation: Species is occurring in natural wild and propagation is through seeds. Dela. which covers the parts of western Rajasthan. Kair Family: Capparidaceae Origin and distribution: C. Branches numerous.Vegetative propagation is attempted through hard wood and semi-hard wood cuttings. spiny bush or occasionally a small tree (Fig. Haryana and Punjab. pinkish-red and rarely yellow. 1994). Unique feature of this plant is that leaves are produced when soil moisture is depleted to its maximum. From fully developed bush 5-15 kg of immature fruits are collected.) Edgew. Bawal. Regional Research Station. Teet. 8D). Fruits are directly harvested from the natural wild bushes by local people and sold in the local market for very good price of Rs. It can be multiplied by seeds and also spreads by root suckers (Chandra et al. NBPGR Regional Station. 50-60/. Common name: Ker. nearly straight. Besides. Jodhpur and CIAH. C. 8A). 38 . It flowers two times a year during February-March and July-August. Flowers. green when immature and turn shining red at ripening stage (Fig. some promising accessions with good horticulture characters have been collected and established at field genebank at CCSHAU. decidua is native to Indian subcontinent and distributed as natural wild in the arid and semi arid regions of north-west India mainly in the Indian desert. stipules thorny. divaricating forming a sub-globose crown.per kg.3 Capparis decidua (Ker) Botanical name: Capparis decidua (Forsk.

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Important uses: Plant produces hard. CIAH. fruit shape. however. fruit shape.. flowering and fruiting behavior. decidua from the western Rajasthan and adjoining area of Punjab and Haryana as populations of this important multipurpose indigenous fruits are vanishing fast due to the large scale developmental activities. Due to enhanced irrigation through canal network in several of these districts of Rajasthan. There is a need to collect more germplasm of C. IC345837. number of seeds per fruit etc. heavy and termite resistant timber. Haryana and Gujarat. inflammation and cough (Ahmad et al. size and colour.29 cm x 0. IC345842 and IC345845 have been found to be with less or no spines. foliage colour. Root bark and stem are reported to contain a spermidine alkaloid and isocodonocarpine effective in treatment of asthma.23 to 0. Prolific fruiting type and genotypes with less or no spines have been identified during exploration in the parts of Haryana and Rajasthan by NBPGR.25 to 23. TSS values ranging from 17. decidua has been characterized based on plant characters in the field. urbanization and arrival of Rajasthan canal in this area. Fully ripen fruits are sweet and eaten raw by local people. spiny nature. IC345840. branching pattern. Hanumangarh. Enormous variability have been reported in plants growth habit. Genetic Resource Management Collection: C. branches with less or no spines and bold fruit size.31 cm and seed diameter from 0. 57 accessions have been collected by NBPGR in collaboration with CCSHAU. Fruit showed large variation in TSS.55 ºB were recorded. Characterization: Germplasm of C. Bawal. Fruits are rich in proteins. while accessions numbers IC345819 and IC561789 have been identified for prolific bearing and bold fruits. number of seeds per fruit etc.23 cm x 0. carbohydrates and minerals. A total of 6 accessions were characterized for fruit and seed characters. Regional Research Station. Hisar. Accessions IC345829. wild populations of this species have already been squeezed. spiny nature. Some of the accessions have been characterized based on fruit and seed characters (Table 12). size and colour. Abohar and Fazilka. flowering and fruiting behavior. foliage colour. Bikaner and elite type have been identified. Sizable variability 39 . Haryana and Punjab namely Bikaner. branching pattern. based on prolific bearing. 65 collections have been made by CIAH. Seeds contain approximately 20% of edible oil. The fruit length x width varied from 0. Unripe fruits are edible and used as fresh vegetable and also pickled in various ways.88 cm. Suratgarh. Sriganganagar. Sirsa. decidua germplasm has been collected from Rajasthan. length and width did not vary much. 9. Passport data of collected germplasm is given in the Table 11 and locations of collection has been depicted in the Fig. 1989).26 cm to 0. Bikaner have made 65 collections and elite type have been identified based on plants growth habit.

Jodhpur (20 accessions). 7F). Presence of dimorphic seeds have been reported in C. Bawal and NBPGR Regional Station. Bikaner (65 accessions). Conservation: Conservation of ker germplasm is presently being undertaken using ex situ conservation approach at ICAR institutes and state agricultural universities located in Rajasthan and Haryana. Germplasm in the filed genebank is being maintained at CAZRI. Regional Research Station. Rajasthan and Gujarat was observed in seed size. however.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Haryana Rajasthan Gujarat Fig. seed germination ranged from 50-90% and moisture from 29 to 30% and lost half of their germinability by 6 months storage at room temperature (Table 4). In studies undertaken at NBPGR. survival in LN remained 40 . 1987). Deora and Shekhawat (1995) mentioned the short seed viability in this species and limited establishment of new seedlings in the nature. The heaviest fruits having high TSS and light seeds were seen in accessions IC561789. shape and color in this species (Fig. Jodhpur (22 accessions). Seeds weighed only 1/ 10th of the weight of the whole fruits. 561770 and 561795. 9: Collection sites of Ker from Haryana. CIAH. CCSHAU. decidua during characterization of germplasm collected from Rajasthan (Paul and Sen. Micropropagation of ker has been successfully reported by them with 3-5 shoots per explants using in vitro culture of nodal explants. The seeds on desiccation to critical moisture content of 8% showed 14% decline in viability.

A total of 88 diverse accessions have been successfully cryostored at NBPGR. Based on short seed longevity and desiccation sensitivity. Hence. New Delhi (Table 5).Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India unchanged. seeds have been categorized as intermediate in this species. seeds desiccated to 7% moisture content showed recovery of 80% after cryostorage. Seed storage behavior has been reported as intermediate (ICRAF Agroforestry Tree Database). 41 .

BioloDistrict State LatiLongi- S.44 70.86 28.No.82 75.48 76. Collector IC Number Number 1 MKD-102 524058 2 MKD-3 345775 3 MKD-4 345776 4 MD-08/1 561770 5 MD-08/2 561771 6 MDG-08/20 561789 Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 42 7 MDG-08/26 561795 8 MDG-08/27 561796 9 MD-08/9 561778 10 MKD-6 345778 11 MKD-92 524048 12 MKD-9 345781 13 MKD-52 345824 14 MKD-53 345825 15 MKD-54 345826 16 MKD-55 345827 . Passport data of Capparis decidua (Ker) germplasm collected from various states Crop Name Name Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Capparis decidua Capparis decidua Capparis decidua Capparis decidua Capparis decidua Teet Teet Teet Teet Teet Capparis decidua Teet Capparis decidua Teet Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Capparis decidua Teet Wild Capparis decidua Teet Wild Capparis decidua Teet Wild Jodhpur Jodhpur Bikaner Alwar Alwar Rewari Bhiwani Bhiwani Bhiwani Bhiwani Capparis decidua Teet Wild Jaisalmer Capparis decidua Teet Wild Jhunjhunu Capparis decidua Teet Wild Jhunjhunu Capparis decidua Teet Wild Rewari Haryana Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Capparis decidua Teet Wild Rewari Haryana Capparis decidua Teet Wild Rewari Haryana 28.09 28.09 28.45 28.45 26.62 75.14 Name cular gical tude tude Botanical Verna.29 76.82 76.04 26.48 75.15 28.45 28.04 28.53 76.03 28.82 75.76 Status 76.24 28.05 73.45 28.44 75.Table 11.00 27.76 70.14 76.30 73.32 76.02 28.76 26.

15 28.83 76.24 Capparis decidua Teet Wild Hisar Haryana 29.28 75.27 MKD-56 345828 Ker Capparis decidua Teet Wild Hisar Haryana 28.13 29.34 28.34 28.62 75.93 75.07 76.99 76.28 28.64 18 MKD-57 345829 19 MKD-58 345830 20 MKD-59 345831 21 MKD-60 345832 22 MKD-61 345833 23 MKD-62 345834 24 MKD-63 345835 25 MKD-75 345847 26 MKD-76 345848 27 MKD-1 345773 Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 43 28 MKD-16 345788 29 MKD-18 345790 30 MKD-22 345794 31 MKD-30 345802 32 MKD-31 345803 33 MKD-33 345805 34 MKD-34 345806 35 MKD-45 345817 36 MKD-46 345818 37 MKD-47 345819 .13 29.13 29.21 29.18 28.28 28.83 76.81 75.62 75.14 28.07 76.71 28.15 28.64 75.11 76.99 75.74 75.08 28.40 76.17 Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Capparis decidua Capparis decidua Capparis decidua Capparis decidua Capparis decidua Capparis decidua Teet Teet Teet Teet Teet Teet Capparis decidua Teet Capparis decidua Teet Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Capparis decidua Teet Wild Capparis decidua Teet Wild Capparis decidua Teet Wild Rewari Rewari Rewari Mahendergarh Mahendergarh Mahendergarh Mahendergarh Mahendergarh Mahendergarh Mahendergarh Mahendergarh Capparis decidua Teet Wild Bhiwani Capparis decidua Teet Wild Bhiwani Capparis decidua Teet Wild Hisar Capparis decidua Teet Wild Hisar Capparis decidua Teet Wild Hisar Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Capparis decidua Teet Wild Hisar Haryana Capparis decidua Teet Wild Hisar Haryana 28.62 75.11 76.80 29.31 76.12 28.14 76.61 76.93 75.71 28.04 Capparis decidua Teet Wild Hisar Haryana 28.

14 76.40 76.21 75.36 39 MKD-49 345821 40 MKD-50 345822 41 MKD-65 345837 42 MKD-66 345838 43 MKD-67 345839 44 MKD-68 345840 45 MKD-69 345841 46 MKD-70 345842 47 MKD-71 345843 Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 44 48 MKD-72 345844 49 MKD-73 345845 50 MKD-79 345851 51 MKD-80 345852 52 MKD-81 345853 53 MKD-82 345854 54 MKD-37 345809 55 MKD-38 345810 56 MKD-39 345811 57 MD-124 395838 .94 75.82 28.03 21.70 Capparis decidua Teet Wild Bhiwani Haryana 28.65 28.83 28.33 28.06 28.36 MKD-48 345820 Ker Capparis decidua Teet Wild Bhiwani Haryana 28.47 75.07 76.19 28.93 76.47 76.83 28.31 28.07 77.83 28.33 28.82 28.23 28.38 Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Ker Capparis decidua Capparis decidua Capparis decidua Capparis decidua Ker Ker Ker Ker Capparis decidua Teet Capparis decidua Teet Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Capparis decidua Teet Wild Capparis decidua Teet Wild Capparis decidua Teet Wild Capparis decidua Teet Wild Bhiwani Bhiwani Gurgaon Gurgaon Gurgaon Gurgaon Jhunjhunu Jhunjhunu Jhunjhunu Bharuch Capparis decidua Teet Wild Rohtak Capparis decidua Teet Wild Rohtak Capparis decidua Teet Wild Rohtak Capparis decidua Teet Wild Bhiwani Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Gujarat Capparis decidua Teet Wild Bhiwani Haryana Capparis decidua Teet Wild Bhiwani Haryana 28.93 75.45 75.79 76.94 77.97 Capparis decidua Teet Wild Bhiwani Haryana 28.14 76.79 76.70 Capparis decidua Teet Wild Bhiwani Haryana 28.14 76.36 72.04 76.65 28.36 76.82 28.79 76.

Table 12. Characterization of Capparis deciduas (Ker) germplasm based on fruits and seeds characters Fruit Length (cm) 0.29(±0.01) 0.23(±0.01) 0.29(±0.00) 0.28(±0.02) 0.25(±0.00) 0.28(±0.01) 0.29(±0.01) 0.30(±0.02) 4.13(±0.11) 5.05(±0.17) 0.26(±0.01) 5.55(±0.12) 0.31(±0.01) 5.07(±0.06) 0.27(±0.01) 4.23(±0.10) 19.25(±0.37) 17.60(±0.23) 23(±1.58) 23.55(±0.36) 17.25(±0.37) 0.30(±0.01) 4.33(±0.18) 21.80(±0.39) Width (cm) Weight (gm) TSS Seed Diam. (cm) 0.27(±0.01) 0.32(±0.01) 0.88(±0.36) 0.23(±0.01) 0.26(±0.02) 0.32(±0.01) Weight (gm) 0.44(±0.01) 0.44(±0.01) 0.57(±0.01) 0.51(±0.01) 0.44(±0.01) 0.49(±0.03)

S.No. Coll. No.

IC No.

1

MD-08/1

561770

2

MD-08/2

561771

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India

45

3

MD-08/9

561778

4

MDG-20

561789

5

MDG-26

561795

6

MDG-27

561796

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India

46

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India

3.4 Carissa species (Karonda)
Botanical name: Carissa species- C. carandas L, syn. C. congesta Wight.; C. spinarum L. and C. grandiflora Bert. Ex A. DC. Common name: C. carandus -Karonda, Karmada, Karvanda; C. spinarum – Kaunda, Kalivi; C. grandiflora- Natal plum. Family: Apocynaceae Origin and distribution: C. carandas and C. spinarum are native to India (Index Kewensis, 1985-190) while C. grandiflora is native to South Africa. C. carandus is also grown in Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia. In India it is found wild in the Western Ghats, Konkan area of Maharashtra and throughout the semi-arid regions. It is widely cultivated in the home gardens, farmer’s fields and orchards as hedge plant and occasionally few plants are grown for commercial purpose. Carissa species has been of much socio-economic importance in the tribal area of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, and Madhya Pradesh. General description: Karonda is a small to big shrub usually 2-4 m tall (Fig. 10A). The stem is rich in white latex and the branches contain sharp spines (Fig. 10B). Flowers are small, measuring 3-5 cm in diameter, with white colour. The fruit is a berry, which is formed in clusters of 3-10 fruits. The fruit is globose to broad ovoid in shape and contains many seeds. Young fruits are pinkish white and become red to dark purple when mature. At maturity fruit color vary from white, green and pinkish red depending on the genotype. Seed 3-5 per fruit, blackish brown, flat, eleptical light in weight. Flowering starts in the month of January-February and fruits mature in MayJune. Fruits are generally harvested at immature stage for vegetable purpose, fully ripen fruits are consumed fresh or processed. Propagation: Karonda is usually propagated by seeds and seeds are to be sown immediately after extraction as longevity of seeds is short. Vegetative propagation is attempted using air layering but rarely used for propagation. Softwood grafting success is 40-50% in karonda (Singh and Ravishankar, 2010).

47

and ear ache. vermifuge and remedy for itches and insect repellent.. Some of the known selections are PK-3. Fruits are very rich source of iron and vitamin C. Aravali Hills of Haryana and Rajasthan mainly the Mt. Faizabad namely Maroon colored and White pink blush have been identified. 10F). Pant Dudarshan and Pant Suvarna from Horticultural Research Station. antiscorbutic and as a remedy for biliousness. It is eaten fresh or stewed with salt or sugar. therefore. jam. few selections based on location and quality of fruits have been identified. 11). West Bengal. bright red colour at ripen stage and very good soursweetish taste (Fig. ethnomedically the fruits are used for curing anemia and as an astringent. While C. Abohar where two plants of this species are being maintained since last several decades. jelly and marmalade for home use and now commercial preparations are also made for domestic use and for export by food processing companies. PK-4. 2003) and being maintained at College of Agriculture. Fruits are processed as pickle. Germplasm have also been collected from eight districts of western Maharashtra. inspite of bearing promising horticulture traits like bold fruits size with good amount of pulp. The roots serve as a stomachic.. No work on popularization of this species has been undertaken in India. In Rajasthan karonda fruits are commonly cooked with green chillies to make a tasty dish taken with chapattis. 1997). Karonda bushes are suitable for hedging in the home gardens and are sometimes grown as an ornamental plant due to its beautiful cherry-like fruits. main areas of variability exists in the states of Maharashtra. however. Genetic Resource Management Collection: Genetic diversity of karonda is spread throughout India. Regional Station Patharchatta and two selections from ANDUAT. Pant Manohar. diarrhoea. Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh (Fig. Chhattisgarh. one district of Marathwada and one of Goa and 111 accessions from 45 locations have been collected and classified for fruit characters (Ghate et al. Rajasthan and in the western Ghats. Germplasm of Carissa species have been widely collected from Maharashtra. Kolhapur. A leaf decoction is used against fever. Madhya Pradesh. Orissa.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Cultivars/selections: In karonda no known cultivars have been developed. 48 . Bihar. however. Chittorgarh and Sirohi districts are rich in diversity. 212 collections have been made from Kolhapur (Sawant et al. Gujarat. PAU. At NBPGR germplasm of C. congesta and C. spinarum have been collected from the natural wild populations of Rajasthan. The fruit is very sour at maturity but it is sourish sweet when ripe. grandiflora was collected from field genebank of Regional Research Station. Abu. Important uses: Immature fruits are used as vegetable while mature fruits are eaten raw. GBPUAT. The passport data of collected germplasm is given in Table 13.

Rahuri four promising genotypes were identified (Karale et al. Based on morphological characterization of fruits and seeds of 8 accessions of Carissa. Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh Characterization: Collected germplasm of karonda have been characterised for plant type specially less spines. width varied from 0. bearing. 11: Collection sites of Karonda from Punjab. shape.02 in IC 546088 to 0. Not much variation in seed weight was recorded as values ranged from 0. Over all the fruit length varied from 1. Patharchatta (Mishra and Jaiswal. green. size.05 cm to 2. 16 distinct types of karonda genotypes have been identified based on these characters from the germplasm collected from western Maharashtra (Ghate et al. green with purple blush. (1999) identified 4 genotypes of Karonda based on colour of the fruits and grouped in to.44 cm and weight varied from 0. Quality characters of fruits and field performance of karonda selections PK-3.09 gm. Rajasthan. The largest and heaviest fruits with smaller seed were recorded in accession IC546088.06 gm in IC546100. Singh et al. white with pink blush and maroon.40 gm to 2. taste. Conservation: Germplasm of karonda and its wild species is being maintained at various field genebanks in the country mainly in the states of Maharashtra. pulp colour..09 cm. 1998). number of seeds per fruit etc. fruit colour.85 to 1. At MPKV. Gujarat.. fruit length. Pant Manohar. 1999). Pant Sudarshan and Pant Suvarna have been evaluated at GBPUAT Regional Station. PK-4. Uttar Pradesh. Major centres where germplasm is being maintained are College 49 . width and weight showed large variation (Table 14). 1989).Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Punjab Rajasthan Madhya Pradesh Fig.

Jodhpur. CAZRI. CIAH. Fresh seeds exhibited 18. Jodhpur (13). CISH. Seeds desiccated to critical moisture content between 6-8% showed survival of 6570 % after LN exposure. spinarum have been cryostored (Table 5). a 12% decline in viability was recorded. Our studies at NBPGR have led to categorization of seed storage behaviour as intermediate. NBPGR Regional Station. Seeds showed shelf life of 5-6 months with 50% decline in germinability by 3 months (Table 4). Faizabad. Seeds of karonda have short viability and should be sown just after extraction from fruits (Kumar et al. Bikaner (5)..4% moisture and 72% germinability. ANDUAT. grandiflora and 3 of C. comprising 9 of C. 2007). Rahuri. carandas. edulis and C. MPKV. 50 . Regional Research Station. CCSHAU. 1 each of C. Kolhapur (212). Lucknow (25 superior genotypes). Seeds showed slight desiccation sensitivity and high freezing tolerance as on desiccation to 9% moisture. In Cryogenebank 14 accessions of Carissa spp. Bawal (4).Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India of Agriculture.

69 74.32 24.Table 13.69 11 MD-06/34 546117 Karonda .41 75.93 74.14 72.76 74.70 8 MD-06/18 546101 Karonda 9 MD-06/5 546088 Karonda 10 MD-493 470389 Natal plum Carissa grandiflora Natal plum Cultivated Abohar Sirohi Punjab Rajasthan 30.40 74.14 75. Collector No.57 74.18 Rajasthan 24. Passport data of Carissa species germplasm collected from various states Botanical Name Vernacular Name Karmada Karmada Karonda Karmada Karmada Karmada Karmada Karmada Karonda Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Neemach Neemach Neemach Wild Sirohi Wild Ratlam Wild Ratlam Biological Status District State Latitude Longitude S.18 72.15 24.76 Madhya Pradesh 24.18 Madhya Pradesh 23. Name IC Number Crop Name 1 Carissa carandas Carissa carandas Carissa carandas Carissa carandas Carissa carandas Carissa carandas Carissa carandas Carissa carandas MD-10/31 584580 Karonda Carissa carandas Madhya Pradesh 23.32 26.41 Madhya Pradesh 24.93 2 MD-10/32 584581 Karonda 3 MD-06/33 546116 Karonda 4 MD-06/13 546096 Karonda Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 51 Carissa spinarum Karonda Wild 5 MD-06/14 546097 Karonda 6 MD-06/15 546098 Karonda 7 MD-06/17 546100 Karonda Chittorgarh Rajasthan Chittorgarh Rajasthan Ajmer Rajasthan 24.41 Madhya Pradesh 24.40 74.93 74.

09 1.35 Fruit width (cm) 1.05 0.93 Fruit weight (gm) 2.63 Seed weight (gm) 0.43 1.09 0.93 0.24 1.09 0.02 0.05 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 MD-06/5 MD-06/13 MD-06/14 MD-06/15 MD-06/17 MD-06/18 MD-06/33 MD-06/34 546088 546096 546097 546098 546100 546101 546116 546117 52 .11 1.40 0.06 0.11 0. Coll.40 0.28 1.05 0.06 0.44 1.03 0.10 1.85 1. No.26 1.93 0.16 1.89 0.03 0. Fruit length (cm) 2. Characterization of Carissa species germplasm based on fruits and seeds characters S. No.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Table 14.05 1.72 0. IC No.79 0.

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 53 .

Gonda. C. C. Vernacular–Lasora. myxa and fruits are acute and smaller in size. freshly harvested seeds are used for raising seedlings. 54 . Vegetative propagation through budding is successful but rarely taken up. fruits are very small turn shining reddish when mature and highly mucilagenous and sweet.) Ehrenb. and Asch. entire leaves. alternate. Fruits are in high demand for processing as pickle and for other medicinal uses. f. dichotoma Forst. Immature fruits are green which turn yellow to pink when mature (Fig.Indian cherry. however. 2010). recently some progressive farmers have started small commercial orchards in Rajasthan and Haryana using local selections (Fig.5 Cordia species (Lasora) Botanical name: Cordia species . Gondi Family: Boraginaceae Origin and distribution: Native of Northwestern India (Stewart and Brandis. . west and central India. 12C). deciduous.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 3. Tree of Cordia crenata is smaller than C.. There is no organized cultivation of this fruit. Cultivars/selections: There are no identified cultivars or selections available in lasora. F. Therefore. Propagation: Lasora is propagated through seeds. C. General description: Medium sized tree. Flowering occurs during February-March and fruits are harvested during May-June. it is found as natural wild and occasionally cultivated. Laseda. future of this fruit species is very high and commercial cultivation would be picking up especially in the north. base rounded or cordate. broadly ovate or cut into margin. rounded or pear shaped. backyards and farmers fields as isolated tree or few in numbers. 1992) and distributed throughout country mainly in warmer regions upto altitude of 5. Recently it has been reported to be propagated through patch budding with 70-80% success (Singh et al. C.. tip obtuse. Some farmer’s selections are used for raising new plants. rothii Roem. leathery in texture. 12F) with long.. myxa is grown in the homestead gardens. cuneateoblong. C. leaves simple. rothii is a small spreading tree (Fig. gharaf (Forst. C.C. variable in shape and size. Fruit drupe. containing sticky pulp in which seed is embedded. crenata Delile Fl. 12A). syn. syn. Common name: English .000 ft. myxa L.

134 accessions of various Cordia species have been collected. Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. shape. Collected germplasm represented the sizable diversity in fruit weight. shining surface and prolific bearing Himachal Pradesh Haryana Rajasthan Gujarat Madhya Pradesh Fig. Jodhpur. Fruit pulp is rich in carbohydrates. seed size. weight and shape. 50-80/. Ripe fruits are eaten fresh.per kg in the urban markets and are always in the high demand. crenata and C. Regional Station. C. Regional Research Station. myxa has been collected by NBPGR from Rajasthan. myxa. Genetic Resource Management Collection: Genetic diversity of Cordia species especially C. Fruit is highly mucilaginous and used in cough mixture to cure diseases of chest and is given in bilious infections as a laxative. Regional Research Station. One promising accession with bold fruits. 13: Collection sites of Cordia species from various states 55 . Madhya Pradesh. Fruit of lasora fetch Rs. At NBPGR 57 accessions comprising of C. extractive matter and ash. Bawal from Rewari. size. Haryana. pulp content. surface feature. Bawal and NBPGR. rothii have been collected from six states of India. Mahendergarh and Bhiwani districts of Haryana and germplasm was established at field genebank at CCSHAU. 45 accessions of elite germplasm have been collected by NBPGR in collaboration with CCSHAU. Gujarat.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Important uses: Unripe fresh fruits are acrid and used for vegetable and pickle.

92 cm.41 cm to 2. Singh et al.21g to 1.29 to 2. Seeds with high recovery were obtained on cryostorage between 6-8% moisture content. 564559 and 564556. Fruits were ovoid to oval in shape. a 14 % decline in viability was recorded indicating freezing sensitivity of seeds which led to its characterization as intermediate seed storage behaviour.26 g. when exposed to LN. NBPGR Regional Station.140 B. 564548 and 564553. Details of germplasm has been given in Table15 and locations of germplasm collections has been presented in the Fig 13.56cm. The lightest seeds was found in IC564550.12 gm to 9. 2004). myxa (24 accessions).91cm. However. 56 . Among all the accessions seven were found better in terms of economic value for large fruits. Bikaner (65). Pulpiest fruits were found in IC564547. With regard to variability in seed characters and length ranged from 1. Fruit weight showed large variation from 1.01cm to 1. Conservation: Germplasm of lasora is being conserved in the field genebank at CCSHAU. Regional Research Station. Detailed studies conducted at NBPGR showed that seeds are shed at about 25% moisture and exhibit high germinability (94%). however. Fruit length varied from 1. myxa collected from various sources have been characterized based on morphological traits of fruit and seed characters. CIAH.23cm to 0. obliqua (1 acc) and C. pulp thickness and small ligher seeds. There are no standard varieties of lasora. higher TSS. rothii (9 accs) has been cryostored successfully (Table 5). Pulp thickness was recorded to range from 0. C.17cm and width from 1. These accesions are IC546090 for high fruit length and width. Jodhpur (73) and ANDUAT.07cm to 1. they can be grouped into two on the basis of their fruit size namely bold and small fruits (Kaushik and Dwivedi. Highest TSS were found in accession IC564553.82 gm with TSS ranging from 0. Seed weight showed large variation amongst the accessions as it varied from 0. Bawal (30). Characterization: Germplasm of C. Rajasthan. crenata (3 accs).Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India have been identified by local farmers near Kotputli. Lasora is generally propagated by seeds.72 cm and width from 1. (1999) identified two types of lasora fruits based on fruit maturity one early type with small. Seeds of C.680 B to 1. Seeds exhibit desiccation tolerance (Table 4). Characterization data has been presented in the Table 16. Seeds showed 50% decline in viability by 6 months. turnip shaped fruits and another late type with large size and spherical shape fruits. In addition budding can be successfully done on seedling rootstocks during July-September. followed by IC564563. C. 564555 and 564563. At NBPGR a total of 24 accessions were used for physico-chemical characterization. Faizabad.

05 28.27 28.51 76.53 cular gical tude VernaBioloDistrict State Lati.79 29.99 76.05 28.14 76.10 28.14 76.58 76.27 28. Number Number Name 1 MD-975 553682 Indian cherry Cordia crenata 2 MKD-19 345791 Indian cherry Cordia myxa 3 Indian cherry Cordia myxa Indian cherry Cordia myxa Indian cherry Cordia myxa Indian cherry Cordia myxa Indian cherry Cordia myxa Indian cherry Cordia myxa Indian cherry Cordia myxa Indian cherry Cordia myxa Indian cherry Cordia myxa MKD-21 345793 Indian cherry Cordia myxa 4 MKD-25 345797 5 MKD-26 345798 Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 57 6 MKD-51 345823 7 MKD-64 345836 8 MKD-83 524039 9 MKD-84 524040 10 MKD-85 524041 11 MKD-86 524042 12 MKD-87 524043 . Collector IC Crop No.05 28.09 28.58 76. Passport data of Cordia species germplasm collected from various states Botanical Name Name Gond Lasora Lasora Lasora Lasora Lasora Lasora Lasora Lasora Lasora Lasora Lasora Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Cultivated Wild Wild Wild Mahendergarh Mahendergarh Bhiwani Hisar Rewari Rewari Rewari Rewari Rewari Wild Mahendergarh Wild Rewari Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Wild Mandi Status Himachal Pradesh 31.25 76.36 75.02 76.35 28.52 76.58 76.27 28.58 76.Longitude S.05 28.Table 15.

48 Himachal Pradesh 31.59 Wild Kangra Himachal Pradesh 32.13 Himachal Pradesh 31.46 Himachal Pradesh 31.28 76.20 76.45 MD-339 553646 Indian cherry Cordia myxa Lasyada Wild Kangra Himachal Pradesh 32.52 Himachal Pradesh 31.25 Himachal Pradesh 31.46 Himachal Pradesh 31.11 14 MD-936 553643 Indian cherry Cordia myxa 15 MD-937 553644 Indian cherry Cordia myxa 16 MD-938 553645 Indian cherry Cordia myxa 17 MD-940 553647 Indian cherry Cordia myxa 18 MDS-1 564544 Indian cherry Cordia myxa 19 MDS-10 564553 Indian cherry Cordia myxa 20 MDS-11 564554 Indian cherry Cordia myxa Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 58 21 MDS-12 564555 Indian cherry Cordia myxa 22 MDS-13 564556 Indian cherry Cordia myxa 23 MDS-15 564558 Indian cherry Cordia myxa 24 MDS-16 564559 Indian cherry Cordia myxa 25 MDS-17 564560 Indian cherry Cordia myxa 26 MDS-2 564545 Indian cherry Cordia myxa 27 MDS-20 564563 Indian cherry Cordia myxa 28 MDS-22 564565 Indian cherry Cordia myxa .13 Lasyada Lasyada Lasyada Lasyada Lasooda Lasooda Lasooda Lasooda Lasiyada Looseda Lasiyada Lasooda Lasooda Lasiyada Lasiyada Wild Cultivated Wild Wild Wild Cultivated Wild Cultivated Hamirpur Hamirpur Hamirpur Kangra Hamirpur Una Bilaspur Bilaspur Cultivated Hamirpur Wild Kangra Wild Una Wild Kangra Wild Kangra Himachal Pradesh 31.47 Himachal Pradesh 31.58 Himachal Pradesh 32.28 76.38 76.57 Himachal Pradesh 31.46 Himachal Pradesh 31.23 Wild Kangra Himachal Pradesh 31.31 Himachal Pradesh 31.20 76.24 76.12 76.25 Himachal Pradesh 31.20 76.01 76.09 76.29 76.20 76.15 76.20 76.28 76.27 76.

06 76.18 76.14 76.29 MDS-3 564546 Indian cherry Cordia myxa Lasooda Wild Una Himachal Pradesh 31.73 Wild Una Himachal Pradesh 31.50 Madhya Pradesh Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan 24.81 76.29 Lasooda Lasooda Lasooda Lasooda Lasooda Lasooda Laveda Gonda Gonda Gonda Gonda Gonda Gonda Lasora Lasora Lasora Wild Cultivated Cultivated Wild Wild Wild Cultivated Cultivated Wild Wild Guna Chittorgarh Ajmer Sirohi Ajmer Ajmer Bhilwara Alwar Alwar Jaipur Wild Kangra Wild Una Wild Una Wild Una Wild Una Himachal Pradesh 31.93 26.54 72.86 27.59 74.50 25.96 27.32 74.30 Himachal Pradesh 31.66 74.10 76.87 74.45 24.85 26.29 Himachal Pradesh 31.28 Himachal Pradesh 31.32 76.10 77.45 Himachal Pradesh 31.65 24.13 27.70 74.57 26.11 76.10 76.69 76.16 30 MDS-4 564547 Indian cherry Cordia myxa 31 MDS-5 564548 Indian cherry Cordia myxa 32 MDS-6 564549 Indian cherry Cordia myxa 33 MDS-7 564550 Indian cherry Cordia myxa 34 MDS-8 564551 Indian cherry Cordia myxa 35 MDS-9 564552 Indian cherry Cordia myxa 36 MD-301 436989 Indian cherry Cordia myxa Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 59 37 MD-06/29 546112 Indian cherry Cordia myxa 38 MD-06/4 546087 Indian cherry Cordia myxa 39 MD-06/45 546128 Indian cherry Cordia myxa 40 MD-06/6 546089 Indian cherry Cordia myxa 41 MD-06/7 546090 Indian cherry Cordia myxa 42 MD-06/8 546091 Indian cherry Cordia myxa 43 MKD-103 524059 Indian cherry Cordia myxa 44 MKD-91 524047 Indian cherry Cordia myxa 45 MKD-94 524050 Indian cherry Cordia myxa .27 76.

32 27.61 73.02 Wild Rewari Haryana 28.96 Wild Rewari Haryana 28.22 76.46 76.46 74.17 25.81 MKD-95 524051 Indian cherry Cordia myxa Lasora Cultivated Alwar Rajasthan 27.53 78.45 73.46 Lasora Lasora Lasora Lasora Lasora Gond Gondi Gondi Gondi Gondi Gondi Wild Alwar Wild Pali Wild Sirohi Wild Udaipur Wild Neemach Wild Vadodara Gujarat Madhya Pradesh Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Wild Alwar Rajasthan Wild Chittorgarh Rajasthan Wild Datia Madhya Pradesh 25.41 76.90 21.66 24.43 73.47 24.34 25.83 24.88 76.08 73.81 27.841 552948 Gondi 54 MD-06/31 546114 Gondi 55 MD-06/35 546118 Gondi Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 60 56 MD-255 423589 Gondi 57 MKD-104 524060 Gondi .805 552912 Gondi 53 MD .38 47 Indian cherry Cordia myxa Indian cherry Cordia myxa Indian cherry Cordia myxa Indian cherry Cordia myxa Cordia rothii Cordia rothii Cordia rothii Cordia rothii Cordia rothii Cordia rothii MKD-15 345787 Indian cherry Cordia myxa 48 MKD-88 524044 49 MD-339 437027 50 MD-06/23 546106 51 MKD-89 524045 52 MD .20 75.40 76.

01) 0.88(±0.58(±0.05) 0.37(±0.48(±0.23(±0.03) 0.61(±0.08) 0.82(±0.02) 0.06) 1. No IC No.01(±0.12) 3 MD-06/08 546091 2. Length (cm) 1 MD-06/6 546089 2.03) 2.51(±0.01) 11.61(±0.05) 0.72(±0.01) 1.16(±0.03) 1.04) 1.80(±0.04) 1.04) 1.9(±0.01) 1.05) 7 MDS-1 564544 2.01) 1.05) 1.06(±0.83(±0.10) 8 MDS-2 564545 2.08) 6.80(±0.10(±0.03) 11 MDS-5 564548 2.04) 1.64(±0.02) 9 MDS-3 564546 1.06) 3.03) .00) 9.62(±0.82(±0.12(±0.62(±0.59(±0.78(±0. No.90(±0.12) 3. Characterization of Cordia species germplasm based on fruits and seeds characters Fruit Width (cm) 1.97(±0.01) 1.59(±0.03) 0.36(±0.37(±0.15) 0.80(±0.01) 1.06(±0.25) 0.00) 1.84(±0.12(±0.05) 5 MD-06/29 546112 2.91(±0.19) 1.91(±0.86(±0.Table 16.62(±0.01) 2.31(±0.25(±0.78(±0.00) 1.72(±0.24) 0.02) 0.11) 2.61(±0.05) 1.01) 1.36(±0.84(±0.01) 0.31(±0.97(±0.03) 0.04) 0.02) 1.07) 0.26(±0.04) 1.76(±0.31(±0.04) 1.02) 1.44(±0.01) 1.03) 4 MD-06/23 546106 1.01) 0.03) 0.01(±0.05) 2.86(±0.48(±0.06) 9.38(±0.10) 11.47(±0.01) 0.01) 1.63 (±0.01) 1.53(±0.16(±0.05) Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 61 6 MD-06/45 546128 1.84(±0.33(0.03(±0.55(±0.74(±0.07(±0.57) 0.34(±0.08) 1.14) 0.59(±0.88(±0.61(±0.01) 0.01) Weight (g) TSS Length (cm) Width (cm) Seed Thickness (cm) Weight (g) 0.58(±0.39(±0.04) 1.06(±0.05) 1.05) 3.62(±0.14) 0.75(±0.03) 10 MDS-4 564547 2. Coll.07(±0.02) 1.09) 0.04) 2 MD-06/7 546090 2.55(±0.77(±0.27(±00.02) 0.03) 1.04) 9.73(±0.55(±0.86(±0.77(±0.09) 2.05) 1.03) 1.49(±0.06) 0.08) 12 MDS-6 564549 2.80(±0.88(±0.04) 0.01) 1.28(±0.66(±0.04) 2.05) 1.05) S.88(±0.95(±0.83(±0.55(±0.36(±0.02) 0.00) 1.5) 1.85(±0.82(±0.01) 0.64(±0.05) 1.84(±0.05) 3.02) 0.07) 0.

16(±0.04) 24 MDS-22 564565 2.06) 1.40(±0.52(±0.01) 0.87(±0.32(±0.05) 0.06) 15 MDS-9 564552 1.53(±0.15) 1.02) 1.86(±0.43(±0.34(±0.08) 2.08) 1.55(±0.12(±.01) 1.03) 1.01) 1.01) 1.08(±0.05) 1.04) 9.23) 3.02) 5.02) 0.09) 2.04) 22 MDS-17 564560 2.06) 2.19) 0.04) 21 MDS-16 564559 2.01) 0.06) 1.02) 0.65(±0.01) 1.70(±0.04) 0.14(±0.01) 0.06) Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 62 20 MDS-15 564558 2.00) 0.60(±0.75(±0.53(±0.92(±0.23(±0.33(±0.09) 1.08) 0.38(±0.05) 1.02) 1.32(±0.04) 0.01) 7.01) 0.26(±0.01) 0.54(±0.39(±0.14(±0.04) 0.64(±0.12(±0.68(±0.05) 1.06(±0.02) 0.41(±0.62(±0.43(±0.44(±0.16) 2.13 2.32) 6.05(±0.85(±0.00) 9.02) MDS-7 564550 1.08) 2.09) 18 MDS-12 564555 2.04) 2.89(±0.12(±0.01) 0.71(±0.33(±0.04) 2.92(±0.01) 1.03) 16 MDS-10 564553 2.15(±0.31(±0.82(±0.08) .38(±0.66(±0.68(±0.06(±0.01) 0.01) 0.08) 1.19(±0.00) 1.72(±0.11) 19 MDS-13 564556 2.96(±0.62(±0.68(±0.07(±0.03) 2.01) 0.14) 2.01) 0.02) 1.94(±0.03) 0.01) 0.82(±0.09(±0.80(±0.06) 0.01) 1.45(±0.30(±0.78(±0.08(±0.60(±0.37(±0.72(±0.05) 10.02) 0.21(±0.01) 0.01) 0.03) 1.25(±0.92(±0.34(±0.01) 0.87(±0.12(±0.56(±0.39(±0.01) 13.03) 0.85(±0.01) 1.05) 17 MDS-11 564554 2.01) 1.06) 9.82(±0.54(±0.21(±0.01) 1.01) 1.14(±0.04) 2.12(±0.05) 1.01(±0.01) 1.29(±0.98(±0.00) 0.44(±0.73(±0.91(±0.14) 1.36(±0.05) 1.95(±0.07) 1.97(±0.01) 1.47(±0.02(±0.07) 1.78(±0.41(±0.01) 14 MDS-8 564551 1.86(±0.01) 0.88(±0.04) 23 MDS-20 564563 2.29(±0.01) 1.02) 0.

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 63 .

western and northern India (Stewart and Brandis. Leaves mostly sub-opposite. when full grown glabrous above. branchlets. Male flowers tomentose. opposite to each other. Genetic resources of this species has not been given much emphasis and only naturally occurring wild plants are used by local people and tribals inhabited in the forest area. compressed. tomentose or pubescent beneath. the back curved. female flowers solitary. larger than male flowers. tupru Buch.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 3. Ex A.6 Diospyros melanoxylon (Tendu) Botanical name: Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. axillary or extra –axillary. coriaceous. Vernacular. 14C).6 inches long but sometimes much longer upto 12 inches. General description: Tendu is a middle sized tree. melanoxylon is native and endemic tree of India and widely found in the peninsular plains and lower hills especially in the dry deciduous forests of central. Cultivars/selections: There are no identified cultivars known in this species. sweet. Albumen ruminated. 1992). Rajasthan. shining and blackish-brown often marked with bands across. Bihar. inflorescence clothed with soft grey or tawny tomentum. Germinative capacity of fresh seeds is 89% but falls rapidly with storage (Hocking. height upto 10-15 ft. Timru. sessile 3-12 flowers arranged in drooping axillary cyme. Pulp yellow. Dc. Fruit ovoid or globose yellow to light orange when ripe. syn. soft. young leaves. D. Jharkhand. 3 .Coromandel ebony persimmon.Tendu. Propagation: Tendu is commonly propagated by seeds as this tree species is only found as natural wild in the forests or marginal lands. supported by the flat spreading calyx–lobes with undulating reflaxed edges (Fig. Common name: English. Gujarat. 1993).. oblong. Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. 1-2 inch across. slightly astringent but edible. generally 2. Ham. 64 . Seeds 4-8. This is the most common species of forests of Madhya Pradesh. Chhattisgarh. Kendu Family: Ebenaceae Origin and distribution: D. Orissa.

the leaves of this plant constitute one of the most important raw materials of the “Bidi” industry. its tannin content is 15% and that of half ripe fruit is 23%. skin and blood diseases (Hocking. Besides being the source of Indian ebony. Dried flowers are reported to be useful in urinary. ploughs and beams (Rathore. Horticulturally this species has not been considered as important even though fruits of this species are promising. melanoxylon have Himachal Pradesh Punjab Haryana Rajasthan Madhya Pradesh Fig. 1970). its wood is also utilized for making boxes. 1993). palpitation of heart and nervous breakdown. Collection sites of Tendu from various states of India 65 . 13 accessions of D. Genetic Resources management Collection: There is not much work done on the genetic resources management of this species. There are several economic uses of this species and all the plant parts starting from bark. The seeds are prescribed as cure for mental disorders. 15. attractive in color and have good quality with sweet pulp. fruits and seeds are important for various commercial purposes. leaves. The fruits called as ‘timru’ by local people are eaten raw and sold commercially in the local markets. combs. Mostly being a forestry and agro-forestry species plants are taken care by the forest departments of respective states. The bark is burnt by tribals to “cure” small-pox. which make its leaves highly valued and there is an organised purchase of these leaves by forest department in all the states.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Important uses: Tendu tree have very important role in the socio-economy of tribal populations of tropical dry forests of India along with other two trees Mahua and Chironji. Dried powdered fruit is used as carminative and astringent. Above all.

F). A decline in germinability was observed with desiccation down to 7% moisture level. On desiccation of seeds to 4.2 to 3. melanoxylon.2 to 2. Germplasm collected by NBPGR have been characterized for various fruit and seed characters. Rajasthan and Himachal Pradesh in the form of fruits from the diverse populations. Fig. Raipur and at NBPGR. Being highly economical species for the local inhabitants and tribals for the collection of fruits and leaves from the wild trees.39 cm with weight of the seed varying from 1.28 to 1. Details of germplasm has been given in Table 17 and locations of germplasm collections has been presented in the Fig. it is naturally being protected by them and by forest departments in the protected forest areas. Desiccation sensitivity and relatively shorter longevity (15 months) has led to its categorization as intermediate seeded species. Conservation: Tendu trees are growing as natural wild in the forests and marginal lands. 66 . The fruit weight ranged from about 28 to 31 gm. 15. The bigger fruits were heavier and also showed higher TSS. In our studies at 12% moisture which is the critical moisture content level. New Delhi.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India been collected by NBPGR from Madhya Pradesh. width and weight (Table 18).68 cm..6o B. as fruits have not been considered of much horticultural importance. TSS in the fruits also showed variation from as low as 19. the viability declined to 50% by 10 months. A total of 16 diverse accessions have been cryostored in the cryogenebank at NBPGR (Table 5). The fruits were morphologically characterized for length. 14E.6 cm and width from 1. School of life Sciences. Characterization: There is no much characterization data available for D. This is similar to work reported by Hocking (1993) where the fast decline in the germinative capacity of fresh seeds with storage has been mentioned . The seeds were characterized for length.2% moisture content a concomitant decline in viability to 77% was recorded. The heaviest fruit with highest TSS was recorded in accession IC552946.5% moisture with 90% germinability (Table 3. In studies by Naithani (pers Comm. width and weight.16 to 3. Pt. Basic studies on seed germination storage behavior has been undertaken at Seed Biology Lab. The fruit length varied from 3. Seed length varied from 2. On storage at ambient conditions.1 gm.5 to 2. 2001) a very high moisture content of 38% and 93% viability have been recorded in freshly extracted seeds. seeds survived LN exposure well with 80% germinability. In studies at NBPGR the freshly harvested seeds showed 28.6 to 22. Ravishankar Shukla University.7 cm and width from 3. The 3 genotypes collected from states of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh have been characterized for fruit and seed characters.

36 Himachal Pradesh 32.32 74.42 25.27 78. Number Number Name 1 MD .40 24.Table 17.64 22.21 73.32 74.71 23.90 74. Collector IC Crop No.94 73. Passport data of Diospyros melanoxylon (Tendu) germplasm collected from various states Botanical Name Name Tendu Tendu Tendu Tendu Tendu Tendu Tendu Tendu Tendu Tendu Tendu Tendu Diospyros melanoxylon Diospyros melanoxylon Timru Timru Diospyros melanoxylon Timru Diospyros melanoxylon Timru Wild Wild Wild Wild Diospyros melanoxylon Timru Wild Diospyros melanoxylon Timru Wild Diospyros melanoxylon Timru Wild Diospyros melanoxylon Timru Wild Dungarpur Dungarpur Dungarpur Pali Beawar Chittorgarh Chhindwara Kangra Diospyros melanoxylon Timru Wild Chittorgarh Diospyros melanoxylon Timru Wild Chittorgarh Diospyros melanoxylon Timru Wild Chittorgarh Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Madhya Pradesh Diospyros melanoxylon Tendu Wild Neemach Madhya Pradesh Status 24.59 73.10 76.32 74.40 24.09 24.Longitude S.27 cular gical tude VernaBioloDistrict State Lati.86 24.63 25.40 23.83 73.43 75.94 73.65 76.94 13 NSP/ 438461 OPD-04-12 .85 24.842 552949 2 MD-06/19 546102 3 MD-06/21 546104 4 MD-06/48 546131 5 MD-274 423608 6 MD-289 423623 7 MD-291 423625 Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 67 Tendu Diospyros melanoxylon Timru Wild 8 MD-292 423626 9 MD-293 423627 10 MD-297 423631 11 RS/NSP-24 553217 12 NSP/ 438454 OPD-04-5 Mandi Himachal Pradesh 31.

03) 1.02) 1.60(±0. Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 68 1 MD-06/19 546102 2 MD-06/21 546104 3 MD-842 552946 .22(±0.03) Weight (gm) 1.19) 3.12) S.03) 2.70(±0.24(±0.52) Width (cm) Weight (gm) TSS Seed Length (cm) 2.40) 3.23(±0.55(±3.60(±0.30(±0.09) Width (cm) 1.01) 27.57(±0.61) 22.13(±0.16(±0.60(±0.02) 3.03) 2.60(±0.03) 28.49(±0.28(±0.39(±0.80(±0.17) 30.48(±0. No Col.06) 3.Table 18.68(±0. IC No.51(±0. Characterization of Diospyros melanoxylon (Tendu) species germplasm based on fruits and seeds characters Fruit Length (cm) 3.37(±0.10) 2.12) 19.12) 21.03) 1. No.83) 3.

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 69 .

the indeterminate and determinate. greenishyellow flowers are borne in compact clusters in the axils of the lower leaves. The fruit is round or oblate. Phyllanthus emblica L. myrobalan. Common name: English . Rajasthan. Bangladesh. Hexagonal stone contains 6 small brown or 70 . It is a deciduous tree shedding its determinate shoots completely and before this lateral buds develop new shoots to visibly give it a look of evergreen tree. natural wild seedlings grow still higher (Fig. specifically of the parts of central and southern India (Firminger. 16A).Indian gooseberry. Haryana and Punjab. southern China and the Mascarene Islands. emblic. 1947). Shivalik Hills and foot hills of Himalayas. Aonla tree has two types of shoots. inconspicuous. Indeterminate shoots are longer and attain fresh growth in season and do not bear flowers while determinate shoots come at the nodes of indeterminate shoots and number vary from 3-5 depending upon the genotype. Gujarat. closely arranged leaves giving the impression of pinnately compound leaves. Vernacular -Aonla. Madhya Pradesh. Determinate shoots bear very small reduced. Aonla is an ancient fruit crop of Indian sub-continent and widely used in Indian System of Medicine. Amla Family: Euphorbiaceae Origin and distribution: Aonla is originated in eastern Asia. Small. It is also available in Pakistan. hard and bitter in taste. with the female flowers above them. General description: Aonla is a small to medium sized tree. It is commonly cultivated in home gardens throughout India and grown commercially in Uttar Pradesh. it is believed to be native to tropical southeast Asia. fibrous or non-fibrous depending on the cultivar generally wild fruits are small. Fruit is green at maturity and ripe fruit is greenish-yellow.7 Emblica officinalis (Aonla) Botanical name: Emblica officinalis Gaertn syn. Bihar. Ceylon. Male flowers occur at the lower end of a growing branchlet. flesh is thick. 6 to 8 faded lines from base to apex give the impression of ridges and divided segements in the fruit.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 3. This fruit species is still growing as natural wild in forests areas of Vindhyan hills of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. normally reaching a height of 10-12 m. Malaya. indented at the base with smooth and shining surface. Fruit is juicy.

Some of the important cultivars are Banarasi. Presently commercial cultivation of aonla is practiced at large scale and area is increasing day-by-day in Rajasthan. These cultivars have been recommended for various regions and states according to their performance. fiber content. taste and acidity vary with the cultivar. There has been a lot of work undertaken on evaluation of these released cultivars in diverse climatic conditions. 16B). Gujarat. Cultivars/selections: There are several selections and cultivars identified and released in this highly popular economic and fascinating fruit crop of India. 2 and 3 have been released for Gujarat. squash. herbal jam. Cultivars Anand 1. chutney. 2010). Punjab. jam. Fruits are rich source of vitamin C due to the presence of leucoanthocanins which retard the oxidation of vitamin C. Fruit 71 . Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Patch budding is recommended being convenient and for high success rate. sharbat. Krishna (NA-5). Kanchan (NA –4). calcium and phosphorous. pickle. May to August is the right time for good success in budding. Fruit size. Goma Aishwariya an early and drought tolerant with less fiber is released by CIAH. now several new products have been developed by value addition namely aonla candy. juice. Bikaner. Medicinal uses of aonla fruits are well documented in the Indian System of Medicine and Unani and it is prescribed in various ways to increase immunity and health. NA 8 and Balwant. Himachal Pradesh. Francis (Hathi Jhool). Andhra Pradesh. processed and preserved in several ways. 2010) and grafting methods have been in practice. pickled or preserved with sugar/jagery for various preparations or sold in the market. However. Haryana. Chawanparash and Trifala. NA 6. Important uses: Aonla is an important fruit of Indians and consumed fresh.. Neelam (NA–7). as the area for the aonla cultivation has been substantially increased during last two decades in India.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India blackish seeds and present in the center of fleshy fruit. texture. In these states popular cultivars are grown in the orchards and fruits are sold in the local market and also purchased directly by the food processing and pharmaceutical industry. vinegar etc. Propagation: Wild plants of aonla are naturally propagated through seeds and seedling propagated trees have longer life and are less susceptible to diseases (Fig. Recently a selection. While all the cultivated aonla is now vegetatively propagated and various budding (Shikhamany. Maharashtra. Fruits are collected from wild or homestead gardens by tribals and marginal farmers and used at home as vegetable or cooked. Recently high density planting system in aonla is also experimented and recommended for Gujarat using NA-7 cultivar (Singh et al. Popular way of processing to retain nutritive value are Murabba. Faizabad. Most of the selections have been made from the germplasm collected from Uttar Pradesh by ANDUAT. Chakaiya. Kanchan. These are rich source of various important minerals namely iron.

Bawal (6). Sardarkrushinagar (12) and Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth. bold fruits. Performance of various important selections and cultivars namely Banarasi. Faizabad (22). Most of the present day cultivars have been released from the selection made from these collections and identified chance seedlings of these genotypes. Various collections made by ANDUAT.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India powder is also used in preparation of toiletries and cosmetics. CCSHAU. CIAH. Rai et al. profuse bearing. tannin and fibre content in the pulp from Uttar Pradesh. Sultanpur. (1993) based on variability in the fruit morphological characters including vitamin C. Bikaner (50). Agricultural University. Francis (Hathi Jhool). Regional Research Station. Basic studies on seed physiology and storage behaviour of aonla has been taken up at NBPGR. NA 8 and Balwant have been evaluated at various aonla growing locations and accordingly cultivars have been recommended for cultivation in that state. Kanpur and Allahabad districts of Uttar Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh have been characterized and evaluated at Faizabad and various cultivars/ selections from the seedling plants have been identified and released (Bajpai and Shukla. Several other processing methods are being developed and research is continuing at various institutes in India to popularise and increase the consumption of aonla. Kanchan (NA – 4). NA 6. Pratpgarh. 159 accessions of Aonla have been collected from various states of India. smooth and shining skin. tannin content and longer shelf life. Dapoli. less fiber content. Neelam (NA–7). S. Extensive elite germpalsm collections have been made from Varanasi. Azamgarh. Conservation: Conservation of aonla germplasm has been taken up in the field genebanks at various institutes namely ANDUAT. MPKV. Genetic Resources Management Collection: Aonla germplasm have been collected by various institutes including NBPGR. Rai Bareilly. Kanchan. Rahuri (8). 1985).(1993) characterized 33 genotypes of aonla collected from Uttar Pradesh. Agra.D. Chakaiya. Characterization: Aonla germplasm have been characterized for various characters of horticultural importance especially plant type with spreading habit. based on these characters and 4 promising accessions have been identified. high pulp. juiciness. Krishna (NA-5). Aonla improvement work is extensively being undertaken at various centers of AICRP on Arid Fruits and germplasm is being maintained for characterization and evaluation. 33 genotypes of aonla have been identified by Rai et al. Collections made by these organizations are being maintained in their respective field genebanks for conservation and utilization. New Delhi and cryopreservation of seeds of natural wild germplasm 72 .

73 . 31 accessions of aonla has been cryopreserved in the cryogenebank at NBPGR. Orthodox seed storage behavior has been observed as seeds had critical moisture content of about 6 % and there was no viability change after cryostorage.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India has been successfully undertaken (Table 4). Seeds showed a decline in viability to 50% by 10 months storage. Seeds freshly shed showed 12% moisture content and about 74 % germination.

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 74 .

G. syn. Arunachal Pradesh. Approximately 30 species of Garcinia are cultivated and produce edible fruits (Arora. Fruits are globose or spherical 75 .f. G. out of which 2 are endemic and fifteen species are found in Andaman and Nicobar Islands out of which 7 are endemic. the northeastern India and in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Obligate agamospermy is reported in G. G.) Desr. lanceolate 6-8 cm long and 2-4 cm broad. G. Mizoram. G. xanthochymus is native to India and found in western Ghats. limited wild resources are also seen. 1998). cambogia (Gaertn. kydia Roxb.Chenkek Family: Clusiaceae Origin and distribution: Genus Garcinia L. Common name: G. Malabar tamarind and Mysore gamboge ) Botanical name: Garcinia species. indica is a slender evergreen small sized tree going upto the height of 15m.. Whitmore. Eleven species occur in the southern Western Ghats. 2005a). G. Ex DC. West Bengal and Orissa. syn. Richards. G. Leaves are ovate or oblong.ex T. indica. G. xanthochymus and facultative agamospermy in G. 1973. 17A). Kerala and Tamil Nadu. cowa is native to northeastern India and distributed in Assam. xanthochymus Hook. In India 36 species of Garcinia are reported out of which 16 species of Garcinia are endemic and distributed in the Western Ghats. has approximately 400 species having dioecious. cowa.Garcinia indica [Dupetit-Thouars] Choisy. cambogia. cambogia (Malik et al. General description: G. xanthochymus. 1964. Tree is andro-dioceous producing male and bisexual flowers in separate plants. cambogia is found wild in evergreen forests of western Gharts in south Maharashtra extending southwards to Karnataka. Orissa and Andamans.Robson. G. Anderson and G.8 Garcinia species (Kokam. evergreen trees growing in tropical parts of the world (Maheshwari.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 3. Garcinia gummi-gutta (L. indica widely occurs in south-western India especially in South Maharashtra. Even though plantations are available. It has drooping branches and tree takes pyramidal shape at maturity (Fig.Mysore gamboge. cowa Roxb. indica and G. out of which 6 species are endemic while sixteen species occur in the northeastern India. Karnataka and northern Kerala which seems to be its centre of origin.) N.Kokam.Malabar tamarind. 1990a). G.

indica. kidney shaped 5-8 seeds embedded in the soft rind of fruit. Acidic. fruit surface is not smooth it has 6-8 grooves of varied length. IISR.5 cm in length) and leathery and are oblong to lanceolate shaped. Gum resin from stem bark and fruit makes a good watercolour (gamboge) used in dyeing. preserves and jams. Genetic erosion has already set in as only isolated trees are seen in degraded forest areas near villages in Karnataka. Occasionally seeds provide two seedlings due to peculiar germination characterstics being shown in these species (Malik et al. width and depth.. mostly planted trees are seen in botanical gardens.6 m in height with dense foliage. Characterization and evaluation of germplasm to release varieties/ selections of Garcinia is underway at NBPGR RS. Dried fruit rind is used as a condiment in West Coastal Karnataka. Very old trees are met with in degraded areas but young trees are not to be seen. medicaments. G. Commercial cultivation in Garcinia is lacking. 6-8 large size seeds are seen inside. At distal end the fruit is depressed or have small or long nipple like structure. Dapoli. pleasant fruits are edible. Dapoli. Fruits are smooth with shining surface and have large. Propagation: Garcinia species are propagated by seeds as well as by vegetative methods mostly using air layering by softwood grafting using scion from the selected trees. 2005a).3 cm in diameter) are born in a dense cluster of 4-10 flowers and are greenish white in color. cambogia is a medium sized evergreen tree attaining the height upto 20 m. plants with green and white fruits are also reported. Flowering in the month of December-January and fruits are ripe in April-May. The small flowers (1.5-4 cm in diameter. It is dioecious tree with a rounded crown that grows from 4. In Kerala. marginal lands and forest area. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth. There is an urgent need to identify the suitable genotypes for vegetative propagation. however. The berry fruit shape is oval to concave. Fruits are bright yelloworange.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 2. The leaves are large (15. Male trees are not seen but pseudobisexual trees are known. Seeds are highly recalcitrant and are to be sown immediately after extraction from fruits. it is taken up only at small scale in Kokam and other species are still occurring in the wild or semi-domesticated state and grown in homestead gardens. yellow or red in color at maturity. In G. Thrissur. some selections and variety “Konkan Amruta” (Selection from Shirgaon Local) was released by Dr. at ripe stage color becomes dark purple. 76 .5 to 7. Cultivars/selections: No identified cultivars or selections are available in Garcinia species. The fleshy fruit usually contains 5 seeds that are surrounded by a yellow pulp that is edible. Calicut and Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth. though not very palatable and are used for making sherbets.4-30. almost round and 5-8 cm in diameter. like kokam it is also a dioceous tree with rounded crown and horizontal and drooping branches.

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India

Important uses: Most of the Indian Garcinia species are economically important having edible fruits. Kokam is a potential under-exploited minor fruit crop, currently gaining much commercial and medicinal importance. The fruit has an agreeable flavour and a sweetish acid taste. Fresh fruits and dry rind is used in curries to give an acidic flavour and also for preparing cooling syrups during summer months (Fig.17C). The seeds yield a valuable edible fat known in commerce as ‘kokum butter’ (Fig.17D). The fruit rind is rich in (-) Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), an important biologically active plant metabolite used as an anti-obesity drug (Heymsfield et al., 1998). It inhibits the conversion of carbohydrates into fats by inhibition of ATP citrate lyase, an important enzyme in Kreb’s cycle (Watson et al., 1969). Several value added products are being prepared from kokam and are popular in Indian and International market such as kokam syrup (Fig. 17C) , kokam agal (brined kokam juice), kokam oil, stearic acid from kokam fat, kokam rind acid, kokam color ointment etc. Malabar tamarind fruits are collected by local people (Fig.18D) and processed further into a value added products and are ready for use by drying the isolated rind on top of the fire places where the smoke passes through the rind and it becomes dry (Fig.18F). When it is almost dry, coconut oil mixed with salt is applied over the rind to make it pitch black and shiny. When it is fully dried the produce is sold in the market or to business men who come for purchasing the same. As women are engaged fully in the collection and processing, Malabar tamarind gives livelihood support to unemployed women in south Kerala. Malabar tamarind is a multipurpose tree grown in the home gardens of Kerala for the acidic fruit rind, which is used as a condiment and garnish. Resin of Malabar tamarind is used as a pigment in miniature paintings and water colours, besides its medicinal use as a purgative. Fruit rind is hydragogue, anthelmintic and emetic, particularly in dropsies. It is also used for polishing gold and silver ornaments and as a substitute for acetic acid for coagulation of rubber latex. The seed oil is used in medicine (Singh, 1993). Its rind is the only richest natural source of (-) Hydroxycitric acid and possesses marked antiseptic properties (Sarah et al., 1992). The derivatives of the acid are potent metabolic regulators of obesity and the unique acid also lowers blood lipids such as cholesterol and triglycerides by triggering the fatty acid oxidation in the liver via thermogenesis. It mobilizes body‘s fat stores and dissolves fat in the liver and also throughout the body paving way for weight management (Majeed, 1994; Muthulakshmi et al., 1999). It is increasingly becoming important industrially, commercially and medicinally, which has not been fully exploited. Fruits of Mysore gambage and chenkek also have important properties and used by local people as fresh fruits and offer processing.

77

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India

Genetic Resource Management
Collection: Rich diversity of several Garcinia species have been occurring in India. Several exploration and collection trips were undertaken in the Western Ghats, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and northeastern India to collect the germplasm of various Garcinia species. Most of the collections have been made from the Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Goa. These collections were made by NBPGR and/or in collaboration with Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut and University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad and College of Forestry, Sirsi. Exploration and collection of Garcinia species from northeastern Indian states is still lacking where vast diversity of Garcinia species is reported and most of the species are endemic to this region. These collections were made in the form of fruits, seeds or bud wood and established at the field genebank at NBPGR Regional Station, Thrissur. Besides these, efforts were made to undertake studies on natural population structure and male and female plants available in the natural populations. Three species of Garcinia namely G. cambogia, G. indica and G. xanthochymus were collected from these areas while G. cowa was collected from north-eastern India. The passport data is presented in Table 19 and collection sites are shown in Fig. 19. Characterization: Germplasm of G. indica and G. cambogia collected during explorations have been characterized for physico-chemical characters of fruits and field observations were recorded. In kokam the age of the trees varied from site to site. The height and circumference of the trees ranged from 5 – 15 m and 30.0 – 100.0 cm, respectively. The fruits were either spherical or oval and its size ranged from small to the size of a small coconut. The branches were horizontal or drooping. The trunk was vertically multi-branched at the base or single. The fruits were with or without seeds. The rind was either thin or thick. During the rainy season, mature fruits fall to the ground or the nearby brooks. Variability observed in tress and fruits of kokum was wide. Variability was more in branching pattern of trees. The trees were without or with two or more vertically branches from bottom, or with basal branches. The laterals were either horizontal or irregular in nature. Some trees bear fruits twice a year. The colour of the fruits ranged from light red to dark maroon. The aril is sour and sometimes sweet also. In Karnataka seldom kokum trees were seen in household gardens but are seen either wild or in disturbed forests associated with villages or farming communities or farmers namely bettathahola where from the farmers derive mulch for their arecanut farms. In Malabar tamarind extensive variability has been observed in canopy and branching pattern of tree, fruit colour, shape and size. Fruit shape in Malabar tamarind 78

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India

Fig. 19. Collection sites of Garcinia species from western ghats and northeastern India

varied from oval to concave. The fruit is generally elongated but rounded fruits were also common. Fruits bear ridges and furrows of varied length, width and depth. Two promising accessions were identified IC354028 for fruit weight (161 g); IC354019 for mean rind thickness (15 mm) and mean rind weight of fruit (125 g). Two accessions (IC354047 and 354063) were highly specific with the uncommon pinkish – red colour of fruits and in another accession (IC354070) fruits have remarkably half-smooth surface. Muthulakshmi et al. 1999 also studied standing trees of Malabar tamarind in the homesteads gardens of Thrissur and found the existence of wide variability in vegetative, floral, fruiting and biochemical characters. Compared to the morphological characters of the fruit, variations observed in biochemical characters were limited. They were unable to select trees with high fruit weight, rind thickness, total acidity, (-) HCA, crude protein coupled with low moisture, total phenol, crude fat and crude fibre. 79

2005b). Freshly harvested seeds of all the species stored at ambient temperatures retained viability for short periods of about 30 days exhibiting that seeds were short-lived further confirming their recalcitrant nature. 2006). Seed germination and storage behaviour: G. G. imbertii. G. G. G. kingii. the management of genetic resources of Indian species of Garcinia is urgently required. 2005a. 1992. G. indica. G. G. there is an absence of a embryonic axis or any structure akin to it. The increase in the level of endemism from 50% to 65% is an important indication of the shrinking population of these species posing challenge for conservation biologists. in addition to the whole seeds were used for desiccation and freezing sensitivity studies. xanthochymus (Malik et al. resin. 2010).. G. keenainia. Teo. Seed longevity in all three species could be extended to almost two times by storage at 15OC. 2 each of Goa and Maharashtra and one of Kerala. cadelliana. conicarpa. loss in germinability recorded was 20% in G. brevirostris. cambogia have been identified by the NBPGR RS. talbotii. Therefore. Storage of seeds at freezing temperature of –20OC proved lethal as no survival could be observed after 5 days of storage in all the three species. 1990a). Similarly for Malabar tamarind 110 on-farm conservation sites in 13 districts of Kerala have been identified (Abraham et al. edible fruits and seed (Kundu. indica and G.. xanthochymus. calycina. papilla. cambogia var. spicata and G. mangostana (Normah et al. Longevity of G. 59 in situ conservation sites were explored in 5 districts of Karnataka. Chilling temperature of 5OC was unfavorable and within 10-15 days of storage. After 15 days storage at ambient temperature and at 5OC there was substantial and highest loss of viability in G. indica and G. cambogia and 60% in G. 1992). cambogia and G. G.. G. In view of the capability of the seed parts to regenerate complete plantlets. Thrissur. Due to severe deforestation and genetic erosion. gum. xanthochymus in comparison to other two species. xanthochymus seeds was found to be minimum in comparison to G. Due to apomictic nature of the so called “seeds” of G. small seed pieces.b). Presence of agamospermy (seed apomixis) in the genus Garcinia is known or suspected in at least ten species which have been further classified as facultative and obligate agamosperms (Richards. For kokam.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Conservation: Overall 11 species of Garcinia namely G. G. wightii are facing survival threat in India due to overexploitation for wood. indica. 80 . indica. cambogia (Malik et al. indica. On Farm conservation: On farm conservation sites for the conservation of two important species of Garcina namely G. cambogia and G. there is need for its genetic resources conservation. xanthochymus are semi-wild species which bear large seeds with high moisture content at shedding. cambogia var. medicine. G. gummi-gutta. cambogia var. G. 30% in G. similar to that reported in G..

Kannur (8). Kodagu (10). 2010). Most of the Garcinia species have recalcitrant seeds which can not be conserved in the traditional genenbank at 20°C. Maharashtra. 2000). Kottayam (3). collected from Dakshin Kannad (2 accessions). Kerala a site within the natural distributional range of the species.. Ernakulam (9).. G. Chickmagalur (8). 2008). In the case of kokum. xanthochymus. 2005 a). a site nearer to the natural distributional range of the species. Thrissur. 76 accessions are established in the field genebank. These accessions were collected from Karnataka.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Field genebank conservation: The NBPGR Regional Station. Goa and Kerala (Abraham et al.. indica and G. mangostana using seed and leaf explants (Goh et al. Te Chato and Lim. In vitro conservation of these recalcitrant seed species with extended sub-culture periods upto 11 months has been successfully achieved (Malik et al.. Alappuzha (11). cambogia showed high frequency organogenesis while G.. 1992. 1990. was highly recalcitrant towards in vitro conditions. Kozhikode (3). Most of the studies pertaining to in vitro culture of genus Garcinia have been conducted in G. 2000 and Huang et al. Normah et al. Malappuram (3). Uttar Kannad (25). Thrissur (17 accessions).. Shimoga (1) and Belgaum (8) districts of Karnataka. Commercial exploitation of developed protocols would be useful for generating trueto-type planting material of these species. and South Goa (4 accessions) district of Goa in the field genebank at Vellanikkara. Thrissur is maintaining 124 accessions of Malabar tamarind. In vitro conservation and cryopreservation: In vitro and cryopreservation techniques are being used to conserve vegetatively propagated species and recalcitrant seed species to achieve medium to long-term conservation. Pathanamthitta (5) and Thiruvananthapuram (1) districts of Kerala. an obligate agamospermous species. 81 . In vitro multiplication of three horticulturally important Garcinia species was successfully achieved using agamospermous seeds (Malik et al. Kollam (6).

54 Status 90.30 92. Collector IC No.39 75.07 75.08 75.08 75.01 Garcinia Muraganahuli Wild cambogia Chikmagalur Karnataka 13.07 75.Table 19.68 Garcinia Cowa Wild East garo hills Meghalaya 25.39 75.01 Garcinia cambogia Muraganahuli Wild Chikmagalur Karnataka 13.29 Garcinia Muraganahuli Wild Chikmagalur cambogia Karnataka 13. Passport data of Garcinia species germplasm collected from various states Crop Name Name Cowa cowa Cowa cowa Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind cambogia Garcinia cambogia Muraganahuli Wild Chikmagalur Karnataka 13.29 Garcinia Muraganahuli Wild cambogia Chikmagalur Karnataka 13.07 75.87 Garcinia Chenkake Wild Kolasib Mizoram 24.08 75. Number Number Name 1 MD-153 417221 2 MD/08/274 568666 3 AMG/2002-363 354042 4 AMG/2002-364 354043 Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 82 5 AMG/2002-365 354044 6 AMG/2002-366 354045 7 AMG/2002-367 354046 8 AMG/2002-368 354047 9 AMG/2002-369 354048 10 AMG/2002-370 354049 .01 Garcinia Muraganahuli cambogia Wild Chikmagalur Karnataka 13.11 cular gical tude tude Botanical VernaBioloDistrict State LatiLongi- S.29 Garcinia Muraganahuli Wild Chikmagalur cambogia Karnataka 13.87 Garcinia Muraganahuli Wild Chikmagalur Karnataka 13.

47 75.72 Garcinia Panpuli Wild Kodagu Karnataka 12.07 75.72 Garcinia Panpuli Wild Kodagu Karnataka 12.63 75.83 Garcinia Panpuli Wild cambogia Kodagu Karnataka 12.47 75.08 75.83 Garcinia Panpuli Wild Kodagu cambogia Karnataka 12.11 tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Garcinia cambogia cambogia Panpuli Wild Kodagu Karnataka 12.41 Garcinia cambogia Panpuli Wild Kodagu Karnataka 12.72 AMG/2002-371 354050 Malabar Garcinia Muraganahuli Wild Chikmagalur Karnataka 13.72 Garcinia Panpuli Wild Kodagu cambogia Karnataka 12.36 cambogia 75.83 Garcinia Panpuli cambogia Wild Kodagu Karnataka 12.01 12 AMG/2002-349 354028 13 AMG/2002-350 354029 14 AMG/2002-351 354030 15 AMG/2002-352 354031 16 AMG/2002-353 354032 17 AMG/2002-354 354033 Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 83 18 AMG/2002-355 354034 19 AMG/2002-356 354035 20 AMG/2002-359 354038 21 AMG/2002-360 354039 22 AMG/2002-361 354040 .41 Garcinia Panpuli cambogia Wild Kodagu Karnataka 12.63 75.63 75.83 Garcinia Panpuli Wild Kodagu cambogia Karnataka 12.36 cambogia 75.72 Garcinia Panpuli Wild Kodagu Karnataka cambogia 12.07 75.63 75.07 75.

41 24 AMG/2002-372 354051 25 AMG/2002-373 354052 26 AMG/2002-374 354053 27 AMG/2002-375 354054 28 AMG/2002-376 354055 Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 84 29 AMG/2002-377 354056 30 AMG/2002-378 354057 31 AMG/2002-379 354058 32 AMG/2002-380 354059 33 AMG/2002-382 354061 34 AMG/2002-384 354063 .56 Garcinia Uppage Wild Uttara Kannada cambogia Karnataka 15.47 75.23 tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind cambogia Garcinia cambogia Uppage Wild Uttara Kannada Karnataka 15.81 74.30 Garcinia Uppage Wild cambogia Uttara Kannada Karnataka 14.81 cambogia 74.30 cambogia AMG/2002-362 354041 Malabar Garcinia Panpuli Wild Kodagu Karnataka 12.30 Garcinia Uppage Wild cambogia Uttara Kannada Karnataka 15.81 74.30 Garcinia Uppage Wild Uttara Kannada Karnataka 14.81 cambogia 74.56 Garcinia Uppage Wild Uttara Kannada cambogia Karnataka 15.81 74.02 74.30 Garcinia Uppage cambogia Wild Uttara Kannada Karnataka 14.35 74.35 74.67 Garcinia Uppage cambogia Wild Uttara Kannada Karnataka 14.56 Garcinia Uppage Wild Uttara Kannada Karnataka cambogia 14.81 74.35 74.30 Garcinia Uppage Wild Uttara Kannada Karnataka 14.81 74.30 Garcinia Uppage Wild Uttara Kannada Karnataka 14.

34 AMG/2002-385 354064 Malabar Garcinia Uppage Wild Uttara Kannada Karnataka 15.54 74.54 74.43 Garcinia Uppage Wild Uttara Kannada cambogia Karnataka 14.34 cambogia 74.92 74.19 Garcinia Uppage Wild Uttara Kannada Karnataka cambogia 14.92 cambogia 74.31 Garcinia Uppage cambogia Wild Uttara Kannada Karnataka 15.02 74.02 74.67 Garcinia Bele murugalu cambogia Wild Uttara Kannada Karnataka 15.19 Garcinia Uppage Wild Uttara Kannada cambogia Karnataka 14.19 Garcinia Uppage Wild Uttara Kannada Karnataka 15.43 Garcinia Uppage Wild cambogia Uttara Kannada Karnataka 15.67 36 AMG/2002-386 354065 37 AMG/2002-388 354067 38 AMG/2002-389 354068 39 AMG/2002-390 354069 40 AMG/2002-391 354070 Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 85 41 AMG/2002-392 354071 42 AMG/2002-393 354072 43 AMG/2002-394 354073 44 AMG/2002-387 354066 45 AMG/2002-383 354062 .19 Garcinia Uppage Wild Uttara Kannada Karnataka 14.35 tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Malabar tamarind Kokam indica Mysore gamboge xanthochymus Garcinia Zarigehuli Wild Uttara Kannada Karnataka 15.92 74.92 74.54 74.09 74.43 Garcinia Uppage Wild cambogia Uttara Kannada Karnataka 15.

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 86 .

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 87 .

Fruits are highly perishable with short shelf life of few hrs and fruits are need to be consumed or processed within 48 hrs of plucking. In India it is distributed in the forests of central India and South India and also available in the northern plains and western Himalayas upto the height of 3000 ft. Propagation: Phalsa is commercially propagated by seeds and these are sown in the seed beds during monsoon season immediately after extraction from the fruits. 1982). Andhra Pradesh.9 Grewia subinaequalis (Phalsa) Botanical name: Grewia subinaequalis DC. and spread throughout south Asia and in the Indian sub-continent. G. Gujarat and Punjab (Fig. height. syn. whitish bloom on the underside of leaves. therefore.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 3. Common name : Phalsa Family: Tiliaceae Origin and distribution: Phalsa tree is native to Western India (Zeven and de Wet. up to 8 in long and 6 in wide. drooping branches. large fruits have 2 hemispherical. Widely spaced leaves are broadly heart-shaped or ovate. Haryana. Fruiting is non synchronous in phalsa (Fig. It is a predominately self pollinated crop. hard. Uttar Pradesh. Phalsa is cultivated in the semi-arid regions of Maharashtra. One year old seedlings are transplanted in the field and grow fast to give first flush within 15 88 . Flowering in the month of January-February and fruits mature in the summer generally in the months of May-June. Under cultivation. slender. pointed at the apex. distinctly ribbed. There are two types of fruits. 20D) and only few fruits mature at a time. require repeated harvesting. Rajasthan. buff-colored seeds and small fruits are single-seeded. flowers yellow and produced in cymes of 3-4. fruit are indistinctly lobed drupes containing 1-2 one celled nuts. flower 2 cm in diameter densely tomentose. oblique at the base. asiatica Mast.B). General description: Phalsa is a bush or small to medium sized tree with long. The fruit skin turns from green to purplish-red and finally dark-purple when fully ripened. Young shoots and inflorescences are with a light. tree requires annual pruning upto ground level or 4 ft. Flower buds cylindrical or clavate. the young branchlets densely coated with hairs. 20 A. and coarsely toothed.

Important uses: Phalsa is extensively cultivated for its sweet and sour fruits. 1985). however.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India months. Gujarat. rothii. G. Jodhpur. G. kapha and biliousness. Cultivars/selections: There are no recognized cultivars of phalsa. Dwarf type has been reported to be more productive. 80-100/. hirsute. 36 accessions belonging to 6 economically important species namely G. Fresh fruits fetch very good price of Rs. Genetic Resources Management Collection: Phalsa germplasm has been collected from various parts of country including the states of Rajasthan. orantalis and G. fever and diarrhoea. Bawal and NBPGR Regional Station. 89 . Regional Station. Areas of collections undertaken have been depicted in the Fig. small seeds and synchronized fruit maturity and longer shelf life of fruits which are important traits. Germplasm of phalsa is to be identified for bold fruits. The root bark is used by Santhal tribal population for rheumatism. G. dwarf and tall (vigorous) are two types of genotypes reported (Nehra et al. Phalsa sharbat and squash give pleasant and cooling effect in summers and work as an astringent and stomachic agent.. 21 and in Table 20. subinaequalis (phalsa) have been collected. Conservation: Gemplasm of phalsa is being conserved in the field genebank at CCSHAU. at Bawal. 20E). Cuttings and air layering is also successful in phalsa with 50 and 85% success. by NBPGR. The stem bark is used for making ropes by local people and mucilaginous extract is used for clarifying sugar. Basic studies on seed physiology and storage have been undertaken at NBPGR. The fruits are also processed to make phalsa sharbat when extracted pulp is mixed with sugar solution and squash is prepared after adding some preservatives (generally sodium benzoate). respectively. However. rooting in cuttings is difficult. tiliaefolia. Two types of phalsa cultivars Local and Sharbati are also known. Haryana. CCSHAU. Use and cultivation of phalsa fruit has been mentioned in the ancient Indian literature and it has been used for various ailments in the Indian System of Medicine. Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh. New Delhi. New Delhi. G. Hisar and Regional Research Station of CCSHAU. Fresh or dried fruits are suggested to cure heart and blood disorders. Fruit possess astringent properties and used for several stomach ailments. oppositifolia. In Phalsa not much variability is reported due to the self pollination and only two types tall and dwarf have been collected. which are consumed fresh as table fruit and sold in the markets during summer months.per Kg in urban markets and consumed fresh with some salt (Fig. The unripe fruits are said to remove vata.

Seeds were desiccation sensitive as at critical moisture content showed 23% loss in viability. A total of 15 accessions of Grewia species have been cryostored in the cryogenebank (Table 5). Intermediate seed storage behavior has been concluded as seeds survived LN exposure with 50% viability. 1994). seeds were found to show 50% viability after 4 months storage at ambient conditions (Table 4). In studies undertaken at NBPGR. 90 . 21: Collection sites of phalsa from Rajasthan Seeds loose viability after 90-100 days of storage (Chandra et al.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Rajasthan Fig.

Passport data of Grewia subinaequalis (Phalsa) germplasm collected from Rajasthan Crop Name Name Status cular gical Botanical Name VernaBioloDistrict State Latitude Longitude S.50 26.21 .54 74.45 26.Table 20.No.43 Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 91 Wild 2 MD-06/2 546085 3 MD-06/3 546086 Cultivated 4 MD-08/8 561777 Bikaner Rajasthan 28.50 74.06 73.53 74. Collector IC Number Number 1 Phalsa Phalsa Phalsa Grewia subinaequalis Phalsa Grewia subinaequalis Phalsa Grewia subinaequalis Phalsa Wild MD-06/1 546084 Phalsa Grewia subinaequalis Phalsa Cultivated Ajmer Ajmer Ajmer Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan 26.

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 92 .

longifolia var. Tree possesses evergreen or semi-evergreen leaves which cluster near ends of branches.) Common name: English . syn. There is very less difference in the tree morphology in two species except the shape of leaves which is linear lanceolate. Vernacular : Mahua. 22A). latifolia is found which is very common in western Ghats from Konkan area to Kerala. fast growing tree upto 20m height (Fig. F. M. Chhattisgarh. latifolia Macb. In south India M. fleshy and juicy corolla. Therefore. central and southern India mainly in Madhya Pradesh. General description: M. Rajasthan. Fruits berry ovoid. Tree blooms at night and in early morning hours flowers fall on the ground and collected by local tribal population for commercial use. elliptic or elliptic-oblong. large number of trees exist in the villages or panchayat lands of these states besides large populations in the forests of these states. longifolia var. Maharashtra. green at maturity and turn pinkish yellow when ripe. seed color brown to black. 93 . Bihar and Andhra Pradesh. Fruits are pulpy with large ovoid seed. indica is a medium to large deciduous. In south India M. latifolia is present. Gujarat. Flowers white to cream colour with tubular. clustered at the end of branches. Young leaves are pinkish red.. This species flowers in November-December.10 Madhuca indica (Mahua) Botanical name: Madhuca indica J. pubescent and turn to glabrous at maturity. Fruits occur in single or bunches up to 30-40 (Fig. indica originated in Indo-China region and spread upto Australia. number of seeds vary from 1 to 4. Fruits mature generally in the months of MayJune. Leaf fall takes place between February to April and at the same time flowering commences.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 3. Gmel. 22D). Mahuda Family: Sapotaceae Origin and distribution: M. Trees of mahua are retained and preserved in the farmer’s field and marginal lands due to its commercial importance. Bassia latifolia Roxb. Uttar Pradesh.Indian Butter Tree . Jharkhand. In India it is found in semi-deciduous dry forests of western.

Flowers of mahua are of high economic value and collected fresh in the morning (Fig. Madhya Pradesh. (2008) based on physico-chemical characterization of germplasm collected from Panchmahal district of Gujarat. grafting with 70% success (Singh et al. wedge grafting. 1999) has been reported.. Under the NOVOD Board funded National Network Project. Jharkhand. 2010) and veneer grafting with 90% success (Singh et al. Chhattisgarh. biliousness and heart-trouble. Linoleic acid is the major unsaturated 94 . some selections have also been made by Singh et al. Recently vegetative means of softwood grafting with 70-80% success (Singh and Ravishankar. Ripe fruits of mahua are nutritious and are eaten raw or cooked and pulp after extraction of seeds is fed to cattle also (Fig. Kernel oil (solid at ambient temperature) is used for skin care and for manufacture of soaps. The bark of mahua is used to cure leprosy and to heal wounds. 22B). Lucknow.. eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar this tree with other two tree species namely tendu (Diospyros melanoxylon) and chironji (Buchanania lanzan) plays an important role in the economy of tribal people. Similarly. while the fruit is given in cases of consumption and blood diseases. veneer grafting and air layering with varying success. mid (NM-7) and late season (NM. Their livelihood is based on the products of these species which are collected from the forests and sold in local market. there is not much demand for planting material and trees are naturally grown by seeds. Gujarat.2). there are some selections identified based on period of fruit maturity by (Singh. which can be put for germination immediately after depulping from mature fruits. 1999). A 80% success in veneer grafting followed by cleft has been achieved at CISH. detergents and used as a vegetable butter. Flowers are used as feed for livestock. 22F). The oil content of the seed varies from 33 to 43% of the kernel weight. Mahua flowers yield alcohol @ 340 litres/ tonne flower.22C). These flowers are eaten fresh and dried for use in preparation of various dishes. Cultivars/selections: There are no improved cultivars or varieties released in mahua.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Propagation: Mahua is propagated by seeds. some selections have been made which possess about 45% oil content. 2010). In some tribal districts of Rajasthan. Fruit pulp may also be used for alcohol production. early (NM. however. Vegetative propagation methods have also been developed using soft wood grafting. Mostly the dried flowers are used for distillation of “Mahua Liquor” which is very common in the tribal areas (Fig. As no organized commercial cultivation of mahua is undertaken at present. three categories. The flowers are prepared to relieve coughs. Important uses: Every part of mahua tree is used for economical purposes by the local people. Seeds are of high economic value as used for the oil extraction. Seeds are highly recalcitrant and show vivipary (start germinating within ripe fruit).4 and 9) have been categorized.

Gujarat. NBPGR. (1999) collected 9 genotypes of Mahua from Uttar Pradesh. CHES (CIAH).40 fruits have been identified from Rajasthan. Studies on reproductive biology has also been undertaken on these accessions. There is lack of organized marketing process for mahua produce. 23. Oil can also be used as a fuel oil. 23 and Table 21). 8 accessions have been identified and collected (CISH. Bihar and Jharkhand by various organizations. Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Fig. One promising collection with prolific bearing and bunches of approximately 30. Collection sites of Mahua from Rajasthan. website). Madhya Pradesh. Tamil Nadu. Andhra Pradesh. Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh 95 . Rajasthan. it being essentially a forest crop till now. Only local middlemen purchase the dehulled kernels from villages and supply to wholesale markets who supply them to expellers. The seed cake is a good fertilizer. Godhra collected 35 promising collections of Mahua from Gujarat and Singh et al. At CISH. Recently. Lucknow. based on surveys made in different parts of Uttar Pradesh. 153 accessions have been collected from various states. Genetic Resources Management Collection: Germplasm of Mahua have been collected from Uttar Pradesh.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India fatty acid found in pure oil which helps to reduce cholesterol level. New Delhi have collected 29 accessions of promising mahua variability from Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan (Fig.

(2005) studied genetic divergence in 15 mahua genotypes and MH-32. However. therefore. protected by local people and forest department. Lucknow for various physico-chemical characters. acidity. vitamin C and vitamin A in fruits and flowers have been reported. MH-35. MH-26. Seeds were desiccation sensitive as seeds at CMC showed decline in viability to 40% and after cryostorage to 80% (Table 4). Recently.5% before and after cryostorage. Singh et al. True recalcitrant seed storage behavior of mahua seeds have been confirmed by our studies at NBPGR. 8 accessions of mahua have been characterized at CISH. Mostly plus trees are also conserved at various forest nurseries in mahua growing states. Conservation: Trees of mahua are growing naturally wild in the forest and marginal lands. MH 35 and MH 63 have been found promising for all the traits. 2002). 1989) when viability is lost completely.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Characterization: Mahua germplasm collected from various states have been characterized for various physico-chemical characters and field performance. MH 27. longifolia have been cryostored (Table 5). 2002). Lucknow. (2005) also characterized and identified 20 accessions collected from Gujarat and collections MH 10. respectively. mid and late season types. The seeds are shed at high moisture content (above 50%) and high viability 90-100% and are desiccation sensitive (Varghese et al.5% showed viability percentages of 35% and 12. 2 accessions of Madhuca indica and 12 accessions of M. Based on this cryoprotocol. Godhra and at CISH. Seeds desiccated to 37. MH-34. Singh et al. (1999) based on fruit maturity grouped 9 genotypes in to three categories namely early. Variation in TSS. Mahua seeds have been reported to have a very short life of 20 days after harvest (Vanangamudi and Palanisamy. 96 . some of the promising accessions are being established in the field genebank at CHES (CIAH). MH 23 and MH 33 collections were reported to be promising in all the traits analyzed. Singh et al. These trees are valuable and also treated as sacred in some parts of the country. MH 14. Maximum longevity of 30 days is reported when undried seeds are stored at 15OC temperature.7% lost germinability by 11% and those desiccated to between 14 to 16% moisture lost germinability by 90% of the original (Varghese et al. embryonic axes at CMC of 20.

33 23.00 23.58 78.22 78. Collector Number IC Number Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 97 Mahua Mahua Mahua Mahua Mahua Mahua Madhuca indica Madhuca indica Madhuca indica Madhuca indica Mahua Mahua Mahua Mahua Madhuca indica Mahua Madhuca indica Mahua Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Raisen Raisen 546099 436991 436992 436996 436998 437005 437006 437007 437009 437010 546113 395483 Mahua Mahua Mahua Mahua Mahua Mahua Mahua Mahua Mahua Mahua Mahua Mahua Madhuca Madhuca Madhuca Madhuca Madhuca Madhuca Madhuca Madhuca Madhuca Madhuca Madhuca Madhuca indica indica indica indica indica indica indica indica indica indica indica indica Mahua Mahua Mahua Mahua Mahua Mahua Mahua Mahua Mahua Mahua Mahua Mahua Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Neemach Raisen Raisen Hoshangabad Hoshangabad Sagar Sagar Sagar Sagar Panna Chittorgarh Neemach Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Rajasthan Madhya Pradesh 24.35 78.81 74.00 Hoshangabad Madhya Pradesh 23. Passport data of Madhuca indica (Mahua) germplasm collected from Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan Crop Name Botanical Name Vernacular Name Biological Status District State Latitude Longitude S.50 Hoshangabad Madhya Pradesh 23.77 77.11 79.58 78.42 23.34 24.56 24.50 74.77 77.42 23.42 Madhya Pradesh 23.42 74.22 78.35 13 395484 14 395485 15 395487 16 395488 17 395489 18 MD-06/16 MD-303 MD-304 MD-308 MD-310 MD-317 MD-318 MD-319 MD-321 MD-322 MD-06/30 NSP/ OPD-03/11 NSP/ OPD-03/12 NSP/ OPD-03/13 NSP/ OPD-03/15 NSP/ OPD-03/16 NSP/ OPD-03/17 NSP/ OPD-03/18 395490 .No.58 77.00 23.33 Madhya Pradesh 23.50 23.22 78.50 Madhya Pradesh 23.35 78.35 78.Table 21.22 78.42 23.94 24.35 78.00 Sagar Sagar Madhya Pradesh 23.58 77.50 23.

58 79.12 Madhya Pradesh 25.86 24 395491 25 395492 Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 98 26 395476 27 395477 28 395480 29 NSP/ OPD-03/10 NSP/ OPD-03/14 NSP/ OPD-03/3 NSP/ OPD-03/6 NSP/ OPD-03/7 NSP/ OPD-03/19 NSP/ OPD-03/20 NSP/ OPD-03/4 NSP/ OPD-03/5 NSP/ OPD-03/8 NSP/ OPD-03/9 395481 .32 79.50 79.42 78.56 78.08 Madhya Pradesh 24.61 Madhya Pradesh 24.67 79.08 79.35 20 395486 21 395475 22 395478 23 395479 Madhya Pradesh 25.94 Madhuca indica Mahua Wild Panna Madhya Pradesh 24.34 Madhuca indica Mahua Wild Sagar Madhya Pradesh 23.86 Madhya Pradesh 24.75 79.81 74.22 395482 Mahua Madhuca indica Mahua Wild Sagar Madhya Pradesh 23.84 Madhya Pradesh 24.94 79.19 Mahua Mahua Mahua Mahua Mahua Mahua Mahua Mahua Mahua Mahua Madhuca indica Mahua Wild Madhuca indica Mahua Wild Madhuca indica Mahua Wild Chattarpur Chattarpur Chattarpur Madhuca indica Mahua Wild Chattarpur Madhuca indica Mahua Wild Chattarpur Madhuca indica Mahua Wild Chattarpur Madhuca indica Mahua Wild Chattarpur Madhuca indica Mahua Wild Chittorgarh Rajasthan 24.11 79.11 Madhya Pradesh 24.

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 99 .

backyards and homestead gardens mostly in the parts of Madhya Pradesh. Raina Family: Sapotaceae Origin and distribution: M. 24E). peduncles shorter than petioles. Gujarat. General description: The tree is medium to large size attaining 50-60 ft. parts of Gujarat and Rajasthan. petiole upto 1 inch long. 100 . 24B). height with en erect trunk. Rajasthan and Vidharbha region of Maharashtra and also found as natural wild populations.11 Manilkara hexandra (Khirni) Botanical name: Manilkara hexandra (Roxb. Godhra and CISH. Mimusops indica A. glabrous. Ryan. obovate-oblong obtuse. In India this species is generally cultivated near villages.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 3. 2010). DC. 24A). Common name: Khirni. 1992). Propagation: The tree is generally propagated by seeds. in axillary fascicles of 3-6 flowers. evergreen with spreading growth habit forming a large shady head (Fig. oval. Work on developing suitable vegetative propagation methods for multiplication of some elite selections is in progress at CHES (CIAH). Flowers whitish. shining. hexandra is an indigenous tree to India (Stewart and Brandis. It is highly heterozygous tree and as such seedlings exhibit a wide range of variations.) Dubard. This tree is commonly used as commercial rootstock for sapota. blade 2-4 inches long. North-central India. It is found wild in the forests of South India. Leaves coriaceous. syn. Recently vegetative propagation methods have also been attempted using softwood grafting and veneer grafting with 75% success (Singh and Ravishankar. Flowering in the month of October-November and fruit setting during April-May. which aids in the selection of the superior desirable genotypes. Tree is well adapted to arid and semi-arid conditions and can tolerate drought conditions. Bed grafting is also being attempted for vegetative propagation of trees by some private nurseries in Gujarat to supply quality planting material to farmers (Fig. size and canopy is existing in India. Vast genetic variability in tree shape. sweet edible berry fruits with one or more seeds (Fig. Lucknow. It bears yellow shining.

Recently at CHES (CIAH). It is commercially used as a rootstock for vegetative propagation of sapota in different parts of the country. taste etc. 30-40/. Lucknow some promising seedlings have been identified and established in the field of genbank for evaluation. In spite of the fact that khirni can withstand adverse climatic conditions and be grown in various types of soil. fruit shape. Tribals in these villages are collecting fruits from these natural wild trees and selling in the nearby market (Fig. which is a substantial support to them. 500-2.000/. Godhra. Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh for the survey and collection of M. Khirni trees have been found to be concentrated in the specific areas forming a population of different sizes. protein and carbohydrate etc. Survey and collection of this species revealed basically 6-7 major populations existing in the explored area where 20 or more trees were growing as a natural wild population at a single location. shape. Largest population of more than 700 trees with vast genetic variability was located near Pritam Pura. fruiting behaviour.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Cultivars/selections: There is no identified cultivars or selections available in khirni till now. fruiting time.to a tribal family. Godhra and CISH. 64 diverse accessions were collected from 12 districts of these three states (Table 22 & Fig. The seeds contain approximately 25% oil which is used for cooking purposes. These fruits being very rich in vitamin A (675 IU) work as a “Vitamin A “capsules for tribal people. Genetic Resources Management Collection: Specific exploration and collection missions were undertaken in the west and central Indian states of Rajasthan. Besides this location. Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh this tree plays very important role in the socio-economy and livelihood security of small and landless farmers. marginal forest lands. hexandra during April-May in collaboration with CHES (CIAH). it gives immense opportunity to select elite trees having promising horticultural traits. in Ratlam district of Madhya Pradesh where trees of this species were spread in few kilometres and all possible variability was recorded in trees size. Important uses: Fruits and bark of this tree species have economical value as mature fresh fruits are very sweet and eaten raw as well as after drying and bark is used for several medicinal purposes. Fresh fruits are consumed by whole family which provides good nutritional support especially the requirement of vitamin A is fullfilled in the children. size. no attempts to improve its varietal wealth have been made under semi arid regions. homestead gardens and farmers fields. The fruit is good source of iron. 26). minerals. Panchmahal. Dahod and 101 . sugars. 24C) at the cost of Rs. In the tribal area of Rajasthan. Due to cross pollination and predomination of seed propagation over a long period of time in khirni. These collections were made from wild and semi-wild trees growing in the forest areas.per kg and each tree provides fruits worth of Rs.

Rajasthan Gujarat Madhya Pradesh Fig.64 gm and highest was 7 times higher which was 4. width. All the trees observed were very old (50-150 years). Seed length x width ranged from 0. 25). Germplasm of khirni has also been collected by CHES (CIAH). Fruit length x width ranged from lowest values of 0. Godhra and CISH. In the farmer’s fields occasionally few trees were found to exist.13 gm.5 cm x 2. Fruit weight of smallest fruit was 0.60 to 31. Neemach district (Rampura area) and Dhar district (Mandu area) of Madhya Pradesh. Guna and Ashoknagar districts of Madhya Pradesh are also rich in khirni diversity.48cm x 1. weight. TSS. Lucknow from Gujarat. 26. weight and pulp weight (Table 23). width. seed length.82 cm.85 cm x 0.80 OB which is twice that of lowest value. No commercial or organised cultivation of this fruit species was observed in the area surveyed. Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. and Sirohi district of Rajasthan posses small to medium sized populations comprising 20 to 100 trees of this species. Collection sites of khirni from Rajasthan. A large variability was recorded in almost all the fruit characters (Fig.28 cm to highest values of 2. TSS value ranged from 15.54 cm.75 cm x 0. Chanderi area. Seed weight showed variation as smallest seeds 102 . young trees were very rare. Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh Characterization: A large germplasm totalling 47 accessions were scored for 8 characters encompassing fruit length.41 cm to 1.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Sambarkanta district of Gujarat.

The accessions with heaviest fruits were IC584560. Detailed characterization data is given table 23.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India weighed 0. The pulp weight had large variation as it ranged from 0. Godhra and CISH. Germplasm of khirni has also been characterized for various physico-chemical characters a CHES (CIAH). The heaviest fruits with high TSS were found in accession IC584560. 103 . Freshly shed seeds had 37% moisture and 86% germinability (Table 3). Lucknow. Seeds showed intermediate seed storage behaviour as longevity is short (upto 4 months). Seeds showed 1520% decline in viability after desiccation and LN exposure. IC584558 and IC584569. Conservation: There is an urgent need to maintain ex situ germplasm collection of khirni as no much work has been undertaken on conservation of this important underutilized fruit species. A total of 46 accessions of diverse germplasm have been successfully cryostored in the cryogenebank (Table 5). As far as conservation in the genebank is concerned diversity collected at NBPGR has been conserved in the cryogenebank at NBPGR through seeds. Godhra. Field evaluation of some of the promising accessions is also continued at CHES (CIAH).45 gm. Godhra besides this some collections are being maintained at CISH. Lucknow. Seeds desiccated to 10% moisture showed 52% survival after cryopreservation.11 gm and heaviest weighed 0. Some of the elite accessions collected from Panchmahal district of Gujarat has been established at CHES (CIAH). a variation which is about 7 times.52 to 3. In terms of pulp weight IC584561 and IC584558 had high values and showed large fruits.79 gm.

Collector Number IC Number 1 Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Manilkara hexandra Rayan Manilkara hexandra Rayan Manilkara hexandra Rayan Manilkara hexandra Rayan Manilkara hexandra Rayan Manilkara hexandra Rayan Manilkara hexandra Rayan Manilkara hexandra Royana Manilkara hexandra Royana Manilkara hexandra Rayan Manilkara hexandra Rayan Manilkara hexandra Rayan Manilkara hexandra Rayan MD-10/19 584568 Khirni Manilkara hexandra Rayan 73.35 22.29 2 MD-10/20 584569 3 MD-10/5 584554 4 MD-10/6 584555 5 MD-10/7 584556 Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 104 6 MD-139 395853 7 MD-140 395854 8 MDS-10/10 584559 9 MDS-10/11 584560 10 MDS-10/12 584561 11 MDS-10/13 584562 12 MDS-10/14 584563 13 MDS-10/15 584564 14 MDS-10/8 584557 .58 23.25 73.37 Biolo.28 73.43 22.37 22.55 73.16 73.25 73.16 73.42 73.24 22.58 22.26 22.52 73.31 73.52 23.No.41 73.30 73.52 73. Passport data of Manilkara hexandra (Khirni) germplasm collected from various states Crop Name Botanical Name Vernacular Name Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Vadodara Vadodara Panchmahal Panchmahal Panchmahal Panchmahal Dahod Dahod Panchmahal Sabarkantha Sabarkantha Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Sabarkantha Gujarat Panchmahal Gujarat Panchmahal Gujarat 22.37 22.16 73.District gical Status State Latitude Longitude S.37 22.34 22.11 22.Table 22.58 23.

82 21.13 75.83 21.810 552917 31 MD .06 23.846 552953 .82 Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Jhabua Madhya Pradesh 22.06 23.06 23.13 75.06 23.06 23.17 73.809 552916 30 MD .13 75.17 73.53 74.82 21.82 22.06 21.82 21.807 552914 28 MD .06 23.13 75.98 MDS-10/9 584558 Khirni Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Panchmahal Gujarat 22.33 75.13 75.13 75.06 23.811 552918 32 MD .804 552911 27 MD .808 552915 29 MD .13 73.20 73.75 21.30 16 MD-10/21 584570 17 MD-10/22 584571 18 MD-10/23 584572 19 MD-10/24 584573 20 MD-10/25 584574 21 MD-10/26 584575 22 MD-10/27 584576 23 MD-10/28 584577 Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 105 24 MD-10/29 584578 25 MD-10/30 584579 26 MD .13 75.17 73.15 Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Manilkara hexandra Rayan Manilkara hexandra Rayan Manilkara hexandra Rayan Manilkara hexandra Rayan Manilkara hexandra Rayan Manilkara hexandra Rayan Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Ratlam Ratlam Vadodara Bharuch Bharuch Bharuch Bharuch Bharuch Dahod Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Ratlam Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Ratlam Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Ratlam Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Ratlam Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Ratlam Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Jhabua Madhya Pradesh Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Jhabua Madhya Pradesh 23.13 75.12 73.34 73.17 73.06 23.

32 24.821 552928 40 MD .834 552941 47 MD .28 75.33 Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Manilkara hexandra Rayan Manilkara hexandra Rayan Manilkara hexandra Rayan Manilkara hexandra Rayan Manilkara hexandra Rayan Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Manilkara hexandra Rayana Wild Neemach Neemach Neemach Neemach Neemach Neemach Neemach Neemach Neemach Manilkara hexandra Khirni Wild Dhar Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Dhar Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Dhar Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Dhar Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Dhar Madhya Pradesh Manilkara hexandra Royana Wild Khandwa Gujarat 21.43 Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Vadodara Gujarat 22.832 552939 45 MD .22 MD .47 24.40 75.43 75.833 552940 46 MD .40 75.854 552961 35 MD-24 395738 36 MD-83 395797 37 MD .40 75.824 552931 Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 106 42 MD .43 75.69 73.828 552935 43 MD .96 22.52 34 MD .836 552943 49 MD .831 552938 44 MD .43 75.835 552942 48 MD .38 22.822 552929 41 MD .47 24.47 24.55 73.43 75.40 75.43 75.47 24.819 552926 38 MD .838 552945 .68 73.820 552927 39 MD .47 24.43 75.40 75.47 Manilkara hexandra Royana Wild Panchmahal Gujarat 22.43 75.43 75.62 73.38 22.38 22.47 24.38 22.850 552957 Khirni Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Panchmahal Gujarat 22.47 24.837 552944 50 MD .47 24.

87 76.51 Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Khirni Manilkara hexandra Rayan Manilkara hexandra Khirni Manilkara hexandra Rayan Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Wild Wild Wild Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Sirohi Sirohi Sirohi Sirohi Sirohi Alwar Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Sirohi Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Sirohi Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Sirohi Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Neemach Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Neemach Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Neemach Madhya Pradesh Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Neemach Madhya Pradesh 24.47 75.85 24.08 72.87 72.93 74.41 24.41 25.840 552947 53 MD-06/10 546093 54 MD-06/11 546094 55 MD-06/12 546095 56 MD-06/9 546092 57 MD-06/36 546119 58 MD-06/38 546121 59 MD-06/40 546123 Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 107 60 MD-06/41 546124 61 MD-06/42 546125 62 MD-06/43 546126 63 MD-06/44 546127 64 MD-06/46 546129 65 MKD-105 524061 .93 74.64 72.17 24.64 72.77 72.95 24.85 24.86 Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Neemach Madhya Pradesh 24.93 74.41 24.85 24.43 52 MD .43 74.77 72.93 73.839 552946 Khirni Manilkara hexandra Rayan Wild Neemach Madhya Pradesh 24.85 24.85 27.47 75.41 24.87 72.32 MD .95 24.

09) 2.31) 1.20 (±0.26 (±0.62 (±0.30 (±0.38 (±0.05) 1.02) 1.03) 6 MD-19 552926 0.20 (±0.00) 1.15 (±0.12) 1.12 (±0.18 (±0.00 (±0.26 (±0.40) 1.22 (±0.01) 0.15 (±0.09) 9 MD-22 552929 2.84 (±0.78 (±0.30) 1.01) 0.33) 28.00 (±0.02) 1.15 (±0.00 (±0.24 (±0.09) 1.80 (±2.09) 2. Width(cm) 1.09 (±0.10) 30.10) 21.03) 1.14) .17 (±0.28 (±0.34 (±0.04) 10 MD-24 552931 2.04) 1.01) 0.08) 27.00 (±1.12) 1.17) 1.00) 0.13) No.08) 2.56 (±0.01) Weight (g) TSS Length (cm) Width(cm) Weight (g) Coll.11) 1.63 (±0.42 (±0.06) 1.67 (±0.09) 23.04 (±0.14 (±0.01) 0.19 (±0.07) 1.06) 1.17 (±0.11) 1.11 (±0.28 (±0.31 (±0.08) 1.05) 1.89 (±0.54 (±0.55 (±0.09) 1.02) 1.20 (±0.04) 11 MD-28 552935 2.07) 29.08) 4 MD-810 552917 2.74 (±0.06) 8 MD-21 552928 2.63) 0.33) 1.00 (±0.10) 25.80 (±0.10) 0.9 (±0.16 (±0.06 (±0.89 (±0.00 (±2.01) 1.01) 1.64 (±0.05) 1.01) 0. Fruit Seed Pulp wt (gm) 1.05) 0.17 (±0.24 (±0.97 (±0.01) 2.01) 0.25) 0.01) 0.06) 1.00 (±1.50 (±0.07) Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 108 2.06) 2 MD-807 552914 2.01) 0.12) 26.138 (±0.92 (±0.09) 0.69 (±0.04) 0.13) 3 MD-809 552916 1.00 (±0.08) 1.03 (±0.23 (±0.28) 1.29 (±0.14 (±0.00 (±0.02) 0.26 (±0. Length (cm) 1 MD-804 552911 2.48 (±0.66 (±0.75 (±0.20 (±0.00) 1.58 (±0.23 (±0.04 (±0.01) 0.15) 7 MD-20 552927 1.22) 1.2 (±0.02) 2.4 (±0.95) 1.48 (±0.63) 1.Table 23.64 (±0.62 (±0.86 (±0.07) 30.22 (±0.02) 1.18 (±0.23) 28.01) 1.1) 0.00) 1.00 (±0.04 (±0.22) 1.29 (±0.08) 1.05) 0.10) 26.9 (±0.40 (±0.24 (±0.17) 5 MD-811 552918 1.07) 1.85 (±0.28 (±0. Characterization of Manilkara hexandra (Khirni) germplasm based on fruits and seeds characters S. No IC No.40 (±0.

77 (±0.06) 19.20 (±0.66 (±0.02) 18 MD-37 552944 1.61 (±0.25) 1.06) 0.13) 1.08) Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 109 19 MD-38 552945 1.03 (±0.40 (±0.07) 1.04) 20 MD -39 552946 1.2 0(±0.00) 1.02) 1.13) 2.22) 1.10) 2.12 1.00 (±0.14) 30.24) 2.36 (±0.00 (±0.68 (±0.07) 1.00) 0.13) 28.11 (±0.86 (±0.14 (±0.74 (±0.00 (±0.11 (±0.62 (±0.14 (±0.00 (±1.03) 1.22 (±0.38 (±0.31 (±0.41 (±0.16 (±0.01) 0.32 (±0.91 (±0.08) 0.02) 1.22) 1.06) .42 (±0.00) 1.02) 0.22 (±0.69 (±0.002) 0.00 (±0.17 (±0.3 (±0.02) 1.33) 1.09) 0.19 (±0.56 (±0.40 (±0.07) 29.05) 23 MD-50 552957 2.00) 25.40 (±0.06) 1.96 (±0.10) 29.01) 0.20 (±0.01) 2.05) 0.01) 0.00 (±0.01) 0.23 (±0.24 (±0.02) 1.07) 1.08 (±0.00 (±0.38 (±0.86 (±0.01) 0.06) 1.04) 0.03 (±0.14) 30.41 (±0.20) 29.448 (±0.14 (±0.83 (±0.09) 1.95 (±0.99) 13 MD-32 552939 1.05) 15 MD-34 552941 1.06) 20.18 (±0.62 (±0.26) 29.33) 30.09) 0.20 (±0.36 (±0.82 (±0.20 (±0.22 (±0.6 (±0.00 (±1.08) 0.02 (±0.05) 16 MD-35 552942 1.27 (±0.33) 25.59 (±0.02) 1.04) 24 MD-54 552961 2.00 (±0.09) 1.31 (±0.07) 1.18) 1.01) 0.52 (±0.04) 1.08) 1.82 (±0.05) 1.76 (±0.13) 2.32 (±0.1) 0.40 (±1.40 (±1.15) 1.07) 17 MD-36 552943 1.23 (±0.26 (±0.03) 1.01) 0.07) 0.74 (±0.15 (±0.8 (±0.84 (±0.05) 1.06) 20.08) 30.01) MD-31 552938 2.04 (±0.54) 1.78 (±0.61 (±0.17 (±0.04) 1.00) 1.28 (±0.06) 1.02) 1.26 (±0.74 (±0.13 (±0.03) 1.18 (±0.09) 1.13) 0.14 (±0.04) 0.09 (±0.16 (±0.05) 22 MD-46 552953 1.90 (±0.18 (±0.12 (±0.22 (±0.06) 1.99 (±0.09) 1.03) 1.98 (±0.02) 0.64 (±0.07) 1.12) 0.24) 1.7 (±0.08 (±0.09) 1.12 (±0.08) 0.13) 2.06) 1.20 (±0.67 (±0.02) 1.19) 0.04 (±0.01) 0.08) 1.14 (±0.02 (±0.12) 0.15 (±0.81 (±0.64 (±0.76 (±0.56 (±0.02) 1.46 (±0.05) 14 MD-33 552940 1.09) 0.24 (±0.06) 25 MD-10/5 584554 2.36) 1.06) 21 MD -40 552947 1.01) 0.67) 0.08) 1.

33) 1.02) 0.01) 0.25 (±0.76 (±0.01) 0.59 (±0.79 (±0.02) 0.02) 4.36 (±0.31 (±0.53 (±0.36) 1.54 (±0.17) 1.34 (±0.05) 1.28 (±0.12) 28.35 (±0.11 (±0.28 (±0.00 (±0.00 (±3.11) 35 MDS-10/15 584564 1.76 (±0.04) 0.60 (±1.13 (±0.51 (±0.70 (±0.16) 0.08 (±0.79 (±0.04) 0.45 (±0.03) 0.05) Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 110 33 MDS-10/13 584562 2.09) 25.05) 39 MD-10/22 584571 1.06) 28.34 (±0.05) 30 MDS-10/10 584559 2.03) 1.57) 1.76 (±0.48 (±0.03) 1.77) 15.80 (±0.77 (±0.38 (±0.73 (±0.08) 1.08) 1.02) 1.02) 1.08 (±0.12) 0.40 (±0.33 (±0.82 (±0.67 (±0.01) 2.02) 24.14 (±0.03) 1.11 (±0.12) 2.01 (±0.03) 27 MD-10/7 584556 1.04 (±0.56 (±0.64 (±0.04) 0.08 (±0.36 (±0.05) 2.11 (±0.08) 1.75 (±0.80 (±0.08 (±0.94 (±0.29 (±0.26 1.19) 1.64 (±0.18 (±0.35 (±0.05) 1.20 (±0.19) 19.18 (±0.05) 32 MDS-10/12 584561 2.01) 0.02) 0.09) 18.05) 34 MDS-10/14 584563 2.02) 31.04) 2.38 (±0.61) 1.97 (±0.02) 0.36 (±0.34 (±0.02) 1.05) 36 MD-10/19 584568 1.80 (±2.52) 1.02) 0.18 (±0.02 (±0.04) .91(±0.04) 1.76) 1.01) 0.08 (±0.01) 0.81 (±0.02) 1.09) 31 MDS-10/11 584560 1.16 (±0.09 (±0.05) 0.52 (±0.10) 31.02) 0.16) MD-10/6 584555 1.45 (±0.76 (±0.18 (±0.02) 0.60 (±0.86 (±0.27 (±0.01) 1.04) 1.97 (±0.71 (±0.01) 0.18) 1.02) 0.04) 1.05) 0.02) 2.52 (±0.13 (±0.01) 0.16 (±0.16) 31.99 (±0.29) 0.02) 0.57 (±0.29 (±0.18) 1.10 3.46) 1.02) 0.46 (±0.36 (±0.58 (±0.61 (±0.07) 1.88 (±0.19) 0.60 (±0.25 (±0.45 (±0.20) 25.11 (±0.01) 0.60 (±1.04) 1.70 (±0.94 (±0.08) 1.61) 24.11) 1.01) 0.05) 37 MD-10/20 584569 1.07) 36.18 (±0.16) 1.60 (±1.38 (±0.52 (±0.1 9 ±0.80 (±1.62 (±0.05) 1.03) 27.14 (±0.06) 29 MDS-10/9 584558 2.02) 0.64 (±0.36 (±0.50 (±0.01) 0.19) 1.99 (±0.01) 0.09) 38 MD-10/21 584570 1.01) 1.04) 1.01) 0.40 (±0.02) 28 MDS-10/8 584557 1.13 (±0.01) 2.66 (±0.80 (±0.02) 0.00) 0.48 (±0.02) 1.04) 1.40 (±1.18 (±0.03) 0.00) 0.

04) 42 MD-10/25 584574 1.11 (±0.17) 0.87 (±0.01) 0.00 (±2.09) 35.11) 17.28 (±0.18 (±0.04) 1.61 (±0.03) 1.49 (±0.00 (±2.00 (±0.08) 43 MD-10/26 584575 1.10) 22.02) 0.03) 0.06) Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 111 47 MD-10/30 584579 1.49 (±0.45 (±0.15) 1.03) 0.83 (±0.95) 1.01) 0.58 (±0.75 (±0.01) 0.78) 1.17 (±0.78 (±0.09) 27.42 (±0.95 (±0.87 (±0.16 (±0.91) 1.07) 25.16) 1.03) 1.80 (±1.26 (±0.16 (±0.11) 18.11) 0.03) 0.12 (±0.40 (±2.76 (±0.20 (±3.95 (±0.08) 46 MD-10/29 584578 1.40 1.19 (±0.26 (±0.15 (±0.80 (±4.14) 0.04) 0.03) 44 MD-10/27 584576 1.12 (±0.03) .10) 1.10) 1.02) 0.01) 1.59 (±0.15) 24.10) 1.18 (±0.83 (±0.01) 0.96 (±0.04) 1.04) 1.69 (±0.01) MD-10/23 584572 1.02) 0.04 (±0.01) 0.04) 1.80 (±1.27 (±0.01) 1.12 (±0.61 (±0.19 (±0.05) 0.15 (±0.04) 45 MD-10/28 584577 1.63 (±0.02) 0.62 (±0.00 (±0.44 (±0.28 (±0.72 1.01) 0.62 (±0.03) 1.04) 1.10) 1.02) 0.00 (±0.12 (±0.63 (±0.95 (±0.01) 0.32 (±0.20 (±0.38) 1.01) 0.96 (±0.94 (±0.11) 0.06) 41 MD-10/24 584573 1.78 (±0.99 (±0.46 (±0.16 (±0.86) 1.00) 0.17) 22.01) 0.01) 0.56 (±0.

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 112 .

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 113 .

The fruit is a pod and is turgid. but it has been naturalized throughout Southeast Asia. Vernacular . Common name: English. therefore.Manila tamarind.Jungle jalebi.12 Pithecellobium dulce (Manila tamarind) Botanical name: Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Fresh pods are consumed by local people or brought to the local market for selling (Fig. Gujarat. 114 . The branches are pendulous and posses short. Each single pair of oblique. mithi amli Family: Fabaceae Origin and distribution: Origin of this tree species is believed to be in the Central America. When mature the pods split open at the lower suture exposing the edible pulp. especially in India. mithi imali. syn.) Willd. It is found growing in many unattended waste areas of semi-arid parts of India. Malaysia. 27A). The pulp is generally pinkish white. Leaves are abruptly bipinnate and 4-8 cm long. Tree is very hardy and can grow well at low and medium altitudes in both wet and dry areas under full sunlight. and often spiral. twisted. Propagation: Propagation of Manila tamarind is through seeds. and Inga dulcis (Roxb. Madhya Pradesh. growing up to 10 m height. ovate. about 1-2 cm wide. dry and some time fluffy. stipular spines at the bases of leaves. General description: Manila tamarind is a small to medium sized tree. Indonesia. It is dehiscent along the lower suture and the valve is pinkish-red or reddishbrown when ripe.) Benth.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 3. In India. flat and shiny and 6-8 seeds are found per pod. oblong leaflets is 1-4 cm long. Haryana and Punjab. Maharashtra. no vegetative propagation is reported. The seed is surrounded by thick whitish and pulpy aril which is edible and sweet in taste. Tree grows natural wild in the marginal and waste lands. Mimosa dulcis Roxb. cannot be kept for long and has to be consumed within a few days. the Philippines and Thailand. and weights about 10-20 g (Fig. The seeds are black. sweet. 4-10 cm long. it is common in dry places of Rajasthan. 27B). sweet inga. The pods are usually picked by climbing the tree or using a long bamboo pole. sharp.

These clones may be cultivated in home gardens and there are possibilities for commercial development of this species. Important uses: The ripe pods of Manila tamarind are edible and pulp is consumed raw by tribals and local people (Fig. Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh 115 . Pods are collected by local people and tribals and sold in the local village market. Tree is found growing wild in the fallow lands. The seed oil contains 51. the seed meal may be used for animal feed (Gamo and Cruz.3 percent saturated acids. Fresh pods contain about 50% pulp which is rich in protein.0 percent linolic acid and 24. Rajasthan Gujarat Madhya Pradesh Fig. The seed contains about 70% kernel which is rich in protein and oil (upto 20%). 28. Collection sites of Manila tamarind from Rajasthan. carbohydrate and fiber besides being good source of minerals and vitamins.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Cultivars/selections: There are no identified cultivars or selections available in this species as no organised cultivation is attempted by farmers. 27B).1 percent oleic acid. Due to its high protein content. 1957). The oil is edible and is used for the manufacture of soap and other purposes for which peanut oil may be used. There is a need to identify suitable genotypes with big and sweet pods with prolific bearing to be propagated vegetatively by grafting or budding. 24. marginal areas of farmer’s fields and also in the village forest area.

Conservation: Manila tamarind an exotic species and presently not much inportant as horticultural crop is a waste land tree species. Characterization: The highly twisted attractive fruits showed an average length of 16 cm (Table 25). 116 . higher amount of pulp and sweetness.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Genetic Resources Management Collection: Germplasm of Manila tamarind have not been widely collected in India as the crop has not been given much attention for horticulture.10 cm. There is still need to collect the variability from north.32 to 9. The width of fruits varied from 1. There is need to identify superior trees for prolific bearing and fruit quality and outstanding clones should be propagated vegetatively by grafting and budding. Weight of seeds varied from 0. 14 accessions collected from diverse habitats have been successfully cryostored (Table 5). Freshly extracted seeds showed 38% moisture and 97% germinability.16 cm x 1.2 cm to 1. colour and amount of pulp etc.46 to 4. New Delhi orthodox seed storage behavior has been exhibited as seeds showed high tolerance to desiccation and freezing and 14 months storage period till 50% viability (Table 4). central and western part of India for identification of promising genotypes with prolific fruiting.27 g. Detailed passport data is given in table 24 and collection sites in Fig. large pods.22 to 1.85 cm x 1. New Delhi made 13 collections from Rajasthan.68 cm. NBPGR. Seeds showed variation in terms of length x width ranging from 0. Weight of fruits ranged from 7. was recorded in the collected germplasm.22 g. shape. Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh and sizable variability in fruit size. Based on our studies at NBPGR. 28.

847 552954 Manila tamarind 3 MD .71 73.52 73.84 23.03 Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan 24.94 24.41 75.83 23.83 23.65 22.801 552908 Manila tamarind 2 MD .52 73.72 73.851 552958 Manila tamarind 4 MD-110 395824 Manila tamarind 5 MD-23 395737 Manila tamarind Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 117 6 MD .39 73.63 Vernacular Biolo.13 22. Passport data of Pithecellobium dulce (Manila tamarind) germplasm collected from various states Botanical Name Name Pithecellobium dulce Pithecellobium dulce Pithecellobium dulce Pithecellobium dulce Pithecellobium dulce Pithecellobium dulce Pithecellobium dulce Pithecellobium dulce Pithecellobium dulce Pithecellobium dulce Pithecellobium dulce Pithecellobium dulce Pithecellobium dulce Jangal jalebi Jangal jalebi Jangal jalebi Jangal jalebi Jangal jalebi Jangal jalebi Jangal jalebi Vilayati ambli Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Ghia tori Wild Goras amali Wild Vadodara Vadodara Mandsaur Udaipur Dungarpur Dungarpur Dungarpur Dungarpur Dungarpur Dungarpur Goras amali Wild Panchmahal Goras amali Wild Dahod Goras amali Wild Vadodara Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Status 21.10 73.60 22.71 73.18 74.79 73.District gical State Latitude Longitude S . Number IC Number Crop Name 1 MD .62 22.21 73.91 23.38 Madhya Pradesh 24.03 73.45 23.Table 24.845 552952 Manila tamarind 7 MD-266 423600 Manila tamarind 8 MD-272 423606 Manila tamarind 9 MD-273 423607 Manila tamarind 10 MD-276 423610 Manila tamarind 11 MD-280 423614 Manila tamarind 12 MD-288 423622 Manila tamarind 13 MD-290 423624 Manila tamarind . Collector No.85 73.

9) 0.10(±0.03) Weight (gm) 1.94(±0. Characterization of Pithecellobium dulce (Manila tamarind) germplasm based on fruits and seeds characters S.85(±0.46(±0.05) 9.02) 1.09) Width (cm) Weight (gm) Coll. No IC No.16(±0.27(±0.32(±1.68(±0.No Length (cm) 16.22) 7.90) 1.47) 4.22 (±0.20(±0.22 (±0.01) Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 118 1 MD-847 552951 2 MD-851 552954 .47) 15.Table 25.05) Seed Width (cm) 1.06(±2.06) 1. Fruit Length (cm) 0.

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 119 .

size ranges from 3-10 x 0. Punjab. Common name: S.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 3. Khara jal. persica. small or large tree (Fig. while seedlings also spring up under its shade.13 Salvadora Species (Pilu and Miswak) Botanical name: Salvadora Linn. 0. and inflorescence is of paniculate spike. not fleshy. 29B). Miswak Family: Salvadoraceae Origin and distribution: Salvadora oleoides is distributed in tropical Africa and Asia.40-0. Leaves elliptic-ovate or ovate-lanceolate (Fig. and S. Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh.S.29A) to heavy soils. flowers are sessile. flowers are pedicillate. Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.45 cm in diameter. much branched. Seeds hard black brown or light brown in colour. Gujarat. brown and yellow colour when ripe. pulp taste-sweet with pungency. and Punjab and to some extent in Andhra Pradesh. Haryana. Pilu and S. greenish yellow in colour. It is extremely well adapted to arid conditions and is salt tolerant as well as drought resistant. persica has wide adaptability from sand dunes of deserts (Fig . saline and desert areas of Uttar Pradesh. not pungent.3-1. These species with Capparis decidua form the major arboreal part of the flora of Indian desert and is naturally acclimatized to a harsh climate.2 cm. fruit drupe. persica is a perennial. extending to Egypt. rich in oil. General description: S. almost impenetrable growth is often formed by a parent stem surrounded by a ring of rootsuckers. These indigenous trees grow on dry. . oleoides Decne. A dense. clustered. clustered. inflorescence is 120 . S.oleoides is a small evergreen tree with short. shape of the lamina is linear lenceolate. evergreen. Mascarene Islands and China. It is also found in the Sunderban mangroves of West Bengal and in the regions of Chilka laggons. 30C-inset). twisted trunk and drooping branches (Fig. Haryana. These species inhabit the saline and rocky soils (Bhandari. greenish-white in colour. Leaves are fleshy and pungent in smell. Rajasthan. persica L. 1990) and are known to tolerate a very dry environment with mean rainfall of less than 200mm. size ranges from 3-6 x 2-4 cm. It suffers considerably from frost. scattered. It is widely distributed in Rajasthan. red. oleoides Meetha jal. 30A) and found in the dry and arid regions of India and on saline lands. S. non-saline to highly saline soils and dry regions to marshy and waterlogged areas.

rich in oil. 2002). Toothbrushes made from roots and small branches of S. There is need for identification of suitable genotypes and work in genetic improvement of these species for use in plantation. 30A. varnishes and lubricants (Singh et al. natural layering and mostly by root suckers. rheumatism. fructose and sucrose in addition to high calcium content. 0. persica have been used for over 1000 years for relieving toothache and gum diseases (Ramoliya and Pandey. 2002).30-0. 29C. fruit drupe.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India of lax panicles.. cosmetics. Mertia and Kunhamu (2003) indicated natural regeneration of plants from seeds to be rare probably due to coincidence of seed maturity with onset of monsoon which results in considerable damage to the seeds through fungal attack.B. It is a good sand binder due to the typical root system and suitable for growing in shelter belts and as wind breaks in desert tracts. They are medicinally important and possess pharmaceutical applications.33 cm in diameter. attempts for its improvement and sustainable utilization are by and large lacking and has resulted in gradual decline of the trees from natural populations. Seeds of the two species produce non-edible oil (30-50%) which is extensively used in industrial production of soaps. different colour white. No vegetative propagation method is reported as no cultivation of this species is in practice. Propagation: Natural regeneration is by seeds. etc (Kumar and Rao. black to dark red when ripe. brown or black.C). The trees regenerate by seeds and root suckers.D. paints. taste-sweet. 1992) with all plant parts being used. Important uses: Both the species are multipurpose (Anonymous. Indigenous traditional knowledge: In western Rajasthan fruits of S. scattered. 1995). The trees generally flower in March-April and fruit in May-June (Fig. The seeds can not be reportedly stored as they do not retain viability and hence it is recommended that fruits are immediately depulped and used for obtaining seedlings (Hockings. aromatic. coppice. forestry and agroforestry system. 1993). 1996) and also has medicinal properties like cure for piles. Fruits are collected in the 121 . The drupe fruits are sweet in taste and are a delicacy with the local populations. The two species differ morphologically in terms of leaves. skin diseases. Cultivars/selections: Despite the great importance of Salvadora spp. The oil contains lauric acid which forms the basic raw material for industrial production of lauryl alcohol (Chatterjee and Pakrashi. oleoides (commonly called Mitha Jal) are plucked by local people especially children and women from natural wild populations existing near their villages. The fruit pulp contains glucose. flower and fruit that have been well defined by Duthie (1960) and Bhandari (1990). Seeds hard. However.

TSS in fruits varied from 16. high wind velocity. Survey of these populations revealed rare presence of juvenile plants/ saplings in the vicinity of mature trees.14 cm and largest fruits had length x width of 0. A total of 17 accessions of diverse Salvadora germplasm were morphologically characterized for fruit and seed characters (Table 27). physical parameters and for the collection of variability. Several populations of pilu in the northwestern Haryana. 31). Fruits are dried for use in coming months. Fruits are eaten fresh generally 5-6 fruits at a time. bright yellow. Genetic Resources Management Collection: Around 25-30 natural populations of S.55 ºB. Shades of yellow. Rajasthan and Haryana for the study of growth pattern. 31).18 cm x 0.4 to 0. Studies on seed variability in S. 30D). Characterization: There are not much reports of characterization and evaluation of Salvadora germplasm. The length and width of each fruit were same as the fruits were almost round in shape. Fresh fruits preferably yellow ones are mixed with sugar balls and kept for few weeks. severe drought and scanty rainfall (200-300 mm annually). light maroon and maroon were observed. Extensive survey in Rajasthan and Haryana revealed variability in ripe fruit colors of different trees. Gujarat and Haryana (Table 26 and Fig. Climatic conditions of all the districts surveyed is typically arid characterized by extremes of temperature (less than +3OC in winters to above +49OC in summer).85 gm which reflects a large variation. Predominantly trees occur as natural populations consisting of 50-500 trees in each population aged 50-150 years. These populations are scattered throughout the north-west India (Fig.29 cm x 0. The seeds diameter ranged from 0. persica from Rajasthan were conducted (Prakash et al.31 to 122 . The smallest fruits had length x width of 0. 29A. area adjoining to National Capital Region has already suffered complete destruction due to large scale urbanization.31 cm.25 to 26. Large scale production of pilu fruits in naturally growing trees with TSS as high as 20-25O B and attractive bright red and yellow fruits has lot of potential for commercial exploitation which is till now completely neglected.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India especially made hanging pots which during collection of fruits are worn in the neck (Fig. 59 accessions of these two species have been collected from Rajasthan. Heaviest fruits weighed 5.07 gm and lightest fruits weighed 0. oleoides were surveyed during last 7 years in 12 districts of three states namely Gujarat..14 cm and weight from 0. Later the mixture of pulp and sugar is filtered and concentrated liquid is used as medicine for asthma. 2001). Information gathered from local people also revealed that these trees undergo profuse flowering but negligible fruit setting has been seen during the last 10-12 years. The major reasons attributed to these have been the changing environmental conditions.

Gupta and Saxena (1968) and Hockings (1993) also reported only 28 and 30% seed germination respectively in S. as fruit is highly perishable with very short shelf life. attempts for its improvement and sustainable utilization are by and large lacking and has resulted in gradual decline of the trees from natural population.57 gm. oleoides. Rajasthan and Gujarat 0. 561776 and 561783. The most promising accessions having large fruits with high TSS are IC561781. Collection sites of Salvadora species from Haryana. Presently there has been no attention paid by horticulturist to explore the possibilities of exploitation of pilu as potential fruit for horticulture. Howerver. 31. jelly etc. jam. Hockings (1993) further 123 . Natural regeneration of plants from seeds is rare probably due to coincidence of seed maturity with onset of monsoon which results in considerable damage to the seeds through fungal attack (Mertia and Kunhamu. 2003).Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Haryana Rajasthan Gujarat Fig. There is still need to collect and characterize the germplasm of these species for the identification of superior trees for good quality fruits and high oil content in seeds. the fruits have good potential for processing as squash. oleoides. Conservation: Despite the great importance of S.

oleoides and 12 accessions of S. 2002. 2001). In vitro multiplication of Salvadora using various explants like axillary buds and shoot tips has been attempted and an average of 5-10 shoots per explants were developed which were transferred to soil after rooting and hardening (Mathur et al. Some problems have been highlighted during clonal propagation including low micropropagation ability. seeds of S.. Freshly harvested seeds showed 90% germinability and 26% moisture content.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India reported that the seeds loose viability very soon and cannot be stored. viability was lost completely in all the samples. Most of the studies pertaining to Salvadora have been conducted on chemical composition of seed oil and juice and on nutritional and medicinal attributes. leading to lower viability of seeds. Batra et al. oleoides were found to deteriorate rapidly after harvest and within 15 days germinability was reduced to 50% with storage at temperatures of 10-15ºC. Whole seeds desiccated to 8% could be cryostored with 40% recovery. 2007). In view of this embryonic axes were desiccated to 6% moisture and successfully cryopreserved with 60-80 % recovery. Excised embryotic axes from the stored seeds showed better viability percentage in composition to whole seeds indicating the presence of some inhibitory substances in the cotyledons. persica and S. 124 . lower rooting rates (Singh and Goyal. there was a rapid decline in viability and by 24th day of storage. persica have been cryostored at NBPGR (Table 5). On desiccation to 9% moisture content a 16% and with freezing a 30% decline in viability was noted leading to its categorization as having recalcitrant seed storage behavior. A total of 23 accessions of S.. Disappearance of genetic diversity of this species acclimatized to such extreme climatic conditions will lead to an irreversible loss to plant genetic resources of this area affecting environment and socio-economic losses. In studies undertaken at NBPGR.

Collector IC No.28 2 MKD-10 345782 3 MKD-100 524056 4 MKD-11 345783 5 MKD-12 345784 Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 125 6 MKD-13 345785 7 MKD-14 345786 8 MKD-17 345789 9 MKD-20 345792 10 MKD-23 345795 11 MKD-24 345796 12 MKD-27 345799 13 MKD-28 345800 14 MKD-29 345801 .28 76.46 76.13 76.22 28.42 28.28 72.22 28.31 76.22 28.08 28.28 28.46 76. Passport data of Salvadora species germplasm collected from various states Crop Name Name Status Name cular gical tude Botanical VernaBioloDistrict State Lati.13 76.70 28.01 76.28 76.Table 26.46 76.44 28.97 76.22 28.17 28.50 76.46 76.44 28.28 28.22 28. Number Number 1 Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Salvadora oleoides Salvadora oleoides Salvadora oleoides Salvadora oleoides Salvadora oleoides Salvadora oleoides Jal Bhuri peel Peel Bhuri peel Bhuri peel Peeli peel Salvadora oleoides Bhuri peel Salvadora oleoides Khachhar Peel Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Salvadora oleoides Khachhar Peel Wild Salvadora oleoides Peeli Peel Wild Rewari Rewari Rewari Rewari Mahendergarh Mahendergarh Mahendergarh Mahendergarh Mahendergarh Mahendergarh Salvadora oleoides Lal peel Wild Rewari Salvadora oleoides Jal Wild Rewari Salvadora oleoides Lal peel Wild Rewari MD-125 395839 Pilu Salvadora oleoides Peel Wild Bharuch Gujarat Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana 21.46 76.Longitude S.

07 75.15 76.62 Rajasthan 28.52 70.94 76.53 72.52 70.53 72.14 72.88 16 MKD-42 345814 17 MKD-43 345815 18 MKD-44 345816 19 MKD-74 345846 20 MKD-77 345849 21 MKD-78 345850 22 MD-08/10 561779 23 MD-08/11 561780 Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 126 24 MD-08/12 561781 25 MD-08/13 561782 26 MD-08/14 561783 27 MD-08/15 561784 28 MD-08/16 561785 29 MDG-08/17 561786 30 MDG-08/18 561787 31 MDG-08/19 561788 32 MDG-08/21 561790 .15 28.07 76.53 71.02 Rajasthan 28.57 Rajasthan 26.91 Rajasthan 27.04 73.15 Salvadora oleoides Lal peel Wild Mahendergarh Haryana 28.57 Rajasthan 26.57 Rajasthan 27.91 Rajasthan 27.52 70.53 70.58 Rajasthan 26.25 75.53 72.52 MKD-32 345804 Pilu Salvadora oleoides Peel Wild Mahendergarh Haryana 28.62 28.07 76.00 Salvadora oleoides Peeli peel Wild Mahendergarh Haryana 28.15 Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Salvadora oleoides Salvadora oleoides Salvadora oleoides Salvadora oleoides Salvadora oleoides Meetha jal Meetha jal Meetha jal Meetha jal Meetha jal Salvadora oleoides Meetha jal Salvadora oleoides Meetha jal Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Salvadora oleoides Meetha jal Wild Salvadora oleoides Meetha jal Wild Salvadora oleoides Meetha jal Wild Bikaner Bikaner Bikaner Bikaner Bikaner Jaisalmer Jaisalmer Jaisalmer Jaisalmer Jaisalmer Salvadora oleoides Meetha jal Wild Bikaner Salvadora oleoides Peel Wild Bhiwani Salvadora oleoides Peel Wild Bhiwani Haryana Haryana Salvadora oleoides Peel Wild Bhiwani Haryana Salvadora oleoides Lal peel Wild Mahendergarh Haryana 28.04 76.02 Rajasthan 27.65 28.91 Rajasthan 27.91 Rajasthan 26.14 73.

47 MDG-08/22 561791 Pilu Salvadora oleoides Meetha jal Wild Jaisalmer Rajasthan 26.42 73.06 Rajasthan 25.45 75.33 Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Salvadora oleoides Salvadora oleoides Salvadora oleoides Salvadora oleoides Salvadora oleoides Peelu Peelu Lal peel Peeli peel Peeli peel Salvadora oleoides Peelu Salvadora oleoides Peelu Salvadora oleoides Peelu Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild Salvadora oleoides Meetha jal Wild Salvadora oleoides Meetha jal Wild Churu Bikaner Pali Pali Pali Pali Sirohi Jhunjhunu Jhunjhunu Jhunjhunu Salvadora oleoides Meetha jal Wild Churu Salvadora oleoides Meetha jal Wild Churu Salvadora oleoides Meetha jal Wild Jodhpur Salvadora oleoides Meetha jal Wild Jodhpur Salvadora oleoides Meetha jal Wild Jaisalmer Salvadora oleoides Meetha jal Wild Jaisalmer Rajasthan 26.42 73.76 Rajasthan 25.01 74.19 Rajasthan 28.59 70.30 73.49 70.59 Rajasthan 26.49 34 MDG-08/23 561792 35 MDG-08/24 561793 36 MDG-08/25 561794 37 MDG-08/28 561797 38 MDG-08/29 561798 39 MD-08/4 561773 40 MD-08/5 561774 41 MD-08/6 561775 Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 127 42 MD-08/7 561776 43 MD-258 423592 44 MD-259 423593 45 MD-260 423594 46 MD-261 423595 47 MD-263 423597 48 MKD-35 345807 49 MKD-36 345808 50 MKD-40 345812 .46 73.59 Rajasthan 25.49 70.03 Rajasthan 28.76 Rajasthan 24.01 73.76 Rajasthan 25.45 75.59 70.19 Rajasthan 28.46 74.03 Rajasthan 27.21 73.22 Salvadora oleoides Meetha jal Wild Jaisalmer Rajasthan 26.42 72.42 73.76 Rajasthan 25.96 75.59 Rajasthan 28.03 Rajasthan 28.45 Rajasthan 25.81 Rajasthan 28.46 74.

29 76.67 Salvadora oleoides Lal peel Wild Alwar Rajasthan 28.48 76.00 Rajasthan 27.29 76.852 552959 59 MD .67 22.90 Rajasthan 27.48 73.853 552960 Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 128 .00 76.37 MKD-41 345813 Pilu Salvadora oleoides Lal peel Wild Jhunjhunu Rajasthan 28.47 52 MKD-5 345777 53 MKD-7 345779 54 MKD-8 345780 55 MKD-93 524049 56 MKD-96 524052 57 MKD-97 524053 58 MD .37 73.45 76.93 Gujarat Gujarat 22.93 Rajasthan 27.00 Salvadora oleoides Peeli peel Wild Alwar Rajasthan 28.22 75.51 Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Pilu Salvadora persica Pilodi Wild Vadodara Salvadora persica Pilodi Wild Vadodara Salvadora oleoides Jal Wild Alwar Salvadora oleoides Jal Wild Alwar Salvadora oleoides Jal Wild Alwar Salvadora oleoides Peeli peel Wild Alwar Rajasthan 28.29 76.

02) 0.21(±0.92) 0.01) 0.70(±0.26(±0.34(±0.03) 2.88(±0.18(±0. 1 MD-08/5 561774 2 MD-08/6 561775 3 MD-08/7 561776 4 MD-08/10 561779 5 MD-08/11 561780 6 MD-08/12 561781 7 MD-08/13 561782 Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 129 8 MD-08/14 561783 9 MD-08/15 561784 10 MD-08/16 561785 11 MD-08/19 561788 12 MD-08/21 561790 13 MD-08/22 561791 14 MD-08/23 561792 15 MD-08/24 561793 16 MD-08/25 561794 17 MD-08/29 561798 .00) 0.01) 0. Characterization of Salvadora species germplasm based on fruits and seeds characters Fruit Length (cm) 0.05(±0.01) 0.49) 23.25(±0.01) 0.01) S.00) 0.16) 2.31(±0.00) 0.27(±0.00) 3.01) 0.00) 0.53(±0.42(±0.01) 0.42(±0.00) 0.45) 0.01) 0.00) 0.29(±0.29(±0.01) 2.21(±0.01) 0.07(±0.01) 0.14(±0.27(±0.01) 0.19) 21.31(±0.47) 16.49) 0.01) 1.09) 26.26(±0.01) 0.75(±0.46) 16.87(±0.01) 0.02) 2.01) 2.22(±0.26(±0.01) 0.01) 0.00) 0.00) 0.24(±0.25(±0.14(±0.24(±0.01) 0.40(±0.55(±0.10) 23.45(±0.01) 21.01) 26(±0.01) 0.46) 0.04) 24.01) 0.01) 0.66) 17.01) 0.40(±0.00) 2.00) 0.45(±0.65(±0.32(±0.02) 21.01) 0.30(±0.01) 0.20(±0.66) 21.21(±0.01) 0.60(±0.28(±0.40(±0. IC No.01) 0.88(±0.23(±0.00) 0.01) 0.22(±0.25(±0.70) 25(±0.92) 0.Table 27.50(±0.02) 3(±0.24(±0.00) 0.21(±0.29(±0.02) 0.90(±0.01) 0.25(±0.18(±0.31(±0.25(±0.40(±0.55(±0.01) 0.05) 5.34(±0.01) 0.23(±0.33(±0.75(±0.06) 2.25(±0.20(±0.45(±0.26(±0.51(±0.00) 0.10(±0.01) 0.00) 0.01) 0.41(±0.01) 3.38(±0.24(±0.36(±0.20(±0.25(±0.01) 0.23(±0.23(±0.00) 0.57(±0.85(±0.08(±0.55(±0.01) 0.32(±0.02) 0.01) Width (cm) Weight (gm) TSS Diameter (cm) Seed Weight (gm) 0.02) 1.55(±0.27(±0.23(±0.32(±0.25(±0.37) 19.29(±0.32(±0.01) 24.01) 0.02) 0.55(±0.00) 0.01) 1.08) 4.01) 0.01) 3.01) 0.31(±0.01) 0.01) 0.16) 16.53(±0.01) 0.42(±0.26(±0.24(±0.32(±0.36) 0.23) 22.23(±0.02) 0.07(±0.43) 0.25(±0. No.29(±0.23(±0.01) 0. No Coll.00) 0.01) 0.

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 130 .

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 131 .

Maharashtra. The fruit is astringent and taste varies from light acidic to sweet.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 3. have a funnel-shaped calyx and 4 to 5 united petals. seedless fruits are also found. Ceylon and to the Andaman Islands (Zeven and de Wet. javanica (water apple). Vast genetic variability is present in tree phenology. In jamun upto 50 percent polyembryony is reported and 132 .. evergreen. Haryana. S. densiflora. West Bengal and Assam. backyard and as an avenue tree in the all parts of India. Flowering is in FebruaryMarch and fruiting in May to July. Gujarat. zeylanica. Vernacular -Jamun Family: Myrtaceae Origin and distribution: The jamun is native to India. Bihar. very juicy with 1 or 2 to 5 compressed bold white or green seeds. Seeds are highly recalcitrant in nature and freshly extracted seeds can be sown for raising seedlings. S. syn. cumini other important species in India is S. Syzygium jambolanum DC. fruiticosum. Leaves 2 to 4 in long. jumbos (Rose apple or safed jamun) found in south India. S. Burma. leaves. Fruit skin is thin. Madhya Pradesh.14 Syzygium cumini (Jamun) Botanical name: Syzygium cumini (L. 1982) and available throughout Indian plains up to the height of 1300m. Karnataka. oblong-oval or elliptic. Jharkhand. It is found grown as a wild and semi-wild in the states of Punjab. and fruit characters in India. opposite. General description: The jamun is a medium to large sized evergreen tree with smooth grey bark and attain the height of 20 m (Fig. Other species of minor importance are S. Propagation: Jamun is commonly propagated through seeds (Singh et al. Drupe fruit emerge in clusters of different sizes. Jamun is widely cultivated in homestead gardens. smooth. at maturity attain dark purple color. Seeds germinate within two weeks and can be transplanted during monsoon season in the field. shining and pulp is whitish purple. Young leaves pinkish and turn leathery and dark green at maturity. Black plum.. bluntly acuminate. The sessile whitish-yellow flowers emerge in clusters. uniflora (Surinam cherry) and S. Besides. Fruit oblong or ovoid-oblong.) Skeels. Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. Chhattisgarh. 2007). S. Eugenia cumini Druce Common name: English -Java plum. 32A). Uttar Pradesh.

One late maturing selection with small fruits 1. the powdered seeds are useful for sugar patients. Gujarat. Some local farmers selections growing in Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh are Badama (large size and very juicy fruits). Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. Pune and Ahmednagar districts of Maharashtra (Keskar et al. wine..0 cm length and 1.. Fruit is a good source of iron. highly juicy and sweet fruits. from Karnataka (Prabhuraj et al. 1989) and in Gujarat and Rajasthan.5 cm diameter with rounded fruits is also common. Jamun seeds contain various alkaloids such as jambosin and glycoside which inhibits the conversion of starch in to sugars. therefore. minerals. 2001)... protein and carbohydrate. 1999). respectively (Singh and Singh.. 2006). 1989). sharbat.. several area-specific local selections have been identified by farmers or local people since historical time. Extensive collections have been made from eastern Uttar Pradesh where eight genotypes were examined and characterized (Singh et al. taste. however. 2007). Jathi (maturing in June or Jeth).0 to 1. Cultivars/selections: In jamun there are no standard cultivars available. 2002). Fruits are processed for squash. which is grown widely.0 cm). 2006). Similarly several local type selections are found in Konkan area.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India true-to-type nucellar seedlings are produced (Singh et al. Important uses: Jamun is a very nutritious fruit and consumed fresh or processed for various preparations. All these local selection or types are based on fruit size. Ashada (maturing in June or Ashad) and still late type Bhado (maturing in August). Kaatha (with small and acidic fruits). fruiting period and maturity of fruits.. Rajasthan. Fruits are important in the Indian System of Medicine and recommended for diabetes. Soft wood grafting has also been successful for multiplication in Karnataka and Gujarat in the months of June and August. jelly. heart and liver problems (Singh. vineagar and juice. oblong deep purple. 2007). Genetic Resources Management Collection: Jamun germplasm has been widely collected from throughout India and vast variability has been recorded in tree phenology and fruit characters and flowering and fruiting period. jam. This selection have big sized (2-3. from North Goa (Devi et al. One popular type natural selection famous in north India is known as ‘Ra Jamun’ (Singh et al. Survey has been undertaken in Pune and Ahmednagar districts of Maharashtra (Keskar et al.5 -2.5 cm length and diameter 1. however. Vegetative propagation using various budding methods have been successful..5 to 2. 133 . Germplasm have been collected from various parts of Maharashtra. from West Bengal (Kundu et al. patch budding has been reported to be the most successful in the months of March in semiarid areas (Singh and Singh. shape. syrup. 2001).

Lucknow and 20 elite accessions have been collected (Fig. Maharashtra and Gujarat and 54 accessions have been collected.. 1999). Lucknow in the states of Uttar Pradesh. 15. GJ-19.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 2002). TSS. eight genotypes grouped into two categories: ovoid and oblong from eastern Uttar Pradesh (Singh et al. fruiting and physico-chemical characters of fruits like fruit weight. from West Bengal germplasm Selection 1 (oval shaped large fruits) and Selection 2 (cylindrical shaped medium sized fruit) proved better for yield and quality fruits (Kundu et al. 1989). pulp content. Collection sites of Jamun from Haryana and Uttar Pradesh Characterization: Jamun germplasm collected from various sources as described under collection has been characterized for various horticultural traits such as flowering. GJ-24 and GJ-25 have been identified for overall performance (Singh and Singh. Singh and Singh (2005) collected 33 accessions from Gujarat. 33 and Table 28). Haryana Uttar Pradesh Fig.. 2005). 33.. Haryana. 14 and 13 (Keskar et al. GJ-23. from Gujarat 5 genotypes GJ-18. from Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand the genotypes RNC-26 and RNC-11 were found promising for higher pulp and fruits weight (Devi et al. 2002). New Delhi have also made extensive collections in the parts of Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh in collaboration with CHES (CIAH) Godhra and CISH. NBPGR. Survey has been made by CISH. 134 . 2001). acidity etc.. On the basis of characterization of collected germplasm several elite genotypes have been identified from Maharashtra. 4. No.

important field genebanks are CISH. Conservation: Germplasm of Jamun is being maintained at very few places in the field genebanks. There is need to establish promising seedling selections and local farmers selections in the field genebanks to conserve the elite germplasm as true-to-type and use them for crop improvement.84 gm which is depicting a large variation. Studies undertaken at NBPGR revealed that seeds loose viability very rapidly as by 30 days storage at room temperature. Seeds are truly recalcitrant being highly desiccation and freezing sensitive.24 to 6.04 gm and heaviest weighed 8. 537846 and 537853. At critical moisture level and lower. none of the seeds survived LN exposure. 537854 and 537845. TSS in fruits was also variable ranging from 5. Fruit length x width varied from 2.2 ºB. There is still need to undertake extensive characterization and field evaluation of local selections for release of area specific cultivars in Jamun. The accessions which showed largest fruits with highest pulp weight were IC537858.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India A total of 20 diverse jamun accessions collected by NBPGR from Haryana and Uttar Pradesh were characterized for fruit and seed characters (Table 29). Fruits with high TSS value were found in accessions IC537842.44 cm to 3.62 cm x 4. Lucknow. Seed length x width ranged from 1. CHES (CIAH) Godhra and MPKV. Being a highly recalcitrant species laboratory conservation in the cryobank is difficult in jamun. Smallest seeds were seen in accessions IC537860. The pulp weight showed large variation from 1. 50% viability is lost (Table 4). 537849 and 537850.02 cm to 2. The lightest fruit weighed 3.62 cm x 3. Freshly harvested seeds shed at high moisture content of 50% showed rapid decline in viability at 35% moisture.52 cm. Rahuri.30 cm.35 cm x 7.96 to 14.96 gm.12 cm x 5. 537848. 135 .

18 77.64 77.Table 28.68 77.48 76.03 77.55 29.68 77.76 29.03 77.22 29.14 77.86 29.64 Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 136 Jamun Jamun Jamun Jamun Jamun Syzygium Syzygium Syzygium Syzygium Syzygium cumini cumini cumini cumini cumini Jamun badama Jamun badama Jamun badama Jaman Wild Jaman Wild 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 MD-576 MD-577 MD-578 MD-579 MD-580 MD-581 MD-582 MD-583 MD-584 MD-585 MD-586 MD-587 MD-588 MD-589 537843 537844 537845 537846 537847 537848 537849 537850 537851 537852 537853 537854 537855 537856 Jamun Jamun Jamun Jamun Jamun Jamun Jamun Jamun Jamun Jamun Jamun Jamun Jamun Jamun Syzygium Syzygium Syzygium Syzygium Syzygium Syzygium Syzygium Syzygium Syzygium Syzygium Syzygium Syzygium Syzygium Syzygium cumini cumini cumini cumini cumini cumini cumini cumini cumini cumini cumini cumini cumini cumini Jaman Jaman Jaman Jamun Jaman Jaman Jamun Jaman Jaman Jaman Jaman Jamun Jamun Jamun Wild Wild Wild badama Wild Wild Wild badama Wild Wild Wild Wild Wild badama Wild badama badama Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Haryana Haryana 28.73 29.93 29.41 77.64 77.77 29. No.14 77.69 27.92 77.92 28.94 29.22 29.03 76.94 29.64 77.69 27.48 27.86 29.2 16 17 18 19 20 MD-590 MD-591 MD-592 MD-593 MD-594 537857 537858 537859 537860 537861 Sonipat Sonipat Karnal Karnal Karnal Karnal Karnal Sharanpur Sharanpur Muzaffarnagar Baraut Baraut Baraut Gautam Budh Nagar Mathura Mathura Mathura Faridabad Faridabad .11 28. Collector Number IC Number 1 MD-575 537842 Jamun Syzygium cumini Jaman Wild Jhajjar Haryana 28.22 28.Longitude tude S.69 28.01 77. Passport data of Syzygium cumini (Jamun) germplasm collected from Haryana and Uttar Pradesh Crop Name Botanical Name Vernacular Name Biological Statu District State Lati.22 77.18 77.18 77.18 77.52 77.

14) 1.01(±0.55) 5.63(±0.08) 5.08) 3.70) 9.52(±0.21) 1.05) 1.07) 9.04) 14 MD-588 537855 2.98(±0.66(±0.8(±0.60(±0.05) 1.16) 3.25) 5.07) 7 MD-581 537848 2.64(±0.13) 4.51(±0.72(±0.35(±0.28(±0.50(±0. IC No.68(±0.07) 2.66(±0.24(±0.12(±0.22) 4.04(±0.18(±0.12) 3.62(±0.27(±0.77) 4.94(±0.12) 1.6(±0.88(±0.28) 4.16) 3.14) 1.39) 3.11) 1.15) 18 MD-592 537859 3.32(±0.14) 2 MD-576 537843 2.08) 5.16) 9.63) 2.19(±0.12) 19 MD-593 537860 2.70(±0.25) 5.20(±0.70(±0.41(±0.16) 6.43) 2.21) 3.96(±0.28) 2.36) 1.15) 1.16) 2.54(±0.7(±0.34) 3.40) 7.35(±0.30) 1 MD-575 537842 2.02(±0.38) 5.44(±0.14) 5 MD-579 537846 2.43(±0.15) 1.80(±0.18(±0.60) 9(±0.20) 2.29(±1.36) 10.54(±0.55(±0.33) 6.94(±0.28(±0.42) 4.13) 7.33) 2.10) 3.11) 3.28) 1.37) 5.Table 29.12) 3 MD-577 537844 2.14) 3.08) 11 MD-585 537852 2.13(±0.27) 3.19) 7.84(±0.62(±0.90(±0.72(±0.05) 2.24(±0.62(±0.27) 12.96(±0.20(±0.56(±0.52(±0.13(±0.08) 3.46(±0.18(±0.28(±0.09(±0.94(±0.74(±0.08(±0.46(±0.76(±0.77) 2.82(±0.81(±0.23) 3.34(±0.47) 8.30(±0.10) Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 137 9 MD-583 537850 2.19(±0.80(±0.34) 10.17(±0.44(±0.10) 1.23(±0.97(±0.52(±0.19) 3.84(±0.33) 8(±0.28(±0.18) 3.50(±0.10) 13 MD-587 537854 2.73) 6.20) 6.23) 6.20) 3.62(±0.44(±0.66(±0.08) 4.79(±0.28) 1.23) 7.27) 0.7(±0.22) 3.50) 16.24(±0.89) 12.86(±0.40(±0.19) 4.10) 2.10) 2.34) 5.10) 7.07) 5.06) .10) 3.08) 5.04(±0.48(±0.05(±0.83(±0.17) 5.73(±0. No No.16(±0.1(±0.10) 1.45) 1.36) 3.24) 6. Characterization of Syzygium cumini (Jamun) germplasm based on fruits and seeds characters Width(cm) Fruit Weight (g) TSS Length (cm) Width(cm) Seed Weight (g) Pulp seed S.04(±0.86(±0.46) 2.37) 6.13) 5.18(±0.18(±0.86(±0.04(±0.48(±0.57(±0.29) 2.37) 4.48(±0.20) 2.51) 2.44(±0.09) 8 MD-582 537849 2.09) 4.98(±0.94(±0.40) 4.04) 4.55(±0.25(±0.04(±1.23) 1.30(±0.26(±0.30) 5.14) 1.19) 2.19) 5.08(±0.17) 14.30(±0.30(±0.02(±0.09) 17 MD-591 537858 3.15) 4.25) 6.88(±0.18) 5.13(±0.05(±0.50(±0.14) 4 MD-578 537845 2.86(±0.37) 6.11(±0. Coll.45) 2.98(±0.8(±0.04) 1.20) 6.08) 3.07) 1.08) 2.21(±0.90(±0.62(±0.07) 4. Length (cm) ratio 5.62(±0.01) 9.09) 5.24(±0.84(±0.02(±0.80(±0.31) 3.77(±0.43) 3.43(±0.08) 1.96(±0.09) 16 MD-590 537857 2.07) 20 MD-594 537861 2.57) 2.2(±0.28) 1.54(±0.12(±0.11) 2.08) 2.95(±0.64(±0.45) 11.11) 2.84(±0.42) 4.17) 5.51(±0.02(±0.96(±0.21) 5.33) 2.12) 3.13) 15 MD-589 537856 2.14) 3.24) 7.12(±0.27) 2.58) 6.13) 1.18) 6 MD-580 537847 2.21) 10.65(±1.92(±0.40(±0.08(±0.26(±0.44) 1.40(±1.38(±0.09) 12 MD-586 537853 2.40(±0.34(±0.19) 9.60(±0.78(±0.35(±0.29) 4.11) 10 MD-584 537851 2.32) 3.88(±0.40(±0.

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 138 .

five-petalled flowers are borne in small racemes and are yellow with orange or red streaks. Leaves are bright green. Common name : English . acidulous pulp turns brown or reddish-brown. The pulp dehydrates to a sticky paste enclosed by a few coarse stands of fiber. General description: Tamarind is a medium to large. In Andhra Pradesh alone the total area under tamarind is about 6. 1992) and it still grows wild throughout the Sudan. There are usually as many as 10 to 20 nearly sessile 1/2 .15 Tamarindus indica (Tamarind) Botanical name: Tamarindus indica Linn. Unfortunately. also perpetuates the illusion of Indian origin (Morton. It is believed to be introduced into India since ancient time and even occasionally reported as indigenous to India.099 hectares with estimated annual production of 46. From India it apparently reached the Persians and the Arabs who called it “tamar hindi” (Indian date. Tamil Nadu. from the date-like appearance of the dried pulp). The pods may contain from 1 to 12 large. irregularly curved pods are borne in abundance along the new branches (Fig. 2010). the specific name.1 inch.12 inch long. they fill out somewhat and the juicy. Rajasthan and northeastern Indian states. The pulp has a pleasing sweet/sour flavor and is high in both acid and sugar. long-lived. Fruit a pod 5 . glossy brown. slow-growing.Tamarind. pinnate. dense and feathery in appearance and making it an attractive shade tree with an open branch structure. There are wide differences in fruit size and flavor in seedling 139 . pale green leaflets per leaf. The flower buds are pink due to the outer color of the 4 sepals which are shed when the flower opens. the shells are brittle and easily broken. obovate seeds embedded in the brown. giving rise to both its common and generic names. Chattisgarh. It is also rich in vitamin B and high in calcium. edible pulp. 1987). Andhra Pradesh. flat. 34C). “indica”. When fully ripe. brown.962 tons (Anonymous. Gujarat. It is grown throughout India and being a cross pollinated species vast diversity is available in the states of Maharashtra. 34A. As the pods mature. Vernacular. B).Imli and amli Family: Fabaceae Origin and distribution: Origin of tamarind has been reported to be in the tropical Africa (Stewart and Brandis. Flowers inconspicuous.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 3. evergreen tree with the height reaching upto 80 feet (Fig.

Dharwad) have also been found promising for various pod characters. vegetative propagation is also successful using veneer grafting. which are eaten fresh or processed in several ways (Fig. pickles and fruit leather. Important uses: Tamarind is a multipurpose tropical fruit tree used primarily for its fruits. candies. Aurangabad (high yielding. The period from flowering to pod ripening is 8-10 months. Anonymous. Parbhani. Tamarind seeds are also commercially important and utilized in several ways. however.4 years while seedlings begin to produce fruit in 6 . jelly. used as a seasoning or spice and the fruits and seeds are processed for non-food uses.263 from Fruit Research Station. 8% tartaric acid in pulp). 2010). Several value added products have been developed by Central Food and Technological Research Institute (CFTRI). riboflavin. regular bearer. niacin and thiamine. Pulp is rich source of calcium. shield (T or inverted T) budding and air layering. Vegetative propagation has been recently attempted with success in budding (75-80%) and softwood grafting (6075%) by Singh et al (2010).00% acidity) and selection No.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India trees. a progeny of more than 200 year old tree identified near Urigam by the Department of Horticulture. Propagation: Tamarind is generally propagated by seeds. ‘Yogeshwari’ (high yielding type with red pulp. a clonal selection (an early variety with 39% pulp content) and Urigam l. 16% tartaric acid in pulp). tamarind powder. F). short ones with an erect habit and long ones with a drooping habit. 60% pulp. It is reported that production of flowers varies considerably between selections in India. This is used in the preparations of chutney.8 years. Fruit contains upto 73% edible pulp in which major constituents are tartaric acid and invert sugars. Other varieties from Tamil Nadu are PKM-1from Horticulture College and Research Institute. Cultivars/selections: There is not much work undertaken on improvement and selection of tamarind. 2002. Those with longer vegetative terminal shoots produce more flowers. Most important is Tamarind Kernel Powder (TKP) which is prepared by fine grinding of tamarind kernel and used for sizing in textile industry. Arbhavi (University of Agricultural Sciences. Maharastra released three varieties of tamarind namely ‘Pratisthan’ (pulp has acid sweet taste. puree. providing very long pods and sweet pulp (Pareek and Awasthi. Two types of terminal shoots have been observed. Periyakulam. may remain on the tree until the next flowering period. Two selections DTS 1 and DTS 2 have been identified by College of Horticulture. Tamil Nadu. Ripe fruits. regular bearer. Mysore to increase use. juice concentrate. Marathwada Agricultural University. shelf life and value of tamarind pulp. Fruits are harvested from April to May. 34E. 11. Vegetatively propagated trees will usually fruit within 3 . phosphorous. Pulp of tamarind in India is used in several ways as per the locality and food habit of local inhabitants. however. jam. 140 .

. there is a still need to systematically characterize and evaluate germplasm from the other parts of India including northeastern states. Lucknow (5 accessions) and CHES (CIAH). State Silvicultural Division.76 gm. 1989. 248 collections have been made by various organizations mainly from the states of Bihar. Variability in morphological and physico-chemical characters has been observed in the germplasm collected from Maharashtra (Keskar et al. Karnataka (Challapalli. Godhra from Uttar Pradesh. 1995).Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Genetic Resources Management Collection: Systematic collections and evaluation of tamarind germplasm from India has not been taken up (Pareek and Awasthi. 141 . The promising accessions with large heavy fruits were IC552936 and IC552913. 1998).43 cm x 2. Bastar district of Chhattisgarh by Awasthi and Sharma (1998).20 cm. Shinde et al. Characterization: Germplasm of tamarind have been characterized and evaluated at TNAU.93 cm x 1. A red fleshed tamarind tree having sweet pulp (TSS>85%) have been reported in village Faraskot. Kerala. Andhra Pradesh identified 52 high yielding genotypes of tamarind based on morphological and physico-chemical characters of fruits (Pareek and Awasthi. In fact largest heavy fruits with small seeds were found in IC552913. West Bengal and northeastern states. 1997) and Chhattisgarh (Awasthi and Sharma. Andhra Pradesh and Chhattisgarh by State Agricultural Universities and State Forest Departments. NBPGR. Arupukottai where 10 accessions have been evaluated and significant genotypic differences were recorded and T111 Faizabad and PKM1 were found promising for important traits. Variability of tamarind has also been collected from Maharashtra. Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. Tirupati. 2002).93 g. In view of the vast genetic diversity present in India of this important fruit species.. Madhya Pradesh. Research Station. New Delhi have been characterised for some fruit and seed characters (Table 31). New Delhi collected 9 diverse germplasm collections from various states (Fig. The total fruit weight showed variation ranging from 6. The seed weight did not show large variation as it ranged from 0.76 cm to 11. Tamil Nadu. Seed length x width varied from 0. Recently the attention have been given to this crop under the ICAR network project on Underutilized fruits and some promising collections have been made by CISH. A total of 5 accessions were scored for recording variability in terms of fruit and seed characters. Gujarat.13 cm x 5. Andhra Pradesh. Karnataka. However. Reproductive biology and breeding system have been studied in 5 clones of tamarind at IFGTB. 2002). The fruit length x width varied from 7.94 cm.02 cm to 1.5 to 0. Germplasm collected at NBPGR. Dantewada.4 to 12. Coimbatore. 1995).50 cm x 1.. Jharkhand. 35 and Table 30). Andhra Pradesh (Mastan et al. Karnataka.

Parbhani. Pune. 35. CHES (CIAH). Collection sites of tamarind from various states of India Conservation: Germplasm of Tamarind is being maintained at several state Agricultural Universities and state forest departments. Priyakulam. UAS. Horticulture College and Research Institute. Karnataka (40 accessions). Godhra and Belgaum.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Fig. Tamil Nadu (85 accessions). Research Station. Besides this several promising accessions are being maintained at 142 . TNAU. Research Station. Maharashtra (3 accessions). Marathwada Agricultural University. Arrupukotti (26 accessions) and ANGARU. Dharwad (19 accessions). Anantpur (15 accessions). Aurangabad. Maharashtra (118 accessions). Maharashtra (351 accessions).

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India various nurseries of State Forests Departments namely Forest Department. Karnataka (220 plus trees) and Forest Department. Tamil Nadu (328 plus trees). Freshly shed seeds showed 35% moisture with high viability of 97%. Seeds retrieved from liquid nitrogen showed high viability of 94%. Total 10 accessions of tamarind have been cryostored at NBPGR. 143 . New Delhi. storage behavior and cryopreservation of tamarind seeds have been undertaken at NBPGR. New Delhi. Seeds are orthodox in nature as they showed complete desiccation and freezing sensitivity and seeds showed upto 50% viability by 18 months storage (Table 4). Seed physiology.

91 79.District gical Statu State Lati.43 75.09 6 MD .Table 30.Longitude tude S. No. Collector Number IC Number 1 Tamarind Tamarind Tamarind Tamarind Tamarind Tamarind Tamarind Tamarind Tamarindus indica Imli Tamarindus indica Imli Tamarindus indica Change Wild Wild Wild Tamarindus indica Khati amli Wild Tamarindus indica Khati amli Wild Tamarindus indica Imli Wild Panchmahal Neemach Neemach Tamarindus indica Khati amli Wild Bharuch Tamarindus indica Khati amli Wild Vadodara Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat MD .18 21.83 Madhya Pradesh 22. Passport data of Tamarindus indica (Tamarind) germplasm collected from various states Crop Name Botanical Name Vernacular Name Biolo.38 24.80 73.802 552909 Tamarind Tamarindus indica Khati amli Wild Vadodara Gujarat 21.65 2 MD .829 552936 Madhya Pradesh 24.806 552913 Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 144 Sirohi 4 MD-28 395742 5 MD .21 8 MD-264 423598 9 RS/NSP-6 553199 .803 552910 3 MD .23 73.47 Madhya Pradesh 24.75 23.50 90.25 72.18 21.23 73.12 73.28 75.844 552951 7 MD/07/136 558160 West Garo hills Meghalaya Rajasthan Narsinghpur 25.

06) 1.10(±0.94 (±0. Characterization of Tamarindus indica (Tamarind) germplasm based on fruits and seeds characters Fruit Length (cm) 7.20(±0.53(±0.90(±0. No IC No.06) 0.50 (±1.22 (±1.76(±0.04) Width (cm) Weight (gm) Length (cm) Seed Width (cm) 1.00 (±0.66 (±1.10 (±1.11(±0.02(±0.03) 8.04) 7.23 (±0.06) 1.07) 1.Table 31.07) S.04) 1.02) 0.99) 11.76) 5.40 (±1.93 (±0.43(±0.08) 1.32) 1.41) 5.65(±0.15) 12.24) 8.84) 6. 1 MD-802 552909 Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 145 2 MD-803 552910 3 MD-806 552913 4 MD-829 552936 5 MD-844 552949 .19) 5. No Coll.56(±0.13 (±0.16) 1.12(±0.04) 1.76 (±0.57(±0.06) 1.88 (±0.40 (±1.93(±0.90 (±0.05) 0.23(±0.12) 2.86 (±0.13) Weight (gm) 0.23) 8.48) 0.05) 7.19) 10.50(±0.03) 0.

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 146 .

tiny. in wild 1. mauritiana.or oblong-elliptic.25-2. Z. with 3 conspicuous. nummulariaJharber Family: Rhamnaceae Origin and distribution: The Z. jujube (L. later becomes partially 147 .yellow. 1987). glossy. et Arn.5ON and 69-84OE (Awasthi and More. Z. glabrous. 2008). Pandey et al. downy petioles. silky. the skin smooth or rough. Common name: English . ends of branches decurved or drooping. 2010). 1992.Indian jujube. ovate. rotundifolia Lamk. Z. mauritiana is a gregarious spiny shrub or a small tree. Australia (Morton. nummularia is common in the dry arid areas of Punjab. Gujarat. whitish or brownish hairs on the underside and the short.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 3. syn. The flowers greenish. Hindi: Z. round or oblong. F. the fruit reaches upto 5.5 cm in width. or leafless for several weeks in hot summers. mauritiana (ber) is native to Province of Yunnan in southern China to Afghanistan. obovate.) Lam. in 2’s or 3’s in the leaf axils. Haryana.00 cm in length and 3. non Mill. Rajasthan. Malaysia and Queensland. mauritiana Lam. On the upper surface. Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. Branches and branchlets armed with short stipular spines. thin but tough.5ON to 32. It is cultivated to some extent throughout its natural range on commercial scale and has received much horticultural attention in India (Morton. 1987). Overall the genetic diversity of Ziziphus is high in India and about 20 species are found between 8. The shape may be oval. depressed. General description: Z. nummularia (Burm. 1993). and there are very fine teeth on the margins. Z.16 Ziziphus Species (Ber) Botanical name: Ziziphus species– Z. The fruit drupe varying in size depending upon the wild or cultivated nature of plant. found throughout the arid and semi-arid tracts (Hocking. longitudinal veins. alternate. Syn Z. distinguished from those of the Chinese jujube by the dense..) Wt.5 cm long while in cultivation. nummularia (Jharber) is native to Indian sub-continent and commonly found throughout drier parts of India (Stewart and Brandis. The plant is a vigorous grower and has a rapidly-developing taproot. dark-green. 2. The leaves are sessile. It is native of South and Central Asia.5 cm long and 2-4 cm wide. Plant may be evergreen.5-7..Ber.. turns from light-green to yellow. Z. on short stalk.

mauritaina. glabrous. oval or oblate. somewhat astringent. Punjab Chuhhara. Thar Sevika (developed by the hybridization from a cross Seb x Katha). hooked bent downwards. crisp. 36C) smaller than Z. very sharp. flexuose. 2001). hard. 2 celled with a hard osseous shell (Steward and Brandis. Average 148 . which fetches good price in the market. These varieties developed as a result of selection in different ecoregions from the progenies emanating from cross pollination between different Ziziphus species and /or between types/cultivars of ber (Pareek. Z. nummularia is highly prickly. Gular Bashi. upto 6 mm long. short. rotundifolia. 6. spongy and musky. Propagation: The Indian jujube is widely grown from seeds. multi stemmed small shrub maximum up to 2 m tall with deep and extensive lateral root system (Fig. soft. one straight slender. the flesh is white.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India or wholly burnt-orange or red-brown or red. obtuse. Illaichi. in diameter. Leaves on short petiole. Cultivars/selections: In India cultivated ber (Z. It is resistant to various diseases and pests by virtue of its earliness). B). Large scale experiments on suitability of rootstocks using Z. acid or subacid to sweet. Bikaner namely Goma Kirti (a highly yielding early maturing variety. Some of the important cultivars are Umran. brown seeds. The fruits are juicy. Fully ripe fruits are less crisp and somewhat mealy. Grafted plants are less thorny than seedlings. sweet with a TSS content of 22-24%. Kadak. When slightly underripe. Branchlets bifarous. Vegetative propagation in ber is very common and several budding and grafting techniques have been successfully applied by horticulturists. Kheera. which is common in other cultivars. Z. kernel rugose. overripe fruits are wrinkled. compact cymes. Flowers 10-20. Gola. denticulate. nummularia. Nazuk and Sanur. juicy. mauritiana) has more than 300 varieties but only a few are commercially important (Pareek and Nath. Fruits after consumption do not cause throat soaring. Kaithli. At first the aroma is apple like and pleasant but it becomes peculiarly musky as the fruit ripens. Thar Sevika is an early maturing variety. rough central stone which contains 2 elliptic. 1996). which may remain viable for 2 1/2 years but the rate of germination declines with storage period (Morton. Z. 1987). rotundifolia locally known as ‘Tikdi Ber’ for Z. There is a single. Flowering is in July to September and fruiting starts from October to January. the flesh buff-colored. globose (Fig. in axillary.5 mm long and second shorter. drupe. Recently some cultivars have been released by CIAH. Banarasi. Best rootstock has been proved to the Z. red. sprina-cristi have been conducted at CAZRI. Katha phal.25-12. armed with twin stipular spines. 36 A. Dandan. Fruits. 1992). mauritiana about 1-2 cm. shining when ripe. Seb. ovate.

seeds and bark are important in the Indian System of Medicine and bark is used as a cure for dysentery and boils and fruit as laxative and aphrodisiac.. xylopyrus have been collected from Andhra Pradesh. mauritiana have been collected from Uttar Pradesh. The hybrid is also suitable for staggered picking which can be done up to third week of January). protein. (2007) have identified diverse genotypes to be used as parents for developing disease resistant and smaller stone size breeding material in Indian jujube. squash and powdered fruits after drying are also consuned. a selection from local material of Bhusavar area of Bharatpur district of Rajasthan and CIAH-Sel-1 is an early maturing cultivar having an average yield potential of 30-36 kg/tree. Haryana. Maharashtra. Gujarat. Tamil Nadu. Uttaranchal. Andhra Pradesh. resistance to powdery mildew and fruit fly resistance. small stone. 39 accessions of Z. 1994). 149 . Thar Bhubhraj. Besides this several collections have been made by the State Horticultural Departments. New Delhi and passport data is presented in Table 32. State Universities and other organizations and being maintained in the field genebanks. Fruits. good shelf life. minerals. There are still unexplored areas of ber variability from where promising types can be collected for crop improvement programs. earliness. Seedling ber trees are found extensively growing wildly in arid and semi-arid areas (Chandra et al. sharbat. Jharkhand and few accessions from Himachal Pradesh. Important uses: Cultivated ber is an important fruit of tropics and sold as fresh fruit throughout India and fetch good return to the farmers. 15 accessions of Z. Detailed studies by Saran et al. Jammu and Kashmir and northeastern states of India. Kerala and Tamil Nadu and 10 accessions of Z. Rajasthan. Areas surveyed (Fig. Germplasm of various species of Ziziphus has been collected from almost all the parts of India . Karnataka. 37) and collections (10) made by NBPGR. Ripe fruit is consumed as popular dessert and processed for various value added products such as murabba. The fruits are very juicy.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India fruit yield is 30-32 Kg/tree. Uttar Pradesh and Orissa. Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat. Punjab. sweet with a TSS content of 22-23%. The fruits are ready for harvesting during last week of December-First week of January. candy. Major emphasis has been on the trees having prolific bearing. large fruits. nummularia and 9 accessions of Z. Karnataka. oenoplea mainly for southern states namely Andhra Pradesh. Genetic Resources management: Collection: Germplasm of ber have been collected from various states and extensive collection have been made for assembling the existing variability. Fruit is a rich source of calcium.137 accessions of Z. rotundifolia have been collected from drier parts of India mainly Haryana. phosphorous. vitamin C and vitamin A. 88 accessions of Z. rugosa from Maharashtra. Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

Illaichi and Punjab Chuhhara have been popularised and pruning technology has been developed for high yield of better quality fruits. Faizabad (40 Varieties).000 hectares plantation of improved ber trees in India (Awasthi and More. Rahuri and improved varieties namely Umran. Collection sites of ber germplasm from various states have been recommended for commercial cultivation. ber is cultivated over 30. Germplasm of various varieties have been evaluated at various other centres namely PAU. Local collections and released varieties have been evaluated for field performance and evaluation at these locations and suitable varieties Jammu and Kashmir Rajasthan Fig. GAU. 37.000 hectares in Maharashtra and 90. Kadaka. At HAU. In Maharashtra extensive evaluation have been undertaken at MPKV. Bawal (49 varieties) and ANDUAT. CCHAU. Hisar 70 cultivars collected from all ber growing areas of northern 150 . Due to continuous efforts of the University scientists and extension workers. 2008). Sanur No. 1996). RS. Regional Research Station. SK Nagar (64 varieties). Systematic characterization and evaluation of germplasm and released varieties have been undertaken at various centers of All India Coordinated Project on Arid Fruits (Pareek and Nath. (40 varieties).Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Characterization: Ber germplasm have been characterized at various locations in India.6. Bahadurgarh. Gola.

Bikaner (318 accessions). Bawal (47 accessions). CCSHAU. Ludhiana (34 accessions) and IIHR. Jodhpur (68 accessions). high ascorbic acid content and good flavor. 151 . For breeding purposes. NBPGR. and ‘Sanauri 5’ and ‘Desi Alwar’. ‘Banarasi Karaka’ gave the highest yield. Conservation: Conservation of ber genetic resources has been widely undertaken in the field genebanks of various centres of AICRP of Arid Fruits. Rahuri (93 accessions). ‘Banarasi Karaka’ and ‘Desi Alwar’ could contribute high pulp content. PAU. New Delhi (39 accessions). IARI. ‘Kaithli’. Jodhpur (146 accessions). Bikaner). 16 midseason selections from these were evaluated. PAU. Germplasm collected from various states and selections/cultivars identified are being conserved in the field genebanks for improvement and field evaluation at various institutes. Seeds shed at 25% moisture showed high seed germination and when exposed to liquid nitrogen. high survival value of 86% was achieved. total soluble solids... In the studies undertaken at NBPGR. CAZRI. Regional Research Station. GAU. orthodox seed storage behavior was found in Ziziphus species which is in conformity with that reported by Hong et al. 130 kg per tree-followed by ‘Mudia Murhara’ and ‘Kaithli’. MPKV. in efforts to develop a superior midseason cultivar. ‘Kaithli’ and ‘Sanauri 5’ were recommended of commercial cultivation. ‘Mudia Murhara’. CIAH. More than 42 accessions of different Ziziphus species have been cryostored in Cryogenebank at NBPGR (Table 5). 1996. It is the hardiest cultivated fruit tree whose germplasm is mainly maintained in field genebanks (Shukla et al. Bahadurgarh (41 accessions).Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India India were established in an experimental orchard in 1967-68 and in 1980. Present status of ber germplasm at important centres is. SK Nagar (75 accessions). 2007). 2005 and CIAH. CCSHAU. ‘Mudia Murhara’. Hisar (79 accessions). Bangalore (32 accessions) (Vashishtha et al. Regional Station.

35 26.71 74.94 24. Number Number 1 Jujube Ber Ber Ber Ber Ber Ber Ber Ber Ber Ziziphus nummulariaPala Ziziphus nummulariaBer Ziziphus nummulariaBordi Ziziphus nummulariaBordi Wild Wild Wild Wild Ziziphus nummulariaBordi Wild Ziziphus nummulariaBordi Wild Ziziphus nummulariaJhahrberi Wild Udaipur Dungarpur Dungarpur Dungarpur Chittorgarh Ajmer Tonk Ziziphus nummulariaJhahrberi Wild Udaipur Ziziphus nummulariaJharber Wild Jaipur Kashmir NSP/OPD 438479 Chinese Ziziphus jujuba Ber Wild Udhampur Jammu and 33. Collector IC No.54 24.63 75.56 23.Table 32.38 23.31 73.23 -04-30 2 MD-252 423587 Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan Rajasthan 27.00 73.64 74.16 75.56 24.18 75.90 26.78 3 MD-268 423602 Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 152 4 MD-270 423604 5 MD-275 423609 6 MD-282 423616 7 MD-287 423621 8 MD-296 423630 9 MD-298 423632 10 MD-574 471254 .Longitude tude S.85 74.District State Lati.76 74. Passport data of Ziziphus species germplasm collected from J&K and Rajasthan Crop Name Name Status Name cular gical Botanical VernaBiolo.74 73.83 23.

Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 153 .

maintenance and extension of tree cover is also essential to support agricultural production besides meeting the requirements of local population for fodder. therefore. 3. feed. Protection. 4. increasing demand for land for agriculture and industry and least attention for this natural wealth has resulted in extensive degradation of their habitats. urgent to take up the work on genetic resource management and improvement of underutilized fruits to ensure the food and nutritional security of tribal and rural population and to enhance the income of farmers cultivating these fruits. Several of these underutilized fruit species are propagated through seeds and posses vast genetic variability and heterogeneity for important traits. 1993). There is an urgent need to characterize and evaluate the available germplasm for the identification of area/state specific quality genotypes for commercial horticulture. It is. Continued overexploitation of these species from natural habitats. fuelwood and timber (Hockings. nutritional management and plant protection practices are followed. To promote traditional underutilized fruits and to enhance the farmers income especially of small and marginal farmers selection of suitable cultivars and 154 . Indian subcontinent comprising vast semi-arid and arid areas have enormous diversity of underutilized fruit species. Specific survey and exploration are to be carried out on the basis of thorough gap analysis to collect specific genetic resources of these species from natural wild or semi-domesticated locations. A number of multipurpose tree species commonly grow as populations unattended in these inhospitable and stressed environments and also in the agricultural fields as isolated trees or in small groups. Following thrust and priority areas have been identified and suggested for the efficient management of genetic resources and for giving desired impetus to their promotion: 1. Vegetative propagation techniques are to be developed for maintaining the genotype purity and early bearing of these underutilized fruits. Future Perspective Southeast Asia is a centre of diversity of a number of tropical fruits. In most of the species no organized orcharding. salt tolerance and are also resistant to major pest and diseases. These species have outstanding adaptation capabilities to drought tolerance. 2.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India 4.

g i) Cultivars for given niches ii) Cultivars specific for agro-processing iii) Cultivars specific with export potential 5. Several ex-situ conservation approaches have been suggested depending on propagation method and storage behavior of these fruit species for long-term conservation. Facilities for fruit marketing. Molecular characterization studies are to be intensified in these underutilized fruit species to support the morphological characterization and assess the exact level of genetic diversity and its utilization. Successful protocols are to be developed for true-to-type conservation of species where promising cultivars have been identified. Expressed Sequence Tag’s (ESTs) identified from these species would provide an insight into the molecular basis of stress tolerance. Cultivars with following traits would be important: a) Cultivars with high and stable production potential b) Cultivars with ability to resist/tolerate stresses c) Cultivars with diverse quality traits d) Specific genetic resources e. Besides horticultural importance some of these species are excellent source for genes of heat. In situ conservation priorities for these species are to be developed immediately to ensure their dynamic conservation by identifying protected areas and on farm conservation sites. 8. water stress and salt tolerance. This would help in enhancing socio-economic conditions of farmers and safe guard the invaluable diversity of these indigenous fruits and associated traditional knowledge. 9. 6.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India availability of planting material is desirable. processing and value addition of products should be developed at panchayat and block levels for ensuring desirable economic returns to farmers and also help in crop diversification. 7. 155 .

India. New Delhi. Grewia: 260-266.S. Capparis: 67-68. Ramanatha Rao ) IPGRI Office for South Asia. Proceedings of the IPGRI-ICAR-UTFANET Regional Training Course on the Conservation and Use of Germplasm of Tropical Fruits in Asia held at Indian Institute of Horticultural Research.Arora and V. C. R. 18-31 May 1997.. Sirsi campus.K. MARDI. India.S. Arora RK (1998) Genetic resources of native tropical fruits in Asia: diversity. Expert Consultation on Tropical Fruit Species of Asia. Buchanania: 308-310.). Capparis: 36-37.19-30. In: Proc. Manilkara: 298-301. Livelihood and Management.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India References Abraham Z. 17-19 May 1994 (eds. 8-18.. Agroforestry Database (World Agroforestry www. Ismail N and Amber A (1989) Isocodonocarpine from Capparis decidua. Madhuca: 207-216. In: Tropical Fruits in Asia: Diversity. Arora RK (1995) Promoting conservation and use of tropical fruit species in Asia. Anonymous (2010) Package of practices of the important horticultural crops of Andhra Pradesh. Venkataramannagudem. Anonymous (1992) The Wealth of India: Raw Materials (Revised series).worldagrofprestrycentre. Carissa: 294-299. Arora and V.P. Latha M. Mangayarkarassi N and Sharma SK (2010) Genetic resources management of Garcinia species in India. distribution and IPGRI’s emphasis on their conservation and use. C.K. II. Tamarindus: 114-122. Kuala Lumpur. Bangalore. pp.R. Ramanatha Rao). In: National Symposium on Garcinia Genetic Resources: Linking Diversity. 156 . New Delhi.R.org/sites/treeDBS/AFT. Publications and Information Directorate (now NISCOM). Phytochemistry 28:2493-2495. Chaudhury R. R. India.I. Andhra Pradesh Horticultural University. New Delhi. pp. Maintenance. Centre) Ahmad VU. Malaysia. pp. West Godavari District – 534 101 (A. Conservation and Use (eds.I. Publications and Information Directorate (now NISCOM). 8-9 May 2010. 42-53. College of Forestry. Vol. Anonymous (1981) The Wealth of India: Raw Materials. Malik SK.

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Gurgaon 167 . Calicut Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidaypeeth. Chettalli Central Institute of Arid Horticulture. Bangalore Indian Institute of Spices Research. Central Institute of Sub-Tropical Horticulture. Bikaner. Mysore Central Horticultural Experimental Station.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India Annexure I Acronyms ANDUAT BAP.6 CARI CAZRI CCSHAU CFTRI CHES CHES CIAH CISH CMC GAU GBPUAT HGR IARI ICRAF IFGTB IIHR IISR MPKV MPUAT NAA NOVOD Board Acharya Narendra Dev University of Agriculture and Technology Benzylaminopurine Central Agricultural Research Institute. Port Blair. Lucknow Critical Moisture Content Gujarat Agricultural University. Godhra Central Horticultural Experimental Station. New Delhi International Center for Research in Agroforestry. Nairobi. Hisar Central Food Technological Research Institute. Andaman and Nicobar Central Arid Zone Research Institute. Sardarkrushinagar Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology. Kenya Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding. Jodhpur Chaudhury Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University. Pantnagar Horticultural Genetic Resources Indian Agricultural ResearchInstitute. Coimbatore Indian Institute of Horticultural Research. Rahuri Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology Napthaleneacetic acid National Oilseeds and Vegetable Oils Development Board.

Regional Station.Genetic Resources of Tropical Underutilized Fruits in India PAU. Bahadurgarh Punjab Agriculture University. Arrupukotti University of Agricultural Sciences.5 Triphenyl Tetrazolium Chloride Tamil Nadu Agriculture University. Ludhiana Rajasthan Agricultural University.3. Bikaner State Agriculture University Total Soluble Solids 2. Dharwad 168 . RS PAU RAU SAU TSS TTC TNAU UAS - Punjab Agriculture University. Research Station.

GENETIC RESOURCES OF TROPICAL UNDERUTILIZED FRUITS IN INDIA .

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