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Working Toward a Healed City:



The Chicago Area Fair Housing Alliance “hear the other side” – the other side
(CAFHA) is a 501 (c)(3) non-profit being the communities and residents
consortium of fair housing and advocacy adversely impacted by the city’s long
organizations, government agencies, and history of racially discriminatory housing
municipalities. CAFHA works to combat policies and corrupt procedures and
housing discrimination and promote practices. Using the knowledge he
equitable place-based opportunity gained through his position as former
through education, advocacy, and Senior Vice President of Draper and
collaborative action. Kramer and related senior positions
in Chicago’s commercial real estate
The Shriver Center on Poverty Law and mortgage industries, Mr. Hanna
(Shriver Center) is a non-partisan, has repeatedly litigated against the
501(c)(3) organization providing City of Chicago at his personal cost for
national leadership in advancing laws what he characterizes as racially and
and policies that secure justice to economically discriminatory land use
improve the lives and opportunities of policies. Research support was provided
people living in poverty. The Shriver by Albert C. Hanna and Lauren Bean
Center’s Housing Justice Program works Buitta, Principal of Stele Consulting and
to protect housing rights and expand consultant to Albert C. Hanna. Research,
housing opportunities for individuals design, and graphics assistance was
and families with low income. provided by Okrent Kisiel Associates.
This report would not have been possible Additionally, the following community
without the generous support of Albert organizations provided indispensable
C. Hanna. Mr. Hanna has nearly 50 years input and expertise in the shaping of
of fair and affordable housing advocacy recommendations:
in Chicago. He has long advocated to




A City Fragmented: How Race, Power, of redlining, exclusionary practices,

and Aldermanic Prerogative Shape and cycles of displacement in its
Chicago’s Neighborhoods exposed the communities. While some communities
racism and political dynamics polluting suffer from decades of disinvestment,
Chicago’s community planning process others experience displacement as
and resulting in its failure to fulfill gentrification takes hold.”2 This report
civil rights obligations.1 Remedying highlights key areas of overlap between
the adverse effects of Chicago’s deeply the Mayor’s Agenda and the findings
rooted aldermanic prerogative will of A City Fragmented. It outlines best
take time, commitment, and leadership practices for incorporating equity into
from the City’s administration, elected a comprehensive planning process,
officials, and neighborhood-level presents ideas for correcting community
stakeholder groups. The creation of input processes developed with housing
equitable channels for community input advocates, and suggests next steps
and the advancement of government for the administration to ensure all
transparency and accountability are key Chicago’s neighborhoods receive the
to this radical shift. resources necessary to thrive.

The unchecked and unwritten code

of aldermanic prerogative has served
as the sentry of Chicago’s color lines This report is composed
and has detrimentally shaped the city’s of three sections:
neighborhoods over time resulting
in: a reduction of land area available Paving the Path: Citywide
for multifamily development, the Planning for a More
consequential rising rents and loss
Equitable Chicago
of population, and vast disparities in
community investment by race. With Implementing a New Way:
major shifts in city leadership and a
population more vigilant, and yearning
Shared Power and Civic
for change, we have collectively Engagement in a Post-
approached a new day in Chicago when Aldermanic Prerogative
unfettered political power wielded by Chicago
unaccountable leadership will no longer
be tolerated. In acknowledgment of Next Steps for a New
this needed change, Chicago’s incoming Administration
Mayor Lightfoot’s transition plan
notes, “Chicago struggles with a legacy

Paving the Path: Citywide Planning for a
More Equitable Chicago
As highlighted in A City Fragmented,3 and action steps for land use with robust
despite its many plans, Chicago is not community engagement throughout
a cohesively planned city. For example, the process.
there are currently 15 community So as not to
plans,4 173 TIF district plans,5 and a squander “The new administration
few citywide plans which individually limited
address landscaping, transit-friendly resources, should convene a
development, and housing.6 The
citywide plans are insufficient because
much of the
process to create a
they do not direct resource allocation elements for a comprehensive plan for
with appropriate control and oversight comprehensive
to address the structural impediments plan can be Chicago, with community
that hamper equitable implementation.
Additionally, the City lacks coordination
built from
and stakeholder input,
among departments to link the goals and plans such that builds on existing
strategies of its existing, independent as Resilient
plans. For example, Mayor Emanuel’s Chicago and community-level plans
Resilient Chicago plan contains many of connect and establishes clear
the elements advocated for here, yet it Chicago’s
was never officially adopted by the City many ancillary priorities for the city
and therefore lacks enforceable goals and plans under
oversight.7 a master,
- Lightfoot
The ad hoc partitioning of City planning
enforceable Transition Plan”3
plan rooted
produces erratic outcomes exacerbated in remedying
by hyper-local and imbalanced control neighborhood inequity.
over community development. A lack
of a citywide accountability makes it BEST PRACTICES
impossible to police abuses of power and
to align efforts for ethical and responsible
development for the entire city. The COMPREHENSIVE PLAN
results are a meandering vision for the
Embarking on a comprehensive planning
City of Chicago, inequitable resource
process for Chicago is an opportunity to
allocation along racial lines, and the
tackle the multiple root causes of inequity
perpetuation of the city’s residential
and identify the interconnected systems
that have perpetuated segregation and
To remedy this patchwork planning, endanger the city’s long-term viability.10
the City must conduct and implement a While housing is a central feature in a
comprehensive plan, a long-term plan modern comprehensive plan, the plan
to guide community development and must be comprehensive, meaning extends
land use decisions related to residential, across the city’s environmental and
commercial, transportation, parks and economic sustainability as well. Not only
open space.9 The comprehensive plan does this allow for equity to be addressed
must include a racial equity action plan holistically, but also corrects for damages

2. The Comprehensive Plan
Comprehensive Plan: Derives from a Shared Vision and
A long-term plan to guide Supporting Principles, not from
community development and the Existing Political Actors
By prioritizing the creation of a shared
land-use decisions related to
vision, the plan draws on a consen-
residential, commercial, trans- sus-based approach to decision making,
portation, and open space. as opposed to the localized concerns that
have historically driven land use and de-
velopment decisions. Through the direct
done by the City’s past erratic planning involvement
and inequitable community investment
of an array of
“To achieve real
The following principles can serve as a
stakehold- transformation, the city
ers, no single
basis for the comprehensive planning neighborhood’s needs to undertake
process. decisions are
exempt from racial equity impact
1. The Comprehensive Plan
Is Rooted in Racial Equity11
supporting the
assessments (REIAs)
Racial equity must guide future
planning in Chicago.12 As detailed in
plan, and no before implementing
single commu-
A City Fragmented, the city has a long nity is exempt any reform initiatives”11
history of racial segregation driven by from participat-
discriminatory land use and housing ing.
- Lightfoot
policies. These policies have created a
racial hierarchy that determines, based Further, the
Transition Plan
upon race, who is benefited and who is plan must out-
burdened.13 live administrations. The shared vision
for the city is long-term and should not
By implementing a Racial Equity Impact be subject to the short-term manipulation
Assessment,14 the City of Chicago can for political gain. The comprehensive
identify and begin to repair the historic plan must envision an equitable future at
systems and structures that have long least 20 years out and identify the steps
damaged Chicago. A Racial Equity Impact needed to get there, regardless of the
Assessment utilizes data and community- political leadership now or then.
driven research on racial inequities
within all systems and structures to 3. The Comprehensive Plan
inform and enact a Racial Equity Action Respects Differing Needs across
Plan aimed at eliminating the gaps in Chicago’s Neighborhoods and
opportunity.15 Identifies Appropriate Approaches
The research findings from the Racial The planning process must meet each
Equity Impact Assessment and the community at the intersection of their
community goals set in the Racial respective needs and opportunities
Equity Action Plan will then serve as the unique to their individual history,
foundation for the City’s comprehensive geography, and development trajectory.
plan. All objectives crafted in the The process must be transparent, data
comprehensive plan must address the driven, and authentically confront issues
disparities uncovered in the assessment identified by the community while also
and goals created in the Racial Equity aligning with supporting principles and a
Action Plan to further racial equity. shared vision for the city.

4. The Comprehensive Plan is plan and the underlying Racial Equity
a Living Document Impact Assessment. Importantly,
Neighborhoods change. When that the comprehensive plan must create
change is unmanaged and unplanned, a pathway to shift the zero-sum
the City’s ability to protect communities game approach to planning that pits
against destabilization and displacement neighborhood against neighborhood, by
is permanently lost.16 The City can identifying and directing resources based
better manage this change through on community need for the good of all
an annual assessment and reporting Chicago. In this way, strategic resource
of investments and progress on goals. investment must be tied to actual on-the-
The opportunity for substantial ground need and not political placation.
updates should be provided at 5-year
intervals, identifying salient trends
in neighborhoods and realigning
resource allocation to match the Resources for housing and
changing community needs. As community development
disinvested communities stabilize, the do not meet the scale of
needs and appropriate interventions
the need in Chicago. Future
change. Resources are freed to move
elsewhere and to other programs. The reports will tackle specific
comprehensive plan must be agile steps to mitigate municipal
enough to keep pace with changes, and administrative and develop-
to acknowledge and analyze where and ment costs associated with
why goals are not being met. Finally, affordable housing.
through the process of assessing the
goals of the comprehensive plan and
setting benchmarks, an accountability
structure can be created. 6. The Comprehensive Plan Directs
Community Development Decisions
5. The Comprehensive Plan Directs Too often, the City makes community
Resource Allocation development decisions behind closed
The comprehensive plan will overhaul doors. This is fundamentally different
how City resources, including federal than most municipalities, where
dollars such as Low-Income Housing development projects are vetted at the
Tax Credits, federal housing and required public hearings intended for
community development dollars, that purpose. While City ordinances
Department of Transportation, and require public hearings for zoning
the City’s own resources, are directed matters,17 development projects seldom
by rooting them in a transparent and go to the public hearing stage unless
accountable evaluation of the needs and they have been informally approved by
opportunities within each community the alderman of the ward in which the
and across the city. This, along with the project will be located, severely limiting
Lightfoot administration’s already-in- the capacity of the Plan Commission and
motion plans to curtail local aldermanic City Council Zoning Committee to fulfill
vetoes on affordable housing, will better their obligation. With a comprehensive
align affordable housing development plan, development decisions will be
with need. Future development and responsive to community and citywide
affordable housing funding decisions needs and rooted in a transparent and
will be responsive to the comprehensive strategic pathway for resource allocation.

Implementing a New Way:
Shared Power and Civic Engagement in a
Post-Aldermanic Prerogative Chicago
Whereas the comprehensive plan is the
“Working with neighborhoods will
how of getting the City to the change unleash the innovative and resilient
it seeks, who the actors are ensuring
successful implementation is of equal leadership that exists across the
importance. As outlined in A City
Fragmented, the main vehicle for civic
entire city, creating self-sustained,
participation in the current community self-determined communities. It
development process is through zoning
advisory councils (ZACs). ZACs, 18 will create thoughtful investment
whether formal or informal, exist almost plans in the city and in each
exclusively within predominantly white
and low-poverty wards and exercise neighborhood, which pave the way
their power to limit the development
of affordable housing.19 There are no
for economic vitality with shared
regulations regarding how ZACs are decision-making power in that
formed, who is eligible to participate,
and how these groups function once process”18
formed.20 Moving forward, it is critical
that greater uniformity, transparency,
and oversight is woven into the Transition Plan
community input process.
the comprehensive plan, certain levers of
aldermanic influence will need to be re-
Community Development placed with transparent and formalized
Action Councils: Elected processes for community input. To create
a more robust foundation for civic en-
bodies, reflective of the de- gagement that provides equal weight to
mographic diversity of Chi- all communities in Chicago, Community
cago, tasked with engaging Development Action Councils (CDACs)
in citywide and local plan- should replace ZACs where they current-
ning processes, and zoning ly exist and create new channels for civic
engagement where ZACs are nonexis-
and land-use decisions.

Through Community Development

Action Councils, local communities
MOVING TOWARD are given the responsibility of holding
COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT the City and aldermen accountable
ACTION COUNCILS (CDACS) to correctly implementing the
comprehensive plan. No longer
In order to ensure equitable develop- caught between conflicting local
ment across the city and adherence to politics and federal civil rights law,

the City’s Department of Planning
and Development (DPD) and/or the The 35th ward has
newly formed Department of Housing
established Community
(DOH) would work in partnership
with local CDACs, thereby becoming Driven Zoning and
a community-led tool responsible for Development, with the goals
implementing the comprehensive plan’s of “fully and accurately
zoning, planning, and City housing representing the interests
finance decisions. DPD or DOH would of the residents of the ward
be charged with providing technical
assistance to CDACs and creating
in a manner that respects
uniform development review processes and fosters diversity across
and protocols to ensure that the goals all demographics; fully
of the Comprehensive Plan are upheld informing the community
at the community level and CDACs about requests made for
would then make recommendations
zoning changes and their
to City Council regarding community
development within the parameters of potential impact; engaging
the Comprehensive Plan. community groups that can
provide insight and expertise
Additionally, there is opportunity to that accurately reflects the
streamline communication between
local communities and the City’s
community as a whole.” This
administration and City Council through group is led by community
CDACs by removing the Chicago Plan organizations and
Commission and replacing the Chicago neighborhood associations
Development Commission with CDAC active in the ward and they
representation. In this way, the Chicago
organize community events
Development Commission, made up of
CDAC representation, would serve as the to provide information
unifying citywide CDAC body, bringing and a venue to gather
the voice of distinct communities community input regarding
together to function collectively for the community development.
city. The Department of Planning and This body then makes
Development has the power to create
such a platform for streamlining and
recommendations to the
shared decision-making. This would give 35th Ward Office based
CDACs the power to advise City Council on community input and
directly on the comprehensive, Local the alderman then makes
Area Plans, and review of individual decisions regarding
developments including TIF districts and
community development
planned developments.
based on the expertise of
INCORPORATING BEST the community groups and
PRACTICES FOR CIVIC input from the community.21
The CDACs Must Reflect the be composed of a mix of community
Diversity of the City Overall and stakeholders including renters, low-
income subsidized renters, homeowners,

and local non-profit leaders and small the history of segregation in Chicago,
business owners, with clear ineligibility and the ways in which community
mandates for those with potential development decisions impact
financial conflicts. segregation.

The closest existing example of this type CDACs should be legislatively

of entity is the 35th ward’s Community required to abide by the Illinois Open
Driven Zoning and Development (see Meetings Act, with meetings open to
sidebar on the previous page). the public, diligent note taking and
recording accessible to the public, and
The CDACs Must Enhance opportunities for public input and21
Transparency, Accountability, testimony. 22
and Uniformity Across Chicago:
Initially, CDACs would be established CDACs Will Become a Part of
at the ward level, and residents of each Proactive Planning:
ward would vote on CDAC members. The Depts. of Planning and Housing
In recognition of the history of racial must create a level of uniformity
gerrymandering resulting in the current in community development that is
ward boundaries, the comprehensive currently lacking by providing technical
plan and underlying racial equity impact assistance and tools to ensure the CDACs
assessment should review this structure ongoing work aligns with the goals
for possible impediments to fair housing of the Comprehensive Plan. They can
and fair racial representation. CDAC help Chicago plan more proactively by
members should be trained on the actively engaging CDACs in the local and
role and responsibility of the position, comprehensive planning process.

Next Steps for a New Administration

Advancing these changes, while Create Meaningful and Equitable

achievable, will be a complex set of Community Input Across All
tasks. Multiple systems must change, Communities and Wards:
and investments must be made to move The City should facilitate the de-
Chicago towards an equitable future. velopment of Community Development
Immediate next steps to create the Action Councils (CDACs) and establish
momentum for true change are outlined a system that allows for balanced
below. demographic representation and
creates safeguards for transparency
Political Will: and accountability. Underrepresented
First, the City must confront the policies groups and areas, and vulnerable
and practices that created residential populations should be targeted for
segregation and structural barriers to additional engagement to correct
equity across a range of issues, including underrepresentation and resources
housing and land use policies, health, should be allocated to ensure
employment, public safety and policing, accessibility by low-income individuals,
and education. For example, zoning, by people with disabilities, families with
definition, is an exercise of the police children, and those whose first language
power granted to the legislative branch is not English.
of government. Chicago City Council
and its aldermen are charged with Assessment & Accountability:
making the decisions regarding zoning. The comprehensive plan requires
The current structure of City Council, regular evaluation and clear lines of
along with certain components of State accountability. No objective in the
law, enable the system of aldermanic comprehensive plan should be without:
prerogative that has created segregation
and inequities. Curbing aldermanic • A responsible party or agency
prerogative will require significant designated for the administration
political commitment and dedication to and monitoring
change. • Partnerships identified with
community and business groups
Until there is a comprehensive plan • Funding sources indicated and
in place with the racial equity impact assessed for impact to the budget
assessment and racial equity action • A key performance indicator for
planning as central components, tracking progress
community organizations are uniquely
positioned to drive this narrative The most important accountability
forward. Importantly, community measure of the comprehensive plan is
groups must be vigilant and critical of the inclusion of metrics which track
solutions proffered by the City or other and concisely indicate to stakeholders
entities that do not address systemic and the city’s progress on racial equity and
sustainable change. other objectives. 23 Measures for citywide
progress towards racial equity might

• Change in the Black and Latinx modified annually and at the 5- and
population. From 2000 to 2010, 10-year anniversaries of the plan. This
Chicago lost 180,000 black residents offers opportunities for communities to
and certain Latinx neighborhoods reengage with the plan, identifying the
also lost significant proportions of cumulative progress and shortfalls of the
their population—more than 10,000 plan, and address major shifts locally
individuals in Pilsen alone. Housing which require significant re-imagining of
insecurity, disinvestment, safety the plan.
concerns, education inequity, and
lack of opportunity in the city have
all contributed to the significant Portland’s Budget Equity
losses. Seeing these trends reverse is Assessment Tool extends
a clear sign of progress being made.
and supports the Citywide
• Equitable Accessibility of the City
Racial Equity Goals and
for Low- and Moderate-Income
Families. Low- and moderate-income Strategies, ensuring a
families, especially renters, face racial equity framework
significant restrictions when finding is employed within
larger unit housing that is affordable departments and across
and connected to the opportunities their levels of responsibility,
needed to thrive.
including internal activities
• Equitable Allocation of Resources.
The proportion of programs and
and the external programs
departments that prioritize equity, the department operates
and the changes implemented within communities. The
to bring more programs in line, tool provides guiding
tracks changes at the systemic questions which makes
level. Chicago should look to other
departments explicitly
jurisdictions, like Portland, Oregon’s
Budget Equity Assessment Tool and reflect on the impact each
adapt and apply these to Chicago’s program will have on
departmental budgets and programs. communities of color, how
these communities have
Whatever the metrics used to monitor
equity progress and other objectives,
been engaged in the design
they cannot exist solely in annual reports of the program, and how
isolated from other actions. Progress is the program will improve
made every time a plan is finalized, a community capacity in the
grant is made available, a redevelopment future. By using the tool
agreement is executed, or a permit is
as part of program design,
issued. The City must leverage their
existing data portal infrastructure to departments are better able
support a consistent, readily available to put appropriate focus
and up to date access point for all and metrics in place and, by
measures employed. documenting their activities,
In response to such information in
track their own progress
addition to qualitative measures, the towards equity goals as
plan should be reviewed and potentially well.

Amending Law and Policies from being the Czar to an advocate
Equitable land use decisions require and keeper of the comprehensive
distinct, transparent roles of the City plan. CDACs make direct
Council, the Department of Planning recommendations to Chicago City
and Development, the Department of Council on development proposals
Housing, the Community Development in line with the comprehensive plan
Action Councils and all other and with support from DPD/DOH
departments and committees that and the City Council considers the
interact with the decision-making recommendations of the CDACs
process. along with citywide concerns.
• Limiting Aldermanic Approval: Oversight, Accountability, and
The City must ensure that no City Capacity Enhancements
department require a letter or other
• The capacity to develop, deploy,
evidence of aldermanic support as a
monitor and update a comprehensive
pre-condition or condition of receipt
plan and modern land use support
of public dollars, zoning change,
system needs to be analyzed.
permits, map amendments, special
Funding would need to be allocated
uses, or planned development, for
for both creation, implementation,
deeply affordable housing proposals.
updating and monitoring of the
• Clear and Transparent Timelines comprehensive plan.
for Zoning Approval of Affordable
• The ability to share key performance
Housing: Remove the ability of
indicators of the comprehensive plan
aldermen to indefinitely defer zoning
between relevant departments, City
approval for affordable housing and
Council, and CDACs, is necessary for
put in place timelines for review and
action. Upon the rejection of zoning
approval for affordable housing, • The City should implement a fair
require referral to the Chicago housing training program for all City
Zoning Board of Appeals (ZBA). The staff involved in affordable housing
ZBA will review the development development, including planning,
application with fact-based criteria. zoning, and finance, the City Council,
and CDAC members. The training
• Zoning Ordinance and Map
program should provide information
Align with Comprehensive Plan:
on fair housing laws and the history
The Chicago Zoning Ordinance
of residential racial segregation in
must be amended to mandate that
Chicago, including the exclusion of
among the criteria for approval
public and affordable housing and
of planned developments, zoning
redlining and their attendant effect
map amendments and special uses,
on people and communities of color,
applications must be consistent with
and highlight contemporary efforts
the City’s adopted comprehensive
to produce more equitable patterns
plan. The Zoning Map must be
of development.
reviewed to create consistency
between the uses allowed, the scale • The City’s Office of Inspector General
of those uses, and the current zoning should conduct an annual review
of parcels. of affordable housing development
policies and practices.
• Clear and Distinct Roles for
Communities and the City: Although the reforms outlined here
The role of the CDACs, and Chicago will not entirely eradicate development
City Council in zoning matters shifts

or investments that runs afoul of the
comprehensive plan, nor the instances
of institutional or community based
discrimination, it has the potential to
mitigate the bias and corruption within
the current system while at the same
time finally address the unjust disparities
in life outcomes for Chicago residents
simply based upon where they live.
For these reasons, complete ward-level
control over community development
decision-making must come to an end.
Communities must become active
participants in citywide planning and
must be equipped and engaged to hold
decision-makers accountable. Chicago
can become a city for all, and we look
to Chicago’s new leadership to take the
difficult but necessary steps to get us

Chicago Fair Housing Alliance & Shriver Center on Poverty Law, A City Fragmented: How Race, Power,
and Shape Chicago’s Neighborhoods (2018).
Mayor-elect Lori E. Lightfoot’s Transition Committees, Report of the Transition Committees, 74 (May 17,
Mayor Lori E. Lightfoot, DPD promotes the comprehensive growth and sustainability of the City and its
neighbors: Community Plans, City of Chicago Planning and Development (2019),
Mayor Lori E. Lightfoot, DPD promotes the comprehensive growth and sustainability of the City and its
neighbors: TIF District Redevelopment Plans, City of Chicago Planning and Development (2019),
Office of the Mayor, One Chicago: Housing Strategies for a Thriving City, Five Year Housing Plan, 2019 –
2023, Department of Planning and Development (2019).
Resilient Chicago’s steering committee pulled together officials and community leaders from across the
city, but never was put before the Chicago Plan Commission or the City Council. The mayor’s February
14, 2019 press release on Resilient Chicago stated that a resolution to adopt the plan would be put forth
in March but never materialized; R2019-157, a “Resolution in support of renewable energy goals con-
version to clean energy by setting time milestones for suppliers, CTA all-electric bus fleet and renewable
electricity in all buildings, creating career path opportunities” makes overtures to the goals of the Resil-
ient City plan, but does not call it by name or officially adopt it.
See Chicago Area Housing Alliance & Shriver Center on Poverty Law, supra, at 7-12.
See Trevor Dick, Overview of Comprehensive Plans, Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning (May 9,
See David R. Godschalk & David C. Rouse, Sustaining Places: Best Practices for Comprehensive Plans,
American Planning Association (Jan. 1, 2015) (laying out guidelines for developing a comprehensive plan,
including six principles which function as normative statements of intent underlying the plan’s overall
strategy and should be included in the development of any plan for Chicago: Interwoven Equity; Livable
Built Environment; Harmony with Nature; Resilient Economy; Healthy Community; Responsible Region-
Mayor-elect Lori E. Lightfoot’s Transition Committees, Report of the Transition Committees, 101 (May
17, 2019),
Ryan Curran, Julie Nelson, Dwayne S. Marsh, Simran Noor, & Nora Liu, Racial Equity Action Plans: A
How-to Manual, Haas Institute for a Fair and Inclusive Society, University of California, Berkeley, 7 (2016).
Julie Nelson & Lisa Brooks, Racial Equity Toolkit: An Opportunity to Operationalize Equity, Local and
Regional Government Alliance on Race & Equity (2015).
Id. at 9.
NYU Marron Institute of Urban Management & 100 Resilient Cities, Planning for Resilient Urban
Growth: Tools for Proactively Managing Rapid Urban Growth (May 2018).
Chicago Department of Planning and Development, Plan Commission Rules (January 2014), https://
Mayor-elect Lori E. Lightfoot’s Transition Committees, Report of the Transition Committees, 39 (May
17, 2019),
See Chicago Area Housing Alliance & Shriver Center on Poverty Law, supra, at 75-82 (reporting that
ten wards, eight of which are on the North or Northwest sides of Chicago, have established formal Zon-
ing Advisory Councils (ZAC); nine wards, six of which are on the North or Northwest sides, have instead
called on resident advisors or neighborhood associations within the respective wards to coalesce into a

type of ad hoc ZAC when needed).
Id. at 24-28.
Alderman Carlos Ramirez-Rosa, Procedures and Goals: Thirty-Fifth Ward, City of Chicago (June 2018),
See 5 ILCS 120.
Many key indicators for monitoring the objectives have been set in the Resilient Chicago plan already.
Drawing from the Albany 2030 Plan, system wide interrelated metrics focused at the goal level work
best as they allow for a triple bottom line approach to impact assessment, where people, planet, and
profits are all considered simultaneously without limiting the goal to a single outcome area.