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” and those that address the question “How do we age?” Only a few broad, overarching theories attempt to explain why we and nearly all living organisms age. These theories compete with each other, making it unlikely that more than one of them could be true. Over time, some theories have fallen out of favor as others have become more widely accepted. Other theories, more properly called hypotheses, are smaller in scope and address the question, “How do we age?” They attempt to explain the mechanisms that affect how we and other species age, and it is likely that a number of them are simultaneously true. Testing these hypotheses is the current pursuit of most aging research. Identification of the mechanisms that affect aging could lead to interventions to slow or alter aging. Recent research implies that there may be a limited number of these mechanisms, giving scientists hope that their efforts may one day lead to strategies that could help us lead longer, healthier lives. PSYCHOSOCIOLOGIC THEORIES
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Psychologic aging is characterized primarily by behavioral changes. Sociologic changes refer to changes that relate to the environmental influences that contribute to and affect aging people. Each older person is an individual, and each life experience and each change in a person's environment has an effect on that person.
Psychosocial Perspectives on Aging
Aging is defined here as the transformation of the human organism after the age of physical maturity so that the probability of survival decreases & it is accompanied by regular transformations in appearance, behavior, experience & social roles. Psychosocial aging can be described as a result of the disuse of previously acquired skills, random wear & tear, a change in the ability to adapt due environmental variables, loss of internal & external resources, genetic influences over the life span. Social scientists agree that genetics (heredity) is a major factor in determining the length of human life, although environment plays an important role in modifying the expected life span. The bottom line of Psychosocial Theory: As people grow older, their behavior changes, their social interactions change, and the activities in which they engage change.
The four Psychosocial Theories we will discuss here are:
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Disengagement theory Activity theory Life-course theories Continuity theory
To maintain a positive sense of self the person must substitute new roles for those that are lost because of age. The process of aging leaves people alone & cut-off. Standards & expectations of middle age should be projected to older age.Disengagement Theory • • • • • • • Refers to an inevitable process in which many of the relationships between a person and other members of society are severed & those remaining are altered in quality. Some suggest that this theory does not consider the large number of older people who do not withdraw from society. recreational roles. This theory is recognized as the 1st formal theory that attempted to explain the process of growing older. Within each stage the person faces a crisis or dilemma that the person must resolve to move forward to the next stage. Aging persons should be encouraged to expand & be involved. People should be encouraged to remain active & develop own-age friends. This theory suggests that a person's self-concept is related to the roles held by that person i. which here approaches maturity as a process. As people age they experience greater distance from society & they develop new types of relationships with society. or not resolve which results in incomplete development. just as it does with younger people. Hanighurst stated that for older people to progress they must meet the following tasks: • Adjust to declining health & physical strength. such as familial roles. retiring may not be so harmful if the person actively maintains other roles.e. Activity Theory • • • • Is another theory that describes the psychosocial aging process. And studies show that the type of activity does matter. . It was observed that older people are less involved with life than they were as younger adults. Activity theory emphasizes the importance of ongoing social activity. Life-Course Theories • One theory we are all very familiar with is Erikson's developmental stages. In America there is evidence that society forces withdrawal on older people whether or not they want it. Withdrawal may be initiated by the aging person or by society. The Activity Theory makes the following certain assumptions: • • • • • There is an abrupt beginning of old age. and may be partial or total. volunteer & community roles.
4) Waste Theory . Experiences during aging are shaped by historical factors.• • • • Adjust to retirement & reduced income. BIOLOGIC THEORIES Biologic theories classify aging as genetic (heredity) & nongenetic (wear & tear). 3) Wear and Tear Theory • The body is like a machine that is expected to function well during the period of its warranty. increased leisure & playing with grandchildren. Meaning that older people may seek to use familiar strategies in familiar areas of life. 2) Autoimmune or Immunologic Theory • • Aging is caused by a change in the immune system Diminished function of the immune system results to increase susceptibility to infection. Continuity Theory • • • States that older adults try to preserve & maintain internal & external structures by using strategies that maintain continuity.e. Changes come about as a result of the aging person's reflecting upon past experience & setting goals for the future. but will wear out at a fairly predictable time. Continuity theory has excellent potential for explaining how people adapt to their own aging. In later life. psychologic & sociologic processes. 1) Genetic Theory / Aging Clock Theory • • Life expectancy is genetically pre-programmed within species-specific range. Adjust to the death of a spouse or family members. Genetic theories are the most promising in relation to finding answers about aging. A more recent framework used in conducting research following these assumptions: • • • Aging occurs from birth to death. Adjust to living arrangements different from what they are accustomed. adults tend to use continuity as an adaptive strategy to deal with changes that occur during normal aging. cancer & autoimmune response. Adjust to pleasures of aging i. Aging involves biologic.
How does this theory apply to aging? Normally. Aging Pacemaker Theory . In other words. • Somatic Mutation Theory • This theory holds that Mutations are those inheritable changes that occur in the cellular DNA.• States that chemical wastes collected in the deterioration by interfering with cellular functioning. The negative effects of this process on proteins may be a major contributor to age changes. Some segments of DNA become depleted with advancing age. or selected cellular structures seem to change with age so that DNA transcription is restricted. This deterioration results in aging and eventually over a lifetime. the transcription of these messages into functional proteins may be restricted in older people. Glycation is the nonenzymic reaction between glucose & tissue protein. Studies conclude that glycation may have profound cumulative effect during a person's life. There has been some suggestion related to background radiation of various types. Glycation Theory • • • • Suggests that glucose acts a mediator of aging. body produce Genetic Theories Error & Fidelity Theory • Ok. death. What this theory is saying is that over time an error or mistake occurs in our DNA map (or proteins) and it begins to produce cells that are not correct … it's like going from producing a high quality product to producing a lesser quality product. Also remember that this occurs over a lifetime. we constantly or faithfully produce cells throughout our bodies using our same correct DNA map (or proteins) to do so time & time again. If there is extensive damage to DNA and it is not repaired. Theories of cellular aging Programmed Cellular Aging Theory • • • Suggests that aging may be a result of an impairment of the cell in translating necessary RNAs as a result of increased turnoffs of DNA. The effects of this process may be similar to elevated glucose levels & shorter life spans of diabetics. then there will probably be an alteration in a genetic sequence. we all know an Error is a mistake and Fidelity refers to being faithful… so knowing that we can discuss this theory.
interferes with cell proliferation. or one type of tissue. Some suggest the Thymus as the 'pacemaker' or 'biologic clock. Suggests that as people age they produce age spots that are an accumulation of 'biochemical debris' or waste products. It is believed that these waste products accumulate until they interfere with cellular functioning. Current Thinking & Old Ideas .' Theories of the Organ System Autoimmune Theory • • As the body ages the immune system is less able to deal with foreign organisms & increasingly make mistakes by identifying ones own tissues as foreign (thus attacking them). It is also suggest that would live 20% longer. It is suggested the age related changes in response to hormones may be the result of changes in the receptors for hormones rather than changes in the activity of the endocrine hormones themselves. that humans might live longer if their body 5 degrees lower than the usual 98. Neuroendocrine Control Theory • • • The neurologic & endocrine systems are major controllers of body activity. These altered abilities result in increased susceptibility to disease & to abnormalities that result form autoimmune responses. thereby initiating the process of senescence throughout the body.6 because there is high metabolism (which increases temperature) and if humans could attain the lower temperature they Nutrient Deprivation Theory • Purposes that oxygen deprivation leads to senescence of deprived cells. Lipofuscin Theory • • Also referred to as the 'wear and tear' theory. Nongenetic Theories Effects-of-Temperature Theory • • This theory suggests temperatures were just a relationship between shorter-lived species.• • Suggests that one cell. During the human life span there is a 10% decrease in the weight of the brain due to both loss of cells & fluids in the cerebrum.
several types of gene mutations are known to occur. The common theme in all the theories here is: Change. some are good and some are harmful. The cross-linking theory of aging suggest that with age some body proteins become cross-linked and may impede metabolic processes What is the conclusion of all this? • • • • • • That none of the theories proposed can claim sufficient evidence to account for the aging effects that are witnessed & experienced in humans. We do know that longevity has increased and by that the possibility that the aging process has slowed.is the idea that there is a burst of reproductive activity then a period of rapid aging followed by death. . Theories Presuming a Preexisting Master Plan • • • • Suggests the presence of a biologic clock governed by a series of chemical events. The reproduction exhaustion theory . Current thinking includes: The 'vital substance' theory . Bottom line: We do not know why we age. There is also agreement that profound changes occur in the brain as humans age but it is not agreed as to whether or not we lose nerve cells. The waste product accumulation theory suggests that a kind of cellular constipation results if cells accumulate more waste than can be disposed of efficiently. An interesting observation about change: When it is considered in earlier life it is referred to & discussed as development and later in life when change is considered it is referred to as aging. There is probably not a single cause of death but many causes. The rate-of-living theory suggests that rapid expenditure of energy precipitates early aging and slow expenditure results in slower aging. The genetic mutation theory . As molecules. The trend is more towards hormones being a possible cause of age changes. That there is programmed cell death That hormone's accelerate some aging processes and can slow down other processes.• • • • • Most biogerontologists believe that several mechanisms are operating at the same time to cause aging.we are all born with a certain amount of vital substance and as it is consumed we age and die. they change. Theories Based on Random Events • • • • Such as the 'wear and tear' theory where body tissue becomes worn from use and cannot continuously renew itself. cells and organ systems continue to live.
Society must change or eliminate stereotypes about older adults. Macarambon. physical & social. Society must develop a positive view of older adults & their potential within society. Nurses need to analyze & reduce the complexity of these theories and place emphasis on the quality of life of older adults. John Caryl Liboon. Changes in chemical composition of the body. Hetchel Niel Palma. Becoming increasingly vulnerable to disease. What are the improvements needed in the area of gerontology? • • • • • • Experts & researchers need to communicate & collaborate across disciplines. Chenlee Angeli Mosiquera. Princess Marvi N. Kris Evira C. . A broad spectrum of progressive deteriorative changes. Reduced ability to adapt to environmental changes (probably a major factor). Nurses must see older adults as unique individuals with valuable life experiences & recollections that should be utilized. Also recognize the losses experienced i.e. as well as use a uniform common language to enhance communication. Different Theories of Aging NCM 104 block G Monday Group Submitted by : Baguio. Tanlaida Malinis.What are the summarized characteristics of aging? • • • • • Increased mortality with increasing age.
Junard C. Tabaculde. Mulet. Taladua. RN. Viray. Nikki Pearl Submitted to : Fritzie Jean E. Kurt Ryan S. MAN . Ronilo R.Sayson. Wenilyn B. Proser Faith N. Verano. Tabaday.
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