ALCATEL 1000 E10 (0CB283) INTRODUCTION

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Telecommunication networks are constantly changing. The rapid growth of the digital networks, mobile network and intelligent network and the proliferation of new services constantly being offered to subscribers mean that equipment must be continuously adapted to new requirements The Alcatel 1000 E10 (OCB283) exchanges, also known by its shorter name as the E10 (OCB283), is designed to cater for evolving networks and the need to rationalize equipment operation, Its modular architecture means that new services can be added and processing capacity can be increase without interrupting operation of the exchange. The E10 (OCB283) is multipurpose exchange. It can be used for a specific function as well as being capable of combining several applications in the same equipment. The multipurpose properties of the E10 (OCB283) mean that it can be used in widely varying contexts.

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION: Architecture of the Alcatel 1000 (OCB283)
The E10 (OCB283) is constructed according to the following principles: -It has a modular architecture. -System functions are distributed over its component modules. The principle of modularity is applied to both hardware and exchange software. The system’s modular architecture means: -Ease of adaptation -Reliability -Dependability -Easy upgrades

Control stations
The SMs (control station) are the hardware module of E10 (OCB283). An SM is a set of boards in a subrack powered via converters. The boards supporting the processors and the memories are linked together via a bus. Each SM is connected to the communication local area network. There are five types of SM: -SMCs (main control stations) supporting the switching functions (translation, charging, etc). -SMTs (trunk control stations) connecting the PCM links. -SMAs (auxiliary equipment control stations) supporting auxiliary (service circuit) functions. -SMXs (matrix control stations) for operating and maintaining the system.

Main control stations
The SMCs (main control station) handle the control functions: -Call handling (setting up disconnecting calls). -Charging. -Circuit observation. -Connection management. -Signaling network management. -Server management.

Trunk control stations
The SMT are the connecting the PCM links and preprocessing the channel associated signaling. The SMTs are the interfaces between OCB283 and remote network elements. There are two SMT versions: -SMT1G capable of connecting 32PCM links. -SMT2G capable of connecting 128PCM links.

Auxiliary equipment control stations

The SMAs house the system’s auxiliary equipment. The SMA functions are: -management of voice frequency signals. -time management. -processing of common channel signaling. -management of the interfaces for connecting the access networks.

Matrix control stations
From hardware point of view, a matrix consists of SMXs. In a minimum configuration, a matrix has 8 SMXs each processing 256 LREs (incoming matrix lines) and 256 LRSs (outing matrix lines). Each SMX receives the LCXEs (incoming switching links) from the other SMXs.

Maintenance station
The SMM (maintenance station) is for: -System management (administration, configuration, initialization). -Operating the exchange. -Supervising the system and its environment (defence, alarms). -Maintaining the equipment (tests, settings). -Storing data. The control and connection units can operate independently, but it is the central defence function handled by SMM that ensures continuity of service. The SMM is for connecting: -Computer devices and operating terminals locally. -Operation and maintenance equipment remotely via interface. The SMM is fully duplicated. Both subsystems, SMMA and SMMB are called PROCESSING SUBSYSTEMS and operate in worker stand by mode. In addition to an SM’s basic equipment, each system has:

-A dedicated adapter for managing switchovers from the worker subsystem to the standby subsystem. -A dedicated adapter for connecting to the SCSI (Small Computer Subsystems Interface) buses which provide access to the backing store. -A dedicated adapter for accessing a bus, called the telecommunications bus, to which are connected: * Central alarms adapters, for concentrating hardware alarms. * Asynchronous link couplers, for access to the operating and maintenance devices. * Link adapters for remote operation and maintenance. The backing store consists of different types of devices: -The disk drives -Magnetic tape units -Streamer The operation and maintenance software machine is the SMM’s functional software machine. It has a particular structure designed to ensure that the software is independent of the supporting machine. The software machine comprises: -The RTOS (Real Time Operating System) which is the operating system supporting the SMM. -The OMAP (Operation and Maintenance Application Part). -The OM application.

DEPENDABILITY:
The E10 (OCB283) is designed to provide uninterrupted service in all circumstances. The system’s defence function reacts automatically to unit failures in the exchange or to abnormal situation which may be due to the circumstances outside the exchange.

Defence principles
Defence is based on the following principles: -Redundancy of the system’s components.

-Background task event counting. -Statistical analysis of detected malfunctions. the exchange can have of its handling capacity cut. the faulty unit is taken out of service to prevent the fault penalizing the system too much. -Automatic reconfiguration of resources. Several methods are used to detect failures: -Hardware detection devices. -Routine tests. Its assigns the backup resource to the functions that were previously handled by the faulty unit. with each SM supervising its components and environment. The defence function then uses backup source. This principle applies to both hardware and software components. Automatic fault detection The E10 (OCB283) audits its units. Failure containment When a serious fault is detected. .-Automatic fault detection. -Centrally. This automatic reconfiguration allows the exchange to recover its original processing capacity. A unit can de taken out of service because of redundancy and the resource configuration capability. -Containment of failures. Automatic reconfiguration if resources When a unit is taken out of service. Redundancy of the system’s components The redundancy principle can be summarized as follows: Any component essential to the smooth operation of the system is at least duplicated in the system. with defence function marshalling the information and correlating the events signaled. The audit operates on two levels: -Locally.

-Printers. located in the SMM. Operation . The E10 (OCB283) operation and maintenance operator communication with the system the operation interface to: -Transmit commands. -Central defence. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE: Organization of E10 (OCB283) operation and maintenance Operation and maintenance of E10 (OCB283) is based on terminals connected to the SMM. handled by each unit. The operator has the following types of terminal: -Command input and message display consoles. -PC workstations. Operation and maintenance can be: -Local: the terminals are connected to the SMM via asynchronous links. -Observe system reactions. These two terminals can be combined and operation and maintenance can be mixed. -Remote: the terminals used are those of the telecommunications management network. -Workstations for remote operation and maintenance.Local defence and Central defence The E10 (OCB283) defence function is divided into: -Local defence. -Observe command results.

It is divided into: -Preventive maintenance. Alarms messages are classified by priority: -Alarm requiring no immediate action (SI category). .The operation tasks are specifying how the exchange performs its functions. The maintenance operator observes the messages the system generates. The tasks to be performed are divided into domains that reflect the exchange’s main functions. DOMAIN Telephone environment Translation Charging Observations TYPICAL TASKS REQUIRED -construct and manage circuit groups -manage data links -manage preanalysis. which covers the operations required to restore the system following a unit failure. analysis and routing -define charging parameters -manage charging parameters and codes -define the charging calendar -monitor load on exchange units -observe traffic dispersion -observe behaviour of subscriber lines and groups Maintenance Maintenance ensures that the system operates correctly. which combines all the routine system servicing tasks. but the main ones are alarm messages. -Corrective maintenance. Several types of messages are used. The table below shows some operating domains along with some typical tasks required for E10 (OCB283) operation. -Deferred action alarm (ID category).

unanswered calls. The system makes maintenance tasks easier: -It runs automatic tests to determine the origin of a fault.-Prompt action alarm (IM category). false seizures.a MIX of calls (percentage of completed calls. Depending on the urgency. -Transmit exchange. meter pulse transmission etc). -Mobile service switching point. The performance of the E10 (OCB283) is therefore calculated against a benchmark environment defined by: .operating conditions (percentage usage of different signaling types. -Service switching point (intelligent network access). itemized billing. Maximum call handling capacity The E10 (OCB283) maximum call handling capacity is 1200000 BHCA (busy hour call attempts) which is equivalent of 336 call attempts per . etc). Performance The performance of an exchange is closely linked to its environment. lamp and audible signals may accompany the alarm message. -It can run verification tests after repairs. MAIN CHARACTERSTICS: Applications The E10 (OCB283) can be used for all switching applications: -Local exchange. -Signaling transfer point. busy conditions. -It provides the option of running operating tests. Remote control interface circuits enable the operator to link specific signaling resources to alarms to suit the particular needs of the system. .

Cooling is by natural convection. the switching matrix can connect 2048 PCM links or 6000 circuits. Subracks Subrack dimension are: -Height: 234mm -Width: 782mm The subrack backplanes are multilayer printed circuits. So it can handle of 25000 erlangs. Such handling capacity provides the capability to connect: -200000 fixed subscribers.second. The converters have two power sources using independent routes. Racks Rack dimensions with their EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) cladding are: -Height: 2200mm -Width: 900mm -Depth: 650mm Each rack has five or six subracks separated by air baffles. Hardware characteristics The Alcatel E10 (OCB283) consists of SMs (control station) which communicate via a local network. In a maximum configuration. Each rack has a duplicated power supply system. -400000 to 900000 mobile subscribers. The SMs and ancillary equipment are housed in subracks installed in racks. Connection .

It is loaded into the SMs via the local network the system is initialized. Depending on the configuration and operating environment. On average. For handling. the boards have a hard plastic strip that prevents direct electrostatic discharge. The strip has a latching and release device with two extraction levers. Local area network The local area network consists of multiplexes. . The software is stored on disk where it is organized into archives. The boards are fitted the CMOS technology surface mount components.All links between subracks and between racks are via shielded cables.6mm The boards are multilayer. an SM supports one or more software machines. Each multiplex has two token rings complying with the IEEE standard. Boards There are 32 types of boards with the following dimensions: -Height: 234mm -Length: 350mm -Thickness: 1. aboard consumes less than 7 watts. Software characteristics The Alcatel 1000 E10 (OCB283) software is organized into software machines that are totally independent of SMs (control stations) that support them.

5. 4.No 1. 2.INDEX: S. 3. TOPIC Introduction System description Dependability Operation and maintenance Main characteristics Glossary . 6.

ALCATEL 1000 E10 (OCB283) .

The machine SMs are interconnected via communication multiplexes. It is connected to the intra station multiplex and main control station access multiplex. Matrix control station (SMX) An SM which is a subset of the RCX and sets up the connection. It reacts automatically in the event of system failure. Trunk control station (SMT) . Maintenance station (SMM) An SM dedicated to operation and maintenance of Alcatel E10 (OCB283). PCM Link 2 Mbps link using pulse code modulation. Control station (SM) A hardware entity of the OCB283 that supports several software machines. Main control station (SMC) An SM that handles switching functions. Software machine Software which performs one of the Alcatel 1000 E10 (OCB283) functions and is supported by an SM.GLOSSARY: Auxiliary equipment control station (SMA) An SM for connecting the auxiliary equipment for processing signaling and managing interfaces. including user-controlled services. It provides access to the backing stores. Central defence A software unit which supervises and manages SM states. the communication terminals. Intelligent network (IN) A telecommunication network architecture with flexibility to facilitate the introduction of new capacity and new services.

.An SM consisting of two basic SMs that operate in worker standby mode and share the adapters providing the interface for PCM link connection. resynchronization and channel associated signaling processing.

OPTICAL FIBRE COMMUNICATION .

6.INDEX: S. 8. 15. 5. 12. 11. TOPIC Introduction Optical Communication Theory Optical Fiber Principle Optical Communication System Basis Technology Gigabit Ethernet 10 Gigabit Ethernet Fiber Distributed Data Interface HIPPI Fiber Channel Limitation of Optical Fiber Networking Limitation of Optical Fiber Communication Applications Comparison with Electrical Transmission Conclusion . 4. 3. 9.No 1. 14. 10. 2. 13. 7.

The light forms an electromagnetic carrier wave that is modulated to carry information. Therefore. fiber optic communication systems have revolutionized the telecommunication industry and played a major role in the advent of the Information age. optical communication has emerged as a field of special technology interest. any form of communication was always among the primaries objective of our kind. Fiber optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending light through an optical. It can be observed that frequencies in the optical range will have a usable bandwidth about 1. The objective of any communication is the transfer of information from one point to another. First developed in the 1970s. communication can be divided according to the carrier. The first written evidence is at the end of sixth century BC Aeschylus Oresteia he mentioned passing the news on of Troy’s by fire signals via long chain of relay stations from Asia Minor to Argos. However. although optical communication exhibited low practical importance in the next decades. Optical Communication History: The need for reliable long distance communication systems has existed since antiquity. Hence. Therefore. created civilization is the ability of speech and communication. At the end of eighteenth century AD Claude Chappe’s optical telegraph allowed the transmission of a signal over the 432 km distance from Paris to Strasbourg within a time of six minutes. The reason that the carrier is important is because the amount of information transmitted is directly related to the bandwidth of the modulated carrier. . its development proceeded. Because of its advantages over electrical transmission.00. the use of optical fiber has largely replaced copper wire communication in the developed world. a media is always involved with communication used as the carrier of the information.000 times that of a carrier in the RF range. among the other species that exist on earth. Therefore.OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATION Introduction: The reason that only human beings.

As early as 1880 Alexander Graham Bell invented the photo phone.8µm and used GaAs semiconductor lasers.3µm and used in GaAs semiconductor lasers. These developments eventually allowed third generation systems to operate commercially at 2.2Db/km. After a period of intensive research from 1975 to 1980. In 1981.55µm and had loss of about 0. TAT-8 is more than 3000 nautical miles in length and had an estimated life span of 20 years. Scientists overcome this difficulty by using dispersion shifted fibers designed to have minimal at 1. these systems were operating at a bit rate of up to 1. By 1987.5Gbps with repeater spacing in excess of 100 km. which demonstrated the transmission of speech using light.55µm. Optical fiber was finally developed in 1970 by Corning Glass Works with attenuation low enough for communication purposes (about 20dB/km).The invention of laser boosted the development of optical communication and opened new sections of research. The third generation fiber optic systems at 1. The first transatlantic telephone cable to use optical fiber was TAT-8. the first commercial fiber optic communication system was developed.7Gbps with repeater spacing up to 50 km. The first demonstration of ruby laser in 1960 followed by a demonstration of laser operation in semiconductor of laser operation in semiconductor devices in 1962 were the early stepping stones which led to continuous operation of room temperature long life time laser diodes are that are in common use today. which operated at a wavelength around 0. They achieved this despite earlier difficulties with pulse spreading at that wavelength using conventional in GaAs semiconductor lasers. These two improvements caused a revolution that resulted in doubling of system capacity every six months . the single mode fiber was revealed to greatly improve system performance. The first generation system operated at a bit rate of 45Mbps with repeater spacing of up to 10 km. The fourth generation of fiber optic communication systems used optical amplification to reduce the need for repeaters and wavelength division multiplexing to increase fiber capacity. at the same time GaAs semiconductors lasers were developed that were compact and therefore suitable for fiber optic communication systems. which went into operation into 1988. operated at 1. The second generation of fiber optic communication developed in 1980s.

Light traveling in the corecladding interface.000 GHz. In the latter region the fiber bandwidth is greater than 25.55mm wavelength region. An important fiber parameter is the loss which is usually given in the 1. bit rates of up to 14Tbps have been reached over a single 160 km line using optical amplifiers. Optical Fiber Principle: Light waves may be carried by an optical fiber which is simply a cylindrical glass waveguide consisting of core and cladding region. RAY OUTSIDE OF ACCEPTANCE ANGLE N2 CLADDING RAY WITH IN ACCEPTANCE ANGLE N1 CORE FIGURE (a) optical fiber Optical Communication System Basis: .starting in 1992 until a bit rate of 10Tbps was reached by 2001. Recently. The core refractive index is slightly greater than the cladding.3mm and 1.

Technology: Modern fiber optic communication systems generally include an optical transmitter to convert an electrical signal into an optical signal to send into the optical fiber. telephone systems. while fast. Regeneration means that the light signal is detected. is still only a small fraction of the intrinsic optical fiber capacity. Transmitters The most commonly used transmitters are semiconductors devices such as Light Emitting Diode (LEDs) and laser diodes. At this speed it would take less than half a second to carry over 1. a fiber optic cable routed through underground conduits and buildings. 50. modulates a semiconductor laser. Amplifiers . Electrical data. Optical amplification is required to overcome the fiber loss. retimed and retransmitted. multiple kinds of amplifiers.The object of the system is to transmit information using an optical carrier wave from a transmit station to a receive station over optical carrier wave from a transmit station to a receive station over optical fiber. usually represented as a series of ‘0’s and ‘1’s. the light signal is either optically amplified or completed regenerated. The modulated laser light is then sent down an optical fiber.000 telephone calls. The decision circuit decides if a ‘0’ or ‘1’ bit has been received. The difference between LEDs and laser diodes is that LEDs produce coherent light. and cable television companies. and an optical receiver to recover the signal. With today’s technology it is possible to modulate a semiconductor laser at speeds of 10Gbps and beyond. A speed of 10Gbps. At appropriate points in the transmission link. The information transmitted is typically digital information generated by computers. At the receiver the light signal is detected amplified and sent to a decision circuit. It is required when the light signal becomes distorted by the fiber (this effect is called dispersion) or when the signal picks up too much noise. The laser output is a series of light pulses representing ‘0’s and ‘1’s. reshaped. However there are limitations as how fast a laser can be modulated.

especially with modern wavelength division multiplexed signals. The photo detector is typically a semiconductor based photodiode. . a fiber transmission system is often characterized by its bandwidth-distance product. Using WDM technology now commercially available. Arrayed waveguide gratings are commonly used for multiplexing and demultiplexing in WDM. This requires a wavelength division multiplexer in the transmitting equipment and a wavelength division demultiplexer in the receiving equipment. Receivers The main component of an optical receiver is photo detector that converts light into electricity through the photoelectric effect. This value is the product of bandwidth and the distance because there is a trade off between the bandwidth of the signal and the distance it can be carried. and the fact that they had to be installed about once every 20 km. Wavelength Division Multiplexing Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) is the practice of dividing the wavelength capacity of the optical fiber into multiple channels in order to send more than one signal over the same fiber.The transmission distance of a fiber optic communication system has traditionally been limited primarily by fiber attenuation and second by fiber distortion. or an avalanche photodiode. Metal-semiconductor-metal photo detectors are also used due to their suitably for circuit integration in regenerators and wavelength division multiplexers. Because of their high complexity. a p-i-n photodiode. often expressed in units of MHz*km. the bandwidth of a fiber can be divided into as many as 80 channels to support a combined bit rate into range of terabits per second. such as p-n photodiode. Bandwidth-Distance product Because the effect of dispersion increases with the length of the fiber. the cost of these repeaters was very high. The solution to this has been to use opto-electronics repeaters. These repeaters first convert the signal to an electrical signal then use the transmitter to send this signal again at a higher intensity.

while operating in an optimal wavelength range and directly modulated at high frequencies. cheaper transmitters and receivers to connect to it as well as cheaper connectors.LED is a forward-biased p-n junction. emitting light through spontaneous emission. multimode fiber is usually more expensive and exhibits higher attenuation. which results in high output power (~100 mW) as well as other benefits related to the nature of coherent light. Furthermore. because of its higher dopant content. allowing high coupling efficiency (~50%) into single-mode fiber. Fiber Two main categories of optical fiber used in fiber optic communications are multi-mode optical fiber and single-mode optical fiber. typically by using ultra violet cured polymers. A semiconductor laser emits light through stimulated emission rather than spontaneous emission. and . Communication LEDs are made from GaAsP or GaAs. LED light transmission is also inefficient. In order to package fiber into a commercially viable product. multimode fiber introduces multimode distortion which often limits the bandwidth and length of the link. LEDs are currently in use for local area wavelength division multiplexing networks. For use in optical communications. Multimode fiber has a large core (>50µm). higher performance links. semiconductor optical transmitters must be designed to be. Single mode fiber’s smaller core (>10µm) necessities more expensive components and interconnection methods. with only about 1% of input power. a phenomenon referred to as electroluminescence. The emitted light is incoherent with a relatively wide spectral width of 30-60 nm. suitable primarily for local area network application with bit rates of 10-100 Mbps and transmission distances of few kilometers. The output of a laser is relatively directional. However. or about 100 microwatts. it is protectively coated. compact. but allows much longer. The narrow spectral widths also allows for high bit rates since it reduces the effect of dispersion. allowing less precise. semiconductor lasers can be modulated directly at high frequencies because of short recombination time. Furthermore. efficient and reliable.

-LX or (non standard) –ZX). Summary There are four different physical layer standards for Gigabit Ethernet using optical fiber. Fiber Gigabit Ethernet has recently been overtaken by 10 Gigabit Ethernet which was ratified by IEEE in 2002 and provided data rates 10 times that of Gigabit Ethernet. Gigabit Ethernet History: A result of research done at Xerox Corporation in the early 1970’s. . Gigabit Ethernet was deployed in high capacity backbone network links. Fast Ethernet increased from 10 to 100 Mbps.assembled into a fiber optic cable. twisted pair cable and copper cable. Initially. Once deployed. increasing the speed to 1000 Mbps. Gigabit Ethernet: Gigabit Ethernet is the term describing various technologies for transmitting Ethernet packets at a rate of a gigabit per second. such cables require substantially less maintenance than copper cable. as defined by IEEE standard. Apple’s Power Mac G4 and Power Book G4 were the first mass produced personal computers featuring the 1000BASE-T connection. Gigabit Ethernet became a desktop technology as organization could utilize their existing copper cabling infrastructure. It quickly became built in feature in many other computers. -SX. Ethernet has evolved into the most widely implemented physical link layer protocol today. IEEE defines Gigabit Ethernet transmission over unshielded twisted pair cabling and became as 1000BASE-T. In 2000. Gigabit Ethernet was the next iteration. The initial standard for Gigabit Ethernet was standardized by the IEEE in June 1988 is commonly referred to as 1000BASE-X (where-X refers to either -CX.

where options include 1000-BASE-SX. Signaling speed 1. or the nonstandard –LH/-ZX implementation. 1000BASE-ZX or 1000BASE-LH 1000BASE-ZX OR 1000BASE-LH are nonstandard but industry accepted terms to refer to Gigabit Ethernet transmission using 1550 nm wavelength to achieve distances of at least 70 km over single mode fiber. 1000BASE-LX for transmission over single mode fiber and the nearly obsolete 1000-BASE-CX for transmission over copper cable. -LX. The . 1000BASE-BX10 This latest addition to the standard also includes transmission over a single strand of fiber. 1000BASESX will usually work over significantly longer distances. These standards use 8bit/10bit encoding and use NRZ line coding for sending the symbols. 1000BASE-LX is specified to work over a distance up to 2 km over 9 µm single mode fiber. using a log wavelength laser. stressed receiver sensitivity= -14dBm.The IEEE standard includes 1000BASE-SX for transmission over multimode fiber. 1000BASE-X 1000BASE-X is used in industry to refer to Gigabit Ethernet transmission over fiber. wavelength 1270 to 1355 nm.25±100 ppm. RMS spectral width (max) 4 nm. with one different wavelength going to each direction. near infrared light wavelength. Typical optical power parameters of SX interface: maximum mean output power= -5dBm. 1000BASE-SX 1000BASE-SX is a fiber optic Gigabit Ethernet standard. 1000BASE-LX 1000BASE-LX is a fiber optic Gigabit Ethernet standard. It operates over multimode fiber using a 850 nm. -BX10.

The 10 Gigabit Ethernet standard encompasses a number of different physical layer (PHY) standards. Each physical port in a device can support any of the many different LAN or WAN PHY standards. 10GBASE-SR 10GBASE-SR (“short range”) is designed to support short distance over deployed multi-mode fiber cabling.3 Gbps and a 64 bit/ 66 bit encoding. 10GBASE-LR .terminals on each side of fiber are not equal. used for connecting directly between routers and switches. It also supports 300 m operation over new. 10 times as fast as Gigabit Ethernet. It defines a version with a nominal data rate of 10 Gbps. Although called LAN. one uses 1490 nm wavelength while other uses 1310 nm wavelength. LAN PHY uses a line rate of 10. this can be used with 10GBASE-LR AND –ER up to 80 km. it has a range of between 26 m and 82 m depending on cable type. LAN PHY The most common optical variety referred to as LAN PHY. 50 µm 2000 MHzkm multi-mode fiber (using 850 nm). NAME 1000BASE-SX 1000BASE-LX 1000BASE-ZX 1000BASE-BX10 MEDIUM Multi-mode fiber Single-mode fiber Single-mode fiber at 1550 nm Single-mode fiber SPECIFIED DISTANCE 500 m 2 km ~70 km 10 km 10 Gigabit Ethernet: 10 Gigabit Ethernet is the most recent and faster of Ethernet standards.

10GBASE-LR is a long range optical technology delivering serialized 10 Gigabit Ethernet via over 1300 nm single-mode fiber. it does not use the IEEE token bus timed token protocol. 10GBASE-ZR Recently several manufactures have introduced 80 km range ER pluggable interfaces under the name 10GBASE-ZR. LR optical cabling is used to interconnect transceivers at a distance spaced at 10 km. -LW. -EW and –ZW are varieties that the WAN PHY. Optical transceivers are interconnected with a host device by 4 channel parallelized ridge. -LR.953 Gbps. 10GBASE-ER 10GBASE-ER (“extended range”) supports distance up to 40 km over single–mode fiber (using 1550 nm). Although FDDI protocol is a token ring network. WAN PHY 10GBASE-SW. -ZR respectively. designed to interoperate with STM-64 SDH/SONET equipment using a light weight SDH/SONET frame running at 9. but it can often reach distance of up to 25 km with no data loss. and hence use the same types of fiber and support the same distances. WAN PHY is used when an enterprise user to transport 10 G Ethernet across Telco SDH/SONET or previously installed wave division multiplexing systems without having to directly map the Ethernet frames into SDH/SONET. In addition to covering large . The WAN OHY variants correspond at the physical layer to 10GBASE-SR. Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI): Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) provides a standard for data transmission in local area network that can extend in range up to 200 km (124 miles). This 80 km PHY is not specified within the IEEE standard and manufactures have created their own specifications based upon the 80 km PHY described in the STM-64 SDH/SONET specifications.

It was popular . although some implementations have deployed FDDI as a Metropolitan area network. FDDI is a product of American National Standards Institute. As a standard underlying medium it uses optical fiber. Host computers then connect as single attached devices to the routers. FDDI requires this network topology because the dual ring actually passes through each connected device and requires each such device to remain continuously operational. allowing better throughput. extending capacity to 200 Mbps. a dual ring extend 100 km (62 miles). When a network has no requirement for the secondary ring to do backup. a computer room contains the whole dual ring. The primary ring offers up to 1000 Mbps capacity. HIPPI: HIPPI (High Performance Parallel Interface) is a computer bus for the attachment of high speed storage devices to supercomputers. Typically. FDDI local area networks can support thousands of users. one for possible backup in case the primary ring fails. hence the term “dual attached”.geographical areas. A small number of devices connect to both rings. The dual ring in its most degenerate form simply collapses into a single device. a workstation can obtain the sane degree of resilience through a dual homed connection made simultaneously to two separate devices in the same FDDI ring. Designers normally construct FDDI rings in the form of a ‘dual ring of trees”. One of the connection fails. FDDI uses a dual attached counter rotating token ring topology. cost and ubiquity. As an alternative to using a dual attached connection. FDDI has a larger maximum frame size than standard 100 Mbps Ethernet. Devices such as workstations and minicomputers that may not come under the control of the network managers are not suitable for connection to the dual ring. Due to their speed. fast Ethernet and Gigabit have largely made FDDI redundant. A FDDI network contains two token rings. it can also carry data. The single ring can extend the maximum distance. the backup line takes over with no perceptible delay.

HIPPI used a massive 50 pair cable with bulky connectors with simplifying the connections and increasing distances.accredited standards committee. as a way to simplify the HIPPI system then in use for similar roles. Meanwhile Fiber Channel offered simple interconnect simple interconnected with HIPPI and speed of up to 3200 Mbps on other and 800 Mbps on a single pair of twisted pair copper wires. but was soon upgraded to include a 1600 Mbps mode running on fiber optic cable. with ANSI standard approval in 1994. fiber channel signaling can run on both twisted pair copper wire and fiber optic cables. An effort to improve the speed resulted in HIPPI-6400. It was specially designed for supercomputers and was never intended foe mass market networks such as Ethernet. The first HIPPI standard defined a 50 wire twisted pair cable. HIPPI was first “near Gigabit” ANSI standard for network data transmission. but has since been replaced by ever faster standard interfaces.in the late 1980’s and into the mid-to-late 1990’s. Fiber channel is standardized in the technical committee of the International Committee for Information Technology Standards (INCITS). It started connection type for storage area networks (SAN) in enterprise storage. Despite common connotations of its name. Fiber Channel: Fiber channel is a Gigabit speed network technology primarily used for storage networking. running at 800 Mbps. HISTORY Fiber channel started in 1988. . Many of the features developed for HIPPI in the late 80s and into the 90s are now being integrated into such technologies as Infinite band. What was remarkable about HIPPI is that it came out when Ethernet was still a 10 Mbps data link and SONET was considered leading edge technology. as speed and far greater number of connected devices. which was later renamed GSN (Gigabit System Network) but saw little use due to competing standards. an American National Standards Institute (ANSI).

. similar to token ring networking.5 THROUGHPUT (Mbps) 800 1600 3200 6400 Fiber Channel Topologies There are three major Fiber channel topologies »Point to point: Two devices are connected back to back.. Fiber channel hubs exist to connect multiple devices together and may bypass failed ports. The switches manage the state of fabric. »FC1 The data link layer. but this is not required by the standard. namely: »FC0 The physical layer. »FC2 The network layer. connectors. which implements the 8bit/10bit encoding and decoding of signals. which includes cables.FIBER CHANNEL VARIANTS NAME 1GFC 2GFC 4GFC 8GFC LINE RATE (Gbps) 1.0625 2. fiber optics. The failure of one device causes a break in the ring. Fiber channel layers Fiber channel is a layered protocol. Often an arbitrated loop between two ports will negotiate to become a point to point connection. similarly conceptually to modern Ethernet Implementations. pin outs etc. »Arbitrated loop: In this design all devices are in loop or ring. This is the simplest topology with limited connectivity. It consists of five layers. providing optimized interconnections.125 4. consists of the core of fiber channel and defines . Adding or removing a device from the loop causes all activity on the loop to be interrupted.25 8. A loop may also be made by cabling each port to the next in a ring. Switched fabric: All devices or loops of devices are connected to fiber channel switches.

Also known as an EXPANSION PORT. Also known as NODE PORT. There are multiple. Also known as FABRIC PORT LOOP. . G_port or Generic port on a switch can operate as an E_port or F_port. The method was developed to replace the Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) system for transporting large amounts of telephone and data traffic and to allow for interoperability between equipment from different vendors. Ports The following types of ports are defined by the Fiber channel: E_port is the connection between two fiber channel switches. a thin layer that layer. NL_port is the node connection pertaining to hosts or storage devices in an arbitrated loop topology. a thin layer that could eventually implement function like encryption. FL_port is a fabric connection in a public loop for an arbitrated loop topology. Synchronous optical networking: Synchronous optical networking is a method for communicating digital information using lasers or light emitting diodes (LEDs) over optical fiber. Layer in which other protocols are encapsulated into an information unit for delivery to FC2. FC4 The protocol mapping layer. Also known as a FABRIC PORT. Also known as LOOP PORT. EX_port is the connection between fiber channel router and fiber channel switch. Also known as TRUNKING EXPANSION PORT. very closely related standards that describe synchronous optical networking. F_port is a fabric connection in a switched fabric topology. L_port is the loose term used for any arbitrated loop.»FC3 The common services layer. NL_port or FL_port. N_port is the node connection pertaining to hosts or storage devices in a point to point or switched topology. TE_port is the term used for multiple E_port trunked together to create high bandwidth between switches. Also known as NODE LOOP PORT.

but rather as generic and all purpose transport containers for moving both voice and data.SDH or synchronous digital hierarchy standard developed by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). such as the PDH standard or used directly to support either ATM or so called Packet over SONET/SDH (POS) networking. SDH can be thought of as a superset of SONET. . Synchronous networking differs from PDH in that the exact rates that are used to transport the data are tightly synchronized across the entire network.2 Mbps. and Canada and SDH in the rest of the world. greatly reducing the amount of buffering required between elements in the network. Structure of SONET/SDH signals SONET and SDH often use different terms to describe identical features or functions. sometimes leading to confusion that exaggerates their differences. which operates at 155. Basic unit of transmission The basic unit of framing in SDH is an STM-1 (Synchronous Transport Module level-1). Both SONET and SDH can be used to encapsulate earlier digital transmission standards. With a few exceptions. SONET or synchronous optical networking standard as defined from Telcordia. As such. The two main differences the two: SONET can use either of two different basic framing units while SDH has one SDH has additional mapping options which are not available in SONET. Although the SONET standards were developed before SDH. Both SDH and SONET are widely used today: SONET in the U. their relative penetrations in the worldwide market dictate that SONET now be considered the variation. it is inaccurate to think of SDH or SONET as communications protocols in and of themselves. made possible by atomic clocks. This synchronization system allows entire inter country networks to operate synchronously.S.

240 In single mode fiber performance is primarily limited by chromatic dispersion. Dispersion limits the bandwidth of the fiber because the spreading optical pulse limits the rate that pulses can follow one another on the fiber and still be distinguishable at the receivers.120 76.840 155.336 601. It encapsulates is data using a light weight SDH/SONET frame so as to be compatible at low with equipment designed to carry those signals.064 Bandwidth Line rate (Kbps) 51.810.752 9.SONET/SDH and relationship to 10 Gigabit Ethernet Another fast growing circuit type amongst data networking equipment is 10 Gigabit Ethernet. Attenuation . This differs from WDM systems transponders. However.120 159.621.960 150.244. 10 Gigabit Ethernet does not explicitly provide any interoperability at the bit stream level with other SDH/SONET systems. and light from real optical transmitters has non-zero spectral width.320 4.252.344 1.376 4.080 1.160 2.953.640 9.032 153.688 2.486. SHH Data rates SDH level and frame format STM-0 STM-1 STM-4 STM-8 STM-16 STM-32 STM-64 STM-256 STM-512 STM-1024 Payload (Kbps) 48. which occurs because the index of the glass varies slightly depending on the wavelength of light. which can normally support thin SONET framed 10 Gigabit Ethernet.016 79.280 39.813.202.488.626.972.405.520 622.504 38.944.976. including both Coarse and Dense WDM systems (CWDM and DWDM) that currently support SONET signals.

sometimes all on the same optical fiber. Although material absorption for pure silica is only around 0. *Lighter weight. electrical transmission is often preferred because of its *Lower material cost. *High electrical resistance. due to their important features: *Immunity to electromagnetic interference. where large quantities are not required. However. offsetting the increased cost. impurities in the original optical fibers caused attenuation of about 100 dB/km. In certain situations fiber may be used for short distance or low bandwidth applications. . Application: Fiber optic cable is used by many telecommunications companies to transmit telephone signals. Due to much lower attenuation and interference. *Ease of splicing. is caused by a continuous of material absorption. *Lower cost of transmitters and receivers. Other forms of attenuation are caused by physical stresses to the fiber. Comparison with electrical transmission In short distance and relatively low bandwidth applications. infrastructure development within cities was relatively difficult and time consuming and fiber optic system were complex and expensive to install and operate. internet communication and cable television signals. fiber optic communication systems have primarily been installed in long distance applications. *Capability to carry electrical power as well as signals. Rayleigh scattering. microscopic fluctuations in density and imperfect splicing techniques.Fiber attenuation. Mie scattering and connection losses. which necessitates the use of amplification systems. optical fiber has large advantages over existing copper wire in long distance and high demand applications.03 dB/km. Due to these difficulties. where they can be used to their transmission capacity.

*Much smaller cable size. .*No sparks. Optical fiber will indeed become the Communications Highway for the 21st century. Conclusion: The ideal communication network is the one which offers the customer a wide variety of services with fast and cheap access. The rapid development and employment of optical fiber communication will accelerate progress towards this goal. important in flammable or explosive gas environments.

BROADBAND COMMUNICATION .

1. 7. 2. 8. TOPIC Broadband Tri-Band Ethernet Digital Subscriber Line Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line MTNL Broadband Services Installation of ADSL Router UT-304R2 Configuring IP Settings in Windows XP Quick Reference . 5. 9. 6.INDEX S. 3.NO. 4.

Ethernet was named to describe the way that cabling. and narrowband (sometimes meaning just wide enough to carry voice. Having more than one frequency in one device is useful to enable roaming between different countries that peg the allowed transmission frequency at different values or to allow better coverage in the same country. DEC and Intel. carrying light throughout. information can be multiplexed and sent on many different frequencies or channels within the band concurrently. Because a wide band of frequencies is available. Ethernet is also used in wireless LANs.BROADBAND COMMUNICATION Broadband: Broadband refers to telecommunication in which a wide band of frequencies is available to transmit information. Tri-band: Tri-band phones are mobile phones that support three frequency bands. The most commonly installed Ethernet systems are called 10 BASE-T and provide transmission speeds up to 10 Mbps. Ethernet was named by Robert Metcalfe. allowing more information to be transmitted in a given amount of time (much as more lanes at highway allow more cars to travel on it at same time). An Ethernet LAN typically uses coaxial cable or special grades of twisted pair wires. also a passive medium could similarly carry data everywhere throughout the network. Ethernet: Ethernet is the most widely installed local area network (LAN) technology. baseband (a one channel band). for passive substance called “luminiferous (light transmitting) ether” that was once thought to pervade the universe. Specified in a standard. Ethernet was originally developed by Xerox from an earlier specification called Aloha net and then developed further by Xerox. or simply “not broadband” and sometimes meaning specially 64 Kbps). Related terms are wide band (a synonym). one of its developers. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL): .

simultaneously on the same telephone line. ADSL allows data stream speeds from 1. Since is operating on a different frequency. Using Broadband services 1. The ADSL port acts as an interface between the telephone cable and the computer. MTNL is the first service provider in India to introduce ADSL technology based Broadband Internet Services. enabling both voice and internet. Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL): ADSL is a high speed internet access service that utilizes existing copper telephone lines to send and receive data at speeds that far exceed conventional dial up modems. *High on value low on cost. *Simultaneous availability of phone and internet. xDSL refers to different variations of DSL. depending on the grade of ADSL service purchased. even when surfing the web with ADSL service. such as ADSL etc. the telephone can be used normally. MTNL Broadband services: MTNL is providing Broadband Internet Services (ADSL) to its users. A DSL line can carry both data and voice signals and the data of the line is continuously connected.DSL is a technology for bringing high bandwidth information to homes and small business over ordinary copper telephone lines.5 to 8 Mbps. One cable . It provides simultaneous availability of phone and Internet on the existing telephone lines. Connection and Installation: For extending the service. the telephone cable coming to the customer’s premises is connected to ADSL port using POTS splitter. It enhances the web browsing speed and consumes less power. The ‘POTS Splitter’ is used to separate voice and data signals. Main features of Broadband/ADSL service *High speed data download starting from 256 Kbps to 8 Kbps. *Help line and technical support.

Click ‘Login’. The MODEM and the splitter shall be connected as per the given figure: Telephone Instrument POTS Splitter Telephone Line Other Telephone Lines ADSL CPE USB or LAN Connection 2. . log on to web self care website http:/register. This is used for establishing connection to the MTNL Broadband network. Password: The password given by MTNL would be for the first time login and thereafter customer needs to change and customize his/her password.in 2.bol. 3. How to change the password for Broadband connection? 1. Username/login ID: MTNL will activate the Broadband service using customer’s MTNL telephone number digits as Username/login ID. MTNL Broadband comes with a user account consisting of a Username and Password.net.out of the POTS splitter is connected to the telephone instrument.

Account Maintenance Menu on left side. connect the power adapter to the receptor at the back panel of the Router and then plug the other end of the power adapter to a wall outlet or power strip. then read the instructions below: . The power LED will turn on to indicate proper operation once the power button is pushed. under the 4. that is. 2. -Power adapter. 5. Click on ‘Confirm New Password’ field re-enter the new password. 7. click on ‘Change Service Password’. -Telephone cable. select the login ID for which you want to change the password. we must change the IP network settings of the computer so that it is a DHCP Client. Click on the ‘New Password’ field and enter the new password. Click on the ‘Current Password’ field and enter the existing password.3. Installation of ADSL Router UT-304R2: The ADSL ROUTER UT-304R2 package contains the following components: -UT304R2 ADSL router. -Ethernet cable. the new password should have more than 4 alphanumeric characters. Configuring the Router To use web browser to access the web pages used to set up the Router. 8. If we are using windows XP and do not know how to change network settings. 6. Insert one end of the cable into the Ethernet port on the back panel of the Router and the other end of the cable to an Ethernet adapter or available Ethernet port on the computer. the computer must be configured to “Obtain an IP address automatically”. Connecting the Router to the computer 1. -CD ROM containing manual. A window showing ‘Change Service Password’ shall be displayed. In the table that appears on the right side. In the next window. First. A confirmation message will be displayed. Click on ‘Change Password’.

168. Select the appropriate time zone for the location. Next we will select the “Internet Connection Type” for the WAN interface. the ‘Home’ directory tab featuring the ‘setup wizard’ window opens. as well as other information related to the connection type. -Type ‘admin” for the Username and “admin” in the password field. the VPI and VCI numbers. Type in the ‘Username’ and ‘Password’ used to . Once we have logged in.1” into the URL address box. -Click OK. The initial step is to configure the ‘Time Zone’ used for the Router’s system clock. The Setup Wizard procedure consists of three general steps: -Set the time zone -Set the internet connection -Restart the Router When we setup the internet connection. we will need to enter information provided by our ISP. The setup wizard window that appears when we click the ‘Next’ button depends on what connection type we select. Then press ‘Enter’ or ‘Return key’. To begin using the setup wizard. Dynamic IP Address. The first setup wizard window lists a summary of the steps required to complete the setup. The connection types available in the setup wizard window are PPPoE/PPPoaA.-Open web browser and type “http://192. If we have been given information related to the connection type. Click the ‘Next’ button when done.1. Click the ‘Next’ button to begin setup. Most users will be able to use the setup wizard established the ADSL connection to our ISP. we will not be able to complete the setup. we will see a new setup wizard window. ISP has given this information to us. click on the ‘Run’ Wizard in the middle of the web page. The first pop-up ‘Setup Wizard’ window opens. static IP Address and Bridge Mode. PPPoE/PPPoaA Connections If we selected this connection type in the previous window.

Click ‘Next” when you are ready to continue to the setup completed window. -From the ‘Start’ menu on your desktop. Click ‘Next’ when you are ready to continue the ‘Setup Completed’ window. type in the new values.identify and verify account to the ISP. select the ‘Connection Type’ used for encapsulation. types in the new values. If we have been instructed to change the VPI number and VCI number. If we have been instructed to change the VPI number and VCI number.e. click ‘Network and Internet Connections’. . Select the “Connection Type” used for encapsulation specific to our service. click ‘Network Connections’. WAN ISP Gateway Address. -In the Network and Internet Connections window. Select the Connection Type used for encapsulation. type in the new values. Click ‘Next’ when you are to continue the ‘Setup Completed’ window. WAN Subnet mask. select the ‘Connection Type’ used for encapsulation. go to ‘Control Panel’.e. If we have been instructed to change the VPI number and VCI number. Dynamic IP Address Connections If we selected the Dynamic IP Address connection type. type in the new values. 0) and VCI number (i. -In the Control panel window. If we have been instructed to change the VPI number (i. change the ‘WAN IP Address. Configuring IP Settings in Windows XP: Use the following steps to configure a computer running Windows XP to be a DHCP Client. Click ‘Next’ when you are ready to continue the ‘Setup Completed’ window. Bridge Connection If we selected the Bridge connection type. Static IP Address Connections If we selected the Static IP Address connection type. Primary DNS Server address and (if available) Secondary DNS Server address as instructed by ISP’. 32).

SONET and SDH have a limited number of architectures defined. •BLSR (Bidirectional Line Switched Ring): BLSR comes in two varieties. the ring nodes adjacent to the failure reroute the traffic “the long way” around the ring. and optical amplifiers. right-click on ‘Local Area Connection’. The three main architectures are: • Linear APS (Automatic Protection Switching): This involves 4 fibers: 2 working fibers in each direction. Click the “OK” button. This architecture allows for efficient bandwidth usage as well as protection and. thus copying if deterioration in one copy occurs due to a broken fiber or other failure. and two protections in fibers. modern day optical fibers can . as such are sometimes called “collector rings”. Because the same data is sent around the ring in both directions. BLSR can operate within a metropolitan region. A selector egress node determines the higher quality copy and decides to use the best copy. Rather. Click on the ‘Properties” button. wavelength division multiplexing. SONET/SDH Network Architectures Currently. -Select “obtain an IP address automatically” by clicking once in the circle. is key in understanding the almost worldwide usage of SONET and SDH for moving digital traffic. -In the ‘General’ tab of the ‘Local Area Connection Properties’ window. two redundant copies of protected traffic are sent in either direction around a ring. The computer is now ready to use the Router’s DHCP server. Unlike UPSR.-In the Network Connection window. a 2-fiber BLSR and 4-fiber BLSR. •UPSR (Unidirectional Path Switched Ring): In a UPSR. Limitations of optical fiber communication: Through a combination of advances in dispersion management. BLSR does not send redundant copies from ingress to egress. BLSRs switch at the line layer. then click ‘Properties’. highlight ‘Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) under “This connection uses the following items” by clicking on it once. UPSRs tend to sit nearer to the edge of a SONET network and. or will move traffic between municipalities.

Intermodal dispersion is eliminated. or spreading of optical pulses as they travel along the fiber. Dispersion For modern glass optical fiber.1504 or 22221504 Email address of Broadband helpdesk: Helpdesk.in Broadband Tariff Plan: . Dispersion in optical fibers is caused by a variety of factors.in.in For Tariff plan details and booking of Broadband connections -Dial 1500 or 22221500 Mail Server address O/G Mail Server (SMTP) smtp. http://delhi.in I/C Mail Server (POP) pop. http://delhi. Intermodal dispersion caused by the different axial speeds of different transverse modes. Because single mode fiber supports only transverse mode.dial toll free tel.mtnl.carry information at around 14 tetra bits per second over 160 kilometers of fiber.no.in DNS Server address .in .in or 1504@bol. Quick Reference: MTNL Delhi Website http://mtnldelhi.net.in Web link for Email: http://mtnldelhi. the maximum transmission distance is limited not by attenuation but by dispersion.delhi@bol.net.in/ Complaint booking dial 198 Broadband helpdesk: .bol. Engineers are always looking at current limitations in order to improve fiber optic communications.net.mtnl.http://mtnldelhi. limits the performance of multimode fiber.net. and several of these restrictions are currently being researched.net.bol.

bol.1.net.168.bol.net.179.net.net.in Web link for Email address registration http://register.bol.in/adsl1/download.in/billing/ Link for ADSL Interface: http://192.net.94.243.70 Web link for Broadband user guide: http://bol.in Web link to view bill details: http://bol.1 .Preferred DNS (primary): 59.243.70 Alternate DNS (secondary): 203.in Web link to view Usage: http://register.htm Web link for Broadband Account Password change: http://register.

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