-

-

1_. ._

-:1111~ ,A,I:AI~I=lijllll: 11'IJI~I'I)'S, ss.

6 1'ltAI:TII:I: TESTS

IMalllcoim M,ann & Stevie laYlllon~ .. ,Know'les

_TEST 1

LI:5TENIIIING

S~EC,TION! 1 'Q:u,esti;on:s J~JQ '''TE5,(1.'':.01 Q,[:f,estiom J ~J

Choos~ the eerrect Idter~ A~ I, nrC., lxa:mpte

.Mr l'bcum:on: has JWi't been

@ wrwting r,epoi'ts, on the ,PUip.i.ls., lrea.ding ab o,u't l!ilep:J(!Itpis' pr:og~ss;. 'e: sfeilingtoa class II)fp~p.~ts,.

I The camping ~npwiU be he1d.

A tfI...e f~J]Qwjn;g mOijl:t~.,

I, fr-om ~ffiIre 2:4111' t:ollle 216(1; .e C G,ver lit five .. d:ay ped.od.

:2 J~_mie's oomplam.t: aholut last yea;~s kip'Yr.l!s th~t A the camp w:asn;~ b~!!!: enough.

II he W'acSuMappy wh~rueat :tffile CiiUTI.p. 'iC he bad p.robl~'msifigd~~g the ca:mp.

,3 The campsill:e' .~ ~oC:fl!t:ed .A in rbe lake Dj:Stt.ict I, in Ca:r'lsle.

,e. he-S'~de .LakeDnnrut.

4\ lmnileth:mks thefo:re;sts 'Mll.be good fo.r chUd:ren.who A are-used to nli.l,b:ltafe.

I, live ttl! dt~s.

C Hkesp'~,

5 Each. d~~Wd. w~Will pq AI!I!ss:man £4a fi~glWt 1'!lfp:~~~y£5. C: more than £10,.

lquestIQ~, r,emem!!ier

~liat the: 'IrifOJrmBrtiolillllilipt bEl ,ft_Jq1!f(!s!ied 1l111d~t W!!I~;i!'! the' ~:ordimg. Ust. fOr Ildeas, liIot

. partitlil'larWH,l!Isand p'Jlldses.

COfl!lpe!me:tbe senm:e!lil.()esbe1ow~

Wr]!:e NO ,M,DH THA.N 'fH..R:BB WORDS .ANViO;R A, MlMB:E.R: for each afJSWef.

6, A:Clel'tffiley <I!!!'dve. tbfl ch~IDd!rIeillw'illIhave :a ~~ __ . ta,! 8.o'cloclt.

7' On &i~Y:rclay mormng the c:b:ildrel:1li. '. get~p at _

8, During ~he 't;a1t. bact" sesSiion. the ,cllllclr:efi can _

9' On Sunday the di,Udr1€n:wiLIg9 O!.'1l a ,dlay tdp' to visit .~ __ ~.' 101 A~6 ·d'dock on S1l1Ind<llY tllile C:h~~d~nwm be o\n,fihe: ~~~~~

8 l1E1ST 1

SECTION:! Ques.ti@.ns J 1-2>0 .. TES1i1UOl 'Ques:ti'IJ.HS 11' ~J5

CClmpwre tihe semences be~ow.

Wrn~ NO MORE TiltH THllEE WORDS .A.NDIOR .A. NUMBER .for each. ~wer.

:U Th.e man rusthe. ~~~~ ofStllLlld.e!]![ Serv;!ces all.R:3!dstock,

~.:2: Tfue _~~~~~~~~~~.~re all mroillrued as .5Ll!l!de:n:ts I.l!tthe unlV"ersHy.

13 Th.e smde~t d_isc:O~lIt eardsallew studel1!t'S to save ill' to . _

per cent wten eaHng Otlil~

~.4 Sfild,en.mi:rJIt:ere!i:~e:d~n j'o:illl~nga club can srugn ~p onwoolk:days between

~~~~~~~ .·o~ocl;:.

AMwer ~hequ;esti0ill.:,S he~OW';

Wn~e NO MOlUi TRAJ'q· mUEWO:IDS .AND/OR A NUMBBRror ,each .alls.\>!If~:r.

When JOIilIIim'e t:o fOi!mll~il!5h~~ef .q,uIl~IQm. N!I"I'Ull7li!biaf thift tiile ql!leStiOM .i!lU! tnl tilIel Silli1leomer as~he ImoffiillH.~!1I.1i!ihe' fceti.:t:!Pd.iog. ~it~Jil"liemk.r~@,smk till~he

word 'limit

S,ECTION.3 Q:Uesti,OHS 21-3(1 .. JEn 1-,13:

QN6S.t:ia.ns 21: 6N":I.:2:2

Cboose t~e oo'r~~t len~j'> A."B, or 'Co 11 Simons main problem ls ~ha:t he

.A diJ.ia8l1~e8Mitb ,",onn': olHhe ~~Q!I!.IJ\Ce.::;. B '~Slil't find. some (lEtbe so~roe:s. Cd!Qesn't .kn:owwbal. soueces 10.I,ead ..

D

22 Wlii.cll! a!!;WtnO'f has S,rmon .found. mos't use6ul?

A m:itaker I, "ohnsnrn. 'e ~d!m:aJn

Qu:ecStioHS 2,3:-25 Com(p~e1etbe t~b1e be1o,w;

Write NO ,MORB: I'llA.N TlI1Ul'E WORDS .AND,I{OR. ,A .NUMB.FR fur each o:li:[lswer.

HISTORY Of SCmNlTIRC ME,TH.OD

Use o:fe:trllmma!tlon~ 23 . ~

t!llea;tme:!l~ ~~d prognosls.

l W.id~pooad. ailllmGru:gh :!u;ilInys;t~ruru believed! in d:t;I,e power IQIf

24 ~ Ptaltoms 'inl!liUf!n.tL. .. I,

Comf~f1ie: the .€lOIW ,cb.anbeJow~

'W:r.i.we NTJ.HOlm THAN ONE WORD'for ,~~.ch. answer.

ST.EPS IN 'THE SC1IBNTIF.IC MITHOD

WheoJ.!:llil ~ve:w «Imp~e,te' ,a flQ'W,dlOlrt, lremember~Q l!sltenf.- 5eq!Jle!iltin_gWQr:fi~dhl:iI_S t:l1e111,ali\dl ~extasfhey liIellry,ftI lundel'SitandOfie St~5 o:f

(lite pr~~B~~.

)0

-----

S.ECTION 4: Quatj'ons .3:1-4D 0, TESl'~l.J04 IQ!uesUO\ns 3.1-33

Answer the questions bern ow.

Write .NO .MOim TI1;4N T1lRE1 'WOlWStbr le~c:h ,answer;

Comp1e~ l'heno:res be~ow.

WI~re NO MOlm 'THAN THRE.EWORDS A.ND/OR A NUMBER for ,~cll a.nsvrer;

~,Tate St.lves LOQlIt~on; ComwaJl

Built on sHe of:: 34 ~~~~~~~~_~~

HCIIl5!eiJIi.l'\I:3!5 ~~~~~~~~~

Opening d~t:e: 1.993

E.'xbillibi:ts:36 ~~~~~~ • includirng. St~ves Scho~rn

., T:ateBrilLttin

Lee .... twO,I::I: Westmin.s;te:r

Op~n:in![l dat~! 3,'7 __ ~~~~~~~~~ Ih,ll~. 0.0 s~t:e of: c~d pnscu:iIi

four.u:Jier: Sir Henry T:a~

E:dIib~t'S::38, . 3ilJiJd .. mod!e:mul

WIrH:!!lIy~l~m~o ~~t~"~d'olii't tete ,any :a1fls.wers.lb'!aM. IR:emern<lbi!r '(Q~ ldum la~e , l1iIilltis ba WN!ng.,illik$~. s(I.m:ake a pes!: '1 yGu~e' IliIOhl!lIlI'e.

• 'Th~eLNe:rpool Openiqg da~e: ~988

IExhtMts; disp1a.ys foom Ta;~e Col1ect:i<n:n .ud 19 _

HO/lIsed. in: 4iJ ~~~~~~~~

DREADING

, 'IUBADING PASSAGE 1

You should s,peod about 20 minutes on Qu,estionJi 1-13. whichare based on Reading P'assage'l below.

A

One m:isgu'ided legacy of 'Olfw!\er ,1,11 hundred ¥l!ars cf w~iJring, on bililngllaliiillfAl iii that Chlldren,'s :lnteJligenG:e will suffer if they (tIne :btlingual. Some' ahne earliest ~fCh i'n~ bilingualism e~m,il'ied wkether bilingual (!hill:dfen weffl' ahead 10l' be1tiiilldl mOllloling,uiilP children ,o'IfIIQ lests. IFrom~l'I'e 1 '92e", tbfOUgh to ~he 119'&1s" ~tJ;;.e tendem~ waN tol1nd m on(dingl,Jla~ ,lindlen ahead of biling,uals Ofil'~Q~sts. The ®fldllsion was ~h:a~ billfl,guiil,l,chiidreA we~ mefiIIUIlly QG!nfu,sea. IHa'1Iiing'two lang!.l!!ii!ge& ill '~he' bral"" it was silT:d\ dilUJlpt'@G e,'iedi,.re·th~n'~iWlg,,1t was!;)r'gued that hilrvln91 one we' l·deyef0ged '1;':U'I9Iu,ag:e wa~rsl.ilpe:f;lor ttl having two, ha'rrf"'deveklp'~di ir:al1'lg uags.

B

Thelidea that, bilil1QIoI'sllS Ma,)' ha,lIe a lower tGl,:slJ1ll1 ex;ISl~am:Ofl9 mClfl¥ peopl'e, Pittic:u!lialrly llinonolilflguaI8.lil)wel!er. we new know' that 'tJhis eeI!'ly ,lIesearGh WliS misClollc;eiiiVed ,and

i nCOFl';ect. FlfSt such res-ea ~m ,oftell'l Jgill~bijiIi1l"l9l1J:als ,iii 111 IQ te!St in the~r WeakE!li language

- !l!ISUailly EJilgli:Sh. Kad ~i'linguais been tes~ in Welsh or Spanl'sh 011' Hebrew. a diiel'ellt reSllillt m~ hillVI been found,,1ille· tesUng of b)lIhflgualill waS, th us ulll'lfalir. 5econd~ Inke was not oom,pa~ed wit'h Ili,I(f!,. emllngual:!i tended Ii) OO'ml frem, for e:~a~plel im:PQVe.rish~ New Yor,ko ~r AJr;a,IWels1h bil;CkgKl1l!:!f'I!,dIS, Th'E' rrI!::IIlGlblQ!d1a1,s, ~endedro come' ~m mOIle middle,dai~ Urbain fam'ilies.'Woi1~hrg daS'i! bi!I'iI'l!911lJ:lls we~,e often eompa)relll with middle dl~iisrlmailQlh'lgUl~liS. '5<01 the Ilres!~lt;s were mere 'i~ykll be due I,a sl)tillill das5' dilerel'la!'5 'thaln 1!a1flguage diff~rentes.. The compati!Soi1 of MQlRlo'lrifl!'!':Iu~I"" and bilrlf1gu:a[s'WasJ!lJ!'lI~a~r.

C

The most recelln~e\ltchf!liQm Canada~ the United Stamsand Wales suggests: thait lbi'llinQ'l.Ials are, at l!ea~C~Jilquillll to monol'inguliills 01'11 10 tests. Wilen billh'i€ll,l!~di!i, ~lIlve'tw~' wel~· developed la_l'\g,uag~s, Onelle reSaiiilrdi liteta~ll te ,~alled bala.nctd bllfngfJ'a'~s)'. bJlil"lg.uals ten d ~0 show iii s'liiglhtS'~PJ~r&~~i~ fn It!. t'E'.5,3 c:ompal'ed Wi~11 MD'.Ii'Ioling:uals. Th]5 is tne r~l~'e-d p~ologka11 wisdoliiill o~' the lffl'o,n'U!!wrt aniiil is ~aed newsmr ,raisi]l'!f.g blJ11II11,g'~IlI(hildr.en. lake" for -exaMple, ,I!~ dlU~1 wl'ku;an ,olpearate in ,eitheir langu~.ge ~n the ~ulUl(ulu m ii"! ~the school. Thaif ,d'llkl [is Ittlly'oo be alilea,dr 01'1 10 tests '~mpi2red 'With ~silmil:ar bame ge!'l.de.r! S'O~mall class and age) monOlJ'ln,g'UIIs.. far 001'0 m'a'klng peo,p'le mentally (onfused, bilingualism is fil9jN' associated wilth ill mll'd degree of inteHec~l.Ial superiority.

D

Oi'l,e l!'IOte ot,Ytutlon Il'u~ed,s 10 be sOlJnd:ed~ I:Q fest:s proba:bly do !lot mg'ilisltJ!'e' i!il~eIligem:;e'.

IIQests, m:eaiSUfEi a sffl'alll silim ple ,of ~h.e br,mu'i:lest ii::om::ept of int:elligeJlce.l'Gl. ;W>S&;S iliA:! S illpl;y ,'aper arn,dIIP~!'Idll t.ests ~here ,onl,~l1ght al\\i:ffi wron 9' an!i'W~rs al~e a'll~. ISi1I'll1 intelUigel1!~e ~ mnte;d IIdP in sL~u:h l1&g:n:U and ',"I'IUQngl f;len:d~1 and pap.er tests?" I:slfll'~ 'tl~E!reawQdE!ii' varie:~;y"of' Illnemge;I'ICfffi th~t I}re imponant IFi ,e'lIety,do1Y fUiFlCtiQiiI im 9 and everyd~ I !fe-~

E

Many ql::tesfrQ.nS I'IiOOd an,!!wering'. Do WI! onlY define.an illtelligen~pe(son as '!iornebodry wile obtains a htg'h~or'lHln an IkQ tesn' AnHhe enly inte lig:ent. Reople tholSf wllo belo!lgl t:o hfgh IQ ,oIlfQlalF1isatiol'ls Siuc::h 3S MENSA?' ls, s:hell',e social in~eJllgel'icel fin!!!' cal il'ilt:eHigen£e,

112 TrESfli

militiU)' iin~111i[!Jel'l,oe, tllillli;l rketingr il'ilit:el~'ig'encej m o~o'ritl'l~1 lrnll.elll ~~renOi!, pc\~i~hz<!iJ ill'loo,11Iigen~e~ An.~ aJlIl~r i,Ade:edl any, Qhhese fOrms elf ~nw.eq~!ge:l"I(;e m easuir,s.dl twa :SiMpfe p~nc::iI and pap~r lei E;S~ whk:b 'dem!Jlnds a ~iIjiIEl~:e., :a~~e~:ble:, f;;('.IrW'El.ct sah,JliblfJlI1oo eat;h question? !)e,i n~flgwhat CQi'fni~u~es JlI1~mgeiliit behilollQu r reqUlifS ia' l~e~sorihll~1 value jl!l~d~ll!:menrt ,ilS~Q' W~nutype of beha,vi~l,iIr,. I;m~lMnifit Iki,!llcl@f ,elll~Qnis of rnor~' worth.

F

Urue cu rte:ht sta~e rI1:if p~clloiO'gi~11 wi~Gml art;lout bmngua1: rChiil_d~tI ~ '(hiill!; whll!l't'!

two lill nglJlag~ ar~ ~eli'tli,vel:y 'weU de'iilell)ped. bll~l'I;g!J!a~~ harl;jeth1'nk~gl adv,\l'"Q:!',Jl!S OVeir ImDJn~lingLlaliS. Tilik'll! ilirn ~l>filmr?le. A ~ni:rrd ~s, a~~e~ a 5impJe question: HDW' Ita ny ruses Qll'lIyou tlmil!l!lk: ~Hof;a brick? Some dhl'td~en give two, or t!:nlfee,mswers (JInly .. nl'.!Y ,ca,n !h]n'lk.,ef Irn.dlldmng waH$'\ building' a I\ou~ and ~ut1!i1i~~nat liScalli. A:noCMr ,h]lds"li~~lies a,wa¥. Plfuril'lllQ Qut: tdea~.(lf!l;e .afi:erlheother; bJQddng: uIJP'~ rabblt hale, tll;earkJ]ngi.'l Wind1@w" iJsh''1~' asa ~jml ,ba~h, as a plul'lilJ'bllifile', as al'la'bi&l'~iU !oolptu ~e im ,i.t!l'l art eclli!li1blJiOI1l.

G

Reseatdt. ,!u::m~$ ~Ulelrent 1I:ontiH'ieniU o~'j;he wefJ~i !Show:5~~at ;~mf1lg u:alstmdto 'Ife n·,or,e fluent fJ:E¥xilb~e,c fI!11~fnal ~n d E:m~II'jQrare ~n their al"1l!Swef5, kI' ~h]~, t)l1~e'of'Oi~e,n~,nded Iq ~~~tjiD!1Il. 1:he' person wiloc~n tl%iI1lk of i, few: I!!I'iIISW€!\ro.S· ~ends to' 00 lel1ffl.ed;a oo~wtge{f;l'~ thll'JJker. They ,elrn~~:e cnto,i'll few 'ilt:~ep'!able 'l;1onv,e'ntiorna~ !1I1'lI<1l,'weJIIN,. P'el;),ple wh:Q,~hitnl~ .Qf 11~11l; of,~'ifm.li'el'l,t u~es'wr ~fllii.!£ua! ifit!lMs, te.g~ a brh::kl ~il'll~il,n,. cardbo!SlN 00)(1 are calll~ diY@'rgE!rj."'iV~rg:~rs n~~ iili !Uaril~ ,o,f al'l!l,WEMiltJ) a ql!l~tnon IliO~ i!lrtl' ~mj;t!! ~n;a~1iie al'!d'1iIIue:nt: '~n th,eir flrMn kin!!.

H

There' an:! other llIim~nllmefl~ inl)hink:ing wi;tgre 1I,,"i~~a~ maitely '1IThallllin(lIi!(jJ' 'i::li:I'irnguarllll n:a~

I1!rave tremFlor'iilr)\"il!ndo«!aslo:m1!llIyp€:rmane;n~ adval'lltag,es 'over m.QI'II,o~tnglJals~ ~nC:feasedr ~l1'Is:iirllJity ~e oomu:iII'I!JIl'lkatlJo:l'l, a s:nghtl~ :speedf.er m~velJill'l,eli1uhrougl:ru tI':Je stag,e'sof CQ9Iniithi\e"' devel(lfpJI1E!f1lt •. iiI ncl being leS'~ 'flxed Qm~ne SOU IfI~$ ~f wQn;lS' atr'ltlt rrnne ~~n~rett on 'lIIl~ mll!3n]l1g (jIfY\l\Or:d~ Sl;iIGh abilitr tm 1!liIlI!)l!i',e away bill, t~!e sO~l::!d ~fwo:rnd!~ ·al!lld fix an~h~ ~.eall'lil'iltg ofw@~~tll tends~o,ltiea, {~e:mpl~muY:JI .1i.lhtintag,!! for rcln~liigU'.a~:S .ar~lJjl"ldl thi!' ;ag:esfo1Jr~o, si'itThiscl~'!Iafilitage me!!, me!:!11 ~n initla,l head J~I~~~n II('amill'!!3ltQ !'(lad a'!1!d le~ming'~th1n'k:.iI'~Q:ui la1ngua§e"

1biliflguai~~~m; ihe '!bilit/ to s~ak ilWQ 1!ll1gllglg11~c ~()nolin9u_at: usingl (Jrspeaking anil, OAe' ~1U'a~:e

Comp~eJ~e the sen~enQlls.

ChQo!l!1l NO ."ORB THAN THREE WO,M>$ fWi!ll ~be pa;ss!!!g~ for ,c::acha:nswIlT;

I Fo:rmore tb~n .. ~ ~~~ ~, books ;andi .tid~'Sw,~~~ wrong abo1l1~ the ill!1eJllgence ofbH:ilili.SJl.lial ,MMrero.

"1! ""

fo[approxirnrOltcC!!']Y 40 Yf:;lrs, 'lhr~" was a n1.isrtaken beli,ef that chidre.n "vll.o ~pote two,

lOO1gu~gl:,s were: ~~ _

It. was oo:n:mnonly th:ough!t tha~.pe~)p]e w:i:th. a 81n~e _

were more ~ffKUv'e think!1;lrs.

D ...

- Q:ue.s'tiOftS 4-.9

Readi.ngP:a:ssa:ge·.~ .ha~ eightpa-rargmp.hs. A.-H.

Choose tbe comet h~adjns f.or paQIgrapbs :O-OttCim th,e !llist Ii)f headi~~ below.

Usl QfHeadinp

jj No, single definilio.D of intelligence

1ii :P3!ulty ·tes,uD~, wrong concl.'Ilsmon

ill Webh ftesearch Stw.Ppo:rts 10' restlng

ii\r BeW3_xe: wnadequate for ·tes;,ting i1nkHig~ce

v Imerna:l:iolnlailll I''e'se.mil. sU.PlI'orts biIDmgUBSRI

vi Current thougl:tt on the .;}dv:an~la8t bilinguals. have viil Barly beJie~ :regardi:ng bmnguaUsm

vDi. MonoHnguals. ahead ofthe:lr billingual peers :iix !EJrempHfyin,g the bilingual ;advmt~

Enmple 41

S

(1 ,

8

'9

PlJl'a:g,rapb A ;Pa;ragx.apb :1, P.ar-agraph c Par.a:gnpb D PaI<1graph E PanlgrnphF Pairngraph G

Wilen you have to mlWhq~lPph l'iead., bI ~gApks~ .ski1lileKh pu~pf! ~I tum Illedde what the mfinlll!lOlnt Qfdle ~pb is. thelii find a heading tt118t: mean5~he~me diling.

'Write

no the f6110wing :statements sgree with the infonnatiol1'l gWen in Reading Ptss:ag!l! I ~

- . .

10 Balanced bilingMials have nl'o!tie permanem than tempo.rary adwnlDages. o:vermo.!iliofu:lSll3iIs.,

ll. Often bmngualis ceneentrate I'iI'i.ore on the' way a WClr,d SQWlIds tbailIli on its meanin__g.

12 MonoUnguai~s~earf;i to speak at a YOlllEl.ger age than bilinguals. 13 .B.[lffinguaffis ffiu~n. s.tatt;ing .s(;~ool mi'.B~~p~ckup' (:ert~n. ;SkIis:mster than. mOiJlo]~n:gu:a1s.

TRUJ! FALSI NOTGIVf;N

[fthe .slatemelillt .ag~s Mth the wn:lbnnat~o.n if the :s:tate:ment (Qnt:radiwcts dl.e j:n;mr-matiOR :if there is 110 information on tbWs

llEAOING PASSAGE 2,

You should spend about. 2i1J mjnn!lil!~S Oil'll Ques;tions 14-,26't whkbare based. on Reading Passage 2. bel!ow~

PeQ,p'!e who, are' grossly overweig h~. wh I:l smoke hei!iVlly or drink: exce!Ssiwly ,c0ul'd' Itle defliedl surgery Or drug~,lhe N!:)'~rDnalllnstirute 'far Health and Clinic:~IIEXCc~~lel1l~e ,tNKE), whidh !!Ichtlse'5 on the dfnii,cal ill'ldc0St effediy~lfIe5$,pftrea~'IT!mt!i for ~lhe Nadoflill Health 5ervl(lE! (NHSl 'in th-eUK" sald that In some cases ttlelSeff"llnflictad' hatuliie o,fr a" lIIne~'5'5hou'ldl be ta~n in'l~Q' acc:aunt,

Nltili stressed th.ii!,t poople' S:~u:lUlld not be discl1imltlalt:ed against by dOCKlfili .!i~mply ~e,ause ~ne,lI' :smoked 'or 'Were ,cw,el"We~g'ht, h's rullngl sh QUild ap~lv O!1llty ~f th,e tre~bm.ent WillS, nl~e:t, toe

be lesseffeClivE!. or m~t werk imet:iulise chin un'beaJlthy hil'bk. Thie'ag:em:y ilso il'iliSisred tnilt i~5 decis'ion 'WillS rlst an ,ed'ict'for the W:llol,e N'HS bUrt gui'dan(;e f0t it$ own appraisal mmm,ittees when ~e:adllngijudgemen:t:s ,on new dl'iJ!.lgls or prooe,dure:s. But 'tilile effect is likel!)' to be the silme.

NlCE is iii pow~dur bod, ,illnd the cause of m'Uciirl ,oontmveisy.1 [ is seen!:)y SIO:me as a !new waY' of rationing NIHStfe;Jtmel1ll" A<;lo.$.$ the UK, primary caretrl!sts (Pas) regl:lllairly' wait lfor malTY months mr II NICE: decision lbefuJ'e ag~,eejl'l9. ~Ofufid a, flew tiJeil,tl'lll.:e'nt. (lmegml!.lp df primary G!lf,e tlfUmc is a head e,f NIICE. Thil'~ Pct!l ill'! ~5~ Suffolk have iii lre'ady decided 'ti'lM obese pe~,p!l:e w~n.dd !iU;art be ,entidedt:o hav,s h~p or [biee repla-cen'lLe i'I~~ ul'I1lle!!l.5 tlll'm¥ It~i5!:: weight. The' grellA,p said the rifiskli ofoperalii"l9 ~:r'I ~heM w.eregr:ea!tet; ttle s1IlJrgel'Y :may be· less sl.u:,~ssfilll andl 'the J!ZIints would wear OlJllt S'ooner. ~t was a~knDwledg~ that tlllEl !3Iedslon WelL! I~d al:so save m~n:ey.

NI.CIE, said no priiQr:ity sh"Gl>lld be gi,y.en w paltie,1\t;ii bjj~ on, [noome. social !:Ias;s,or social roles M dllerefllt ages wltett'~Qns!dt<'ing the cost leffectilw~ss of,a ~~realtment.ll?aHents: sMu'l,n not be dfisCJtim~nated ,it!al!'!rn on 'me giro!;ilflds of .age ~ither; unle"Si!l, a,ge fi!asa direct' fet~li100 to the cQndltlon. NICJE has alliea-dyru'l!ed' that IV,F' shaull'£! btiwaUable Ol'l the NHS'\o wom'eil'i ;ageEl~'l: «I, 39~ ii$,~he ~reiil,tMent h.srS leS's chance ,cd' 5UCCe:5"S, I'n ol!~'e~' WQlil'leJl.1 t ,!)ls'Q recGmm:ends that flu dl11!Jl!i's, silhoold be av,ai !a'c1~ te owf-.65S) ,iI>5c'l:dre;r' P'OOple ,ilJ'e mll'lr:E! 'v<ulwrerable.

Otut NICE ,i\lIISO ~id U1\t!t if ~JfNlidlk~~d fac~ou n'lea nt~hilt dlrugs or tJl!eatn'lEi"~ W~uld be

l'eJs c'linic:ally ,and C.ili!il e:rt:~c~iv:e, '~h;icS m riI:Y need to, be cDlisJdered when produC!ing ild:Vke fur the NHS. They stat>e 1:ih<lJt '-if 'Ehe self-I nBiCWd caus;e of~he fOI'l(liiitiOA owllll influence the Wil&ty "ol.l1iCQme of , a, IparE:l!cUlI!ilJr '~atment,then i~ may be ~ppropriate to take' ~hls; Int,o, account in some dj:"um~tan~es:They ~cknQwiledge 'thaEit can be difficult to Idecide whether an 1II'!le~s, sud! a5; !11 h"ea~rt attack: was selM nfllcmd in iii ,li11'1rl"~f. "A ~tleIlU'51I'11dMdllJal dKU{l'lSfaft~eS, may' on IIY be'ta~-en ~nto aa;E)l;Jlfltwmen the~ willi be ,i! n impact 01'1 ~he d il'ii~~~1 ,and COllit ,ef(~ivel'les;s of tihetrea:tm:ent:

~nif Michael Riltw!lns" the' d\alrmarn, of NII:CE, sill;~dl: 'Qn ag;e we awe ~'ery d~a r - Q:ur adiVi~5!Z1ry grCILII,ps- sihouk'i ~"O'E ffi'alke reoommeniliiationiStll"at deiPlilfld (1:1'1 pe,o,p'lle's ages when Ihe<y ,ima considering tile "use of !II partilZl:!lllar treatm.enf, u!iless '~here 1;5 dear 'e\iil/dena! of

ill difference in i~!i elifei:ti\ileness for panfcullall: age-groups. Even thefl~ age shoYI~ !;In!y be l!l'!feRitioned when il provides the only pradi~1 'm<alrke:r' of rl:s~. 'or benefit NICE \lliilu:es. peop!e" equally. at. alII ~ges:

'lESlll '15

D

But SIeve W'ebb.the ltberalDe'i'l'locrat hel1lth spakes'MaJn. sa'id tkere was, a ,danger of primary care ~msHftolldwiil'l~1 tile .$illlil!i! ~o1i.!rse·Q!fa'til'en, "Tht;l,~e is, 1M e;:i([Yl5e f;br€aS:h-s~i'iipped hOSJ,pl'als den,Tl'Ig tre,~tment 'to peo;p;!e who~ :llifestyle '~bey dtsappfove ,of: he ~aid. 'Treatment decisiions inllol\lilll"ig,peCiplel~ 11fe:st)i'!e :lhould be based 1011'1 cllinlca,l re$(lnlli, notg,r,o'l,n'ldis of 'OG st. The NHS is theile' til' k~IPI peo"le healilhy, :not tiGi ~i~ in, jL!:dg~m1,ent en individucal' llillen¥~~:

A. '5PQke~man for '~ICE ,said: 'We WaRt to IrieiliSS'!I.!re! Ipeopletila't ]n producingl our guidam::e we' eire not gOiiii'lg"tO la!l!te inlti;)~Qnsidefi1:iQI'I Whethe:~er n ~t ,allpartilCU Iii! r condil,tion was or ls !elf·lihli1~~lied'.The 100111)' cil"C-lJimstar:me~, wlhere tb.at may be takeVi inwillC~OI!IInt i<l! wli'u~I'E!' ~h'a~ tr@a'bmenll m'iI" be 11'e:Si effecb~Ve bedlLl:se Ci!f lifestylechG:i:res:'

Jonathan Ellis; the poUcy manager at Help 'the Aged. ,said it W,ji,5, pleased NICE iha,di Ii,nally' shawl'lll!il1"! understanding oHhe importilnoe Of'tii:cliilin.g age d:isor'imlnattIQI'iIl.'Wlhllte this ~s, iii m~I)tlIr fea~ ttn!r~ is ;5j1lil some way too go tel" b.a11il1$h the: ,evlde'!"I~ il'l l'IefelU i.ge di~Imlm'i'tJl!i;l" '~I·h1t e.xi!5u withlnl healthl Ga~l! If!l'ViceS; line sald'The NIiS {!'lOW ha'5 m'Ycih to learn. lt w1l1enjure a fairer deal anll~OIund ~r Glde:1" pee,le IliJfiing the NtiS:

QI:JuU.{Jm 1'4-1',6 Choose THRlE[ettefsA-H.

NB YCi'I.u: mS'W'ers maybe giveEl jm any Im;:d;et.

Which TH~ of the following: st!IJtem.ents,at,e true ofNICE.acoo~-ding to th.e ~f!xt~ A, :~t :lieels, ,tfI~~ peOlp,le w.i:th, bad he31~h.llalbn:s shoUld net :r,eoeive: ~reattJient

B :It is an alene>" that offerrs ,advLce kI' the NHS.

C Some ,of rh.e ITepor~:the1 prioduce d1scrhulnate ag~stthe elderly; D :~'it ins,iSts its decjs~on should otd,y be applicable in. ceruu:n. sl'tlli!llatio:ns. E it is an ageDcy thart ,controls: all NHS pobey lIegriin,m treetments,

F Its, powersiiu,"I~: not ,as ex:te:mdve a-s these oflh~' NHS.

G Many :IICT$, ba®e: 'tbewr d.eds~ODS: ,oonce;mi..og fliIilndirn,g en. enes made by NICE. H It 'hu made a statoement that overweight peop]e:\~fil1not receitv,e Dew join'ts.

11 NlCE a:rgMle.\ll 'm~t

A riCh. people sbou~d not be given special ,oo.nsideratiQn 'over the POOIf:; I <iiIllypaUents from oertain cla$5es sheuld be: ,cons[de~d. .fOJl:'trea!twe.nt C soda} ro~es. shol!lli~dJ be oOJ1_jidered w'he.1:1I decidIng t1lutmen:t.

D' cost 0'£ treatment would Idepend. ,on patients' income ..

:~.S Whallt n:oo._m;m:endaUoils bas N1CE .n1~ufe'~

A to provide o~derwo:men with IVP' 'tileattme,nts

.0, to makeflu d!l"U;gs ac:oess:lMe tQ' women llodeJ:' 40. ,e to gIve people ibetw'€'e.n 23-319 flu drugs,

:D 'to aUow o~rtaj:n women to have IVF tl'e!i!!tments

W,netilYllu ha.lle:m!

al'l$WJ:!rr 1iIl1.1I(iple i:IIitoiCie Ique$1jg~ ~~ember that'i!i19 thllugih the' in{iolimatiQlII ~1I1 ,all ,!)f ~e folifli

~pt,iQlils may b~ ta~Qil fr.ml the~, IInlv IlJiI'e' of'tJile op,tions .illlIiiwers lite q,uii!$I!ifQ):!.

d

HI NICE admirts that

A som drugs, used by dlie NHS were no,t ditiii:caUi'y effective. B their a:dviJc:e is so:~etimes Ignored by file NHS.

,e i:t is often hard, to deten:nme if a p~tien~ has caused ms or her (;Qnditi:oo. Dtltey' owe mO,j1i2 conc:er.rn:ed.about cest effectiveness th~n patients.

Questi01NS 20'-,26

Lo'Olk ~t 'the' :f()ll~.tIgstlll!te.!itlent'S (Quesliol:1ls 20-2i6) a;!])d 't~e ]ist ,of p,eople below,; M'a!lih each statement with the correct persop. A-'e.

201 'This, pe:rSQ\!l '~s b>1lppym.aJt NmCE re:alised ag"'tl disc.rjjn~hartiOf:i Q~eood dealin,g wIDth.

23, This person sao/s, their pollii.cy r~gard.ing a!ge lS precise and easy to understand

2S This person, feels dre NHS Blust furthe.r wmprove ~ts relations with the ,elderly.

A Micha;e~ Rai.wnns

13, S~el!lle:Wtlbb

,e, ),e,nathan Ellis,

TEST" 1:7

READ'ING PASSAGE 3

-- - -

¥ou sheuld spend about 20 :m.inutes on Questions, 27-40" which ate ba.Lsied on Reawllg Passage .3 beillow;

,One of the m0Sit ~V'o~att:ve eras inl the his{I';uy of poeEIry must sU!l'ely lbe,that ahhe lR·ema,nti~ Movement. Du ring .'the late eighteenth an d' early Ininetee nth ai!.n~U'ries a 9n.l1.ll1il' I1f poets a~ared a 1i1&W mood in IfiteralfY ()bl~~ives" ca$t~ng afftheir pl<edeCiessors' styles il'l fravourof a 9 lippingl alif'l~ fDr~IDu II ~1it which 'limdureis wid~ uno this day.

Five P!;Ie,t/j efiliter:g,ed as the mailn ~:efis~irl!lJel'llh 'of thiS'; ~wemeli1~ - WilHam Wo:rd'SWQl'lh, Sa~uel Tayler Ccle£idg:e~ George 'G~r:dlOli1 ~tQI'I. PeIL'}lIllYSlsheoS:hel,~~, an,d,~Qhli1,Keail'S.

11Ie, s:t~f1gt,h of rlhelr works U'f'S U ndDiJb~ed ~ fl'! ~h~ [~O'wer of ~hefr Ima;gi~tJl'!Jl"I. Indleed, imaglRl.lJtion wa s the m:o!S't (Oriliea~ aNiI'ibule o:f the ~.maflrt1c: poets~ Each IF'oet h1!id the alb iIi~ to PQRrBy Iv,emarkable Ilmag,es ilind vis1iOI'lS', 1l!,ItMI.Igfi ,dliiferi"g 00' ~ c'ertall'l degree n their intetl,siry ,ii nd pre5entatllOl'I. Natul\e. mythology alod ,emotr:Ofl were of '9 Jeat iR'lpo'ril'a !'ICeL and were II sed t:o exp~1 !;lie the 1oollng5 of the poet hiimself.

The Ih!"es of the IPoets often 'Q\ie~llapp'ed andlilil.g«!y W,i1iS .typicall" mOiSt of them. Byron was born in lo.ltdolillll!"li 1788. The family moVed ;1)0' Abe1"d'e,en soon after. w,het~B)f,r:on was br,aughit lJIP until he Inherited! the~'mil,Y' ~at ,of New.stead ,Abb~ in N&tl:ingham!llililre £fom his g,~eat U nidl:e. He gradu,ll,te"d from CaI1iIbrldge U!m:v-er:lli~ iln 1 SO.S ,ilIlnd left .E!"Igh~!'i!:d theml ~OWh'llg ye~ r 'to' ennll;a~k 011' a IOUi' o~ the M."iII;Uite'n'an~ll'I. 01.11'":11'191 'tl!ls tOll r, he dMelo,Red a piliss'loll '!for 'G,~eece 'whidl 'WDUI!d II!at'er 11,!?ad .~ his deallh ill'! 1:,1J14..IHe [left: for Switzerland hil 1 !US where he Wi'S int;rMtu:edl to Sh~illey.

SllSIelley was bam to' a weafrthy family in 179.2. He Wil5, eduiCated at EWI1I, and '~hel1ll went on EO o.xfolid. Sheilley wa~ not happy ln Eng,lland. wl\ere Ills: ooloUl"ful II[ifesty!e and unorthQdQ~ beHefl A'l'aCl:e lhi'fiI'1J ulilpop:ular with the fi'stabliisl'iiml1!iI1t.irl!l 1818 he left: 'er ita:'r. wher1l! he was feU nned with BY,i'iOll. However, tlhe I'rii:endshiip w,as trnglca II)' b~olJght ~O' a" 'eric:! ill"! July 18%2, wtretl5heliley was ,t! r'&Wned I,n"! iill boaE1ing alccldent of! ~he' I:ral~allil co,allt. ~'n $,Qmewfialt: dramallt: 'form" She~leys bady wasitJemalted e'll'I dUll' beach, witnE"ssed b~ 11' sm:alll cQl'DUi:p of-frie:nds" inchtd ing. Bymn.

H1S<t0lic:a! ,yo Shel11ey and Spon a fe ,(;Ql't'ljiilered .~. hill!!fe been the 'mon ,0 ulr:spliiken ltIlnd mdical·of tt1e R9m~ntrc po~ By conttasr, Wo:K:lsWQrli!h appeiu;5, to !nave be.enl of a pleil5ant and acceptable p~rsonalityl ,eVen nic;eiivll1g thewu:u$ of Poet ta"lJ~ea1ie in l843. He WCli5 bam in 117<0 in Ccc:kermouth" Cl!.lmbri~. By tili'ie time' he .entered his early,teens, both hb par,ents had died. As, he g~w ,o~der; Wordswonih de'ltel'ole.d {II ~s!i[onfu!' wl'lfrtJlng.

Illn 1798 WQroe;sworth pu'bll:is!heda collecdcm €If poeMS: w]l1lrI Cs/!eridge" whC"ii:'fl he h.admet a 'few ~ea rs ~rlle~; when he s:et,t~d inS,armie'FS'e't wlith hTI5' rust'er i09i1r'O'lhy. [He m'j! fried ifni 1 elO'2 ,lind, a'S 'l~Me P!i!:s:s>ed. I\e deserted tn"~, rorlMer IP4lUticalYiews ,a,rld b'e~ame i nQr,eliilllinJlly at:cej~t,alb:~e: to pop~ Iii r sbd,ei;Yt I nfJeedl~ a~ 'tille 'tirme af I'Ii i~ dealtil in ~ne sPJitr:lgl,~f , 8:50. he ~j!d ib'tCome one ,o·f the mQst ~~ht~iiiifter poets, of his1:im,e.

W,oM:SW'mm !iil~red 'some of '~he yealrs·at IlDVIl! I(-OUage in SOl!lli'l,erse:t wl~h hisfNend a I1d ptleti£al con'r,em,Rol'af}':. Go1'eridge. Coleliidg:e w.aLi bem in Devon in '1772. He Wi!i a bright you 1'191 senoia r but ne"i.fef ,~ch'i ev'eilll Illi'ie same proJll!k: 0U~Fltll! of his fell[low Romantic poets. In

18 un'l

1 ,BO~ lcie leA" fo;Ft iI,~Si~I!Orn in Malta for Hnfee ye"il'fS. 011'1 h ~s wen,IIM hie :mpafalta:i oom h~i!i' wife ~~l~wem to Tille Wi~li1the' WordSiwgrttr~. whe:rie n~ 1~:[1Q,d!iJl~ed a ~~'i~dar :~e:rio~ ic~l.

Wtlth fa11~fl9 bealtl\, he la~er ffi.O:v.e<d.' 10 london., [0 1816 he weo~ 'to :sYJ)lwU.h a docw:r alll'ld

tn~s ~a!'l!r1lil,y., He NlII'I'I!Jlifl!>OO wiblil ~hem u n~iI flis d'e'a~h ifln 1 834. Dl,llirilng~~~s.e Illatrer YeIlIfS, hi:s pOOtry wasabilrnd0n.ed fulr o~heQl forlTlSoh\(,~ltililgl eqtJ~II)l0'1l~$~andln911!1l t~ll!lrc Oll'lolit"! rtg,ht.

Pe~haJI.Is ltnemQ~tll~.gic !O~theR0:m~IT:ti(1:p®eif.ljWaS KSiilK ~~ailS WilliS tlIom in LOl'lden [n U£l'!i. SJmill!aiirLO Wm'ld:~rth, bothl hi,i' pa relllll$ halZl dled by' "'is If!..;Ir~ teens, He :ljobu\\ii'edi;lJs, a SI.l~9!@{lfl~ g:ilJali~ingl ii'll 1:S1'!S.I::IDwmrer~ ~e~~ was ini!S~r:eillt p'a:~ion aru:i, he decided tod!ewte hlfili'!lself to wl1lting. IFM!'I'i! udh p'f h'ts,Jao:ull;t nifieKe~lts wai5 in poor h.galth and ten glr:a'~l, ilr~ inl e.a~ ~ SlO .. lH:e ~ew: be WM ~lI~n:g allid [11 ~he :5@ii:i<1)emil:lE!IF10fthat year Inlii! I.eft 'fof Remme hopin.g Ul!attli1e m:Ct~ G!gl'OOable fl ~mare rmigl1llt ea~e. his ;5!!;1ffe.!1hlg. Keats dh:!~ r6tf "-~"~/I;m'l!.ptiern,~n IF:ebru'iI~Y '18~r~at me age ,mtwe;ntf~filie.

Wt ~s ~d~h~t $!.!~I1Ib,r:agedy 'often a«c(!mpi;llilieslt!(l~e of ,eu~nlllingi all'lUstic genius. We ca n ~Iy ~:lflder a~ tl'le pOiSSji~tf! ICD'uWO:til!'!i1!! tnid~hey a1111~ved ~ ·ill n 01d p~~. p,~rhap.s,.~VieJ1' 8:PQ!W!

i'u'I1tJ1 :Sile:ll!ey wol.ll'k~ h;av,~ fflell!o·1Ared Wi:th .tJt're. :year~ Ii~~ Wordsworttm. If'jiOwever,.Une oofi~nl~tiIN;o:l'l '~ p:oetry by al ~ five w.riltE!r,s is immeil$,urableIThQ flntrodiulOOd the !oo:1"IC~~t.saf~!1idit1l1~.d'Yl'.ff~1T! and ima.gil~~lJ1\():J!'Ijiil:UoWill!'lg ~te '~I.ore Ol!!lr eWI1'Vi"'ifi;m"'. fif ill~!lii::lltywilhutl't ~tJ(dtu.liIJi:OI1'h.We arE" not now req,lIili'«! IQ re:SEraJn flur~hough~s and FJlHliI'y 't.Otlrl;i!it of'~li'!e S!C:Mjal:~y a:~cepmble.

D!j), the: fo.l.I.Qlw.illg, s,ta.tru~elWts ~gr,~e with th~ .~Qform.3ltiiO<JIg:i'!ltrn in Reading PaSlSag,e 31 WIt'i:te

TRUE PAl.:S;B

NOlii' GIVEN

if the s~a:~e'me'Hl agree!; wtl~ the .i.[1JIfo:rf!l1<11tion. if (he s~ate.me:nt Gorn:tradh;:ts the ~nrtl.rmat~o.n tft:ber-eis l:1Iio i:ntOrmaUo.flI ,(}n Ulirns

27 The DOJl'~an:t:ic MQVlmlll:l1il IMWdFor l:m1Ioreth3tlilli a. CC:liThtUry.

'2.8 t:hill! ~Q.m.arrutic :poets acl.QP~ed. a strIDe d~$s:in1!~rua:r 1.0 th<liliOfpo~tswbo, .had o~.lliJ:e be~fo}\e them .

. 19' Ut:1Jfoftu:l]ja'~e:.ly. the worn o:fth.e Rcumamti.csbad fio lM!t~ng iilll'lrressm.orn Qna1:~.

3'OI'fh.e R.Ol1noortlcs hadnorcespe,c~ :Fllr any s:ty.[e ·o.f p@e~ry ~part from theiroV!lW:! ..

11. The RQ!IlHUJUC'~ "I,'Ii,re:l\egUtd wfufu a s~rQ~g: s:e[u~e '(;1[ bjJJl!a:,g~]]ati(lifl.

32 Mud!:! ·of tbe Ro:m.a:nUcs' po,etry was Inspired by ~he !Il,;iitu:ril, world.

QU'e8tion:s ,3;J~39 O:lmple'1e:tile table below.

Wdtte .NO MORl l':l:l..itNTHREE WOljf),5 for each .• m'l1'f.

1788

Cambridge Un~v~Jsity

wenit O~l a j'OtJ:f.''fley $ml.!lnd

33 t cam,e to ~ove

34 _

Sheley

1792

I

becam.e mo:reac:cepred when he

chan..,ged .h~s 36.

quali:B.edl ss a s;lIltg.eoJ!

1795

his 37 , w~, 5mal1elttb:an

the other Rom1lll:Uc poets;, left, the WO.mJS'W'odbs dll.!lie~o, 3:8 ,

left .EngLand foFa change o·f

139 -

C(}mp~ete ~he .IJ)enJ~elllGe.

CbooseNO .M'Olm THAN THRE'J:i: WORDS .fy·o;m,tihe p~aJg~ foli' the aJ];S'w~'l;

WliIel'l 'Iou have,·ta complete a bhle'.

ff!l1!lemli!er-t:o leol\: 'ferkq YlI'Iif~da~ or I1I!a!lN!S m the ,ul!stlolil amtltf!e!il5kiml tJtie:!~s:q.e fir

~h:~ l'ielfta~1 i:llfl@!7milt!iG:n.l£Il1~t fOrgietto !jtlok ,tQ, the 'WG~llindt.

WRI'TING WRITING TASK 1

YC'lj,lshoIllJd spend :ll!Dout 20 minutes OJl t1ds taSk.

The chartbel .. ow gIve'-S informa!tionalbout ,~obal poprularti.on pe:r~ntages and distr,ibutioiJl 'o:f w'ealah by region,

Summarise the inforwi!I!tion by seIDectin,g, and wporting ~;be main featll!res, aad m~ comparisons wMrer,e]ey;ant.

Wrfure <It least mso W'O:rds.

31lItti~_

25

2;'(D

[5~~~~--~~~~~~

10 +-"-"-~F-""I?--~ 50

• Papilllal:ioll(9D)

t. Glo'll;~ Wealth (%0)

In Task 1. femember

1lII1ait YDU am IiIOt ~P!tte~'l@i st'w VOUIi qplnhm Gil '~he iJJfonmatlDIII yQl!llllavetD desgibe;, Y€lU should meMt, present lie ifidflilnmatitcn faatilJa~~y,

You sboulds'p~nd abQ~~ 40 millilrllltes:o:n thlS task. Wri.tea!bout the fa[low.ing topIc!

m: f;Qd~I'S' (:Mj"tl:t,'N' 'Mlo:dd, ;f.I.1-fl1'wJ_tfm'#lilt$ /indit NI~Q'tyJfJr bQ'M 'tl~nl$ .to IB ard' to work MIlle $lome sn, ~h,e t'd.1.d',:e/Jl iu ,r.hlS(l! Jtl~l~fie-J benefit from the additions' :in",all\l~ o;thersJu-l they laCk snppot,t be'€ame o/tJr,Bir parefltsJ' fJ:bs'n'f!~

Discuss both. ~hes~ 'views Mid. giv.e rou:r C\¥rDi QphllQn.

<Give r·~asoI'l>S for your answer andindlude:my il:el,eva_j1~ examples from your own know]oogl\! ,o'r ~'(perien(ie.

Wr~te at I;east 250 words,

W,heil!i'~OIl hav.e to disw$S, ... i,ews allldlh!e' .11111 opll1ioJil,

'remem~r dila) your wrl!mg ~'hQ:!lIld' shew Ii lo,giCilI develDpment. Th~:is .adaeved beS't by.wrttmg ani lin~ml!l'u«1fI11!; a liIl~in budy 1{~!l!sjst:tI'l8, IDiftwOi ,or ~htf!e pafilpiph_sJ alTId·aJ cu~hJsm",. Remel'hberto l!!5e ,I varielf,y of Imkir'ig words !lm!1 deviQes.

SIPE.AIKIN'G PART 1

d

The exam.i:ne:r asks t~¢ tam:u:Ud.<il.k! abo'ut hil:w!/bers~lf" h~sJhC't h;of[fie~wOil"k oil studies ;m,d other furnm~ tDp,k4-l.

-T:ra:v:cli

.~ Have yow eV'f.rtraveUed ciJ]lts:ide YO'1!!I!F oountry? .'\Vh:at do you lbm:k. Is the best '~y ~o' tmveW?

.~ .IfY,C]il.l were goiing IOift. a ~orngtrip, w.howiQ,tlldFOill prefer to g(J' wltlil? .~ V{h:~,tr aJ_lreso:me 'Oifthe benefits ·ofb:avwli.llig?

PART'2

WhI!m'YQ1!l' !iI,!,'Irn~G 'a.IilS'li'oler :qL!lesrtioniS [iii Pa:lill:l,t1Ilirij{ fora s:et'Q!ld ,~f;'byg,.befQlt! V!([I!!I [!~~poh4

'VOIII, ,~alill!l5B "t,olilYers;litlolillliearS' :sud'! as; tetml!'thililk{tw'l1!ml!:llJlrtem:'

Tmn'~ ',",JIll ,il~~"'9q!msfip.

YQ~wjl h:avew, ta]l :I,l;bOlll,! a topk for ene to two l!WIinutes, 'Yi0!l:! have ,meminulte totih:ink iI.boutwhat yofi]'r-,e gOijng.~o say •. ~ou am. mat:e some notes to' be']p yQ~if yo~ wish.

D.e'scrJibe one of ~r fa~udW p(l.a;c~s to visit. '1!i!1g mol!dd. i!iay:

wba~~nd ,of pJace j1t is where the pbce ls,

wben you visited the place

md eNll'la:i:n wh3il itocsthat. yQ~ Hk:e ooo!ltt:he place.

P:ART' 3

}'i:a;mouspli1iUS ;m your ,C:O:l.iUIi,UY·

~, l'ell.m.e about <lny fa:mOll$ tOll!]dst illtir,ac:trnQrns ~n yuur 'C(}U[lU;y~ 'i· Why ;\lire they ,opulru: wwth i~OUrj:S~~?

'. Can.ycru speGu]Jate ,on t~e :rieMlOflS w~>I~O'u:rjSBW~[lt t:o, v~s.il f"<\'mo~s monume:nr~~

AdI.Vlmitageswld. dlisa.dll\_tIlg~s 'of t'Oruism

.Wou!,d you a,gooe d~\a't tQudS:fn is Ili~:w~ys :adva:n,tag:eous; for 3J CQUnitry? .WhOlJ! oo1ilrud. go,vem:melrns do toplIolnote M,t1r:lSim~

• H:ow do, Y.QU th~ID;k 'tfue f'a.c~ ·of tourism wlUclla!!!'.!g-e ]:0 ~I:rue fufllil:rc?

DTEST2

LII:STENIIING

S,ECTION 1 QUestiONS 1-10' ,0, TnEST ,2 .... 0,'1 Questions J~3:

Answer the qlfle'..sti,o:ns 'beWow.

Wdte NO MORE THAN 7'HRE,H WORDS Fb:r each answer. &ample

flo,w dId :f(!,ter and .Jo~ last ,cQMmnrnlea.re' wilth each o:th:e:r'?

,mlhtplume

1 W,biiU is going to be dosed do,wn?'

Chooselhe 'I;orred ~etrel'., .Ai B er C.

4, '\f'i/hWch of the following: m~,gh~ they need!

A an o:mxih~U:ai. I ,iI. catere[

C a telephonjst

5 Where win 'tbey pr-o~hably held the: mooting!

Ailie youth du.b

I, somebod'y!s living [-oem c: the v:iUage haiU

, VIh'IilD. dO' they decide ~Oi hotd the m:ee'tm~g" A tilley haven't decided y~!t

BaiL ilhe weebnd

'e some time durlngfue 'w~l

24 ifEST2

Cornp.[ete the~njtenc~s belQw.

Write: NOMO:.fl:H fHAN 'fWOWO:lLm for each answer.

i DrP~rkl;-1lS LS the b~s:t pe:r8iO'n ~(I. describe ~:he . at the. din],.

8 Joan one.n meets M~ SimeS·' wife . _

]10

W,hen,)!uu havJ.!!'~cl ~lID1fde:te Sll!i1t@Iii.(ii'l.S. dG:lI'Ilt ch~.1i! what JOIiI ii1earm try il!liId m~li!!l! iit"fit -~h~ e~p. RjQiu!mb~f' thalyoul will

Ilearthe allliSiwers filii ~he CDl'T'ec:tfo~

SECTION 2; Ques.tiQ.fI,s 11-·2,(1 .. leli 2.J1l2 Q"estions .11' -14

11 Wh<'llt:caillJl. viS;iIzO:r$ utoe free ,of cltaJ:'.g~?

A pli!$hc-h~iil:.s

]3, c:hi~d car:ners C coats a:~d. baigs

12 Vlhkh.ofile (GJillIowing ~. ¥.is;itOI1l buy at the shop?

A coins

B, refr,eshmenil:.s,

C pacskards

~.3 Wh~;n dlid.th~ G!'"a~d Ope~ing ef the bath:\> ooc:or?

A 1894 Ii 1897 C 1994

14 The .R.olillllaJns buUt IOrO me Site A a:A~;rthe Geb,

B befl)n~ the Cel!ts.

,e at: th<:l same Ume esthe Celts.

WIiIe!il fWIl ,h~ve m ,!::QliIlIple,1e'iI !iUmlfla.., I'lli!liIIIember'liIot 'liD

u~ more thlldh.e !fUmbef ohlilliii'ds S~i3~d fo the InstI,udhms.lf YOl:llileeliillilill!N"etffilm the~'It!r t!'f~ W~5!!~~mf:; your ,iU1llii¥i~t ~ji; W,~QJlg.

Comp:Jfre the summary be]ow;

Wri.~ NO MORE: ·;rH.ANTlllmB' WOLDS A.NDfOR A NVMBEJ: for leach an~w,err;

The Groat l!l'i~h is 15 deep. Around th.e bath. area are alooves, where till.Elre were

1115 . <wdtab~~s where biil~he.rs oo'o.]drelro:~ 'fhe~t:er~~m:p(lrnJturll: of toe Sac[ed

,spring is I' _ . The ~ter IS .r.k:b in 18 .~n Roman Umes .• tthe S!:!cred

Spr:i:ng was '.'!l.eU~Jmown fQir its 119' .. The UmlP~.e "vas oo:nsl:ruded.l:H~bveen

2.J1l1• AD,

Writ:eNO MO!RE 'THAN TUBER 'WORDS AND/OR .A. NUMB':!!: fOil eac~ answer; 2], What: .ws John :r-eswor.::hing?

Comil'1eterlli!~ .senitellces beIDow.

Wr,i~~' NO .MOR.!' THAN TWO WiOJWISANDfiOB: A NUMBER for ,eachans,wef.

27 ",BiRr sta~ds rOlf 'bus _

29 B@,thJ@ipan Ol:nd Hol101!~d provide' fMmoSle cyding. ~')

t[;mn sl:aHDns~

30 mn~he USA. polk~ Offiol1l'ls(JnbUws m.<lke .more 'lilian

those [n p!lJtro~ cars.

SECTION 4 Q:~,estiQns .ZU-40 OrES]' 2..,;04- QuestioHs3:.1 ~34

Comp:~e:te'the sel:l!tenc:es be)ow;

Wn,te NO ,MOm:: ''fHilNTWO WORDS for ,e~cll o:!,!]:sw,eT; 31 The lecttrure is i.nt:eaded malinly w¥ those ewu:er~ngthe

~~~~~~~~~~~~. but is: .rd~w!f:l~ ~Q all

3,1 The l~Clnt-erbe.I:i'!.'!ves,th;a~ ~>!lO' .3.

------------------------

sp~h.;Ji:s~ti~i!1 C;(lIB be: ,da:m.a;ging:.

33 The: :nlJ1miber 'of_---~~~~~~~.who w~real:So writers is :!lul}!ri.siIlg.

34 The sp'~ke!!:' believes, tb~,t ~]te!l."aJtture pmviidesa ______________________ whk:b. m.edkl.'l!.!: scheels do 'n@lt

Que-s.ti£'.'" ,3.5~4()

Wh:a~ is said ibo'Ul! each of these boolcs?

1.-1 .........••.... ..

clmilpl;eteselil~l!lKesl _~l!':~re t!l~t 'We

wtlrd I~r plilJrase y,1lill 'lifT. 15 tl!:on:ect bQ,thln t:etrI1lllS of mealll.i~ i!lnd lnWl'llI'!!! gf it~ .Sl:'«lfllI'lHlf. Ifi't~;(Ieslfl; 'fitl~mlillll:licall't', ifs

~hre wfGng aJilSWI!I:;.

.A 1't conveys U~e ~hr:Ul o.fsderwtiflic d]scove,ry~

B It is of intel!est ro,any ~a!wral hi8oof.~an.

C Thi~ is, a cJa§'~c ofsden:ti.frncw.dting.

I), It is ,a!bo~u: ~he life ofa socill.en:t'ist

E This bo<n1\::. jsnow SOI.l1!eUm,€$ used ill. ,sclli:iool~.

F 1'00 is abo a go,o d ~e] book

G 'rh~s: book exawinesme darl s~de ·of lU.lmalil :l:1!atuJ"e.

H Th~s book was a ~s:ponse ·~(I,~u.l~ther b@'@,],;:.

3S .04 Sho.rtHi$b,JT.1 (lJNearly .!wtry.tll'I't:ig' 3,6 WOHde;r/!~l.l.if;e

3' The Ris~ and R",U o/lh,e Ti!J:ird C'hilnJ)'{.tNzec 38 Ti1e W~t:er .:Babies

39 I:~t .Em,peror oj SCti'l't

41 On T1u~: Or~gjn ofSptrcies

Far rnilitchingla5~. lreml!mber~yol!ll 5bQlilh:iI Qnly U!iie e,iilm teller Olll;ce'. IDon'"

, tonflJ~ mcrt:dMflgtilSk!i ¥ti~"d!a~~tfi.l1:atltUl!l 'tasil!::s ~e;& 'llest-4, li~mlil]lIIg Sed]@n 4~ where '{Oll! can use e~h leli!!fr 1iI'!~ ·~~.IiI!)I;~.

You :shouLd spend abo'!!1~ 20 mil'illJ:tes en Que:s~ions 1-13, w.llilich <lire based on Reading 'Passage ~ beillQw •.

The' Rise and Fan of the Brlitiish Text:irle, Industry'

Te{ll:JU:e :Pli10d!:Jldlon fn Britall:1llG'in be saki ~Q :~aw its ~oo~s is an ]ndustry at tile begirnfilll\'lig, (If the 1 'alB ~enWlry. whelli'l 'Th0mal~ C:1!iG,'lj(::I1,~t aMid ~e,0l'ge S.Gr~0tl~ e'Stablli~h:ed what iis,~h01;11;gnt

l!i) !be the' iliiJs;tf'a~o:1rY blJ~ ~t ~n IBriltail'll. I1i: w1lS ,ill 'lecx.tnle rn~ II w~th a, wQlerwh,ooll i!S its so~rm flf IPower" the I~cillest mcaci~lrul!fY. and eveWi ,il:CI(jom!lli1looat1~:n rn.rltith\!: WO~al'S,> As weWI i!!~ p,O'sMblli Ibei!ngUlefirst s,wea~shop In the moo\i!m, se:!1ise,.it WirS '~he be~ilimfng Ofth~e!ld fiOr ~mllli~hi) !ilal '~extll~:.prcOd!lG:~ion.

flor hul'td red!!! of ¥e~t-:5~he $pirl1l'lfIingiimd weiilv~nQ ,@t "JQtih ~ad b~l':!fi1 dane imi:lin ~{lIlIy by men. WI\1lMen al'lld ch~ldm1!'lln tineilF ,own tlormes.liIlevam would! be cd:Jiil'lbed and :spun. uS!~nJD a s:p;]fld~~!,~he:n~'iten Olfl ill h~n(ji·loomj"a,nd Whattheyp'm~u~<;I wou'l!d:iJema'~nT¥wri;otal oon~~l'nIlptifln. Te(,;hl"il.{l~~gy faw more so;phisrica'lled tha~ the ~pll'1i~:U'e and h~n,t!~I~o,m 'W~,~~~ ch'a!'LQtI alill 'Elrlillt~

llie deman.d: kir (d~itfOr:'lMxNles ~iiI~ ~:ee!l9 r9WiriL9 sil'l;@e~M .WI[(:Jdle Age~ fos:1iered. by ~he irn,porta~ir;)n c(f Hllgh Cju(!llity cdu~n(ib1l"h:s oom ~he: Mldid Il~ East ,alflld ~nd~a.So h~ were local PIi"O(h!CElrcS ~CJ,mligh~ oMt~,e ~oimpetilitklll'll? The iiml.1'6\m!',sd' fabri~s We~e ,®if ool1Jlrse ~xpel1ll.sive. Sa teKl$le makieJs~!!J')o~ j!J~~h"Brlr-aitn b!.il;t~hre~gltnQ!.iIjt I[Y'fOpel If:lrod!.!l~&j: mi~ 'fabrksa!iLd c:ct.mn s~bsU~Yles. They aliS.o hilclfo:rceig'ntif.x~iles bainl1!,id. BuUhe' ey'w' ~h~inor'ea~ed pf~xhlJcti\l'i~y nftdedw nm.§'t~he deM'an!lJ, 1Wa$ l'ifII'aci1!11e I!!rb·du~ti:Q.n. ItwQ~~!iI ~e ~aS1liefj Gih@l1Ipef CiI'UJ 'lI'l!El fiflisned prodllcfs waiJ~d be c.'Qr1!lsi~!:eI!l1~~nl·qll;J~:litY. Ni@<t le3~,t M'the a:d~lntl!g:e:s Wil,S ~hat it 'wfly~d !1!UOW m~nufac~l.!I~,ers 10 maf~et tt'l~il: gQ~:s.on·iIi lill~e. lif nQ~ y'et g~.Obill~slale.

The s1~ry l!lf~he' growt:h QF'~he Blitisn te.)(ti~~ Wn!!iltlMr.y, ~rO,lITIaloou:t 123:~ilndfQr the' l'I.eJlt m~ nl:Jllrl(l~,~~ yea rs 1Ull.O.,e afllronl~talri~teclh!1l.okI9i.;al [m'lQ;vgitil0fl ,il'nl::l ~~[)~!'iI510". 1!'I173~ J~hn !!tillY l~i!I~d dne l,y·stnJUlle, wnich miil.de the ht.ifM:Hoqm m1Jre' el1it!itl:filifl·iilnd in ~,764 .malfi1l'les Hargrt'aM~,m)me up wi~h the "'~illl'U'lljrll,!'J jenlny.whi~hama.n.g o~her thj!'1g~ Im!i:!doth.e e,mrett of ~an5in\1J prp_duedvitll e~ghdo~d. The nem IgJf,~t inl1l;o·"".iJlltQrWClS Richard Airkwrvgi'i~j who, in 1768 e[rnploye~ Ji@inl"l Kay I[()f~he 1!i1~"'5h:JlJme~ 1':0 he~,p' ink'll bu1'ld mere efiiffiidel1lit mr!lu:h~nery. He w,aiS.l!1 1!IlIlj'!ln wLtililaJ viSion -lalme.!l:hiiU'lliisl!'~,t11(! produ~~~o n -"md by 1182 he had a neMo~k of mWs aCiIYOiSS Bliiitail'l. ~ the wiilltElr~"mwe;rw Irn!l,c:hirnerry •. ttn,QllJg h f1et Ifel fi.Jllly m~(ljhtlfiliised. ~iJme more C()iIT!P~~. Kay ,Jj~~n to lum s,bl'il1lllengirfe.s ror power. Thelrst: p.ow€f~lioQm~ howl¥'€!t. wh]ch williS inveWlite.d in ~. 785 lb,y Dr :&JIlI'IIUlnd Ita r1;~igtntj~UiY did m~hani~ th.e weavil:)lg ~agel:)f teittiHe ma!1lUViilc.tlJ!lrf.

'Thepaoo Q~ growth q!.~tcli1~n!l!dwith 'tif'ie lex!pi'f'I,silQl"I o~ Brilliain's irli!nu:ence Jin ~he WQ.i'ld ,i IfId [ililea,Ci~,ui!SiMon Qf colonfieS from wnl~h cl1:~ap raw "",iilitE!l'ila ~5' t9ll! ~dI be :~m~ortett F'arexan1!lr;>ie. in 8. ~rrn:gIe decade', 'from 1781 .tQ 1 i'91~j impons of !l:O~lon ili'lTi~' IB(!1tain 'Ci,uadlrt:!plelt ,Ojngl Oll!·tf! Feacl'lum ~]llTt:l'l pl):llJPodlsiA wtiglilt in 1IS:~S, aln[J1 ,216{i; nm;1Um:n il!"l1830. iIIle ifuif~,a$e in ex-pOlJlU I~ ~l~!llllyim,"'tre~sjv~; hI l!l'51 £46:iilO(l'w.a!'~n pf datlhwas; !a~powWtd, and ~~nE!' er:ld of the ~E!lCI'ti1:!ry this I~adlri!len to £$.4 mi~!li!i)I1I'. IBy thJ!' end oft~n~ '1"9tt! aMI~ulI:y t~el1gur){! had .soared

tO, di:o,e on £50 AiliD~oli'l. SHU1n was now supplying meape!' an d Ibene:r IQuality clothing' 'to ,ill gll:obal m'a~ket. Yet dlilri".!ll"th~ ,yO/Ul'se' Qftfle 20Ih century Bl'italinlos:t its, IPo!il~ionl lis a major textile, m,jliI'I!.JifactilL!!"f!iIi.,

So wha~ happened? Th~Fe are a Iru.ilrnber ~f",b~'liWJ)f! thr<5~ulil!sbtenoO llQ~ a'll 'D,f th,€!m tronlill~tiAg~ al'11!d whe~ tim ere:'is d ~~giJ'eemen~ it 'I;s, usually about whenl the '~!i?diWie ~arll. Whether It-began berofit the FifSll: Wbrld Win (niI14F U: 8), or til.llrfng d'l~ rlilte,r·war Y!3ar-s ('1919- 11939}1 or afil:e.r 1945. RlU5I1 eItOnami~t:s 'wou~!d giv,e roughly 'thl! sante lr.e.aS'ons.lio, startwU)l1. the,re W,IIS ,~ompebUli:cf! "f9ffl abroad, espetiailly trem: deIJ,elapilng 'cBuntries in '~lhe Fi!lr E~,st. nDtab'lly Japan. It '\IV11I!i tI'u;I'uglht by l'fliJinut'adulmers 'thilt Ille Ibest way to ,c'Omba'tthi', iffGrea-soo competition was 10' Il'nodelm'i5e'. However, management 'ill'ld~he' labcilJ'F unions, W'e!"e URj:I'blie tal ·igr,ee on hOW~<I' handle th,ili,'$i~ua~&Q1I'I.

Mode:rn,isa~l'H'! w~u'h~!1 mea", IP~opLe IOS!I'ng th~l"j€lbs; and peJ$lbly a «::tial"lge ]i1II'abQ'Ur l'Ii7Jcti~'$. Sach ,!:hange,s,-as wer;e made se:f'ored only t.o .sIQW down the ffndl.l5ii:ris dl!!oi1n,e raittler thaf1l hel.p reyailn Itll pl'etiofl'il,il'iiNIn"lt PQ.sltllon. EoQo~noiTIlca'lly liNS dev,elopeid OOI.:i,ntrlfe~ ,&~the' oUler ha,IJd" had the advantage of being able '(iii pmvtde Ilow wage 'l::'ompetilti1on;. withollit the problem af poweifUil :liilJIDuf Unlie1l1~

lhei"e Ciif,e,. of course. m~'I1y Qther reason's for'the Wttile indu stry's dedline. two' ofwhic:h be~lme Plniicu a1l'1), notid'eilible in tille late' tweriiitJieth ,~e.ntur;y !.lInd !JJr:e rei! alert l1hefif..st t5 eutsO"rflTng, when marJli!JIIIi1Ci1:u~e", ,esta'bfislfilfil,ctoliies~n oounuleswhete theiii',e ~s, dl'lea:p !a'bQuf; Th,ls ob",iaulsi,)f leads to II!eH demaJnd for loc:a1rYlImdlJlma goeEis, R~laJteGitG tillis, the t.e~t~ le and d'oth]n.g ifldlJll5:!Ui'e~ t1la,ve"~<:qI~iwed iI hie d ~,epUla>tlOJlI far t)::ploitlng Mlrike~ o~en i !lega I i'mmi:gw,iiI 11~. in s,weats!h0;p:5 wh@re'the~ ,iI:iI'e 'foJj(led t:o w~:rk ~!Qn91 nou rs and aU'e lpaicl far Il'ess than th"e mll'limlo!llm wage.

We seell'l'l 'ttl be bad with crotChet. and Sl.'u"OOO d and their first II'ive~in factory. Th~ global,ising tfend of oU~5I!lIurd"g, hQ.WellJer; was·a !'itlofllilll f,eSPQl'lse to the growing Eom:petitionoom 'j)'Ylirseas, whi:chlt ill' goes wiiithg,1!rt saYii'I'l~ does 'not excuse dh~, elilploi.t~lion of wmket5. The B!~insn I ifldl.l!stryitse:l;f~ wlilile no longer ih'ordl1ii!9 iii key place jill the- gIQballl1:e:Kti I.e IIilila~Kel. has ad!'!lpted I~self and! 110W c£:lf'icentra~s mOlie on tille' world of f~shion andl dei!>igl'l" wltTere tt seems fS ,be dOii'l!.g. qUi~e weill.

d

·1o&!1!1 produoom fa~ l fmlll QVSifSE'i!S

• Warjsfou ndto ijifa'~ wi~h :si~ualtit!n

.lmpOMi!i:Jlliaf~riG3. .• m~e.d ootmns PfQdu~d

"'lmjf!1i'01IcOO ~ectllno.~:ogy {su~tn as tlFle f1l(-.sli'lurtlile) more 5 ~

and ~:wed!!llc:~I"'e

"' Mafii'IJlrll!fY lbe:ginst:o be !!Wwete.clily 1, _

Clloosill the cerrect .Letter. A. D, ,e 1~1.r D.

·'·WMch. ·of tih.e :fGJ]owin:g i:nl1:OVait~ons in.creased p!l.odu!Ct~v~my by 800%? .A the' POl!l!il::taloom

I I;h~ .sit~~me,l:l(giiwle

C ~hes:prj;fil'Ji~r.lg jieluil:Y

D tilile fi!y~sl1!u:Ule

8: Dllfira:!lJ w.hkh period was tll1e Bdti.sfu. texrt[t~ .l[ii]dllLJlstry at Us pealt? .A. 173a~m185

B 118[-·l:i~l~

C 17'!n~l830

D ~.850-l'900

9 Which of the .f.6no!:wi~g "vasa. m,ajQ,re~use of U1!eBwiUsh textile im:i!w:l:l!:':rs d~cill~f.!e?

A the e:l(pamion. ·of :fmejgl:1itelttileil]:d~suwes B the~.oss. ofovewgeaslllar~e$s

(;. t!hillre be.i.n.g: no demlM:1ll.d. ft:l.r products D labour beoomingtoo e%!pe[i]lsive,

When y<l1lI hav:e to CQI1Ipie1eMtes .• pay

~fIIJtiQi1iI~J ~(iW 1nbe origi.inat meafr!ing in dirnelt has beelll'lellpre!>S!e1il

in ·the qu.!!5~iD:lfl. F:Df' Qam.pte.lQllIk l~t· fll!FS'i1i!!)utymScm-\fhe !lame WQllds. f1'QIiIiI tftle text with!] iilifterelilit

Do 'the fo:Uow,ing statements agreewiilb the infor.m~tion :g~ve:t.i, hi, R«acru~![!g Pas:s~ I? Write

TRUE 'AUI!

N'Ort 'srVIN

~r th~ staJt:emel:llta;gre~ W.iil'h ~he ffintot'r:natio.n if the ,s;ta:temel1lit ,c(lntmdicb! the inronDa:t1on wf thf;r~ Is no informaUan ,OIl this

10' BOIre.i:g" textiles: were banned because 'of their ~l!lfedo[ quality. II Ri(:hard Aikwrigh~ built 'th.,e,r.:tstrun.f~.lnecllil~nised ~extime mill

12 In less ,d'eveloped coul:Iit.ries:. the industry could :reIDy a.n ,clil.eap' laiboUlll'. ~.3 Out-sourci,ng '\Ii,l'M one .metbGd used ~o compere w~tb. fOIJ)eign

ma.li'lIufactur'~rs.

READING PASSAGE 2

You sbo~dd spell1ld. ,a,b(l~t 20 Rlil1llJJtes 01:11 Quest~o[is, l~ 13. whjcll (!fEe based on R.eadi:l:lIg, Passage 2; below.

Wh~'iI~ t .-IS- !:I;'n' A~ 5-8-'0- 7

~ ~ '_ I '.. I. .. I' __ ." ',_ !II

Mk sOi11ebod,~o' mate a list of'cr,lmes and 'thee)! wU I J!)rol>abl~ come up with the usual suspects tha~ you or:1 WQulg; mrulrd'er. rQbbe~~, assault, burglary lind ~o 9'11'1. They might

even 11I'I~1,lJd@<acts wlnich are IlAI'Ierely"ag,a nlst the law~ Il~ pa:rkil1:g OA a douibl:e yello:w lline'.

But If)loU ,ask theM ~Cl' milke' ill list: Of,~nU~soclii1l1 behivioul~S:), yOliJl a~ ,g,eljing in'o'an~r'9 where ther'I! is geingl 'to be OO$lstc!ie,rabledisa·greeJi1l1l11l'lit. This d!dn'~t s~op dle UK govel'nn'lelil,t" w'lilid"l introduced Anti-Social' IBehaviQU r 'Orders, Of ABBOs, 111'1 11998 as paiR 'Dol t,""e trime ,;;lInd Disorder A(~ - egi5lat)QTI designed 00 deal with prili€;tic;;-ally' ~n as:lleds',Qf c:rimilflilll a,c~Mtyal'id disomeolflybehav,iOllUf.

A 5u'bjecU'!ie de,fi nilion of i!lrlI~h50dallbehili!llltour pellmi,ts you ~o caSt y.a'IIJr net: wide :alnd

ind ude i\l i'lyihingl Y~1I 11 rid personally disagreeable; 'he leg~1 definition 1.5, also, Wi de:~y indusiv£!. 'To quo1~ line' C'lI'ime and lJisOllio:er Act. it is beha¥IGII.!Fwhi.ch"cililJ5ies, or is likely to 'CilllJ,e haM'.il<ssmel"itt alarm 'Of distre15 to Qne' or meMp;eople' who ar,E! nc,t 1!'iI 'Ole' 5alllil,e hQu,seh,Q!,I:d,

,1i15 tile perpetrato:(.this If11ot:ltIJ)l:h~'S., ~'mQrig rna ny O.thiir' '~hi ngs,klill~ and a'!nJs], ~anglyag:e.

,- hreateni'ng beh:i1ilJiol.l r, ~hoLllil:li "9, d is0rder~ conduct. Voill'ldali'$l1'I. Intimidi!lrjen.IOOhivl~o ur as ~he re.!iult eFdrug 0'1' ,altloholllllliis.use._sraliti and noise whkh is eXGe5sivej, palr1ituf.ali'ly i!lt niglht

lhe' ide'a is '[!itat A5:BOsarre s>1lnctjOrl~ dieli.gned to d;ea~1 with ISSluestili:lalt ·ilffect everyon,eln tJ'he ,CQffilmunuily ilnd as sydh are Cllillil'l s~aiilcHons. 'I1Qtcrlminal1 one5" and need '~he COORerfj~icm Clof the E:ommunily to 'be efteetive. For eK3m1ple, a ptill'at,e IndMdullil G11'10i1!l~ aPiP, mr!lln A5.BO; he Qf :sKe must !'llI!~'~ ,iii: oomplill'lit to tJa'ie ,ptlll;c;l{! or locall iliutltOliity:, wh.o, wm then wo~k tDg:etJler lQ!ja(her. mare informa,tiol1l o1tlllld buiild u,p' e'V1den~e. This 11ilvob/es: ge,tting wh:mes.sIes, ,amongwil'lOm Mill no dol.ll bit' be ne'~hbcuJ,~s afriid a£q~aih'll1l:;an ce~, W mc.a~e :5til1EeM~nt~ t,C! the

al!thol11it1T~!i, Whe\n~hE! alnhitMi~ies are salti~fii;(:I ~n~t ltrey harve e!i!!(;l!;il:gh fvi~enQe, ~he Ilrecal loolun'i~~ applies tn tlli'!'!;! mag)istra1~s! IOOUi'ittl!l h'av~ an ASBO ijMpl!!lSect

We :5tilll ,n~ven"t decided whii'!it !:o!1lS~itljjte!i i3lf11ti"''s()<cial betn\avioUI~ It d~SIllI't tn~V'e to ~ ph>,,$lcaJ violel1!oe. Qf'iralJlnle, but i:Sfalr ell!~~,e,rw idefilJt~f)fl!l",id de!'!11 with if i~ ~~, ~at ~;ibo\lt ~frlrn:a~e;nitngl be;hw[(;n\~r1 We're I'lioel,t ta~ ~lng h,iille i bout dill',ec~ tt'im'a'ts Si~(i1 ,a'!i'I~ l/Qlii '~ome round h~eagai!1j 11,'i II beat yau It:lp!~ bu,l ~!iwi!niQf'lis FI'I:lfCeii!ilerl '1!ili~hrmea1iel'llin,g. let's say it peni5iOI1!i€ir or ai pe;rml'l!r :or' timi~1 ~ rill~Q1l1tio!'ilr ls, onti'leir wa~ hom,e- a'l"!cl~1i'le'y"hJln ~n~() a group' of yeung ~ple wh,Qilre SiflGllnil1gl, swea uiWlQI and ki~kil'lgl a b~1I ~b.©J!lJ~ al!l'ld wh;a bi!iPPf;!I!l'lW' Make a, few u!"iI!ldnd fei'FUilf~ta$tirle pern~:n pa;\l,s,e:s. Ld's .~~ th~lpeuol1l isalal1med lorJeelsthlfeileneCl'IW'~he ~lwa~lon.l)~~Sc Ilit I1IiiI:li!ritg,etting:. the ASBQ prQt:e$'li gQ~O,fj?

Illn, fact. yClJng ~eQP!lie merety t'lii n.~ift'l'gl,01lJtii" 1~~bliG; !'l'ma~es, 'hriwelli'6 bo*"er(lus~hei~ :ce:llflr\lilOlcJlr W1II'Iigtfi.t ~eem ~(!, bem sen:rtepeople; 'il ro'e rnouCio~s'id!eredto beil'td ul:gillfl9 if'll all'i~i·ooCJT'alll Iboo~vU,our. HClWe~r,~;he\w,e isa pm'llii~o. Such be;haVi®'~r'irl! ~ts'QWin right is no:t oo~slde,rl~gl at:lt']·SiO~:all illJnle~ it i~ mQug!11t It l~betng dOililewr1itti ,o'th;~f. 1i'Ii'I00r,eleil'ipus" :bie~iJivieufal.attitlJi,drE!'!i mnv~llllecl. This, af I~O~j'fe:! Itarn riile v,!'!!rjI s!!JlJje~tltve,

A perserulfa:~ed wi~h an ,A'S!BiCh~:ar'laliS:ue' in~heijr dtd~n~ U~!!lt~helr ~1tI~ri01!.!!rWi!~ Ir,eil\'iionable i:lnl,~ ufl'tihT~,len'~n,g. This 100 is subjettiv,e" iln,d, both $id!eS' Clilll1!1ilis are ope;o ~o' w,~d:e h1f'~e!iP'JI',etation. SiZlmethil1lig e1ise·:t:hat: :~iflli, ~Q ~e ~I~~n IflllrOaco:)Ont h~e is. that ,A:$5!P!l! a~e made ORa'n iin"diVidlll'alll !:>;asis e'Vernliftihat Iperson frs, p~n of a gfOY'!' of pe'O'pll:e OOMm~t1!jf\l;g al"l'f!J:..s:(u;[i'~ lb~al'i~Gur. 'rrf~ I!!iil!se I:"ead~es the maglisltraweS~~/l,ilrt. WJtl"liI~~S~5 ~fIIl:re ~lledlto I'r,ovli;h~ltJr~her" eyide:n(;reFto-u or !lfQ1ainst the ~~fenclia!!1t ,However" ~he mag~iS~lia'te.ii!S Wl!UI as considlenn:gtl'le, IC.rQ:rlI':ipl~h·lits mi:'ld~ agail"is(, 'thl1lllle'fenda!1itl wi'lll ta~~jnte aOO!:l~nt tMs, (!Ir Iher family ~TrtuaJt!alill, w~rrfa,re iSlllite}l, and Wllile~heil"Olf fII~t he Or sta,e has IGE!li!iF1 VrUC;;~il1lli~ed Qrdi~!:;fillm~n01i~ ~g:aJtnst. ~it ~s: wor~h bE!llIrriog h'l m1in~.ti~·n)lJgt'i. tJnlllt wrn~nesfe~ can be iruUmida'ted or Q~hei'wiiS~ persuaded :no~ to appeair f!il C;Q!'m a,nd gl~ E!1Videfll~e.

When th:e l:rfmeand !D'i,seroer Att 'Cl1Ilme' i IIIt4fl'~rce'. ,AS!BOiS were gen erally, i"m:ndl~&illl',) be

a meii/lUJTe to ~e;all with adi,U It ~1r'lll)rl·s(llJ;ila~ Ibehi)iVit~lilr, y~t whihinUIe; Ala ~t sl:a~stha~ an o~er l(jilln be' ~pp!Ued fo:r'!'!~iliFl~t ,amy ]flld~litJdl~alloverthe age of lJiln ~ye~rs ,ell!ct ~It liiS a ~t~k~ng fae,tU'lait: t1l1E! majority Q'f .A$OOs impos{!d ~ir:l~e '~e laww!;'l5 e:!1il,c,t:ed !haw b,l!elilr hillil,t!oo QUI' ~. Y~liInlll poopleJ al1ld ~h~ Idlll;!l'I.

imhe Qlu.!stilie1fl is.lllt~ they been efectjtl!lt:!'!' Th~ govewnmel'ilit; "I'!J~rallly,. ~Iaims 'tllila't Uney h~~e bliougl'llt ab'au:t ,111 ~ea~jm ~!i'OiViemElirltin th~ ,!,~!l!Utli of [~fe ,in rtlMffl!Unifie.s.arol.ll m:l theooui'ltl}'. Nar~l"sa,y,ers," sueh as civil rigJht.s campi'l~gne!r.$.'c:laim~ne l1I'iea$I;II~~~,are'farlOO' open ~ tab!;J!i~e. Some s~y tltey 9a tao f~r O1Il'iIlc:i' !!lomell:ha,ttilne¥ dOI1lr't' gOI far ~nOIl~hillod lact bl~ HiUwewr, a Ig~nul!'le il'!i!1let.:!rmel1it: ~Ol th;elr ele'tti\!iel1lE<ss, liiS~hat·to Inrnrpo®eaM',A,S!B~1 tal~s a lohi~tirim~ anti pa:pe'fWQr:kl il'lJr(.Qlvi~g the IQl)oper:atian ef ,()OlTUllllliU nity. pfl;~ice aJnd I'Qcal oouinc:l~ ,a n'dthE!y,,a~,e ve,~y re:xperlh5ive'~ i_p!em:~.JiIt. O!1i;e ~s~lma~ uS thlCi~a!ll MiBC! un "OS'l; iAI e:xGes;~of:£2O,iOO@I. 'Wha~ all II this me\1lfll,S is :~nal AS:B@~ am' beiWlgu~.::d "ffff'!l r(lrTely in rna"y p1.nts of ~he oo!.:fntry. So tne Jury ~s. stJWr,;IUliil.rf;t(I how e.cl~,ve r,hey .reaJlly ,a~"

Qu;esH011S 14~l'6 ChOfiSli: THRBB ~eU:ers A-H.

NB Your answers may be giveQ in ~ny oird,e:r.

WhiCb THrum oHhe foUaffing smtements; are' tnu~ of AS lOs, aoco.wing:mo me~xn A They were introdiul;'ed b) dea1'~(h ~peci:fik crimes,

B Parkiqg ena doable yellmljl Une oO'1:!ldgp,!~t you serv<edwith an ASBO.

C Swear~l1Ig loS ,OI1!!!: ef tbe offences referred to, i:nIDJil Crtmeand Disord.er Act.

D As aprivaJte hause:bo~der Y;O'IJ. 'C<lm). !applY' roll aJD AS1BO ag3J.iinlst ,;1J1loffisy ntrughbour.

E ~t is not illegal for yo!:u:~g people to galiliet in groupsi.Q pubJk plli!u;e.s.

F An ASBO c!mnot be served 0.0 <I group ofpoopje behavUlg lin;a. dls:orded)f manner" G A l~e p:roponioifiof those served with, ASBOs are OViex' 'the ~ge of 21.

H Most poop'~e agree that AS.BO& have beeneff'ect!w aU over ti'Ju;: CiOU:ntry ..

Cboose'the correct tetter; A,D. C or D', 11 '1 'The' wdter sugg;es~; thalt

A antl-soelal behaviour should be seen. as Oil crinwe. B :few peop~e agree'lon how to ddifU.~ a. crime.

C anti-soclal behaviow is difficult to deIl.ne.

Ill' th,e: 1eg.aJ definition of cr.ffiroe is too u:clllmsi,ve'.

19WbJa.T: surp:r;ised thewrUe:r aibout 'the imp0./l;i,H(u:'li of.ASlBOs~' A the number of bID~~.,oldsth~t had been ,Biven ope

I, thail vtry few adults had been served with AS:SOs,

C: that most oftiboseserved with ASBOs we:r~' Y0lilngs,ter.s [ii, hm!il f;(!w ASBOshad been :i.w:posedi since 199:8,

:~., In tbe w.riter'S O'pbil~O:ni' .hO\1i/ e:ffecnrve have ASBO~; been?

A Tbere msnt ,e:f.llough e:rideoce b) decide. D, They are roo, ,expensiiveto be dfecUve.

Ie They an: ~neffoct~¥e' beeaese theyar-e ,not strict ~n.o1ilg:h. DBe:mg open. to ,a;bi!ilse r-endc,rs l'he,m .tDefJiectlve.

WltelllYGllIlilave ~111 dlilollSe fr. nill!il'tiJ"te a'nSiWell'S. rememberdmt the

,questions ,are [!Ii die 'same on:h~. that the inftll'imilrillilil iis presented in tIM! text. SO YUill Ilik'"~t liIiI~~Qijtirnp llIackJillrifids 'In~

fGl"Ii"rlMds 'thfi~1I the~ ~ Jofind the aliiSWers.

DQ..... .~. 2- t:ii 2'1t:

- u',es",,,ons _ ""~ "'{!I'

Comp[eb: tile Sli';ntenc-es.

Cihoose NO MORE mAN mRHB WORDS from ~hepassa:g;e :ml' each, ,answer~

210 'rbeo:ffktam ~~~~~.says fua:t anti:~soeW be:bavlouris, b.eh~'Iliour

w~iCb can.eal1!ms~ alarm O!l'di_s,ke&s"

2,1 ,MODIS wiith mearin,g and destn.u;UolJl ·of pubIDk Or pd.v~u.e' p[,operty. making ___________ noise' is ,oonside'J',edmtj~sQdal behiil.V!ifiU1t.

22 ASIlOs are ooifls~de:red ~,o be part, of ~~~~~_~_ ]awtaitber than

c.rlmina~ Jaw.

23 C:it~zens have, 'to .. ~ ............ ~~~~ __ to <!lther the local coundl or the police:

be.lOreany aetion cam. be taken.

24 m (b,eJ;r ,gff:b~~ to oo11ect eVidena' 'the' <iurhorities may ,can on

, .. t:o' !e~ mo:r"e ilnrolrmaticlJ'!..

2S ASBOs are Issued at a ~ ............ __

~ is 'the most strni,l:li~tfo.rward form of anti.~soclal

READING PASSAGE ,3

You shouldspe'Jld ~bout 20 minutes, 0:1) 'Q~,es.tlQns 2;'l-401~ whwchare based on Reading PasS<'lge 3, be~lYw.

111le I'Oman~lc Rotion, that eiilll1!y h!.!l!i'!1a~ liv.ed ;In :h~l'imo:l'ly with their envif'Ol'II i'nE!liU has, til keA 'Rumte"iIi batteil'ingt,Ia.liely; Modem hl.u'lIIlans may hiW' starmd ,ellminabi,l1g ,otiler 5p~des tight 'fmmt~e S1!! rf; O:~.!f c!!lIlcest''011i sota rid aJ~~u~ed Qf wipingl @iIJ~ Imega fauna - 'firOIiil'lI '9 ~'n:~ nightle~ billldlSln ,AliIS:tr.alii;a~o IliI'IaflUll~Dths liJI"I Asia and mE!' g~und Slmh'Offrle:rth America -.;al!i,~hi:lt spl\'ead aaoos dil,e 'lll!h~'II·II~t.

IEven 510. by aml! net 16.~OOO'y,eal'S, aSo there were' on'ly iilb9ut·12 mini'of! peo:ple on ealn:h -11!tIS than ~ 'QUJi'h!:Jr ,af tht! eu ne n~ popl.dation af Gleat Britain. That's, a fa,r cry from ~eday'!i 6.61 billiioJI'I" many of usguzzlilng 'fo.5sil'rueb. ehumingl out greenhouse gases il!nd messing w,ith our pli!lil'ler's cI ima'~ IlliIee ther.-e's fI:Q,I(rmorrow. So it ma.y seem, falli..fe~hed ~u suggest that II'IIJli'lUlflS, haiVoe 'been !!'a!JJsi'ng ,gl~biJl wli!~m~ng JeVfiIi' ~fril«t QUIlt al'il~es:l\o W$ starred llaulining and cuttilng mr,ests t·o Imake< wall for tii-:e!dls at j)e.ast jiI',,O()Q yeirs·;a}i1I~

Ye1;' ~hat''!otme view Qfi~e~~red dlrmate :fl!lemtisltWlnllalm Rl.lddiman.,for!1l1il..erly ~tl'le lJil'l!I'WI1':5itt;y ofVif'9:inraICharloUeslI'me. Ancient fa~m.e;rs, weire ,pl,IlIlI'lpinIQ dim,a,te-warmiin,g Cilli'OOJil dIIiC»flde all'ld methane inmthe ,lIIlliiil'ldiSf!)heilE!'IQl'Ig lDefor,e fillcorded histol)l' beg'an. he ~ilYS., FarSol'l'l ,causing catainrophe. hQW~y,e:f" ei!lrilyfafilJ'l'le"~ hcah.ed~he planet',$, des~ent III1tt!a,norher lee q~ ,and kep,t Ea'1'ith Wa!1Ti'i and! stabl! fbr th,ousandls myears.

'C'O!.lId ,i! 'f,e,w prfmitiv.lffa m1~ F~ l!iie,a'illy have changed the clim i,e Q,f the entire globe?' n

V0lll: find !his 'hard to believe. you're' no,t'the' Qn Iy one.IRuddlima,n'i idea bss been hugely cQntro\;letsla.leveli S"j nm Ii'le pr~po,ged Ilit in 20m" 'M!iI!t ne:w ideiilis,espe~l!Illly ronlirQversi~1 Qnes" aile out pretqr':his't. I~ doesn't take scleru~e itlm,g ~I:l' we~d thern out: he Silij's;. Vat fiiVe years en,

h is, ~dea Is s,tllil no~ de'adll. (In ttrecontrar~, he :5<!(Ys the ll1tll!cSt ev1th~n,~e smngrtl1ri.elil!!i his, G1I!i19'_ 'It hiaIS beoame clear fua:t !"f:atYJ·al el<:p:~a natilc;fls fof' the rifiU! in '9 ~eer'l1i'UlUiiSe,gl~5e.5' o'llfnlhe Pl!:st'ft!w ~ilQ!.f~illnd Y€lIUSI,are the OI'U~S ~ha~ .ne nat mess ur~!iIg up. andl we ca iii reje:GIt them~ he dai,ms.

There tiS no doubul'i:al the .50anlng h~!C\;l,els af carbon dioxide 81nd othergreenl'ious@ gililles tba't we see in the ,~tmoiSpheJl',e 'toda),-,causing'.Ii a~7g C ri:!le in average Igtobal temperauue d ultrll'l,g 'the 201ft CEifltJlJry - are 'the fesl,llt of h'um'a,naccdvitles. In the' ia~e 1 '990~ Iilowever. Fludd iman 'li'ia ned! to s,{!spea thatOIJf 'cc ntri blJtiol'l ~I!l th,e gl'ob~lglreel'llholl'se beG'.anw, ~:me 51 gni~lka fit long bl!foe,retil'le i!'ld\u5trial ag,e OOgiiln. Th lis was whefi an iGe <:ie,~e drililedi ,at~he' ~s«lk Stii'tioli1l tn AniEarcNtal 'revealed how a~m@s,~'heri' Cfl1_2 arli~: methane lifII~ts have chlBlllged O\lle'r 'the Pilst ~O..aoo }l'aiiirs. !Elubli3il:es, ~rappe-d :Iin tile i!:e pl'oVJde a record O'f~he' ,andent alm,csphe:1l! ,0 ulI'in!;ll the p.alSt 'three int:e,~,gilil;cials.

Wflalt we see is a reogUll1lf 'pa'ttern of ri e:s and fa liS: with iJ period 'of abDut '100,000 yean, ~g]ndd!lng wi~h the (,jomingl and ,going of tee ages. 'Th~e are geod eXipllanations fOr these 1C)!Cles~ period ie ,chlllnge~in ,the planet's',orbit and al)(j's ,of mlO,tatJil;n'I ah:er the ,amount of ~l.Inlight feac;h ing the Earth. We ~re flOW 'in on~ of the I"elad,\(gly brie'f, Wairm Int:E!l'9I'adaW i»li'ioa~,{hat foJ llow aA ice age.

W111'l,in ~nis, !atge, piI'ttern th,ere' are jl',!g,Lli'a~ p~i!b' ii,"1 me~thiane e\il'e.ry' n.GQIli ve'alrsr,h~~ ~G.~ndde w1th 'the tirfiil\ll!1; wllienth-e Eiaurdll'!i 'olTbi~ ma~~5i summers IrrI 'tffite noni'l:eJtI. hem'i~:Prh'ere W,al"'!II'U~S't. thiS' makeUiU'IiSI!j because warm II'IGrttlern Sl!'mllll1er~ dnlrv'e· S'lt'Ql'Ig~rop!cal mOlilisoons in SQuilinern AS'i<a that both encou rage 'rine grow~h oflol'egetllti'On .m dl cause floodingJ dUrll\QI whkh vegetartiinil roltilng in ox)!gen~poo!' w,atel"wll'l emit n"ie~hane. AI~ound: the, Ar:c,ti~ hot summers thaw wetlands for II!o:nlgf!l'. agailn prom otlng bothlle'ge'tattilo.n growth and 11i!.e:tlliulinE! emlssiie1n.

11"1 recen:t!lm,esJ however. ttl is, reg.ular patte:UIil hills cha~g:ed.lhe las! mellil'i fUl' pea,k oC!curred am,ul'lld11.o00. ~ar.5 ag!J. CIt ell b(!!.!ft 700 par~5, per b1:lliol'l (pp.!)]! aftnSlr wihidh le\i!-e.ls began to

Ftdl. B~t ~nstE!ad ,of ool'il'l:!i'ntlilfig ~ fan ~'wlhat IRlJddlma!!1 !ii!rys :sho~lId h-av,E! ~.n.a rflliin~'mLJllm sf ,ab!!lLIt·4l50 ppbtcd!!iY~ the atmos.pheric msd'lalne begilf'llo climb again $.JOIJO' yean· ~gQ,

Work,ll'Ig c ;1d1 dlimi!ltt! modelle~s Stephen, 'VeNe~, ~1iId: J{lhril' Kutmach, RllIdd'imafill has shown 'thl!,'t if the level:s of'Ehese gases had continued te fall ra~het ~haliliinsing when they (I!d~ i~e sheets wO'uld QQ\W ClO/Yef SWiilhes of nimhem CiJlna:da andl Sfl)e<ria. The world wDul!d :be headling into 31"101tnel'lOO fj,ge:.

So why did boUn methane iiI!'Id(f)~ ri$t ovenhe past reWd~oIiil5alndyeau? 11::1 Q,~ner word~. why !m'as th'is iWltef9laci~1 PE!iI'ioo bee1!:l ,d'Hfeil'ient~r,@fI!1!l ~we\!'ious oneJ fc,lJlld humifns betGl bIJame'?

A,gnc,yl'tIJF€! erne(g'oo, around the eastern MiE!dmt~l'rar:njean SIOme' l1PflIJ. years a~'Ulen shQnl)l afterward!> I,n "hi lila and :se1lieral tho:U5al'li!ll years lillW!iI' in the ,A1menl!:.a,5. Fa ning YIn llelelSe greenhouse giisesin variious W4t:Y5: ~I'ea~in:g fu~st!i II:OOf,ilites lots of stored !!a'rlb0f111 as the wood rot'S or is btl mea, '~Q.r inst'~,"~e~ Wit'll Ie 'flooded !'itC'1! paddies rele8se Imeih!llne jl.! 5t as wetlall'ldl5, de"

D

lio ifnd 'GU~ more .abolilt eal'l~'fanl'n~ngl FliIildldimal'l began to d:~91 arr'e1!l1"l:d ~n. st/uclie"S ~f ,~g'ric!l.!ll:lI! ral hi5<'O',I'y.lihE!~ ~eve~lel;j ~h:a~ there W,lS a ~harp [rise il1liri.ee ,utUlJat[Qirll~ A.s:ia ilIfQiJlrl'la 5.iOOOrYtaf~,ag~ wl~hthe Rratrl:ie:e sp:~ead~ng i!:~ro.5:sChlfil'aa!lkd S~UnFei5~ A~ia!, He~e.at ~!eqst W3J '3 pQ$~llb!e:;ou ro~f0r !the ul'II;IDlpetlecil medl"ulle·l'I1~e.

27 One ot the c1ad:ms Rudc:l.imoo.m,*es is th3it

A popula!tiOlllgr(W!!'th. ~s l.eSPQ~sjb.rne fQ':!:, global WilIIrmiug .

. 8 pe{Jpl>e have ~i'eded. the dn.ate rOl'tJb.o~8lW:d;s .ofyears. C h~s ideas are not in. the least. b~t oo:!)jtro~Tsral

.D 80 far sdeil1rtas:ts n.a:v,e been ~Oll8aibo:!il~ global·W1aiil:mmg.

2.8,What il!J!!fur.~aition d~d.the resru'l;:i1at V@~kI&t nfveallol!"~h:e first ti,m.e~' A. Uruat m.elfl.ane ]e-Vi!]S st3ibili:!!ed about 11 ~OOO yeuS! ago

B that Antarctl,c iceam.A!a:in.sll.ethM:!JC: btllbbles

Cd':ia:t ·the.01Iel1tao.e le¥~ tnereased :about S.OOO~~J!'s ;l!go D tilila:t we aJre now Uving in awatm .fu)!ter1!ladaiper.iod,

29 T~e'dima:t:e rnan;gers' offhetit]e ere A modern .hrumtans"

B, d~m;at:e modcllers.

'C pr.i:M~Uve far.mers.

D n3!tl1llral GlllSle8.

W,he,",:y,I)I;lIrl~rVQ1l\1lI (10~prue~1l a SUimm~~ mdeJ'lme ~r CLHi:le eilG"I!;!~W!!r'fOtI'f!M im thg l1l3'adt!ll.fl pil!Sisag,e. nils ·wlll.aflow ytUII'W, tillJdthe ne:X1 answer m~r~r,u~kly.ils ~'~ wlll h ~I~ ·thll'.ill'!i~Il'rS 'i01ir'v~ .abea~ fQUMI

Complete Urues;u~nlny;

Chc>o'se NO MOB1]: THAN TWO WORDS fl'QQl the p<liSSage fOir eaciwanBWef.

1'0 m3in}' p~QFle the oontwl!IIe'..fSial id~-a.that o. 3<0 .~I1!:respOillsibJe for global

w:arm~ng.appean 3>1 ," 't'eI: :IJJjdid~m;a!ll belleves t~thigh ~twels: 'of carbon diQ~Ae

,and mre~hane ~ both. 31 • Of' g~e.l1lb_OlloS!f: •. gases - Wf::rie being t-eleased wnJto' the

I'! .. ...,t. ~.~ "'~-·o"-p. '1,. ""'" '[ . ." times 1J]..t ... rto ~-::I'U"lWI"'." .. ,.ID" ;lldiman clatim" tffilJait this

J:.\'L""Ill~ '" a!""W>,."" .I,~,.,..... ••.. .,_., c':': .• ''"'': • .u JiJ' • :n ... _ . .' .. - .... ~" .. "",,,,1,;1 __ ._.~."_ .•. -_. ,_." ',._. __ ._._.

ha,d, a pOIS~tl'lro: effect, .~. itma;y w~U h~Vie s~:v€d usiWMano'tner 34 . ~

Do, the' foUol'iin,g sia:tem:ell.ts ag~ewitb, the :info'l,lil]attiO!D, g~ in ReaoongPacs;s1il,ge3? Wdre

TRUB IlAL-SE N'OTGIVISN

jf tbe stllllte.meIJIt agrees w~th ~'he ~r:ifQrmatilw ~f dle ,statement ,contradicts the infQ,f.l'llila'tion if the: there is, no informatiol'll, iOIll this

35 Some :lReg:a:fauna halVe been e~Wminated by,hllmMIs in, the pas;t 100 years" 36 Agricmmre Iscom.iide:red 11. prim.}" cause of~obaJ ~~ngt(lday.

3' ,R~~dditnau>s idea caused a gre.a1i deal ,of ;a.rgumenm among sc~eJ1tists.

38 New scien,t1flC evidence proves f,or oerbin tlnia!tltuddim,ms, themy

lSi oo:rred:.

39 The 20lhceotury hM seen the grea!l!~tev~r increase in g1,0I)a1 ~empeptu:res. __ ~ __ 40 Chanjes in the EHth~ orbi!u can affect ,gIDoba] temperallttil'ies.

You should spend abo'l1l20 m~~'1llI~esonLhi:s task,

Thetabte b~~ow sh'ow.$thewQrldwid~ ~~rlwl shaJfe ofthe.obile plu.)Q,e m;iiI:r.ket .for maf]U,mCh.lllerS tn tffil,e years 2005 ,md 2006.

Summadse the J.Ilfofma!tio:l1 by SieilleaingM'Ild l~po1Fti,ng :tilile main :I)e'atru.u:.es,an:d. makie aoltllipariso~s vihe:rerefu'vmt.

W~U~ a!t:~e$t 15Dword:s •.

LG. 6.7

7.4

Nokia. 32.535 II

i~~~~~----------~------ .. ,~~,,~, ... '~,~,. ~~

l'r!o~o~orol3i 17.7 fH m

n.s

Be:l1iQ .M~bUe. 4.9'

TOTAl.

100.01

W.RJT.ffi6 TASK 2

You :£:ho~Mi !I[poodJ 1.lbout 40 minutes on thws task. Wr.ilire abou:t:thefollow:i:D1.@i tOPljc;

,ltece:rdfipH:s ma'M' ,an :imii"eJi\l\'lfi i:rj,~,io,r;et'l~ ,aim:£: among,o~njfs'~iI"j ulI'd'frrf"e .e 0/1'8., S'Q<fIJ!l,.s,d:f,ol~gi'5:t$ ,,1.~i~ thaUi:t ,f;!'(lSiCrMSou /0:1( this 1.$ Ut.rJ:f ,c11,ildn~ tIJ:es~ da,s a~ ~alt pining tlJe stlcl"d ,a~td ern\(Jtio"~1 !etlR,;r.~g tl1e:y ¥utedJ"'J.".~ '~flf.':Jds' 4~d lM..i&e,~.

To w.hat ex:l~Jlt do, 'Y,@:g a.grne 'OIr dilli:agr,e.e with th~s opInion?

Gwe reasons foil' YO~iI: a!t1I.sw-:e:r rul.d ~ndllde' iaIty .re.lev3:liJit e:x:amples from your 'OWt:! bl.Qiwledge or '€~P e!rilmc:e.

Writl1!:at least. 2501 'WcuTds.

,w SUlfrlmaJi~ lhe~ infQrt"nartl.Qiill~,eh IJ;I atabl,e, IliIph'. eb. ~f!mber.'!ml!~n 5pl!~iij!i !JIIYmbel":5'ilod1:~rcutale5m[jlmthe

qlil;i!s1!t!i1n fmI y~uli" 'Mi.tin&

WIleayiQU hnl!"H1:!Iay whell1iu!t y,!lU gee er dISil.S)"Qe with "alii

~plrliGilll.I U is afien OJ po1lDl ide;! '~~iMb!!de,illhfe1f1l1f!jtitt!1J !'l!l~'Ii!M w' ~~'mph::·~ ~ !il!.tt Iqlilll:J.QIiK!!iI rn the !quesflon! ~ (III! this

C'a!>l!!" ollK ~S'S1t~~e we~Il!SWf ani ~~<,!i5~ int~n~~ ,crim"l.

:SP!EAKING PART I

'The ,e~mlr.a.er askstffile candidate about h~mjbene[t his/her ho.m~ wo!rk: er s,tu:d~es. and ,c!'liher fanti!l!iartop.ks,

Hobbies

.~ Tfillill me a:boij,ltaJ].Y hobbies yOill. have n.ow or had in mepilist

.• Do you .fet1you f:!l3!'!Or.t ~I!,Qi!lgb fTe~ ti:rn:e .fOir .h6bbjes·~ ![Wh:yf\iVllizy ~ot?] • How ,impo.rtMI~ is i~ ror peoplemo have h:o<hb[es at d~fierel]!ta:g~s?'

.~. If}iio1lhadi 'l~e eha:nceto, tallJe llpll new hobby. what would rut be? [l\rhy?]

PA.RT' 2

Y01l'l.will ltave irO, .~ aibout~" toplcfur 'Oin!~ to L"WC, min:U:~£,.Ii;iou halVe ene Inrunr~:!!moe tOL!hillk .aiboutwha,t yml>regomg ros:ay. ¥Oilll. ,~n. lrlIO'tke some noittes ~o,help }'Ou if yQIU.wish.

D:escrilibe:a fwoos en~eda.i:ner ·yo.~.like er laIdmlre. You s~ol!l!l.d say::

wfuo th~ p'l\'!lSOn. is

'wut .kind ot e:l'Wt:ew:l'ailiner they are w'hyyou.like this FOIrmo:f .e11®f'lr~a:il1im.e~t

and explaln wby you. Mke. 01' ad/mire them.

PART 3

Wh~i'!yf)UI ,i!1l! pt,epadli!g iIto,p1t:In Part 2<, focus QU'the mBe(lOO1plicotedl

parn •. II~J;P.!!~o~ I~ Sa!twho't!iep"emm tsJdo, IiliDt nl!~lllI'IlKihl 'p~tiO"I' Spemil th.etime~hWkm.8l aitu;IIJiI;;lnd ~klng

lIIoteSNf thecl!amr pans: ro,f the qlm5t{on iins!iead.

E.D~e:ftain.en.tin YOlfi[t10LEitry ~Wbat. would YOll say is·thl~: most pOlpul~w .form 'Ocf e~t~rrt<lmJU!'!!e!wt .~.YO'llr OO!lUt:rY~ Wlly?

~. D~' you thi;d;r;.peop']e .b<\ve lost fueah~ ro en:tert~.ilie~elve~

• CGuJd youS'p~cula~e oin.how y@!I;!think ~~te[!:,~:!'I'n~e:twt .might mmg~hlthe:futll"~'

"rhe ,cos,t o:f,e:nJtlftaiil\!:m~Dt

• DOc you tl~~r.!k en~l\'W:neil':li, s,u.dw as :roo~bd O~ :film stairs are paid roo ltilil1i:dh ror wbfl!t. ~hey do!' H 80. w.liIich.joh$ ,do yon mink sho.d. be betl!!:'.f pa~d?

~'Wou1dro:Y ~greewHh the 0iP~niontbi~u we pay too mud:! to be e~oomil'lled.liIO'Wa:days? .' Do '}luu WMik that:thear~s •. fOle ei~ple theatre and opera.sh.,g,md be siJiIbs.i.dj:!Jed. by Lh~ g<rllil"~:rn:niile:nt?

1un 39

JE,ST' 3

LI:5TENI!NG

SECTION I QuestiDns 1-10 O,l1EST'3;_CJI1I Qo'estiens J-,8

COnl!plete the ,for:m. be~o'W:;

Wd'te ,NO MORE T'HA_N THUB WORDS .AND10R A NUMBBR fOf each . .mswe:r.

'Piy;~htr ,CaWe:n Customer Boo~B Iiom:!l

iE'DDi!pl,e

Iven_j; ~ust'@mer l1Iarm~:

D,ay&nil: 'teb:~ph~U3,e n.u:mb:er:

ThlephOD!e DVmhe:r after 5 p:n:

umber Jof'pests:, Date:

ieMiDiI $l!l!a,pe:

Sjz,e:,

:Number of ,tabl~s:

'C!irlooseth_,e Cio:rr,edte!lter~ A.I Ol C.

" The :IliUl:1l deddes~o book A ;11 three-eourse me3it I, a buffet.

'e :3, ban.q~t.

10 Tlhe man wm ba:ve' '(opt:)' A £.1'50 tomonow;

B, £ 1 00 pef :b.ead.

,e: £.lt500 an t~e day' of the: patty:

~'I~~~~ __ --

2~~~ __

AsabO¥e eIf PO one aJUl1e~,

1 )

,----~~----

5

--~~-----------

6 ~ __ ~

7 ~~ __

,B ~ .......... _

When YUIIII kaye to wri'te ~ ,na:m:e ~II'I ill fIrm or 'tall~e. or in "~te~; 'llir S_im~em:es:. IUsmlil '~Jefylly liS, the'lname ~ !l!lliillIl1.s:pelle~ 'DU~ f1li1r YQIiJ.

SECTION 2 Questi'ous ),1-2'0' ,O'T,EST3;~OIZ QUesti,ONS l' ,1-,17

Acc,o:niblg to the speakce:r" 'when ,dlIDd, the following, happen? Write dille cornlct lette! A~ B of C. n!;!')tt to Que:c5~i:om, 11-00 7. A. before j,837

B bet:w;een 1831 and. 1900' C after 1'900

II The East Frolllt\vas added to' the building:. ~,2 The Jest big structural change was ll'Jiad!e., 1,3 The I!nlillding was bombed"

[,4 The l!:i~dlinS became: a pai:ace.

is The I!:iuildiillg was knowa as, The Queen'S! House, '1:6 1',he Ho~ses of Pair.liamem ~re ~str,oyed by tllm"~. l' The M'ub~e Arch was. nlo~d.,

~hel'l 'IOUllh~'w lldetll

for ,dail!s Or rwmlilers In ill ,d;;$~iication

tasik 'like th,t;GJi1e' (liier:e., Ch!estiClIlli!ii'11dl11~ remembar

to nlllte ~li:iW(l1 t1iie mlil'St ~mport;mt ev,ents 'tIilY he'af alQfl,gside the date grnllllJ11ber:,

Co~!ple1ie the s.emlJten,c~s b.dow;

Write ,NO MOD TBAN TWO WO:RDB AND/OR A NUMBER for eech answer.

18, Up~o, ~~ ~~~~ __ , peop,leatJI:end ,Fdy ,p.arties at the:palJll'oe

each year.

19' The garden ,contains, more than ~~_~ ~~~. specles of'Wi.1d,f).QW'er.

20 Tine public can visit the n:in~teen _ in Au,gust

of'September.

Ds- scr '1 ON' . 3' QC .. ~ 21 3't:io {"\ --

C;:c.- _ _' I .... .' ..uel. ~9ns /. - C U' •• TlS1i 31_:1ll3

Q,u,estioft.s ,2J~2;4

,Answer the I;j[u~ticn:i beliO'w.

Write NO MORI l'HAN T11MB WORDS fu~ each answer.

Wh.a;t :is sa~d about each of these ,subjecits s1~dlied on a. sodal ~die.,s (oU[-se~'

Choose your answers fr,om the box ~JlId 'Wdte the .met~ers, A_,..,H next to QueSt[Qn;s; '25-30,

A This wm fo,-cu$, on bow eadl gen;e'I<lti.OB learns about its O\vu cul~_Ie., B TIns m'!eessa__t:iiily .indudes a study ofphyslcs ;and. ch,emi.:stil':y.

C Th~s is studied,from the point o.fv:iew ofhuman behaviom.

D 1',Msl'ilill ,o:m~r be wve:red. in ,g'rm:!!· of its theory.

,E Th~s also, covers the ,distdbu:tii.oD. ofwealith.

F this hu:lud~s the swily lohrchiIJ~c;l,o,gy.

G 'This bas receirved. ,cdticism. for not being sdcmtifiic ,enough. H: Thl.s wdudes some: work (:I'n ~.iI:I:ba:i.lp1anl1i~ng.

2,$ .An'lfu,op'~illo,gy ,26, Jkonornacs

"J' Ed,ucaUOIiJI

28 GeQ,g:raphy

2'9 law'

30 SQcio~ogy and sociaru work

, 'Whellly&:llilave'iQdu lIila~d!insluef\dse Uke ids '!!1M' (h~ (lJestiions ~""3D11 R!memiler thClt )«11:.1 sliK!ulddlt be iIfI'ftImnCied

hy w&at Jr!)Yth'ink '(aU killow abGut 'lle.I:OIili5., Ae~ Q!ilr on what y:<IlJi lE,n.

S.OCTION4 Qses.I;i!IJUS 3J~40! .. ·lm'·3;,..14 Q!ltsdoas 31-37

Choose the ·eorred ~~t1lt~r;. A. B Oil: C .

. 31 Stude.n.ts should oom.pffi.et:e theirworllt onthe 195(151

A ff itt.hecywa.fi~. ;~O beallo·wed~Q oo!IItinue attendiling lectures,

Ii b€causetheY'w:i11 :appreclaretilil.e intorma:t'i,Q~ aJbQUitthe 19'6{1s moo;.l!.

C 'OIth.e.rw:l:se d1ey Eacethe l'0~~biltty ~f be~lITIg .fuiedfortheir wl.U$eworlk.

32 A.oc::o.rd:ing ~Dthe~edl:!r'e:r~ ilhe ~bl:liby boom' hliippened.

A becaose ·ofre:lax~d. a!t!l:~tudes in 1I:h.~ sixties, ]J .d!unlmlg 'lIi.~e ,of war.

,e becasse poop~e fe1:tmore S€{;U:I\e.

33 mmle: s;iXLies:, ~ffiI.e USA bad 70 mlUoo.

A teenagers a, 13, babies.

c adu1,ts:.

34· .A.cooooin:g trJo nn:e~.®C1I:ur:er. o~p.a_red.toEllile :~'95o,s~ I~e ~.960:s w~'l1e A less ·con51e-rvatili'Ve.

B. mO.re oonftrnl;lll'f:.

,e ju:s~ as oonser~tive.

35 AC'Ciordmg ~o ~heruecwrer •. ~~W£ature dlJanged. the way WQnlel:!li

.A eiVer 40~re lJ:e~ted by·socie.ty. :B. v.Lewedwss:I.Ieso:f.rnce in soci,e.ty; 'CC'el~ aibOil1t t~m oole-s. 1m SiQC[etly.

3' Ther~de ·of C[~Me in 'tili:iesiixltries

.Ii.. ro!'ii!'!n~neper oe:[!lt du:dn:g~he dlecilJde. B.was .nine times hi:gher t:h,an~n tile: .fltUes •. ·C waSr:liine tjnl;~S lower than in the fifr~f',s ..

3·7 Wh",~h~ppened a!t 'ltb.e ~latt !Diftlli:u~ [9flOs?

A the :Brst heaet t.ransp~Stffil!t

B lil.ein:tl:.odt!:C'l~OITIli oftbe .~n'mer.mlet ·CIh.einveroItiof:IJ of liU~rs

W1!tIiI· mw'ip-I~ dloi~

question$.. y,~ may hl!lfe g~nlmd kllflowmdge ttla~ cam h:l!lp y.ol,l predirt ...mat Y~III11~IU1kYOljl'in!i gGinswl [hear~ However, liillnl.y ,dilGtllsl!'

alii all~r~atJC!:.I·'il!!·hei!r1ll1 iJUI\ile IiiKMtling 1ti~lfl

» Questioll$ 38-411 Complele-the' Slool_Q'lj.alf)"betow:.

Write NO MORE THAN TWO 'WORDS for each <.'iif.lswer.

In OC:lio,ber~ :~,'96i21 us freside'fl,t ~n~dI.y met. ad.risers 'm.o discuss

38 . whkh poo¥oo fuat the CLlibHS we~e :in5:taIling: nuctear

:mis&Ue5~ presumably '00 use tl(g,amst the US. Kennedy''',as faced witbtTIree' ch,oiees!: to try to resohl';~ the crisis dip]oHlarrkallYi, to block the deU¥e'ry of :fir.tl1ber weapons Wn.to Cuba; or ~()I

;attack Culba. l{:ennedy ,those 391• • o:ption" whkhprev:e:l1ited

fue: bUil_A.·u;p oflillore m~SiSiIDesand ~oo ~othewitbdrawal ,of ' me exlisting, ones. M{liS~ are agreed

that a 40 was DUlOWiy avoided. by Kie'llnedy's decisi.on.

llBADINGPASSAGE 1

You Sihoumd s:pend alOo!J:t 20 ,minu,'tes on QU,$stic:ns m-.]3,. whk:b,are bas~d! on 'Reading Pa~lbelQw.

Ho'w Moblile"Telephony'Turned linto a H'e.lth S,car.

The *tnnolog~Pil#li1i~h el'lia'bIl!~ Imob'Ue ptnune.s, was pre~iol!sly uSied rn~he kfnd Qft~Willy ri1Idio which CQuid Ib,eft:IIJnd il"ll ta~is; an~ effliugeRcy vehides:. Alti;II;'l!.l9h this was a great developrneflt. iit, W~ not lIIea,Uy ,~o:nsld'er:ed mobile telepl:i!.oillY tJecause j,t:c:ou'ldin'iot 11;;,£1' ld5:ed

t.iZI d"llli~e exis~il'1g. phO'ru~' n-e~tli!l. lilt was known ,iliS s~mlPlex mCihm~i~; 'o:pefaitiTng 0'11 the .5.~me prhM:lples ,illS ,a, wa'l:k,iIHil1kie" whh:h requitred~hat a use; pmss, a butrol1l'. meilll1fllg that only cll'le pei'$l;ll'! 15t atiime' c:ould talk. Sim:pUe)l' m,eantthat(helre was only one' communf.caltio!"l 'm.(lll.lelllty'ln use ,art: ilil,y OI1e- time.

The first: ,i'I'IQbile p"!lines tOOQi1nect t.o tele:phonelletworks were often i'llstalled in ftar5, Ibelf'GIrE!,the' ha nd"\heJd ~eI:SJ.oiil' ~.111I'n~' 'GI.I1~he lma rket'iilld th'e1 FEr'!lol'u~if:n in mQbl[,e lefhnoloQ(Y Ibeg~ n, The 'firn g:enetaltien o.f Imobile phones. (Pil ted 1 G) we I1e l!lrge~ hei:VY1a,nd CililalDgl!.ie a I':! !:Ii i'twas nelf IlIfim the inV4l!Ii1tlon of dlle Sle!C!Qfrld generation I(2G) rn the ~W05. ~h8t digirralnetvii'oli'ks e",Ou'ld be' u~,The' dig,itrall'll'lemellltenablll!df'aJi1toe:r !ligl1an~ng. ,~t tlhe same tll'illil'e1l:1elle'I:Op'mel'lil~ in banery ,des:lgn ,lUll" emergY-5avin 9 ell'eii:tJlOl'li!Cs, allowed rihe phone~ ~h~ms!E!'~s, tD beooliillil smailleil" and ~heiFefol'e more' ti'llJly mobile. The seoorn.d~generai!lon allow'f.:ld fol'feKt m.essagil'lg ~Oi, alnd~hiii begtlll1i with the first penr;:lIl1l-tc-per;son 'text message' iln Fi]i'i~\and in 1~g,~, ,~Itheu;g:ll ,ill machin&generated le!tt mfHj~ge h:ad b!!e_I'II.suc:€e5full~ sent tWQ years ealrliet

l'lJione' of this would ha,ve been l~ssJbl'ew,itihCiutthe deywlQ;p,ment cf.d'lJpl~ tecl'll1latcgy

to repiacli!lhe' ~elilrtii:t;jl'l!ly primitive! $impl~ tedll!\oto9Y of the first pl\ij!~e ,of :mOblle '(QO'IrnuJrlkation.,I'n duplex mchn~loQiY, mere' aret\!VQ freql.lendes: avaj'I'a'ble simu!taneol:;l!i:I". Thge tW'Q frequencies, ('.aR be o:bt,a~l'ied by tillre pnindpleof fmqu:ency l[)NliSl~~:O Duple-l< ,OD). 'lb, S'e.nd two' sJgnali wioreleslSly,. it i~ n~:5sary to creme a pa,ii'OO ~~cbrYlm. where one band 'Ylrries the uplInk [tram phc;)oe' 00, ill\tenna) ~nd the otbel" call1'les the de,\\\!',l1llin'k (from, ante'nn~1 to phone1. nme Dli\lll'sion IDlilP;~e)! (11)0) ean adl'de'i!l''e ti'le s:am'e~lhlng~ Ib~~ inlSNad of:s@I~n:i"g 'tD'l'e fr:frquency, the uplin'kc,(lm:l down'lllnk f.iFe swhc::hed very 'r,ii:pJd'ly. girvlngtne imprelSS!ionthat ORe frequelli'lCiY' is used.

for mobIle Nlephony ~, wo~k l'Q Its; ~~lme5~ potential, it: needs to have a l'lE!twO'l'k th:OO!ugh W:hich ft. can .elay sign;ab. Th ts netwo:rk depends, on bi!!iIe su.tiQrlcS 'whi~h ~l1d ,illl1ld ~ei"e the sign'als. Thebas,e s~tiOI''iii b!il'l~ to be simplE' OOf:l.5,tnlJcti.Qr'lS-, or' ma\5t$. Cfltop Qf which are IiII!iIJo'urlited '~he ,anltel'maS, w,rilh '~he r,ap d hiCiI"EiiJi5e in demand 'for mobile SleNk~ IDe' ilifl'fr,ast!mdufie of anlrenna'S in the United Kif'l,gdam ils now huge.

Many ti1iliZluunds '~ff ~il:,porll\5 hiave f:!,p~'ared c~latm~ ng that the sjgna:l5: :~liiliYeti by ~hese ant'ennas are halnmwlm hUIf'na n and aniffi~'1 health, The claims 'ftlcus ,Qf) ~he fcI~t tha~ the ali'lt~l1IllaS, are traliilSlmiwng radl,Orwaves in m!ltfOWa,ve form" 111'111 so e wars. public demand iis~ respo:nSl~bh~fio:r' 'tlI1e in~~se inEhe ,a'lleg:e,d thriat ~Q ,ne'alth. U:ntll quite )l'ie;C:'I:!'ntJy; v01 e ,~J'nd

'teKt Imes,s!l~S werE rnuu.milled usilfc'lgl 2iG technology. Iii ,2:G mitlit G'an, send a low""f.r.eque.nQi' mfcrow.aw, S!liQ:naJla.ppfQxlma~ely 305 kIIQme~res. Thtfd ,g.ene;fl',altiol11r (3IG)tedu,\Q'liQgy allows lJ..!ier~

'y,Qur!!~e:llS C:lIO

'1i!.Q~eform, so ~u oft1en halitl! 'iI.ch,~ice.'lf. iter ~m:P!t~\ II :~s [~ f!el~t

'te:arly mQl~e IIliIhGlilEis were,~nera~ly liI,sedi in iu::torll!s: ~I!! i![J!i,W~ fo~ f!~bGli 3 wl1Ililld t~ 'trml, fadlilde!S~ 'Gr .Jtm -rndio:l'ie5: Bmh ,1I:rSwers wouldgett<a maikA

11=1 wlmr,~$ity download il'if'Ollma~lon :"'OliiI1 'Il!;!' In~m:e:t and r,se)<tJrelmely ~olPm"r. The diiere,nce !]~tmt. ~G~lI'Ia!ogy USe$ilI htgihe[l'frn.qLIIJe.l1q~e! earlY the :lli.gfi!i8~!l;; ,a'ltl~ifi'tg Imll!stlUCl! emi~ mare fad~adon. This Rr,ab~em IS ·in~nsfliE!d by '~he nE!~tlI to hi:!l;iIE! m~sltS ~n ~]ooer pl'~~frnlty tQJe.a~h o~hej'~.awu~ 1:9 '~~e' hl!a'iffd~IS tlln!m'~elv,e5; Wi'la,tll!VEirtiJanger mere was fn 2,G, sigtnals is

'g ~aitly m!ultipn~ by·'tM"e fi!!cttIilM~h;e 3G Imastlare pnysl(;'all~" n'lud'l ,clo~r'w! r1Iiao,ple.

Od.v,emm,tiI~ at!~hofl]ti~s 1iI1i!;'lItE! sof~r r~fused 10 acoopt~ha~ then: ls ,al d;;ll'li g:e;r'W pulb~iill h,GU". an~te5ts ~,h'ie~ ',OJ;'ltiiji' ;~emrn'l;erUS ar'1;uit:eleoom mUfl!'i~it~'Qns oofl'!lpanies have !bellA restddf.!di tl!ioostllngkls.'eie ~f h.ea! lsibe;~n!'ll produced i'l)m~he$e. mkf:ow,atl!!'·es:; .~:f;d~ng~@' m,,afclY. h.QW«'!{e:~1 ~h!!i!' problem is f1B~ lneal:, ~l:It emS:~fDm~neticwa~s, 'w!1ichilfe 'fo:urcld near the nTnasts.

It Is beUE!IIIS th~t' ~tn€ tPEopl~~'hIZlU.gh n at. ,a~U. h3111~ a OOIi! d iti'Ql'i, known ,as 'elettro~ ~nsi~wl~ty. or ell:!(j!~Q~hyper£el]!!litivity ~EH~i m,eii)l1Iil1l\gthijt~ne ei~~ma;g !1'U,;!~islm m:a~.es, ~he.m i~lln somewal'.l1rte \i!dual healtll ~hr'QttroM tjlhe:m tP'l,!lse.d ,miCl'ID'!I'.a~,e ~i'9Ii'1'a,is ~l!i.~n area W'~idl grea~ty needs Ili@'~resilial~ic:::h. i~ n~s li:Jeelfl ~~aimedthanh,e <slgi'll~ll!i .alffK~ .ill IllivinQi ,o!Fcganism~

i n~:uding pl~n,tsj' at iii cdh,,illa'f' le~1 ~nd cause' syiliili"lpt~m:s Ii"! p~OIlP~:e :~!a.ngiogl fromtiredne~

and he3d:ache.stoCillfil,'~f. €If Ram'cutll!l~~ ,~t:ulce,mis the ~tth:at inc::rnsoo !!11'ectJr,oma;g ml!dc 'i~~d1s l1IIiIiiil~ haQ,e 'o:n!;Jliii~'d rem and 'thefeaJ is tluia~~he li'Ie.9!athlie effetts '®:I!l~nei r h.B1Ihh ma;y Inat marnTife:s~ themrselMes ul'il'~]I~hey have had! fflai'!Jy ,years ,I),' cca:iitJ~n!l!Jed e)!pOSlJiff!~' high ~eftl!S. 'lests m!lril"ied Qut Qn arnlil:l!'l:~dl~ Iij;~il!lg dp~!e till! this fullm oh;~d iilltial'll ,1I'r;~ par~ic;l/JllilirilY IJIlsefI;Jl tbe£auS.'e scienlttis:ts caull n~;leOl!~'t~e ply.ch.clc.gical effeot~hi!t hU!mi!nsc!l!~g:ht be @hil:i!~i!ilg d!;lie 1:11) tihelw fear ,pI ,~ssir~ll!e i@@n~tmilrU!itiQA.

O~ CZOl.lrse, ~e d'il !I1ger 'cre~~5!u~e exists when !:lIs!ngi!1 Mabile pfuo(!I1e t)ut ~]n~e we (i'otMs; fur; IiliJli~ pE!iII'ia(Jcll, b.e~n wihiGh i~ is belie!!lted: eur bocile$€am feCOW~; i~ is not: oonsldel~dI as~n'au~. il!~~he: e,fifett of IrrVingo:rw'0!11i;!IIi'!' near iii .. a~rlrsome,tim~ mou!1Jttfdlo:n~he \!,li!~ b.ulildifilgl we oc:cupy1 wh'i:ch is Wiil'l$:miUNng elech'C'Magirn~~h: w~s 24 h,OllfS, iii d'ay.

AnS'li!fett:h!~' ,quesUo~sbdow.

Write NO MOR.t:Tfl.A"NTHRB!'WO:.lJJI'S roil:' ea.m. an:s,we!l".

4 W';~at. ,deveLopm,en~ i:n:tredU!(je,d digital ~:eib.n,Q~OIgy :i~tQ' moibiille~~~epih.0:Irf1

.$ Apw:t from. the at\e3 0·£ eleCIJ1QiDtc8;. hl wh:id\i a:r.e'<ll. d~d dev:eJop,m.ef'Wt:s h~~p mak~phOc!'Q;~s mo:remobne:?

Complete'the dli1glfl:lililro"

Choose NO MOil' I'BAMfWO WORDS .fn;y,rn ,tih,(l'p~aJ_g~ €ow-each aJnwer.

~et)jIj)IlI.q.Dj.Visi0g·J)rI!!lP~ex (,FDU): '1l'wIl!I si!paills :seut , .. _

TWo, bl1li~.& tOBl~me ... , b~.as:a

8,_~~~~~~~~_

I I

I

IChO<OI5~ the ,ool"'J:eollettt.r. A! JI., C .or .D.

n 3G llemDcilogy is beMev,ed to bemO'lie of ;tI,th.OO1lit ~ohea1th. b>et<3i~

A file silll~.aIDs ·are tm.nsmi!tmd Q'!lI',e<1 m!udl,gula:te.1.' Idls't~lm!ce~ ~ban before. ,8, tbe masts are d:o:se~ttlged:te:r aad ,e;m~thigbe~ &equerl.ch~s~

,e tffile sig:n.ah.are calrryin:g bo:th voice aJ}di. text me~~j.es.

D' tthemode:rn, handsebWleeded el:'.ll!t more .ndialEi:on.

t2: 'Why might: tihe testing; 0,1 aln~mJals give US more :reillffiable lIesui(ts~ It be~$~ most of o:et:n live doser toile mases

I, becallilH 'they are OOnitillinaIly ~<.Ised ~ohighe:r I~'ems oi.m"cli~tioit1 C b~C;l!_ethey are f!I.ota:lIect~d all ,ii),cel!h:d"ll; ]~

D beca,u8r;: they :ari! .. rnota:~jclIQfthe: effects: ,of M!!1Ia:tlo~.

~.l 'Wha~ is '~l:lI~liev~d ~.o lmit~be drurlger .from mobile pihoues? ,A Ji1IOtUsIng; 'tt1e~ (o.nthlIillJou:slliy

I:mr:nil.l;~; tihe.1in 'offwhe:nno~ :in use

'CmoQ/.tnMg aliill3ist ,on filJ.e Ibddlmg where you .1iv~ o!ltwoik D keeplnghea1thy and :g~t~!!l enou,g~ sleep'

DREADING PASSAGE 1

"(!"Ot!.shOit!ldspeoo, :ab~UJ1 2t1 millml~1IJllieS Or:!. Qll!:Iesijo~s 1~F26~ w.Mm a:re based on. Readil:1;!iJ Passage 2: be~G<w;

lhe~:u. more tl'llilopefl'lf tllfl~wn as il1f1u'eiii'l~~ take!.ij iil::S ,nil! me fT'0Mllll'lem'ct th~Jt Itl~ eSc;) easily nnsh'l!1ned from p'E!rsaJIl. tQ l~f!SOI"! (inrfIu~n~ is the Im:n!.lii1J w<)m mr '111i!t11.!!:ence',). U'S!.ilia'~rv, c~ntillmi'niJ~t~1i'! ~cl;Ulrsd1fQl!igh dlll'e,c~ GOJ'ING;t~i~h s.ecre~ions from ,an 'Inf~~ p.er:llQn.lt!! ~,p~d is 'i~S0, pOiSs:U~!e fram oo~tarmir'ta'te~ J]rb~rme ~~tideSI SiliJQ1i'I aJ!j, th,05ie lhJat.i)Ci~!.I!!rW'he!1li SDm~Wle ,,,,ugh5Qrsn~es, JiClW'Elver,. ~'r shou!d be mad'e deiill!f~til1i~,tffile ~n5kl~ n~t gn1~t franml sllMply beIng iiti'l~he same mom. as am il'lllfected per~on., !iinee 'It!eflu V~R1S), !:JIn'Uke oltheaf reiSpiril'fOJl')!, ~rrtlli~, dQ~ Ifl~t diss£lhl'e In the ,alt:. W:~~~iIil4-6, !ri:OiiJi'S Qlf ;scfll'u:!(ill1u~ 'aiOCffililfl9~d1e A.~ the V~r.'k!S 'mUlildplie5 in infi!ch!!d Qell~, an.d UM~ ~ells b~lr;5't~~rea,;tln91"E!'v;lrlIi.Is to ~~hew

cel[:s. l"L~a,fbJ.

lh~' spread 'Gl;).nlir[l.lie'~f~r y p ~o7',t hOIJ'fs. th at ex~ct I~en,gth\ of~ilTle depefll,d ung an th,e 'ootly~, ill'!1'!ml~,",~s~nem ,r,espofllis@'alnd ~h.e s~l1ength of:Uie! tpartl1'1';I.!'~ rSit!'ai nofflu\. lihe fi!1'I9!e' d~ hiu miilin ~SPC:Jil$I?S ~e, the flu' v~rtlli5 litiillS Men of Ili'!e~e$'I: 'm sdentists. fe;r maf:1IY yeCir5~ Th~5~:S bec;au~e tffile effe'ct ,lOan vary 1iiibm no mnfuaion '~:a'lmi,p:rd 8l:'1d deltellySf!j~:ad 'ohhe V~JYism, flIlI'.a niy ~f.l;f)l'Qple'. brrearea of ~€Iy that ~jll~ Fe:.Qe:i~ I1l~JtiGular atmif'l'~~o n ls the iNmtme ~teiliil'll W!sponse o'f~he illl'ldividl;ll:at Where a pell's~mlS ~ml~u G'l'E!' systE!I1'II.I~s lfre,iiI'i~",y. lJh'e 'WI1US ms. iJljtatk~cla~ mt ernl"S,Il, the hlodYt uS~illly in the re~pira.~ilry~iI;1t.lhrs lessel'!ts the sW€!iliity of~hE! n 11"II6S. tn COillitt.iliUi ;p~ple witl'l,opmpmrtril;is:oo imlilllill;ll rFIe sy.stem~ (typi~!: bn the yClu~ .. wh€!lI'e ]t ~$.I'IiO~ru lIy d~eIQPI!d1, or il!FI ~ng, old :!:lInd '~he sict. 'wirier€! it is nat w,o:l'kllirag elifiel1llliliYl, ,oft~t! .sllUFmrtlte w,j:Ji~h~fI\~r::~

O.ne of~nE! bod¥t I1espIlnse:s to nlJl i~ the Jc:reoltlia.n eF .antiilu;x:ili!e,ll, wtlhkh I~~~gl'liise and deMroylmat Pil,rti9ul~n'ostrain 0f1illu \li~ui5 .. Wh'at.'fasotn'aoo.~ most rE:seaoo'l1ers in~he tletd fcs ~ha~' ~he t~uJMrna!"l body seeml!s!l:.apa bJ.te- 'Of m.lriIil9~tn~sea,nti~Qd ~es, avera whalei rTrfeti;me in esse of fi:J~lJfe atti.u::1k from t~,e \!lime' or sJmilar s~raihs Qf flU!. .~~ wa15 while ~,es~'aroh~ nmr,heS'e amUbodies thiiJt i5'denflsts~i<!moo ~hefr mefiltiQI'1I ba~kro'~nat WUPOiSS~ DJlyth~ Warc!i't ,eye:rr flu ~l1irll.~~mk f!"l'the; wofldl.lfll:l!' ac;tultlJI; tiliJmooJ ,e.F dl'la~hl!! is dif!l!pY!tel!~ byttJhE!outbmak ~n 1,918 k:nled tU:l,tw:e~fillQ a rid 50' mill ton 1:!.!~G;~lle.llit itis alSiG eistll'ma~~ha1t c:ll'lefilTth ofi¢l1ie :tp0pl:ll'I!(!1I:iQn Gf th~ w.of,lld! may haw b'een unfemed.

Thli'Oughte5l'li ;Ii!O:M on ~o:m~ ~ the 'SYrll!'TrvofsM tihe 19,,1 :Bt0ultbreak, It w,as diswvered tlf'liflJt, W :ye!'m.hllter~tl_'l:ielf ~m IPos5esHd:t~e ,iI ntibedi'e.~ ~®i ~h:autrailn offJuf an:cl $'~me of them ~re ili:tl.l'il!llfly s!:U1 IP[Jl'Gd~il::ingIUleiJmib~te.s. Wel~~~TiS now roClI5E!cl on whym~ plGlp'le Si.llNilied mn thf'firn~ ~~aoo,with 'Orle ~heor-y be"wwgt:hat they ha.d .ac.tlJlla'llly '~in e~pm;~d~e, an ea'tlie\~ similar iS~r:ail'l" 'tn!refon:! de~mollin9 im1lm~!'I!ii~ ~Ol Ume 1918stra~n.lt ts h,o~edt:hat¥ In me ne'aJl' fU~l.Im. we mighlt be ,aJble 'tQ iSO!I!a~i! ~he' a!f!tjbo~ies .il'lidl'USI:!i them, to \!\'ac~n;a,te peop.le'ji!,gaill'lst fmm:her ,~uilibm,illkS.

let v;a'CCilll'll!ltH<JlI'Iiilgajm!l't~he' ~l~ is an ilmp!redse: I'iIiI;OO!s~ reo Ait best,. th:e vill::dlne·1Pr:~:mec6 l:ji$ finmthe \i'aJ!11ia~ICins of fily th~t ,d~~r' ,e!(.l'e(t '~hat year. I~f~rr.ei ~ p~t:litViOn!l, are w.~i;!Ing if!!.llflY paliii€~lilryealfi tu~ir1ig w~cinated~Hll'1i~t preven,t I,)IsiQ:IHI'! beco:min!1.lil'iIecWd. This is ~Jul1'her

fDmpllt'i<ted il,y< the tild that the~e iwe'twiG' mii']1'i ty~s ,a;f Au, kl1,(lWIIiI,iiI'5, ilf'l'nllernlla A Cli"kd inflll:en~ B.II'nf!i:!.IE!M,al:8 ~Iuses less crn:'1,Qenll !is i,ts effects ,im~ U'llllllClll,), l~ss-serIou.s.lrdjl'!.I~

,A_ hoWeVer. has the power 101 change fits genetic ma~~l.Ip. Altlloug'h the,ie g;e,netic dhanges are rarce. ~he'Y ,create E!rrl!lfely new :!itl"i!iil'1'S, offlu agillh~st whkh WE! have no prot:ec:tiol'lt.lit: has OOen suggeSiliedi tl'Iii,Unii5 is what had happeAet:Hmmel'!jllart'el_t pl'!\Qr w~ll1e 19~~ 8 outbreak. with re~a['lch irndfc,atlngl thai! iii gelle~ic shift tla~ ta~n pJa~el!"! ,[h rna.,

11'1 2(l1l5. anotJ1er genetic shift in aln inflluelilzaJ A VI~l!:5, was:l7etioi'del'.il. giwlng ',ise to the 1115:11.11 straln,omerwise kinoV\lJ'!' a~ilv1anflu. or bird fllJ,Typl'ca lof suei'll news:1!r.arn~ we' !hive n () way ofctiiglii~in,g ~It and miJn~ pe®',~e wh(O, are hifected wlttlh it .ale. Perhalps, l'iI1I,orJi'l' w"rl'~~ng 1:5 tha~

fit l's~iiIi :strain OIl"V IPlI\elIii'o:J!Jsly found in l:ii~ds'burwhl[;ch ,hang:ed its g:enetk make~l.I!p ilil a way that, allswed it to betJlii1'l_smitlt'E!d to hUR'l8,n!!i. Most 'of the fealrsufrQundii'lg 'Ehi6 \I,iM is th'Bt It will: c:ha!'ilg:1!!' agall'\ d\e\lel()pi!,!g~he ability'to piliSS fmmhuman to hum~I'I.IUhilit change does i1happ.en, &c;:ief1l~]s,ts and dbc:tQI"S can Ir;ea~Dru:tbly eXi~ett a det!Jlh ra~e: oompelll'ableto,that which oc:eur,mlln 1'9'118 an~9lvenl '~na't we ca'n nOW 'tliilvel i'II!IIior,e 'qun;ddv all'lol mote e'aslll1 liletwe&n countries, [nfi;:aiiI'lQ many 'more people 'tJnafl was prelVioulSly po,ssible" it could be ~"er.all times, worse.

Do the fo.lIorwing: statements agree wj;th,dte~mfo!rmalion. gjiven in ReadiingP:assa:ge' 2? Write

TRUE PAtSE NOTGWBN

if 'tbestatemen~ agrees, wiitb the :infOfmat~on if the statement ,oootm.dk:tsthe informartion if ther~ is no' i1'llfor,mation on dlls

15, You become OlWart'i: of the s.ymp,to,ms ,of fIIu w~thw, 4-(1, hours of i.nfectloo ..

Ui l'h~ ,~ff~cl of a fIDu infectio,r:i can depend on how :slm,ns, the SlrOO:! Ws.

11 Tho.sewhQ !;!ire more likely to suffer ba.dlyw'ith tb,~, flu include v'ery' you:ng 0'1 very' (i~d p\l:ople.

18, A1thoug~. ,3:tI'tiitu::ntie,s, hlJS~ it .Lifetime, sd'e'll:t'ists have found. ithq wn: weaker with ~,ge.

19' Vacd~aJtio'n, ~s~arge1y ,i:meff~Cl:'.ivt a~nst flu.

2~1 Another change in the genetic mak,_.e-up ofl:be liS-Nl st:~ain eeuld kill aiore people 'thlBJn tbe 19'18 epIdemiC.

!if iii stattemelllit: ~5 FALSE, the' i!1tf;QmultioD 'is oPJKlsite

'liD' '''at gi.wn1i'l1·d)i!' telCiL NOT G I\iEN mHlilsthere Its notlltlllS: in the't&:xto 1li!l ei,~her Ip:ro:ve or dls,p'!!O'Y'EI '~hesMWmi'!nt

2l Shadng a roam, wi. afl~ slIffillre,l:" prese'fi.t8 a ve:ry high :risk to YOi!JiU;' heaItIJ. __ ~~ 12, One fifth. of me peop.~e ~n, the world. Cliugbt the flu :iin 19'18.

23 InfIDuen:za: .A.v'iriUSes, de no~ cb.an:ge f1e:ffir ,ge...net'ic mal·up frequeni!:ly; 24 The H5N 1 smdn. evol\!'ed m or before 200.5.

• Questions 21-24

CJass:izy "the: following: st:alt:emeIEl!tsi as, chatra:d:eris~ng A. someth~ng known by scientists to 'be true

B som,ething bdieved by scienUsts to be true

C :so.RI,e:thin.g ]mo,wn by' :scientists ~Q befaimSle:

Write the ,torred W~l1I:er. A. D'Oif C.

Questions 25 and 26 Answer the qu~stions bela,w.

W£ite .NO MOD THAN THREE WORDS fOE each aDsw-e(.,

25, ~nwh~chpM't l~.fffil.ebody dCI mtl!lodJe,s: ,tiI,o.rmally aJutack tl:Ie .fIDuvirus?

REAnlNG PASSAGE 3,

You 8bD~d. s:pi;l!!1d ;ajooyt 20 ,n:rirmtes (In Questi.ons 27 -iO .• witl'iCh are baS'ed on Reading :p.assage 3 below.

Chalnges in Ilntarna,tia'na]1 Co,rnm,etQe IHow ,ethks a:nd falir trad,e (iln makie' a di'Herence

Thf!'PIJ~I)DS(l' of'lnwlrl'il,atlcmal; comme:~oe, is ttl buyliMilngs, h,m ,"nds~Jlthlng& t,:o people In '(lither co!l!1tr!es. l·hJl11d~~iS. and in:cI~ tho'~sal"ldi5 .• at yein ago.. ~h ~5 .ac,t.ual ty wO~~'al ~ui'l!e well.. People who trav,~lled 'b), foreign lands" often by shlp~ WOUld ta~_e with them i'tems fo ' tim,de., Agdcl!iJltural iZouilil~iies woul'!i'J,foT exal'J'lple,O',~de 011ve ,Qjlil 'ol"wme,fol" weapolils Or other worked l1i!i'IilS .. AlII ~hat needed to be .rre:gotllatN, waS,iil fair Ip,rhte,'for the i~ms:,., (Haw m'a!'iIY ,iiI~$ ii ;~Ilb;arr:el of '0]1 'wort1h" 1GN.~:l<am:pTe~j .£'uriliency did not Elr:llta:rll"ll,l;Q 'me 'firs:! deals but; ,eVEi'M when li,t did. few problems el('ist'ed t'e complicate matters bauil'l;9 disa,gl'epments ,Ij,ver the

'lal ue ,of good!s.

IilJllI~., filxing ·ai fa]r pllice remain,!!, ;Jt 1;!'!,e ~ntre' of inltema~ional com merce" Wtlei'!' we I~ook

at: 'the' deal 'frOI'il'lI '~i1e' F/:@i!'flt of 'v~ew ,of 'me 'sell!eri mil rket resea i'itn mu~t ,@'erermhn!! 'the FUllee at which~be goods willi be :sold. ThTs may vary greatly loom (!;OYl'ltry 'm t.Gl.mtry and pea:p~e CllJ'e oftensurpriSieid 'tl'isee' ~c:d!y the ~me item for sallie at two, or three till1lleS, the p.ria!' It sells,for in aill'liilther OO~l1i"y;.fa)litfon and locil,lg,/JYernmellt '''I@mtrols, are SOMetimes beil'ltndtlhls, bUlt 'Dfienit oornes, down to~l1eN!,(:lt '~hat I~eople' In poor ootmtl'ies, sim:plf\y far'linot ~JoJd 00' P~f!ll' !~he same am.QUfllt of money as th.ooe il"ll ~iiCh couliltries. 1iile!ie afe th e 'thlfl:!lI5 a seUer h¥ 'W beaT in mInd willen prepe'ling a llillrice U~n fo~ goods In ead'll ~OUfillt1'Y.

In mOll;! '<:~5es, the PlJ1'po:se ,of' s.ettilflgal Sl,Iiit,ablj!' ~rtke i~ 'to seill tiihe' maxlm'lJrnt mJl'lIilber of

u nils. US'1!.Jillny;~h~~s iiS tlne~ war :eo gua.raFilt:ee' the biggeSil pfCI'lit. orn,e e>!)(Jep'~lil1lll'l i~ hill the sel Un!;! ,of II!uitlu11iY ,~~ sp~dafist g:oods. These-are often good~ fQr wh ich 'tl'he.re Jfcs ,a IimittKI mil rnet. Here, 51 iig Iiltl)' d[ffe;f>lmt r-utes ,a,p,p'ly be~1l5ec ~he ~nQfi,r m1il1'gln I(th.e iillil'lOl.lliiJt Of I11U)IfII:!Y a prOal,lc-er makes 'Gin ea,m item) l!i; much hfglhet. For i inStance" nellrily ~verY'O'1e waljlt!5 to own iii teteviisloJliI (lIJ1:l1 mob-tie phOIi'lE!i and itlere' is ,ill iOlI of ,oompetl~i:cm iil'!~.he- Clreso.f'p.I',odructlol'l\,mrciin,Q ~h~ prik:'E's 'm til! ~Q:mF1etjNve roo.. The' prcdut,e~ havie to sall a ~\ar'ge Il'Iuml~eli of irtem,s to' ma!koe

a pmfit becau!S1i! 'tii1eill' pl'O'l1~ margin is ~OiINJ'III. But Rot everyonecwiints to bu!y hand-:ilIilde Jewen~r-y;, Of a macil1ill'lefor sriddng labels onto, bQule.i"l.11jlS ,elii-albles tiie' produeer~, dlilargea, pri:ee: much higl1er thillllthe CQSit of rnal(lng th.e iw:m., Increasing ~h€! Ipro,ftt ffiarg:il%"But ~t me hean: Ofnn!f :sale" Wh,eID'erthey Siell m~ n1 U:ems, ~tlr ill tma" l~rr(Jit o.r,~ few It:e.mS(lZIf a large' ,PI\Gfi:t. the prime lmG'tiIwtiGl1forche IprrOdu[ier ~5 ~o rna'ile as mludll;l!'Ofit ,iilrS possible.

At I'east. ~hat was the case U!r,wtil re~l\Ili\lely recentl:y. w:IFu~l'I. 'Ioti'le ,g,~i!lt; sU'Irpi'l':se of mafl!~. ooill1l'lpariies :t:talned ~cl~ng 'I,M~thout prmit as theiii' main ,"bie~~ive" Eth~,C5ii1'I]·tm:ade' bJi!~n as

an ,iii1tlttemp:tt 'to ,cause illS, liule daJn1l'la;ge as '1'-Q£1!lll;de ~,o 'the pr,'Od:ll.Ia!ii,S !ZIt raw l1I'iI'iii·teliiiid S ,ind Iman:lJfactlned gfJod'!O in poor OO'Ul'1Iltiries. This movement ptlt 'p~~S§IJJ'iI!'on 'tile' indYittry to see to it that w'-'rking, oondiiltions and hU,ll'IiilIn llights wen~ not dallnill9~ by the needfoi' pi10ilier lfile()ph~' ttl, produGe g'00!:lS. 11'11 short, ie d r,~w W, the woiildls, atteAtiOI1'l ~li'Ie' fa:ot.~hat main),' p{llor rpeQplerw~re l~fng ~1,ci1ied I:>y big buSil"lesse.s in ~hellr drive to m;,k;e, MO:r;,'eJ priofit.

D

TtU,li,Ji\e hmore r~ee" rn<;lrilf" w~m:p'h~$~h~'l)g~,oiUt th~ develD'ping WQ~r,d Wh,I\lR 19Gill Pr:!OO~~JC~W'5 'were ro~ 1!I),t etolls.ie press:ul'e JQ :Slli~P:~lI tas:n flffips S'Ii,.u:i1 ,ai~ tSl ', cof(M aFidrCiQ,tmn 'to ~'iI'l)aJo.r ind1U$'~rie~·me~ I~eople ,arefreq!:llently no~t in a I!l~siltiol'ill to fiX t~e]r Ii!:rke~,a!ild are afli:enfbRi:ed by m'a..rite,t ~o.l'li:litlonrsr.os~~11 fOllra ,prdc:e; ~~O Ill.w '~.oS;lJppotnne proi::lu:cers and ttn,e!r oomCffiU nUy;, WQir~e s~Til, wl'llil~~ttu~ agr\1,c!]"~~1(Jra~: J~an.clI5 g~:VIl!!iiI QVol;lf Knp~h c;~~p~ ]t W~~~ ttle r~®~1 p.eo~re ,ef ~heablUtyta gr(IW~E!trown ~o:d.l~ time, th~oO'l:!Slh Q'M~·ifYrotlu:c~]orlltihe' land Ibeclime-s ~ipel1lit and ~l'iifer~,n~ lea~iiIi!J9. ~"O, 1~G:'lte:J!iiU;Y, sta'mttiion., iii!lnidrometiimn~ the de"5ib!rllt(ltJi:o~n ,of the "V,!lole ~rnmlll ni:t~;

Falrtradli! poliol'e.s dlffer'~r,o-m e£h~Ga~~rr,illde poIiGr:e'~ in~h\lttffl'l~ytitte, ~he 1~t';Ql!,gs;a .Siti:g~ 'furtlher.Wh.eJ~ 'emi~al, ~!Jlit:ies are;desigll'reclt-a' koo~ the dal'lliliage' ro'i!I m lln~m!iilm, fail!i~T;,a.de orgillnltsatloms at:tw'llly work: ~ ~mpm~ coi'ldli~fcGmi aMorrg pradu~~s ilinid! 'meif' GOlrli'!l'lfU!l'li~les" IrPail~h',ade Ofgilfll i5(lt'tCml:!i Vie-w:sustaiina~m![y as a ~. allm. 1Ii'h!l) ifl'lVQly,~s ilmpl~f1!'lI'&fltin~

IF)O:litre~, ~lhelre l~roch.tCi.e~·a'r,egWe1'!.i!J fuij~ p~~C')€! fo:r't:nE!,g,oods'Ih:~ SJe~~ SQ 't:hat th~ and t~,~ir «Immwn'~tes, GfjfIIJ OO:l"i~UI1l ue'~ !I:lpe:raij1!'.

AI~hQ.IJI:g:h ~1nJ,'I~~ig lbus1n~ses a~e cynk;a'il ,a!bo~it ilIn, ollerationtha1 rd~es not l~eg!9'~ :~rl~fiil; as; a I'iIOOln; dllii",lrrI!J1 foooe; e ' U~,e ~fu'aa~ is that i~ wU II hei~p them wo. WHlhsustail'llilb;]!it¥ as th~lf Im-.alfll al iTI,fair tJi'ade, organ]s;a~]O'JfJs not GI'lII,V hel,the prn®<.~er pmdu.oers '®!bt~]n a re.a~Qf:I'aib~~e ~riln(ia lid ,of '~ivi!'il;g! I:)Yit th,ey ,~Is~ helill !Q,UCljranitn al,~onstafi(t, Siu~plli ,of ~,W mat~rial$..1I1I1ls fotl'm of sustalrlflilblln~t benefu:"S,e:verlfYO:r'lfe~ wneuh;er~~ei'r mQ~ive ~'!i making1 a profit '®.r imlpr:ovi'n-g tHe ~iv~s ,of tJlM W4'!r1I''1!1.'$ pooreJ p~~~lle.

C~assUy the fuillillowiing as; being. a r,esU!~t .of A fuir trade p'oJicie-s

B ethical. Wiele pornide:s

C aJ. oo:u~t:ry b!:jn:g: 1'.001'

WrIte; the 'OOl(.rec~ ]etltrex,4,B, er C.

2'] ,Ma;nufadU!f:ed goods art': oru,tam:ab.~e :iiI!l a lower priol.': til. l~ruS€;Whefe.,

10 classi.fy l!l.tat~eJU;$ ~re~rril:'lg

till OIl!€I of seYEiliill IlI'Ieople,.'~h~ril.!S'. et~~. lrerrnember~h~t~he: sta'telnents wtn eften be exp:~~d 'IiISLng di&erernit words fr~1 ttuHext'.,FQ~s blil ~he i.de~ int~ state.meflts.. n~ttilile.,partktl!ar wontls and piWsl!s 1J!ll!d.

28 Harm to pwdu.ce:rs 'ofrawlna:teri.aIDs ~s minim~Sied, 2.9 HUHWl .rig~ts :are :[\es~:u~c;te.d.

31 L~d.ls; notused topmd;U(e food .fru'tb:e to<:aJl PQfu~aHQ.n.

Compilete the :f[ow ch:ar~ below.

'USe NO .M"OR:E l'HA,N THREBWO,lD'S from the passage fQr each ;a:r!;S:wer..

~mp'a!'li~s ~iI_l'!r:y !IlU~ 32 ~~_~ la d.edile tile pwire thltt:h.e~i

good~ 3i1:e sold at .iiwtI eaclil,couifitky~

l'~,e,~i~:es oflhe ~MJJ:e,go!lidsmlll u_ry~n dliff~fent ,t'@1<lntriI3S Itu,\!~3i* of

13, tirt~.

1''0 ensure: a profiit\;l~a!iWYi~ctu:rerSililiW 'to stllthi!)5 of

oi pa'ftooulM i~em.

Mmllfl\c.t_ers; cu. ~l,\'\j!e :ai hi$~erFu;('jfill: m~on luxll rJ' 0f sp~d:a1ist,£I,O'()ds: 'Iic"hi'll.:lTIi (jf1:e~ brave'a 36

~ose theco~rect 1~~le:r~ A, H'I C o~D.

37 ,A':OQ[d[~grothe wdt:er~ wbiat might ea:r'lyt:rad!~xs hav<l di_sa:g;ooedabOllllt? .A the aGmpatatiVevalues of the ~oO'ds:

J. whkh c~rrency to use fbi weir Ide;j. C whichi~e:lDs me:YWMi~ed!' as exchange Dthe: ,qu~illjrty of the gl.'Hlds being~nu:lled

38; Wha~, is the main C!Otts:eqrue:ll(f! ,of a. product being in dem1llild?

Ai. hjghe:rpr~~s

B sma[[er pl:ioiflt: m.a.r-g~[l8

,e f~we~' ilte'.!ll:S 'b~~fIjgprod.1ilald .D less marioe~ c~m.p e,tUkm.

:39 How n'ruijgb~ aW:!ilIigric,uIDmral Qomnl,ufiity be ,destl:loyedi?

,A bealiUZlie ,co.mpu~e-s in dcil:D:e:r CouEWtriessteal fl'·om them

.Ir bemlLll9€ they ,ask an.UfireaJ_j;s:tillca!l~ly .high pricero.rrhei:rp:r:()duce C beceuse 'they ever-use the ~md. :itll cn:d~(!:' ·~O!grolW casll erofs

D because: ~hecmp!S l~k:e mUicffi:! too lo:ng to gwow

,4(1, l'heword. p(JrtUliox in ~he finalp@iwagrapbrefers '~o 'tbefac~ma:l

A pOO[frrpoop,rue will beeeme :rk,b:ertJfuan. the poople-who' run big b!tli1n~~Ses.

B by being cynical. tlbeb~g: bus~Ju~sseshavehe.lp'ed p.roduce <11. resil!rlt they do. .1:1J~lt wafIJ:t. Ie the slJippliern ef raw malrer~al:S1 wlillm sell themma big. b_i~ess~s for a l1iuge _profit.

U big bll1~~!I'.!&Sell wiI. gain foomth!llse 'policjes,dmou!~ th.ey d,on~'~ 8~pp()irt tffi"J.em..

It WRITING . ~.

WRITING, TASK I

You should spend .abou~ 20 minutes on dlls task.

The dia:gram. belowshews an automatic photo booth.

Siil1li:ftlMise t&e ~.n:fQrm;d~on by' selecting a;rnc!lrepQ:flti.~g: the main feamres"and make oorrtpMioons whet\:e .relevant

Wrjilie at lleast 150 words.

Au~om.a,tic Pli:u);t:o Booth

ooJOlm' or black &: \!irbEoo (PalS8pOft photos should be ,colour)

w;aU for ligh:t siii1ligme flas.h. afte!lf 7111""-_ 3 ,seconds

~, ~arge format or ~,pas:!lpo!iI-5jzed phOt05

must be dosed when. -takingp~ho1to'S

phoros deHvered ,!i\i:liJiH 60 seeonds

Wili'li'! ')'iQ1l! hirlli!'U! descl'iH 211 di~lfiIm

fiemerisw intlui!l!e all II!)f the' ~,~!U!ilt pa:iMt5.lf tile 'lfiagtam retilili!senbi;a JlriO!l:~. Iiil!rtI~ 'm, use time ,liluse~1iQ show Ihe Ql'der

tn' whldhrdilings, happen.

54, TESTi

WRJTING TI\SllC 2

YOIIJ .. sbo,u1dspend a!bQ:1!bt4.0 minutes cnm~s taSk. WrJ!We _o.1ij~na;e .fo.UowhlJ.g, IOp~C;

Many.people say fi.a;tflil!e' 1IlI."lyKVytJl)'gttgran.feeget,ti~g.:l!podjD:~' :is t.o' c",wple,te ,Ai €~U"(! olu~dv~nj,ty e.duc~tion. Olihen: d,!ii"~ ,tilJl'itis ,better 1;'0' stn:r': w~ik ajt;f:rsmNI d:n4g:aH1 ape.nt.u,.,iiU ffleWt)I",ld elwi'Jtr:t,

HOtw far do, Y'O!l:la_g~ 10'1" di:Sa!gJOOl!'wi~the aitlo¥evi~ws?

Gi.ve reasens fCiir yo~:r ~swe.r :and iudud!~ :any .rete~~. ~a:!U.p]esfrom.y():lilr own .lmowIDe:dge OJ' experience.

Wrfum 3il: least 250woms.

_'SPEAKlNG . :PART'I

Tbe examin,eli ,ub; the ca:n:didalea'bol!!ltfilim/herseWt his/her .bom~ w~rk er :swdies and ,other fimillia:r topics.

fiM!.S;,ilnt

• HoW' do, you, Wiu~IDy kav:el!U1(llifid your ~own or city? [Why?] " Whiilit do you think ,of public trmspo-r~ in fiour town Or .city?

• How do you tMnk we could perc8uade more people tlO usepubUc tnlns,Po:rt?

interlamment

.' Do, you,g,o out: a lot or do youpref'et home' entertain.ment? .' What ldnd o.fthi..o,B$ do you wa:tch on TV?

• em you, easiIDy entertain yourself when you ate a~o,ne? .A...u' tlh,em"e m'any :phlOe8 :for enJtertaiIm1ile,nt[R, Y{lUX' tilrea?'

PART 1

Yo" wUI! have to, talk, a.bout. a, top1c :for 'G'M to two mjnu~es. You have one minute KI' 'thlnik abo~t 'whd ')''Outre gou~ ~o say. '1Q<l1. ,camJI make some no't:es 'W' beillpyou if you Msh.

:Desctibe someone who has ta.ught y;ou ,som.'l;lthb'igu~eful in your lire. 1[0'0 .moulld i5ay~

whotbe petS'OIR is

\'ihil,t they taught )'iOU

haw theytau,gibtyou

arnd, explain wh.y the 'lhin.g you~etrned VII,as useful

PART 3

• Wbatwou1d, Yoi1i:ll sa, was the Ql@lst important l~:lng: you, learnt {!O't aft' learnilng)at smc(I,l?

Ii' CoWd you Cio:mpaI:e~ the effective:wilss; (If sclloo:rns in the pas~wi'l\h, lha~ :in 'tille priesent!

.In what ways do y,ou. thirnk scboo~swill,t!ha!nge in me fu:tm-e?

C~f5,

., Ho,w imp0rll:anti,s, it ,fur people in y,o>u:r (OUDitry roget <it Wliversiity eO!uCl'lltion~

.' Wbat kind of Jobs can people do, wiiliou:t, a, univen~lleducatffion? WllilJa!t ar-e tilile ad:v,a;nt~g,es, to swlting wo,rli!:. at ,II you:l](g: age?'

• ' [)leo you ;ltg-tee 'with '!lie sayin,l'l:lihat 'l!\'!C ~re never 'tno o~d! to :Iearn.?' WhaJl:

Moe 'bhe adv,antlllge's of OO'n'tinuing, edlutartion~

1~1i! Part 3.'i:hrft I!ie ,ilt:railll 'rol~1! the iniU8lti,ve and leai!lllH! , (;1mVl!fsatiQIII. ¥Oil C'alll add imo.f(matiQIII'wtillch 1ihe examiner Iilas, IlIIot directly asked :fujj. bin wI!Il~h is fi!tev,mt to, the d~im!iIQ"," A;'oI\cldyes.!M and 'Dne-W'~d ,B'III5'Wep.i •

• TEST 4

ILISTIEININ,G

SECTION 1 QNe&t~i'flI!tls J .... UJ OresT ' Iii 'Q~uestiofl.S 1-4

Co:mp:~etl,l; the ,lliOitesbe:low;

Write NO MORE TBAN TWO WORDS, A.ND~OR A, .NUMBER for each answer, &ample'

HOWle M~ ,bomiH#-~z

r.rese~t addlress:' .ll > fine 'Thee l'el:':1'ace, Wes'$d~ff

Currently lives ,'lith 2: other people

Questions'.5 and'

When ~llIka1.t,e ~'''':.mplete nof!~. r,eme;1fi1il1¥ diat'te- answers

are afw<!,y-5: in'dle OrdWYIIU he'U thelill.

F~rs~ tim.e Marla has .]ived 3 ~~~~ __

Wbi.Ch TWO things <life: c;tusiugproblenls fOil: Mana? ChGDSe TWO letters .A.-F.

A the distance from tbeMi.versity' B 'the bad behaviour of the ,~ls;

C that she has Htde s,pa,ce: at heme D 'lhat tt~s: bonngwhere she Jives Ii, tha:tth.ere' <Ire nl~ce in thebou:te:

F tbatthe landlady jsfo.rgetfurn

,Answell: the questions below,

Wr.iiteN'O MORE 'fHA.N THRSI 'WO'RDS fort each a:nliwer •

.., Where does: Itheadvis.er suggest Maria, could. ,check I~O fiodacC'om:!.ll!odation?

58 JESl'4,

SECTION .2 QuestiONs J J-20 0 nS,T 4_0'2 'QNes:ri'ONS 11-,15

Choose the correct lette'l.'i, A. B 'OT' C.

n Steve :Pen:fold dl~d VO~l:IlmIlta:ry-,SierviQe A. be€urli! Iln:iversity.

Bdlui,ng uni.versity~

C ,a£1er univel',sUy.

12 Steve hId 'to p~ fOil A, bjs trn,v:el

::1 his: acoommoda'ti.on ..

,(; his dary .. to,·,day expenses,

13 Wbere did the cl:tal'.lly o.rg;all'lisatlon wa~t to send Srev-:e a:t~ fiit.s:tf A Trinwdad

D, 'htdfa

,e Tobago,

1-4 Wbat doe's Stev,e say about the po,pulatiQn 'of 1nnklad'?

A There are more' people ef Indlan descentthaa .Afr.tcan. B the ma~ority Me' d_.esc:endats, o.f sLaves.

C There are severaJ diff~n~nt ethnic groups,

15, Steve says that some Wa:o,pag,e telf'ws]n Trinid.ad .A are rwt CiOl'U1ie,C:ted, b),th~EngIi5h ,taJl8U31F"

B ha:vemea:nings that hase iii local1origin.

C are from, ,oriller ~mivais arou nd the' w;ocl!cII.,

Qllesti,orns 16,and 17

Answe'l dIe questiOlW; below;

Write NO MOD THAN TH.R.E.,E WORDS AND1O.R A NUMB:.ER fo,t each an~w~r. 16 How m1J1i1ICh money de es tbe best C:atillim group get!

JEs:Ji'4 S9

D

Questions 18:-20

Wba:t do~s Si~eve say about bbl time in the Caribbean?

Cheese YO:I.tr ans~rs from the 'box and wdte ~hecor.rec:t ]euer A-F' aext to QuestiOJiliS U~-.20.

A were of varying types BexpiJ;',ess vari.ous emotions

Ie had a oon.nedion with dQrprum D showoo rrespect

E hald mmy problems F try 'to he.tp pe,opille

lin matilih'lli!~ exerc15es\

tikl!! flis, r,emeolillbei'

'~II:~ tile i!1form~Qn (!\ere. A-f) ~:; 10 ramd'am Dreier but'~he qu:estioflSi 1ib~t

YOIilIiilr ... e to mmlill:l:'to (h8fi! , QuestlClns lS-.:UJ) lite lilil~he omer i!ill whidl, 'fliIey IKwr within

the! passage.

191 Tbe Samar;itiUl,S. ~~ ~~ __ ~~ ~~

21 The festivals~......"" ~~ """,,, ~~~

SECTION .3 Q,gatio'lils' .2'1~3,O .. lEST "'dill:! Questi~o"s .2'.1 -·2'6

Chcosethe cOin:-ect~e'Uler, A~ B or C. 21 The 5ti1derolts.3Ite' .meetin,g ~(ll

A o~Jl1se 31. party.

B answer ques;~]o~s abou~at course .. C dec~de ontheh: stu.dies.

II Sonia Md. Malttheus,

A agr·ee the teeeher was :fiJ!exible.

B d1sa.g;ree about the:irreacTIiler's fl~biUt)l:

C didn't like all ,of the djseu.ss~ons they bad.

23 'The .ooU€g~ oiFered

.A o:tlliy mOlming classes, B only evening classes.

Ie botb morning, and even:ing classes,

24 Soni;;t

A H~l.ldal] the oo(lb.

II Iliked only one ,oftbe books. C d_~dJ{t UJce: any of 'tilile boob.

15 Soni~ a.rtd MattheLls

A want to s'ludy l1te:rature.

I, h~ve cWJe.rent 'plans for th~k careees, C ar-e both interested in p~o~ogy~

2'6 Which of these ms (Ij pr-obletn with me ,campus ~~brary'?

A Books wm',e not .always alVai1abh~.

B The people working: tbere w~reu_~elpftd. C There were no:t enoughcompl!llters ..

QuestioNS 27-.30 Label the pta" oel,Q'w,

Choose FOUR answ-e:rs from the brr"hefow aad m~~' the correct .tetter A-H De:Nlt te, QUC'llthrns 27-:30.

.A referefJICJe

I, phot.OcopY:lIOom c Un:.mw:n.l:

D' maaagemem E periodicals

if new pub]licabo.f.i:$ ,GtoUe1s

H ,computer sl~die.s

28 _

periodkalsl .n.ew.sp~rs

sealling and, cOO'lJluters

21

.~~~----

WiI1!!J!I)'IU I'I.V:lltQ, Illbl!l. iI d.m. milp i)r ,pllm. lreml!illlil'ber \Oitat 'lie informolil in'tle tecudlng

wilt @!!aIJ~l' be iii! ~h<e $jlme order adhe . I'IWli1bers (hef1e. Qlltestions 2]-31::1,),

OFF~eAMPUS UBitAR'Y

stairs

.rnultimedi,;;[ rGom.

30

-------

,

SECTION 4 Qifl£StiDH"S3J=4fJ n, 11'15,1 4_04

fJUltstitJ'tIS .31-,33

Cboo!Se the: oonect letter" .A., I, '!lr (:~ 3"1 1'.he speaterrrsays

Ii 1I~d!e(f,s ls the ,wn.ost populat I::r.~sb spoJ:'L.

B Gaellic~3ndlba1l~s lliousoods, ofreaf,s, o.ld. Ch,1lllilingmayhave bee:u, .. OiIl1dent Ce1tilc:ga:m~.

312 l'hes;p~ak.'erp:robalbilly .A used~o, play b:urlling.

B shows me: s:tta!d!mts a.pihotol C canil: speak ~ G~e'Jlc;,

3\3 Il!h~r,Iin!!!;, '~Ucaml!()t sOO<Ji€: by .AlTI!iuJrlg ~e balleeer the net, BhiU.tn;s tlli:i.e ball wnIUOnte~et.

C .ktclOng th{l,b~ill[ mto or over ~he aet,

QUelSti,oas 34-37

Whej), d~dth,e,ronQ!wj)~gtak.e plated A ~nlli~: '2j]ith~n~!lry'

IS ~n,~he: 19'tn cenltrl.try

,e ~nllie 18th.~~il:ury

Wrlretile oorJ:iedru.eliretA.I or ,e ,next~, 'Q!1l.le.sluo:n'S 34-,3'. 34 .H,l!:u'.lD.!g experi~nc~d aJ. gornden age.

3iS .AuniVersiil:y e.sti.b]js~oo a set of 1lu:rnes.

36 Th<.l Gtl!wic AthleHcs .AssodMion was stmied,

CO:n1Ipld~ the senooil':l.oes belocw.

WriooNO MOlH!' 'fHAN 7HREEWiOJU>S:for ~a,dI.~,eJ:~

38

iI'rIletil yiLl ha,w '(0 I~o'a ili~i.fiMi~i'onlwlii. '~he.re. QjJestlQ,ns 341""i1}. l'leiii'lemlilK tfial-~1iI cailllLliSe e.1l;h lietter mgre:''''a~ IQIiI~.

39 GaeUcf.oo~baU is lib a nl;!xtu:_r:e ·o:fthe sports o:i ~_~~~~~

4.0 WOWl.eD play the~e for a, ~~tlmre.

READINIG

,READING PASSAGE 1

YC);1Jl should spend ali)(:n:l!t 20 minutes on Questions J-H~ w.biich are 'based. OD hading Passage' .~ bew,w.

Pr.,h,ista,ri" Cave, Pa.intilngsTaak UIP 'tD' 20,,000 Yea,rs, t,o Complle,t-e

lit Ilnar ha,ve 'taken Midleillingelo '~o'Ur 'long ~1lr5~' paiil1lit his frres!OOLon tl\e lCeiling ,of the Sistine (JhapeL but his; ear-lilest preclecessor$ ,spent «ln~tdefaibly kll"lg:er perfecting th.eil' own 1TIa!S,teJpiews. S~ientl't! have dlscover,eddlaltpl'eilli.sroric cave p~iA~rrngs tfiOik u p ~Q lO.ooO yeaB to ~m(i)lem, Ra,ther ~han neingl created in 'one oo~io,n. ,asartlh.ae.o'fegim prellipusly the'ught, maflY 0f~he wJ.')oo, di~cb'lli'e~d !1iCrQS'5 elJ~~pe we--lle' p:liOduaid ,over hlilndilfOOis ,of i!jer'umltion:t willo ,added 'tQ re:liii'esh;S'd ~d ,p:?Ii'ffr~e:d e~r'~he' atl!:gf;ll1al pieas e,f art

UIAll! f'l:OcW it li'Iin been ,extten'lel~ f,"':fficUlI~ ttl p:in:pi;)ili!~ w'h!'M pre:lrlistorlic 'Cive pa'inting,s .and Ga~viii'lg~s were (lfeat~d; but >~I plo:nel!rll'1lg tech nfque Is allowing researohers,tp da:re ,~e ,art actl)l.Irately for the first 'ti me and shaw. how the w9'r~ were' c.Glfted over 'thousands, of years. ~pens lil'OW hiOiP.:!"the te~l'Iiqlue' wn! previae a liiailuabl~ insight. im~, how elifiliV til.Uflalfl c;ullure' dewilQ~ and change:.di as1hefiri't modem hl.lflllillll~ movedilcrO~!$ EUf-ope'iHDlI.!nd 40))(10 years ago.

11)1 Ai~istair Pike" 0:11')1 alml:h~,eQloglst .a,t: Bristol U~i'lillei'SiQ' W:~O is, ~'eadliil'lg me reseallil'i:h. si:llid: ~e alit gii\l'e:s: IIiJS a mall ~1 ijintimat,e wiil'icilO'lN ]'.;to the mfrnds ~nh,e mnd~,vfd!JJIaJISr wh'o pr,'Od'uced i~ but' wha~ we d'on"t knew ~s,'exac;tly whiClh individl.la!s.~hey wer:e,(lI5- 'oN1!' don't Ic!AOW lex'£tly when 'me an WiS Cliiea1!ei'Jll. U we 0II11!, ditre the in! 'men we csn relal~e 'that to me .a'rt,efa;~, we'lind ifi!1 the 'QHl'und and 'Start 'm Ilnl< 'the symbolic 'thoughts ,of thei-e IndMduab '10' where, when iI'Rd hGW 'they We'JI'e' IM:ng;

H'undifed!i, Qf,~s..'have been dl!i:C:Qver~d acmss WfOt,le' with ,elaborate prnhistQri~ l'itin~n.gsandcarv:lngs €I1"1 ~l1ei I' walls. I~ ,Is tlu:iuglhtthe dejg I1s.. W',hl'Ch dilen> depkt s!:enes of aIl1IMiI'lls~ 'were' Ci~acted u,~ .~O' ""0,,000 years ,iI,'ga - sorne time ,after hUITii'illfiS lbegan, mOVil'n,grrom .sGiutlin,en'l lSurope il'l'to l1I,o;~~he_l'AE1IJropl:!i dlu,~~gl.ttu~, last ice, ag:e,

'lraditle:naJl dil~lng 'tei:lilniqlJle.s ha,ve reille.d,Qn ~,rbf:)n daUng ~he charcoal and other piglment used ~ tlte 'pain~lng~ Il1y[ this; can beinao:y ra'te as It: ol'l'ly gives the date, the c.hl1!rooiilll!i~s (~ated not 'when the wolicwas ,c:nl'ft,edi. '\IViI;II~n yQU 9P Into tihese' caves ~'oday thine is s~m chaKoalliyill'ig 01'1 Ihe'groulid.r se '~he'"i!lrllsts iIIt'the 'Eime"toul'd have been usingl (lId rn~reoal '1ii~ller than m'a'ki 119 It 'fresh themseNeS; explained Or IPi~,

~Irrhihis wa15,~he case~ 1MI'! the date for th.e pall1~il"lg! would be VtiN')i' wron,g. Ta~lng sal'l'l:pfes forcan'bbl'l diWillg ,a:lro mean!t desiro,,ringl a bit oftoos!' ptKiouspaintin9~s, b~calJse YOUI :need ta 'take away ill bU a:f"~he Iplgment. For ~alrvir'll!lics:. i~ is \i'il1:uall~" i'mp~s]ble ttI,diat:e the!'illlJ ,il'S ~'hefe is nD orgafi'iiic pigment ,conti! inmg. carbon ,at all!

The scientists hav,1'l used: their t,ech_lllquet,o dare a se:Jies ,offar'RCJus ,Pal'aeolitt'i:iCl p3.il'llUngs ~n Al~~mha ,(ave.. nQr~hem ~pai". 'Known a'S the 'Si:!ltine Chapel of't.ihe pJlaeol itihic~ the e'la,bPrat,e works 'Wll!rE!' thought w d!.lte from around 14..000 years ago" IBm ln regearch pu'biliisihed by the

N8Ilul'all' ~lIlvirQnment ReS!eall'ch (oURGills new weibsi~ ,Plan et E!:lifth. Dr Pike dbcGlItlie:d some 'lS!<f the paintilngs, well\~ between 2S,flOO and ~5,000 yea~ old, The youngest pallBti ngs:ifl the ca,ve' were '11 ~OOO' iI~l!1~ old. Dr Pike salid: 'We hatve fotll'ld ma,t m,o$t of~hese ~alve~ were' n,Gt pi:!,~n!ed 11"1 G1i'Iego., bl!t;~he paill'itin,g spa nnii!d u ~ ~o lO.QQOyeiars. This goes, aga ~fI:st wha~ til'le a:riChiU~;g~'c~i!OtS wl'ilu Ei'XCilr\i'.illb~d iln~he' ca\ol'e'5 found. 't~·1s [pilrdfl:ablll thil!l\a!ie'th\1l~ pe®~1e dlrd not U\,IIIi! in 'b1he ~aves '~he!r pa~n~edl, lit sl!em,s the cav,e'lhey Ii:ved In ~erre' ~Is~heni!' iflld there was .some:thin.gl :iiped~i abD!.Itthe~ painted caves:

DI' IP,like andrhi5 'ream 'were' able to' d_ the 1~lrlltiRg'S lJ,sing ,a,echniCilue ItnQWI'! es uralniuml ser,ies, dating, wt!id'i was o~igiAa'lly dev'E!loped 'b¥ '!),Belr!lgisUi 'tJ) date f0iZ_k'formallions 'sum alS $~Ifilctiiit:e~ilnd stalag mites, jin ca¥es, As 'waiteii' seeps through a ,calll~ i~ Ga n'ie<s, ectJiemE!,~ lew Ilevells, of,d\lssohted IC\Idlloilc:tive u(cuiilul'I1lii,long witb tihe min,eral calcium carbo!l!llJte.'Qrver tirme smia'l.la meunts O'f e-alQilllllTi' C'iiJrOOl'laite' are deposi~ei:llr,Qfof;m a h'iillidllayer '!iIe<r the pal!'ltTin.g~ a"d~l1is laYef a:nsOltrips, the urani'Um. 'll:hJe' lQ ~~ ra(!l,ioaairye, ~J(lpertl es, '~he .uran1~11\ sJowly decay,s, ro beoomeell'l~tmer eI!-e,ment :klIa'Wn as ~horh.!~. By 'E,oJhp~ilJiilng 'the' ~tioof'Ul~ni'l!Jm

llll tho.ri,umin 'Ole 'tho n layrers en 'bliP of the cave artr~he :Ii'esearche:rs: were a'bWe t'O ,c;il1'1l:ulate the age ,of me paimings..

The rese:afChers. tl a,ve' ,a ISQ ,a,ppI1ied 'til'reir'lechlli1lque 'm ,en:glllll,\lings fOund in rocks around C!ireswell Crags illl Deri>ys.tlIJI'e, which are Bril'arlills ofll'~Y e)GImpleS'Jofi.c~ ,age',cave art. They p:ro,ved tIi'Ie engri\lill'lgs w~re m'ild~ ,alt I,east i2.P09~:ars ,agol Professor Pl"Irblo liIr'rai!l. an eX1~ell on P.i;lI!aeoIUhic caVe'iI,rt at t~ elJ'nt-wf1sity ,of Ci.lf'lltabriiill, Spain, said:'U ntil abc;i'lJl'ten Je'arsag,o, ftwas 011'11)' pQSs:nble to, dMe' cave al1lb~ I.Ii5Jng ~e style0'f tJ1he figu res)' tUilit this II'u1!w~.I!hJn:r:~.qje' deveJi)'~ by B:rrisrol Ul'li\f\e'l'$lry ,allaws tl"lili't darte to' be it~(urab!l\1r b:r~cketOO. W~· 'want: tOI sbJd" WCIIN 'the petopLe ,of tAil! 'time' bel'll,ved ,e n1:l "ow th ,r felt' ,and lP.alaeoll~h'h: ,arrr gives us ill way af klOking a~ tile type Qf'5,ym'baJ:li til1at wer,e ImlpCl'rlaluro thelin,:so we 1'Ie;ed, to Iknowwllen th:e people Wh0 were, malting the art aclua'lly :Iivea:

Q- ~ l' C , ues" JO.ns . ~J

D'(I, the rOuQwffinl smremeDlts, :agree' with th.eil1io:l'm3!ti.on gi.veo in Reading: Passage m f Write

TRUE FALSE

NOT G~VE'N

if-tbe S:la~te:tIIellt ;a:pees with theinfurmation iftlu~ s'ta:teme.nt ,contradicts the information tftneroe .is no informati.on. on 'this

1 Cave pawo!twngs Inspired M.tdlel,a:n:gel0 to paiDt ~he:c:eHingof the Sistine' Chapd

2, :~t n,ow seems d:mt C3Ye paUniting;swere painted in 'ORe go i\!ind then left [uruto,1!:Idu:d.

3 Dr Pilii,e ws :fGCi!,Ul~f.lg 'O:~ darting a:t1l:efacU wl!Wnd en t1he. ground, in the' caves. 41 There are a number 0'£ dis~dlvmtages 'to 'll$ing' carbon da.t~ng to ,datt: paintings: and carvings.

S The Altami:ra C;i!.Ve oQrJllai.ns more ,taJv,e p,ainti:ngs than any other (a\'1: in :tEurope.

6 Dr .PIke' beheves tha:t

Ii most ca.v:e's remained undiscove:l"e:d foi" thow.mds of ye'8F.ii. B archaeologists, s:hol!JJld :not ba,\i'e ex(atva~ed the 'c~vesatt al. e the awes Wer~ 1il:Wlbabited but were b:ea'[,ed as lnlpOrlant .

. D the' paintings were painted by the people living in t_he cave-s.

" Ut'l,l,]']Ji~m series d:atbl,g

.A was pre-waus!)!, used £0.1' <I)):i:her p1tr:poses •

. 1 [sa technique 'Wb.kib was invente~. by :0,[ ,Pike. ,e relies on the presence of.s1Itactites: ~n the caves. D' ,001y works with,cav:es which 3iI1'e unde~rwa:te'r.

8 P:r()iJi"esoor Pablo .Arl~s

Ais S<;~l~:Uc:alID :about the ben.e.fi:ts ofthe:!iilew ,daJI:~ngt:ecltDiqlU:e. B, is ,e:nmu8i,iist[C ;abou~ what the new ~edtll~que !oviD .u:bJeve. ,e used th.e 'technique 'EO successfully claire Creswell Crags.

D belteves i~ is ne~sary 'Oinlytc' s:ludly the symbols, in the art,

What is: said about each oBhese ItMngs fouud in 'the caves?

Cboooe your ,anS,W,Il!'rsITom the' box: and.w.ri.1:e the l~uers A-H next to Questi.olls 9-14.

Wb~n th~s is removed, It ,damages the painting,

This, can damage me sta]actikS end s,ta1a,gtl1d~s ln me ,cavt$.

Over ~im.e" this [urns into a dlif~'nt etem~:nt:.

.I), We eeald ,de·t,ennimewhe'J1 it was made, 'but not w;heill~'t W03IS used. Thit$ is produced as a result of radioactive d@CaY.

Sdgn:tists used 'to think that thi!s was a mineral,

This GO,nfaiJ:iS no carbon-based elements at Oil],

A

,E

F G H This em aid U aflrm o~tmg ,over ,Slon'u~ltbjn,g.

'9 charco;;\[ 10 pigment n cllrvliF!l.g 12 'Uranj~m

1.3, caI.dum. carbonate 14, thorium

When, ),,00 liiave to m8~ st~~em~tstllllde'9S' ,~I' .

-. . - . I

ijllngs.. fir:5t Iuk at

the idea ,Of' thing mentiloned; Sldlin, 'die tll!!lCit uMimyoulliind It ,lIllflldielil,!IiNd ilihm part gfme'em: IIA de:lfiiil be,~l'il!' match1 .. :

'i:C:'to~!ife Qf tile HMe!Tr!entS

• READING PASSAGE 2

'You ,st:LQuJd s:pend ,aJOOUIt .20 m1lUiUteS en Questions .~ S~,21, 'Wihkb are ba®ed on Readmng Passa&e 2: below.

C:hliildran 'Tested t,o D,e,s,t'ru,ctio"n?

E,n'g'lish pr'ilmar, school PUIPUS subjected tD m'l;ne te,sts than in

any other Icount" -

!Eng !Ish prim<ary ,~ctatlO~ I,upil:!> ha\ile to dleaW w'i~. U:l'llpilf,e:cei;IDen,b~ti~ leveb 'of (1I,re~lIIl':e ,~5 they face tests, 1111:0 re &(t'tilI.!e;n~l,y, alt a you flger age. and in mar,e Siubjocts thai'll chUdren from an:v 'O~he.HloontJry. ii~,gl:din91 to one 'Qf the biggest mnlel1lilill~i:o:na,1 education iinqUliries: in dec&dles. The d'alilllll'iil'lg indit"ment of Englal'1l.d'i p.~lmaf)' ~l,Ili;;artiQI'l1 S¥5~l;1m rewi.liled ~hM the counltl'y.~s children aw,e' now~he' MDSt teJdi-ed hlll me waJld. F~~.M '~lrIelr velry ~arliest day& at .S~h001 'tiher IIilI'fU,n nw1gate a s:et~uIP' whose naciemar,k is 'Ihigh 'st,ekes·testil'lg. ,a«'ordln:g to, a rece;1l~ report.

lilIrelllts, are entQurnged wd'loos:e SGihoolsfoli ~hei~ chlldfflin ba.sed o,i"Ileaglue ~iJb!es, of t:est ~Qre~,., But'~hiiS puts eh ildren 1I n'Ider eli!~reme IPl"e,Ssu,e whtch G(j;JJIGI ,ill'amage their moti~atiol'il iU1ia ~el~-e_s'~~rn. as: weU ~51I!!fiI)~O'ufagi~gI5cil'iooi!5to,'tga:dll 'to [Jhe te's't'at the expel1l,se 'o:f pupils' wklleir leilfill"l_l'IgJ. thlt'stud·· '00 !..Ind. The 'findilAgs ,iHe pan- ,of a two-year il'lqui~y -led Iby Cam'b ridge Un:iivers ty - i!"llm Engll:Sh prima f)" schools., Otlner Jl~rt5 IQf'me U.K ,ijlnd (au ntr.ie~ su~h ·3S IFraRi~eIINo:l'Way <1Ill'Id Jalp,an used te~lil'lg but i~ Wii~,rfess Intrusiye; less c!'Jrflpfekensiv,e. an'llli C'.OFksi'de.rriii bJ, ~\e5S fl"e!:quen~~ Cambrh:lgefs Prlmla~y Review ~ndld~oo.

El1IgliEllll'ld wals unique rn uslngteslilng ~()I (i!c)nb\O! wha~ 'is. taught in schools,IOi Imon~rtir leadhing standards and to enwu~ge Pi!J~ents to choose' schools baSied on the I"f!su'lt5 oif

~he ites!ts,. ac(.,miI'1lQI to Kath" HaII'IJ from the 'Nl3tienallJ:ni~el'si~ of I r,el~l'Id in [oit, and Karnil! O'ie.~k.. fr:elm ~he UlFlrMei'Si~ of '0510, wl10 ~onduCttedllli1le resea~€h!. 'A'$SieS~mel"rt ~iri IEng ~a nd, cQmtQired ~~ ou r ()ther irievl:ew,iK! OOi:.!ll'lftdes. i~ pervasiiV~:. highly GQliis,eque,ntl~I,.and 'taken by ,offloaldom and 'the publ it m(i~e generalll,j iOlj)Grtray o'bjlctillely the acwiii,[ ,quallity ,g,f IP:rim:a1i'Y ,eduGltiQnin schools;lheir report concluded. feacherS'II'eade~ ~id the leSiting regime was 'past its seU:'by' da:le',m:dl ca!l !ed fOr a wl'!I,dal'llll:~n1all revi,w i1fisse:ssmeli!it~

~teve Sinlil cm~ Genera'il 'secretary Of~h(;!1 1fi'4ii1tiona I Union afTeadi'lef'l. said Eillglafld~~est:iflcg syst:em w,as hi\!JViing iilld~as'ta~iRg' impact (in schools. 'Uniquely, England Is a '~ouRtry' where tcesifii!'ilg, j~ 'li.I~d 1:0 pol ice, schoels ~m:t (;"onl:rol what Is 'ta'ughr: he s.1lld., 'When it ~ome5 to Ee5~;l"Ifgl in Eingland', tl1:e.milll W<l,Si<S' ih~ do,. ~t lSjpamntl:Y alb~urd tim-at even the :lig~dyre' !!II'ICf «IfI~"ent of educa'~ion Is .. shap~e~d bv~he de;ml;llnds ,of 'the ~5R. I Cli'lll on the Gov,emmentto lll'iltfMe a ~1JIIII.a nd independent !l1:\!iew of the 1m pact of ~he:cu If'm,n~te!sl~ifl 9 !iystrem arl, 'schoolis ilnO an ,children's llieamllifl:gi andre, be, IDrE!ipBliieDl to d'is'mi1llnfi1e a spmm which is longl past irs selHby date,:'

Jnh'n D i.lfifc;m:I, G1:!1! eral :$eoretary oUhe A'SSiOc!i:atiQIl of School ;;IRIlII C-oHege: l'eadeI'S, 'Mmed Cihanhe 'tests w-ere' having ill damaging reffe~t 01"11 'p'l:Iplrs, 'The whole testing :rclegilllltf! is'!]Qvemed, :b¥tiI!'Ie riiOOd to'lprlodlJ:~e le~giiJe' ta'b'l.e.s;'hesslidi. 'It Irti:Mi m,ore to' dlil' wfi~n holding schools '([I atc..oun,t' ~hali1l hel1P'ung pupills liEl pll'Qg~e,:j~

'6ti, TlEST 4J

The fear 'tnBit many ,,"ildr,en ~fe suffe~rfilg Intoliemble :l!l:ress because ~f the, teSt5 WilS VQlad: ;by Ml:c:k Brookes .• Geneiii3'I'Se,cmiiiHY ofthe Ni1lltiof1li!:~A$S!ociatJic,iil ,of H'e.ad 'feactll~r5, 'There are sclrrroois tihM st-art weh;e'al'5H 1'19 'fO:l" key'sta,ge two SAT~ [Sta ndart! As'sessl1rlefi,f teStS] 'froml the mome!'lt~he mlld~en aM\ie Ii'll :Septemb!:,r.l'bait"s jUSit uttel'l1y rld'itlJloos: he said. 'Tl\ere'are o~her'sclilooI5 that l~ehear5e SAls, du i'ti:lgl C:h Ris~lmti,S, week. Th.esei!'re you ns chlldf~§! Will i1'fe 'ta~klng .t!,lxu,IIt.lIiley :sl\o\lld be h8viflig.tfle Ume' QUihei~' lI\!e.s, at SdiiOOlliiltlltyust wQr1ryins a'tlou ttl;?$ts. I't is '~hE! bread~h iiill'id ricthness anhe (unteu Iu m 'that ~lJrflers. The oonsequences for sc_hoCi]Sc.i'i~l readf;ll!'1g1llt'1elf rarge,t:s. are' dlr,e - heodt!(, cal'! losE!'~heifrJob"S and' scltnmls can I"~ ,dQsed dtwn. With 'this at stake ms not:5lllirprlsfng tha~ '5011001115 h=t~he t~~ts ~I!;.e ,olY:er:

Da,vid La,ws, the U be.r:a IDem OCiroit ~cho.Clls slPokesmal"1~ salilil: "The lunlQluel¥ high uaikes, lpillac«l on nationall ~5t~ mea'i'l~ha~ mafiliy' prirrni1lry~i:;h@o:l~ have !beoome t1lQ, Ei'lQlffl f@CiUsed:

IlHowev,er" the Gavei'Rm'ei!'l( r,ejectedtihe arttldl!im'. "The Id@atihat-cl1lldren a!ie 11;ill!,!'er=tlmedl is Aot a view that the IGovemllll"!lent: a,oce:pts: ii, spokeS/main sltR[lI, '1'il1e real~ty Is tfiiil,t ctiil'dji',en spend a very smalll, p!e,riGenhg,e iO~' tl"l eii' ~imi;! il'l1l 'sd'lo~!'11 b~Jl\g te:ite'd. SE!eil'tgl that dhii'dl~en ~\eave :5chO'Q1 up m 'the righ:t. standard to the 0051fS linhe lI1igl'leSit priority flf'~he Government!

In anll,therdilill'dl-r'eR.tired ii'lllttal1v~f bQ~h l!I'itja.r· p®~iU~11 parties in the UK- Lab.QLil[iilm::t~lie' CGns'=fIII'ad~e5- ha,ve ,iI fU'IQuncelll pl~n,s to m:al(e Britai n miO:rie ch IId-friendll, following' a mport by tUlIIlCEF which r-anked Ithe 1I.UK't1l1e worst pla€e~o heal child lOut of 2~ Ii'idl I'lcaUons.

Pa,r,snts were ~ rl'll,ed thil:t '~hE!Y rIlsk;ed CI'e!1tltillFlg a generaEllrGiI'I of~battery-falffl:'ied dl1i1dlren' by al.ways keepfll1lg them indoo;s,~, ens-ure th:eir sife,ty.Ttu~ familY's mini~reli; KevinOml'1lnal'l. called fOr ani ~nd ~a, tM 'oottol'll WOQI!',ll:ultull'e OIllird wilrmedJtna:t cihild~,en WOll hi net Iream tn ~~ with rlsb if '~Ih~ were ne'Wf ;a:IIIQwed to iP~ay ,otlKiool'S.

C(ml.p,]~tethe sen~enGes.

Choose NO MORE THA.N TWO WORD'S :from the passag(!oor each answer, 15 AOGording ~I) the inqu~ry. the amoul1It of testiing puts 1lI.J.Qit of

___ ~ .......... ~ . onro'ung, chffi~d!ren.

16, The' edu~ti ill. report ,describes testing in EnB~iU1id as ______ .................... ~_~~e&~i.n,g;,

11 Pilr-e:nl'S often select [heir chHdr-en's sch.QQ~S afiI:,e'f' studying. tes,t :resulits

18 Ka;thy :HaU and Kam:il Ozerk 'beIDieve tesUng wn En,gruand :is also used. to, ,evarnua'te

______ .......... in~cboob,

19 Tille major poli:[ical. pa:r~es, have p.:romb:e-d. to make Bd'l'am

.......... ~ ~_~. bl~ecW io,l'the UNI!CEF report..

,Do Ilhe ifoUowin,g stat,emenlsagree with the inronnatWon given wn :Read.in,g, Passage 2? Wr~t,(!

nu-g :f:ALSJi

NOT GIVEN

~hhe statement agrees wit·1l the: informatIon if the statement contradkts the ~nfu'l"maUOIll i.f there is no nformanon on this

201 SteV'e SmnoU S!!l:y5 what is taught at schcoill shoufd be more tightly controlled,

:2.l A,tCOI~g 'to John D"uu:£OIrd".,hlldrten would, .m.<!ik~ more p.ro,gress 'ii"'.idli Mly:ch sherter and, easter tests,

22 .Mig;lit. Brookes W<lmlts to see ,earlier student preparation fo ... SATs.

23 .David .taws agrees with the opinio.ns of Mick B,])Ookes.

QUe.stiDUS 24-27

Ch.oose thre (;ofliectletter. A" B:. C or D',. 24 What dees the g:over.mnent argue·?

A There is nOll: enough, ~esting ait preseet, I 1iest:s :a~ prhtli!lry :llldl!oo~ Me' too easy.

C Tests are .nOll gIven too, fiie.quel1itly.

El' Teadl.ern sboUltd. take meretests,

2-5 The go'V,eTnm,ent spokesman.

A is, extrem,ely cr:it.iim.rn of the: wary exams ,arewriUefil.

:8, accepts many of tlle points U'!lade by the teachers' leaden. Cthinks education. ts wha~ Itlilegove.fliml!i:i'II.t is most ifilt:eres:~ediQ. D illrgues it is the ~,e~theu~ :fau]~ ~hat students are '~estedl :so !l'liuch,

2,6, Acc:ording:tll UN1CEf"cll.iJd.T!e.n in the UK

A oft,e'II, spmd ~;()O mach Ume in ~he l!i!OIst kindofplaoos. B are no~ so' 'W'eU behaved as in (I,ther countries.

C{!'r,-e n.ot as .. n.ch as ddldrelITli ln 21 ether ~OU[I·d:r:if.s.

D' ,couM be h~:vmg m.uch more fulfiIDUngob.i1dbQods.

2'i'Wha,t is the pOfulll~ ~vin Bren nMlllmak,es,?

.A CMMren use too many '~~e£trkl;liJ devices,

D, ChUdlren \\I'Ould.l~~m by being outside more.

'C It's teo rl~q :oor ,bUdr-en to' 'be outside on. their OliVA. D- l'h~ mosttmfortaD~ th~ng ~s children's $aifety.

TCllln~'~Mti.ll".!i ,!lbBUt peop:lels

~pln[OIilS, skim tile 'text fJUlr the perrscm',~s name, and" read tfrIb pari of the text 'ClBsely, Deii:i:d.e, wIIlit y-outlittlllk'tl1ie pefSOllfS D,pilillon is and then match It ~,one, of the Op'tJlIK15,

READlIN>G PASSAGE.3

You shouM spend about. ~o minu,tes on Ques,uons 2S-40t whkh are based, on .R.ea.ding Passage 3, below ..

It !i~unds li~e a scie,l!'Ic:e IlctJlon joke, bl.lt it isn't. 'Whi~t dio, )IOu 'get w:lilen you fum an in'v:i,siibmt~ cloak (In its ~ii:Je? /It mlinll lying carpet. So Sii~ physi<';i$U who bellev,e the same ex:o~il! materials used l:O make doal!ci'lng d:e1;licesCDutd abo ~ l!J~d to levitalfe'~i"¥ ,obJec~. In iIlfunhe:r breaktl'1,rDugln, LWo' otil1er ,researCh groups ha,ve"come'i ,step closer to crackingl the my~terie5' af lev1tatlan,

.scjeiMtRsts haw< levitail:ed objectS, berQIie~ most ~ rrro!J:5ly usJng 'p_owe:rfu'l maglnetic 11isll:dIS,b:I, levita:t;e ,jil, hog. But tlfilattechnique, Ui!iinglthe rE!pul~TiVE! ft:il't:e of ,iI ~al'!lt magnet. f~uilr~~ I~rge' alflOl.ll'lts, ofJeM~. 11'1 ,contrast '~Ile lates~ thec~rii!!S explQit the natum'l, sm;a'ilier amounts of 'E!oor'2TY produced by the qM:i1 ntY! m 'fluctua~loniS ,o,f empty s,psee.

In Ma,Y 200(1;, '!;wI') fl\e~eareh RjlmS, lied by .IJ If Leonhardt at 51 Andrlill:W'$ U ni,ve~i'tY. llI'K. and John PendJry at Im,perial College, London, independentlY propo.sed tihirt aninvlslbJlfty .cloak E;,Qu'ld be CJl'eilitedlfrom ,elfoti, mal'ell'ii3Jls wi~h abnolimal liiptical' piro,per(nes. SUlh a dOiJ~i!i1g dev:fQ~ -wc1'klnQlll1 the mlcrowarVE! region - WI1S m!,tnufa.c;;tl.lredllalter that year.

The device, wasforrrredlfrorm'li .s;o-Q'IIIe:d;m;et"!'ri'are.ri~ls:, exodc ma~erjals' made from esm pte)!: ,ilfIIil,Y' of m~BllJllni1'$ ~nd wh'es. The meta,llu'Iits a~e SlliIilUer fhaAtine '.i'rlav(d~n!JJ~n of light and SiO' ~tne Imarlerials 'CiA be lengill'leered«i' preil!:ioo~y ~l'iIbo11f1ew 'elec.tron:lflaQl'leti(l; 'lightW'Wes trave~ ClIfCUfid tti,ern. 'Theyglnlir:anskmn :spac,e, tl1icki~g etectromagnetic Wi'I~ into mavin 9 alQl'Ig direcUons 'they Dlihetwlse,woulldi'l't; Si2}I!i Lgonhardt.

Leonhardt ,and his; ooll'ea~u e ThOl'1l'1:iillS Phill bin., al~l)~t StAndJ"eW's Un,Trwl'sity, realised tirlal Uh is, prOper;ty coulld also be' e'xp!oit:ed to levitate eKtremely s 1lni!'11 obje.cts. Th~y 'pr~ose fl'l~ertilllg a metamoalelia!11 ~en tlill\O, ~,..c;alll'ed C'!:I5i]mlr J;llams, Whe:ntw"o $1..!'!:I1, pla\es are' bil'oug ht wlfy (lose mge~tlJ~r; '~l1e ~aC;YlIJm' ~t,WE!€!fiI 'ME!W1becom!S, .~~ ledi wi~h ~ua I'It!.l:Jll!'! iI\liuQl,IIaltiorll$, of'til1et<eLeclOOmagn,et1i', field. ,As twQ pliil~,a~,e brought da;ser tiil.g:eme:f, 'fewer ~:uc:tUa:'liQfIIl5 can ,~c;'iJli wi~lf]n the gap betwftl'l theiffl, but. 011 the (!IUJte~ 'sides (If th,~ ,P~fe.S. tlhe RUdualtiom am I.llnconSfrain!!d. Th is causes ,il' IP:IiI~SSiJlliIH;liffeliem;:e on ,eilthe:r SlIde of t!he plal'e'S, forcing the plates to sti~kt1)gether.in ,8 IphenomenOR ,cililled the' CasJimi eftec:(.

ILe'Ofiliar:dtiinCil Plli'lbin, ,~i[jeve that insen:lng a mctlonof metamat:ell'h~11 bet~1il [he

Iplates wi II dlislrupt the' qU.iil1itumflucwatiol'ls d the eiel!~rom'agl'!l:etic: fi.eld.hlll panlcuJi'I!r, metama~eiir'illii h',\1Ive a n~9'ilti\lie refralttive' indmcl so' (haE elec1ifomagfii!,ti( I iglht waves elf'lterh'lg a m'~lmateTial I:!elilid, ~n ~h,e! QPP0:5jte w;a.y ~h'aI'l,e:xpec1ied. ~y~ Il!.tel;lnl'ntindit1ihilJt wlill cause' the Cas]m~'r 'fDr,tet:o ,ilt::t in tRe,O~~osjte ,~lll'Ktlton - 'fo;l"ingl 'the! up;pe!l' p:la,tet:c, h~\lita:1!e. The warlli willi appe,a r in til1e Nllw JOY mill 'of' IPhy,sJcs •.

Federico Ca,pas:so, ilfl expert on the usimlr e:rmUilt H~U'!lji.u'd 1J nl:varslty 'in 8o.st:on, ;Is im:pJ'esS!ed. ilJislngl met,afnilrleriil,ls 10 :reverse the casimir eft'ect is a y.e~y d'ever idea: heJiays.

HOW'e\I',e:f,. he p®jll1~ll.out~n~t lbecaMSl'!·lmiiI:fta.fIIii[iI~e!1T;aI's :aIlledliffiCluh to .mgiMee:r,i~'s '!!.If\vIl~I~thiillt "they oo!.l!ild .~ 1l:!S€!d m ~\evill1llte objej!ts Tn 'the nearrfiull1l1,1r~ •.

iEI!.!!rt1\hE1l"Ei a~ gaed :siglfl;S·t!hillt qll!iil.lI1.tU m lelii'itatiGn c-euld be adhi~\i'ed m~drri :5C!~ner, ~'atlr!E!r meth.0.cb, !,Jrnar'MOlIM(!Ieen a.tthE!1 University c:ffa!ri'oll'nia Aiv,e.rside ind h']s,c:oll:eagues hav.e ~5~·o~E:SI.srunymilJn]pul:a~afth.e '~rml'el'lgm ,@!fth.e ca!Sim~rmrm~h~ wnc:relllSillrlgl tilll~e reffile~trt\lity ,of! ~1I'I.l!..~f ttu~ Iptlalte5) ~(I~at n fdl!e.cu vif~ual p~nfcles mOoJ,1l! mn.cien~I,. Mod.~ ns~hll!;S1remil~h af toe (a~imJlr mn.:e ist:hre!'llIF!i.t S1iepwwaJrd~, IIfw~r5in'lg it :l!iIiY~ teitm rI'iI e<mber Gal'irna ~li!1lll'l:~hitsk-a(Ya1 at tto:r,ttni"WeS.ltTe~~'iJ'!i~al U"iversi~ in S:t :PerersbuJ9.1 RUiS"s~li:!.

C~pa~~· and hiS"ro'llleagl~es; haw alSlo, been w,o:~k1!11g om ali'l,a~t:eiliflla~ive :s,hf!me~g harmasilii ~,epull'si.l!f\e '(.asiliil'l,ir dectDleif 'ilIlh;;~lalbt'Olr'I~ sh,0W'tchal a ~e.pl)~~i!,lle,usinmlir W~! ~I;l!rld be ~e~ up [betWeeflir a,. 4'27 lmi(i~!i'!le~re-wld!l: gpld~~oo~edllPOlyS;~'TIID:e sph .• e a rid ill ~sjll i~l)n di9J1ide pia" Wftil1e:MO' are ~ ml'liil.er5lSid i[f1 e~hai"lo:L '~ltnol.!i:glhl2ne Ca~~mil~~.~e bet~E!;n i;llny two ~ub~tan~ - ill<e etha npl Sind Qdl~~ lite gold a nd ~he !imC~¥ii'! diOXide. o:rl11he S!lrllf9fi1r d [~Xitd'e >i:I!ndtll<le e,thaIrl01-ls 'posltlli\!(e,~'I1E! re!"ati\!!e .MreFlg:ll'Is; o:f'<ll~rad:iOflil are (liiffer:ent iJl!1d wh.ell.yl)llJ cta"m~ine tfiie matoefi'als, ylliiu sho!;ll ~~I :llee~hEl' g~td spl1ie.re levita~e: he sa)!s.

capa~.sa'!i: :ecat" expenmenrts ~y;ggeS'tU~l1!t such :rep!iII!i~:QfI J'Oi~~d 0·~ll:""r. afilc!, thit ifl~ur.n co;~Ld b.a uls.1d h:l·le\l'ita~!;Qne, ~bjec:la'oove arloth~r. 'It':!: w~,e.iJ~ly wo:rk"an,(j ~ ~tirll nee-~ to Iffiak'e (!errti\llil'lll·t~is is lmll'~ly happen~n~, bu~ We ar<e :slawly bllJHd ~ng UJp exp!U'lmei'\tal eli:ide.noo WI Q'Uanl~m Ih~vl~tattoln': ~~$, C'aIF@S"S"C!, wile. pf1e~nr~ flis- I\eSlI(:lIt~ at a OOl1fei!['~nm €l11I COherence am'ld IQuant!;lm Qp.lli:c:~ mn, IR~h;e'st-e[~ ~ew ¥:o:rk, :l",~lu"!~

'lh~s i;~iill very e~i~in91 ~pe!'ilmE!n:tal ~-SJJ!II~ :becaute It is tihe.lirst de.G1J'1sti'atiDfli. thiilitwe,GaA ,engineer a l'elpillJlslve C'a5im'irf"rm: sa.lis LeQlilh~rd~,

Do the fo]]o"Wi:ng statemeil1rts:3Jgre~~'\I]il:.h the clarn:m-"l '0'£ th.e \'YT'i,le'.r ill ~eadi:ng. P<l!ss.a:ge :n W:r.i~e

ns

NO NOTG~V1E:1\!I

~! ~h!es:t~t:eme~tagNe$ w~rh thewrU:e:r':s; da:ims if me fitaiteme[[!l:c.onuadiclr,s the. Wtr.wler"\ d.a.ims

if ~~is impossible te say wh~t the wrffiOOIl' ~h~nks .ab.o~l! ~his

29 CLo*ln,g dev.iJl.ie's can be used. for ~.evili[:ail:.i:oJ:l.. 30 Stieli1IT:i~t8 norw .know al. aboulle'Yw.ta:tion.

31. T~in;p ca be ttan.:Sforted :fromp.La~e topJ<IIm uS:ing eWlpty J'if~ce t!,jd~nok~·gy;

,32 The mese :receDit reseeech Into 1eV'Wt<'lUo.nhas made use o.f];at-ge .magne~.s •.

Qu:e-stiDn:s .33-37

33, ULf Leoahardr and John :Pend:ry

A worked. tog.etllu:1f' 'on _ p;roject in 2006. 8· both carne up w.itlli:l. th~: Same idea,

C hl.vented'the mlcrowave oven.

D used. only bas,k objects in Ulei.r research,

341 M~tmtatedaLs, ;ii.i\e·

A s.irnilM to li,glilt, bU~,l!li.th Ii, smaUe:r w,avelength .. .B a eombinaden of~i:ltrpLe' metah and wires.

C a,b~e to, Ic~:u~ngewher,e ,effiet;~romagneitiCWtliVe8 go. 0' 'engineered when U,ghtw;ay,e~ ,[[,awl ,amundthem.

35 The importance of the' CaSJ:m[~ effect ~s lhiJl it A. doesn't req;uire aJ. vaCUIUll~n order to woide,

D, .increase'S 'the nureber ofpWates 'thart ,can 'be 'Used. ,e creates, huge' and fmqucmt flucwa:tions.

n creates pressure difference and S'lickiness.

36 Leeahardt <lnd PhBbln 'think tbat puUing ametamaterjlil] behlr,f,een twOI plates will A cause the M,p' plate to rise above' the' bouonll plate.

B SL"Op e~ectromagnetic light 'Wa.v,~s be!1l!ding.

C stop the Clshnir foroe fr,om wc.rrkilllig: ..

D DOlt affect electromagnetic l]ucwa:tio;ns.

37 W.hry is :it impottmt to. cllan,ge the s:u:engbh ,oftJhe C~s[mir :fo:oce?

A to, reflect. the plates

B ~I he], reverse the force

C ~o' see 'vir~ua1 panicles b~neli

D to, enable o,ther sden:tists [0 P'J:\ogress

W-"'en 'fOOII~lIeto an$WelT' 1GI1I1iJI.tiple .0100 q~estlflllns,. rememoor·t:m 'lUst ~!'Ci$:S ,off the 'optiDIiIiS tflat

,are olniloost1 'wrong,

Compiete' each &en.~euce ~Ittb the coned eQdJ].ug .A-F' below. 38 Capasso, [cs upoonvlnced dl:iat

39 Ca:paSSlO' bas, ,ca1c:u1at:ed. thait

41 Ca,passD bas ad mined thalt

A go~d Can 'be used to prod,1!.loe le.v:ita:tiion.,

B a. pa:ru.tu]<1If type ,o:f ethanol has to be used.

C the lev~W:ionwin Last for only a few,s!I\'!oonds.

Dusing m.etamOlJtenab wiiillW help lead to Iev:i.ta,tiol'll in the short term. R his experim.e.lWlt will be &tremlely ci!)stly to' perfurm.

F his idea is still oDII:y a th.eory.

•• ~nnNG ... - WRIT.ING TAS.KI

YOiIJi. s!horWJd. spend. abGu.~ 2-0 mDi[Jil.!W~es 0.1'11. tltis task

The taMe below .givesi;lro:r.ro;ail:~o:n aboutmil~sportin fO'Ul' CQl.uJlt:r'Je.s:m 21007. SUlmmarlsellifl m€orl'mla!tiQ~ by :se~~dil'OO,g: ~drepQrL11:!lgthe maJi!ll.rearl:~~a!!]jdl.mw ,~ompa;rjs()fJjs where fleffievcmlt.

Wrire a!.tl~acSit :ll50wor:ds .

.NlIlUbel' ,ljJf peopfeusmg nn ttlJ)5,0I1. ( • .at .wel'iutilD!g metd)

PaSSlanglt ,UomretRs ~ :he.rd . .of "pruilatihl:d

Cargo, ~Url,ed! (tiill:i.(!ifi$ o;ftoos~

UK

.22.2

2,820

27

23.01.

L 5.S

7ao

21.9

dewlUl!le liIlaUil poilil'lS,and ma1lle' a para&ra,p:n pl3l11l ibe'ire you :Sit~!1 Wfiirti'lll:"'

'ion should. spend ab o.otoo m~lIillllj~es O,rnlfi1'l ta1Jk. Write albollillt the f()ill~ow.ffiQg topk~

lit is be€-o,mi:tJlJ 11.110R laud nJI(.1U Id~t"':fi~ .to ~MI·e th, i:,.~,e'J"(Jft~e .".redid O.n our lives. D.ii5~"ssll~od1,lrnnil'a~ ,a~"".d djsad~\JJ:~es ,of l:i~j)i,g.i;q ,a ",eii!d"J'itlil . .roddy.

Give ~iMl{l!!Uf(1l:f' ya~[ ~~sw~r' and indud:emyreLen!ll~ ~p~from }rom own k!:'J!QW']ooge

0:1: e:lCperie.lilIce. ~~-~

Write at least 2:50wOMs.

12 usn

W,iile'lil }IOO !la.va 'ml le~uS$:ad'liim.l!s uel dis!!d'oli'!~~~ !'l'!m~r to gIve bWith~ldes'Qfhth~ arg,lll.meJIIlt, nGt ]usf yeur 'QWIII 'Qpililro~

S,P'EAKIN'(j :P;A:RT I,

CI

The ex~tte:r asks ~he ,c3il.'IJidii.dat:e abOiu~t h:i:m/he:rne1{'I.Ms/ne'r hom.'!'!,. work O!li soo.d.its and otb~'Il fmn:iliar topics .

. Friends

• How imp~rllia;n;t· ,is .ff~e.l];dshi.p tlo 'OiLl.~

~, D~you.h.aw frfue.ndswh.Q~hr,~ in @~h~r ,col,IinJttrles~ !o' VY1I3:tQ;t!:alli,t~e-s do yo~.loot fO'1 in ·ai. ffiend~'

~, Wffila!t: kind orth[~gs do yo~.lib ~o' dgw.h~'.!\ you get ~Qg~t]:,,~,.r cwiith your friends?

,PART]

Whm ')Wu have 'to

!!n~eif qI!le5ti~i!1 Part1, dl)nI[j!illlitgi~ CIn,~WOrd a~Wl!rs, YOlilli!avle'

bll s!Ww YO!'!I 'fan nmml.!nlute in Ef!gLtsh. lW"y 1t!~~y 5~~ !il!nteliliCl1'5

fe" elldh ,!lIiI!iWl!r~

"iou willhaviIi: tQlatk abo~ta ~Qlpic in: one ®ot'Wo ,minIJiles. You ha.ve one mln.ut:e to think, aboUiE.wM!l:yoli're goiogto, s~y. You COlO Il1lake some not.es~obe1p, you .~f'YQuwish.

D~cr.ibtil a ,.ammon. leisure actMty m¥our ,ccrUIi1l~ry. You should. Safi:

~ll'ha;tth.e a:cUvity!.:si

wha,1 tn'e of poop~edJo it

'wh!!J1e and wl:n:e,fII, :itis possibme 00' do ~t md explain why :i~ is ~o pop]!1];:tr:.

lP:AllT3

WOirK HdpJ,ay

• Could. 'you e,om_JIl[_l"e 'tbe amOUD~ of limepoop[e spend wor.king flGWfldays ''-!Ij'm the swtualtkllO

ln tbe paSit?

• What dio you ~h~flk~ ~th,e !llos't i!ltpJJ[lta:nt: f~c.tors toO bear in mi:~d. wThl,en ,dJJoos:in,g a job?

• Would YOIU sayth:a!t .~t ~8 bellt.el ~o do so:~ething ia.cUv.e Ot justreLu wh!e:n you hav.efrce ~ime?

Lei8'ltft~ ani age

,~ What ll.ew .kilIDdisonernSU1r(l alctiviti:e'S WQuld yQu~ik~ to :5e~ l~trQdy;c~d. into yo~!!!' areawhi~:h donl (:,lLlrrendy exist? [Wby?]

.~ WOIJ!Ld you agree tbat His i:mfortalllt fo~ o'l(i:€'r O~ r,~ij~d. ptl:oplil1! to k'eep th.ems~illves b,1)]sy~' Call yQ~. :l)t!gg~st seme sui~ab~e adruv~Hes?'

Ii Iltli yo~()pi:m()ifi, de y()u[J8poo:p~e l~ave enQu.gh Q.lt {>QQ' .~u:oo h~iisure ~~nle? [Why I Why :oot?]

L.IS,TE,N:IIIN'G,

SECTION 1 'QueS'lio.Hs J ·-10 n WEiST 5..;11 'Q.fl6:S'tiO.S l-1Q'

Comprn.e:te the form beliQrw:.

Wr.i:te NO .M'ORll'HAN TWOWORDSAN.D/O.l A NUMBER~ for each ~~SW~I;

Example· Na.~~

flat 1

l ~~_~~~_

Ha:liclle$t'ef HA65tD

I 0781233452

8443

Aq,ua PocwershOii digitaru camera ina

3 OO~O!lf

Yes,. has a. 4

.poUqr

5~~~~~~~~~~_m~&Sin:g

sheuld be ,tI, .bttl isn't

r

If:repa:i.rnfitpo.ss~b~e. o:ff~]'ied to proVi.d~ a 8, h~Jtt customer r:eq.uestsa

9~~~~~~_~~~

Ask"ed (ustomer ~o send ~~em.to'

Io.~~~~~~~~~~

WIfI!!1iI ~u hi"'!!! 'm' fiU l~iI form', _~I! 2Ifi!! YOIl!

'u]'I.derstilndtbat It' may hav,e'ieen wrIDftelilin nHe Fun. FDf eJ(_aIJilP!e~ ~n' II1UmHr5 ihere, 'lmiSs:tliig' I1maIihli lis ml55ing'!'YGtl wmln~t I'H!l!dto wriilile lIS m. theg",.

SECTION' 2, Qilt,esUDtI:& .11~2,O .. nns .... 12: ,Q,Ue5iti@RS J 1-15

"

~ljrakhthe place5..

Wri:tefuecQr.~:t. ~etJbe:r A,-II nest tothe Qll!fsti.OlJ1s U ~15,

- ,-~

BCJ

o

8

[.._': ~-=- ~WOocl~.-~, 2& ~J I[J

in,uill'l.c:e

E

12: ear park 13 liIUSlem:n

l4 picnicma

Wlli:!i.ch 'fHR_B~a'cUvttles o:revenffi do YOIl ])_~OO ~o'pay co' gflt il:Di~ Chao~e 'I'HR:l!' letle:.:s A~P.

Whentlileoo'~~ !II

muli(ipll!'~h!ili:oe ,~estlon wh.ere ,mJUll! tflii!n one iln~'!IIIeli'~~!'fe~ f,em~

tlUtyGIiI 'tali! wfl~e your dIlQl~$1'ii! an,y oNiercunthe answefseet.

A mW'e~m, B castLe Cfirewe'llcs D g<lr4~!I'Is

E reck concert F Jazz CQiIl!c~rt

Angwer me ,qUJestloilils below.

Wl'.lt:e.NO MORE mAN TWO WORD,S AND/OR. A .,N1'UM~.BEI :for {ladha:Il:!l:w~r;

SECTION.3 ,Q.uestiens 21-30' ,0, ''liES'll" 5..,;03 Q'I1,esnon5 .2.1-.26

2:1 'Before givingh~s pre-&entaUol:1i. ~ul is worded;\l,bolll~ ,A, choosing whatinfOf.IliilatiO['iJ to use .

.. B not r~!JIlJl!u'Wbedng\Vhat kl' sa.}'.

C organMi,i liIS the Pl,ojecUaA equ~pwe:n:t.

22, Pa~.'s,friends ad.vjsehhn nc't to

A. speak about popular pedods., B talk at lengtffil.abo~t art his,~o.ry;

C $peaktoo quickly [n the p,l!esen:t1lition.

23, 'Winy does Patw~ like the Idea of th.eUmelme?' AI will bevis~W1yp~e<1!sir:!g.

B,~!t w.~] save 80.me~~aJ,e.

,e: J* Willi k'~el? hhn fucY:lled.

24 Pll'lll~s g1)~[lg to sihm!l ,famous wOil'b of art to A show poo;p~ethat be 11M gQodt<lst:e.

I. ,make people tffi:dnk:a:bo,l!.lIt W,I:U!iitE OOUI:1It'S as <lin.

e pro\'ieth:i3I~lI!ll,@di(l:iI"~ <lr~ isn't as gm 3J$ dassic art,

lS ~u[ Witnts his pr,esen:tati,oill w, Acllange personal. oph'lli.o[[l$. I create raMg ng~t:.

C Sl;'arta:G exd.trnQg. debate.

216 What d@<es Isabel say OOOYlt modern aJ"ti.:sts~ A "f.hey are ski]fut

Other pairrut like chid!re~.

Cl'hey baeve asense ,offlieedom.

When yOli! ilaYl!'W a~wer rmjl~tpJ(!. d)ol~e I!ilJl!stiDlil~. if YIlIu'-m nmlt ~mml!diil~i!ly sure 'lilf tI1e! 1'!!1lS1Wf!(. rn:Q~ ~ fIOtli!' tf Wtlill 1fQlJillileard'ill1Id mo,YeJ ,olil.tl!l.~Iil:ene~' q,UI!S~]UI!I. Dollit Imis5HIII¥estiolll ;bet~:ms~ ~ulr(Mtl;nk;ngiilbGl!l' 'a

Questions- 2,7-30 ClJimplet:e: the notes otilo,w.

WrIte NO MOllE 'THAN TWO WIORDS for e~dlallSWer.

• go to .fine ,art section in 'Z'7 ~~_~ __

.' ]fnQt" use the 29 ~~ _

SECTION ,4 Q:fle;sfl~oTns .31' -4'(11 ,0,lEST 5_0~ QUes,tiOHS 31-36

OOilfipJere the diagram.beh;m;

Write NO MORE THAN THB.'EE WORD'S ANDION~ A NUMBER fer eachanswes,

N~d}'btind La~lIi,gecS

{€lln]y spo~en by a few eldeil'ly sp,a'l,llkers)

3S

--~~

Complete the sentences be~ow.

Wdte NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS fOil each answer.

37 Th~nQ~ogy has .made ,comnluEliw.catiio:n e~:ier. enoourtgmg the use

ofa ........ ~_~ ~~

3:9 A group ofpeepls can lose thei:r,~~~ ~~_~_

when their language bec'Om:csextill,ct,

40'We can help' preserve lan,gua~ge-s dl![ough spec~fic pro,gil<Ull~es and

by encouraging people '[0 becowe ~~ ~~~ _

78 iESlS

I. The Pacific I. The Aniled,cas

• As,ia

• Afti.ca,

, When yoll have to, Ilabel i e!i.pm. r,~mH.,d1ait the .es'tion llilumboers 'follow dlil liirdef' of the re:ordlng.

REA,DI1NG

READIN'G PASSAGE 1

You ~hm,dd spend about 20 .minutes o'n. Questions ~-B. which are based en .R.e\\Irling Passage l below.

'The' Nee'd' to B8110:ng

t\lo Qne Ii~es.~, teell:eft o~,t~ ig!ilQred by C<l'lllill,a:g,ues, a~ me~tl!'il;~ 'Of f'l:S,t be Invited tll!~he big pany that e'iie~y;'l:!le ls 'rall<lng about. I lTIilgine Inot beilng pain: ,of a joke •. or worse stU II, illf 'Eke joke i~ 0" }l'0u. For lI'nost PeQfIl'e'. 1M I1g the' I ire Cit an oUbiider call!'! ha:v.e a Inegative ,effect on self,e!i~1I1'1 and miJ)Qad. I~ 'GI n e1;llerl ~i~ad~Q' fleg:ative b'IlhwTicI'IIJr. The IP'l:lU ieble:I'@lfll). is e]lltrem~ :stmng. Sei~n~~ns bel r:e-ve ·that, il'l' p'art. tl\er-e is an eVGlutiel'la~1 e~plil,natlal'! 'for why we !'law this need tlO' belong.

IIIi! the ~st, ~eople hunted and aloked Wgefilef in Uil1e:s ami! each member of ~he grau., would be assigned.iii role. As each me:mberhad a purpos-e,iit meant that in tl'l1e event of the fOiSS· Qf,onE! peF~on'. the 91"o'Upa:s iii, whole Would s\.lIffe'r. ~o,tllrIis ifeilSOIi\ th.~Y' had ~ vesu~d irlterest in j!lfoteCII:ing: eadl oth~r. TI;iI our prehlstcil'lf:c .ilI'IO'!'$tars., memoorShip afa: group n'ie'al1l~ the dllffe~)!rill.:e between ~UllVi'il,aJl and ,a;eafh. Tho:! whQ were mJeliltJed aRc! ~xcilldedfrom j'otn'lillg ,ill g"o'""p had ee feAd fal' tlriemsel¥e.scimd stru.ggled tti ~tay !!llh.i~ al~o"e In th@ wilid. Aipaft fmliill'! prote:cl1liQm:. be'irl9' I~art of al'g f01J.lP i,lsQ' ,el'lcSl.lImdtihllt gel'll.es C'oyl~d be pasSied On 'to fut.ure genetr:ditiions. AI hou.g'h it is \lery giff~lfient now ~r,o:-m '~he wfI1 ollrpl1TmitNe ancestors lived,. our braIns have not Ihad UJiil'Ie ItQJ~volve t:Q11~blldlay's nfes.tyle~, ln ~hll& dil,l!' arrda,ge! it i~ no longe~

iI' maUer of ~u~liiwa'l'to be aJilliated t,~, ilIt2ribe or grau.p', but the @\I\I)I'urh:mary fn~tlTntt t'D filnd protecUQIi1 s:tllilliingeri

ThTrS. i!i'llterEllilit feE!Ung of .setJlJriW· tha~ ~omes wftlh belngl pan of ~ ·grOYFiI is p:oWE!:rr~1 enough to m'a~e people' empJpy both cO'flsciolJls ililld un'oQ:n~<::ious strategles'oo Q,ElfO ft"Iem'bliHshiIP,One obvioll!5 'Vi1fty people h'y to be aae,pted IliIitD a group tS'Self~p,te1iel"ltatiQ", which 1:5 :tihe' att 'Qf p~.Mr'a!!l',fng )'Ourself In d,~· best p~s:lble lnigliU. 11.111 ~11I:dMd lIJal wHI ,i!ltJemlpt 'EO ,outwardly dlS1pJ'aV d'le' clriaraCeri.5tics whtch a~ im,portant to 'll\e glfOUP'S iU:I'i!I1iIi'lcemel'it. Antle same time. tlley wlll,~tlinc,.e'al "I'll)' pili rts oHhel r personalitl{ tlhalt: ma)i IElIl! seeflli!i$ undesirable· or not usewl ~ii) a '9Ji1OUP. An lI!!Xit mple i;l'f sE!ilf~preS'entail:iol'l ts thejeb appliatld.flllpltla!5S. A.'e~ ndidate' apply,lng fOll' iii job wHi promob! ttremselv'e:~ !!IS n1a1ivilted, but il Uke.l, to ihide, the fact that 'they are

d Jil€!rgalfi 'sed. Tt!ese,,~pnsCi€Il.!lS· tilcl!ics thiat pmj!:II·'t use a~ not a surprise tOillnyone, bl;l~ we a:rcliB use ether stra1iegTes UlnlknQ,wirtgly"

Psy<;l'Iolag:1ists. JesiiJic;~ lLiI,rkin. Tanya, (haftll'ind and JReioort AII'~il11l suggested that 'people ofilel1l~,e$ort~o ~l.Jlt:sma~!c I'iI'llim ~crvt'o gail1iil ~ffillatia.n ~ rllO' greu Pl, much 1i~1;! '(t~r :,rimll!i~1 ancesto:rs used to dO.,BetO!r,e humans: had ·the abilitr to !ipe.l1lk.l~hy$iiGal imitation w.a:s .il metlhod of begl9 ingwr " pia I!le in the 9 ~OIJJI'. M:05~ wlU be Uf'iia.war"i' they are' doing ifrt. YlI'kll'l' ali! 0 il'U;!f 'QCr-WO(l'ke~s decrded to t!m ~nij:s: hypothes~s:.

Th~y' took a !lJifOUP' of s-tlldent valunteersal'ld h'aothem play ag1alllrle ,call~ C,bema"; a billl~O~5:lng illircadle ,game tlli'!1iIlt re5E!i1'iib~ed An'le~j,Gln flxItball. The yolunteers w>ere led~' belleve ~h~y 'were allllP~rayll\g agailiJ$~ eaClh other~ b!J~ il1l actual fact thl!¥ wele not. The oompu~ef

was miiiniplI.I[iO!firilgl 'the 'gam e by passing ~he b~111 to some \liO$UliII'teets and lexcll~dil'\g Qthe;rr:s. TheJ'aiOOeptl!d' aililci 'f1ejec:r;ed' slllJd1ents wer,l;! then il_iSlked i:fthe.y eil"ljoyettthE!' 9i!ime; iIIlild about

their Qpinions efthe ethEl; p,li!I~er:li. Pilfl:idpllnts were then put alone in a roomand their l'lil1U1ral mot movements werelih:iJ'Ied. The,A aJ mmi'lile .el1ltered~he ItlO€lm under ~tul!' pre1!el'llre of Coonduttin 9 a 'fgk,e phclOi i!les'l!:rl~ptif)n last. The ~male di.dibeii1lllely mQl!led hi erfoot duw,ifll 9 the t~sk. but not ,In a wiliythat w{)!Jld be' n o.ticeableto the vo'l:untJM1I". I't: tun .. eel QUit that thE feJecMd 5tiuden,ts mlliil"lli!:~ed the f,emale~,h>oti mOWimenm ttle most, This irevealed~~at afifer e.~lu:5iGn. peop'f1e willi auoomaliealll:Y mlimic to' affilll:ate'with s@'meQil'!e !"I.~w.

Howe'!,!ler •. ILal'kil'i and her oolleagues w:ari1ielll'~ ,giIJ' t\lrttner. They believed ~t m.ote erten ~naln nDt, in 'tile real world~ we aCtlliil n.li' kmow 'thE! peOiPI~ that. re:l;~~ us.IHow dO' we Ibeharve tow,ardis the group that we Know ha,5 extilluded us? The experiment was: r:epeatedl with this q'lJeSltion ~n mhru:t 'In the second' e)lperilmenf, o!ii~ rema'le vplu'nMers played (jlile 'C)lberbal~ QameJ dl.l! ~ng whlrd'! '~hey. experienord rejec:tli.lilil by either men or' 'wo,m'efl. Then earch vo'ILI'ii'i~er ,i!lid the'take photo 'las~, b,utt.hiis time wlllh a man and then ,a woman. The results Qfea jly ind Ical:ed that the female· stljl,dents, th'ilt felt I~ejected would I;1I1I.CE) nsdously make m1:lire of,an effOrt'~(I' Rlilm;it membf!J's Qf'tlrieirollMn 111iI-gu;Q1,lI1' - 'Ehart is. othe,IIWOlTler'li - ra~ner'thi[I:r1 m.en •. Tlibdeep'wi~d if!MiJl:ifl~ to mimk WillS Rot ,only dirt!ded Klwards: IraJndam people, as illlitjally 1'.ho1l9h~. buttarge,ted tOi speci~c gfO.up~ the pli!lf1kular 'g~lJl.ip tihat did the l~je~l'1lgll!1 ~he I'i rf;t p!a~e'.

lio s~me. It Is ~nClon(eivilibJe why peo:pll'e wUl go 'fo 9)~eat hll'l,grthS, ~I;l' be a ~cellJt:ed Into one'

of ,life's ,sClCif:a111 gW~!lJps or dubs, ,el1lduriing ~je.di9n lind Slomelltmes humlllia~il~:n in 'a.~d'er~o be, accepted. You ,onl¥ have to Lo:ok art eol~e cam,p'Uses, whIch, are notofiiQ llS ~fol' sti~ict Ill1itiablolFls iAflkmd on callYdidilir.e~ :d'espe{atelty seeldng melTll::i.e.l'th]p. BUIlt happens and will,cG'I1tin!le' to happer'l\" beca'USle 't~e desl'rne'ttil be~9ng is a ,""ery pOwe'.l'fu1 km::e' arq~ iJfyndamE!II'!'Y~: parlto·f human natUIIl.

Q- .,.;... J' 5' u,es .. wns . - .'

CompJ,e1teth.e'sumIlmiary.

Choose NO MORE TBAN TWO 'WORDS from thi!: 'pl3~ae fol' each ans~"er.

" ,til

.Modern m.<lim'$ basic need ro, be]ofig to clubs and ,gfo1i1ps dates back 'to early bis~oil1. Ea,dI person within tbe gil'Oupbad! at

I 00, p1ay and~s eensidered integrall

fo'the entire ,g,Killlf~ dlY1lJ)aJmies and s~OCesS.F\OIf ajl1 .tndi.t'id.u.aill]" be-]on.ging w

Ill. group could ,af{ed ttu,d:r chances ,of 2 ~~ _

In, thcsettmes, fe1j!j\' coidd <lVlQiid deat_h living done in 3. UIVing w.i.tlh !other .l!ru....uma:lls offered

4. from daager, StaYlngrn a group ;;dSlQ' ,~ant

that 5 . . could be passed down to descendanta,

S'Omll sYmmalies are

it slJ[mm:a:ry of 'tile ,complete' ,pa~:e:. 'Gibers ,{Ire iii slJimm'My 'N a !$!I1II~11 setltiolil oftl:1e, p85LSjg~. Bewre you start 'Iillilng iIiI

~s,. mak~ SU:iie! yO}\! Me,w whicltl

'type. oJf sl1mm.uy ii' ts. 1hi~ wiU aUIlIIW you tio do tlhe 'ltl1lsk mOl"Q.ql,l'[tkty.

IQ!Uestio,NS ,6-10

Complete the Row chalJt below.

Use.NO MIORB THAN THB£!' WORD,S from. the: passage fc,l' each answee, THE, P'ROCBDURE FOR lARK]N'S .EXP£RlMINT

CI

1

Volunteers beli,ev.ed they 'Were p~aying a. ~R1.plJl~ gaifP~ similar to

16~~ _

The oompu,te.iJ." was ,contmlliL1!C the game,ruay. i ~~~~ to some

and no~ others.

The volunteer took"part in a task w.irh a Wl)'man w.ho 110 .. _ ~ ....... _

on,pu~ose.

QuestioNS J 1-J3'

Choose the Oo:.rKct 'letter, A. B" 'e. or D.,

llWili,m ,of the mHowing is NOT :meoti.(IIned in 'the first p:amgrarpM ,J\. one le~ert~ viecw en e'rll'olut~o,n

.B,th.e consequences ,O'f beirng ,e:xcluded

'e b;eing made fun ,of by tbep~ople around. you .D' a,sodal ~nt thait peeple are ,eage:r-1iy awailtmg

12 Acoording to, the: article. w.fui$ method dQPoop~e eo,nsc:io'1i.lSly use to, ,dlu.ail1 membersh~p into ~eir chosen gl','oup'?

A TllilIey teU the gm~pmeJ are strco:n,gmy motij~l:ed.

I, The-y oonvey the be.s;t. P>allts, of their perrsoIilality t,o ~e g;ro,up. 'C Tilley ~iho'W how tb,e ,group wiD be impO'rnnt to their Ives. D' They alter ;aspec:t!l of their pelon:a~~ty te, suit edlers.

1IEST!i 81,

The 'w:ri~,ei's maiD purpose ~n wrtUn,g this artide lis to A expl!a.in how people' feem wlllm they face rejedion.

S ianOO1Iu:,age people to go :it ailo~eand, :ilQ!t be part ,of a g~~p. C sbow 1Jhe unconsdous d!r.~ve behind the need to be~ong.

D oomp-afe bo\\~ the modern lifestyle is, differ-ent to the past

READING PASSAGE 2

You sheuld spend aiDoU!t 20 minut.e.soo Qt~esti.01l8 14~ 26;, which are based en R.eadm.g:

Passage 2 below.

1:5 TechnaloglY Har'l11ing aU1r rChiilldre:ntos Helll,th!'

lethn~lmgll ,is, m.c,vUi1Q it sudl1 !;Iib~eal<!'l!,e-,ck s,p€ed~halt iUs e:n,oll.l9jh ~O rliiloa~~ yG'llJf head

~111. I't can be diffiwl~ t!:l !ke.ep 'liP iHo'wever. wi~11 aaeh new 'b!cihl'!fologtCl!1 mflil'Vi:'!l ,.,orne cDnseque~es. Mudl of th.e r,eseal~c;h CiI;l'Ii!d]ytmdl has, shoWl'I1 the -~tem oftihe damage 'being dioneto ,OUf li'ieiiltl!1 ~~hnolQgy. i~ ~S\.ar!SCfllrythgyghlt. iI'ndwl~h ~eena,geIl'5, ilrfuiJ chiMlreii'l be~'r1g heavv consl.lll'TU~li:s;and L115e:r5,af~he2 gailgets. they run the ris,k IiIfb~lil'lgl harm~ the millsf.

The' digitilll N!foh.!1jQI'1I in mlJl5i~ has enabled poople' ro' down't.oaGi. sWre an dlIIlste1'l1rtl) songs ,~n tal 'Ilny~ _onable, dev,h:le ,callm:J aln MP! player: Tl'ne 1',ro~S, tl5'qu!h:kand a'(terwal'ds,YDu 'C:-!lIn have acc:e$ to a library erif thousand; 'l)f songs that ,carl fit iln~Q' 'your plIrlm.IBut e~e,ts, say 'that ,~onthiluo!J5IiY U'Ueniing ·to IQ~.dI mllsf'C '!:)fI~hese smt111 muslc: pli)refS ,Cain p~mai'lien,tI)i' d1amiLge hailr 'cli!lIiS il"!~hl:' Inner ear~ resu~ling in he~r,rng I'Q~. For I ii'lstance; Qld·r:a~hioned he.adphoRes have be@n repltle:ed wirth Slmail1i!f Diles th!lt fit neatly i!:lito th e ear~ il'1l~tead of,ljl\ler them. wihlch 1l"!rtel'\1!sifii.ei the so i!.lIl1dl, 'In additiDn to Ih'ilt d'ig:itaillilnllsit dOe:5; nOt dist'on: illiI,d '~elD5i i~s ci';)f5tal dealf so'ul1I,a. even onl ,louclsettil1lgs, whIch renooyragrE!S dI1iJltll'ieh 1'.0 crank up the 'VQliI!1Im~. COmbine that with the~fact malt milny chlrldren Willi spend houl[S liitenlng:"m their iPQd~ and !!I'm.! hi;ve tne' recipe flOr hearing loss. Put i n~flI' n..rtihe., per~pedUve:r mQSt: MP:J players ,can If/each ~e'!t~I:5 ,af 12U decibels, wil'i:ch r~!O ~olJder than a ch:ainSCiw IiU' iliaw,I'lI'll&we;~~ When yo:u Cllf1l,sider

8S d~cibels ~s ~he Ima!Xirmum sa" d.ecibel :Irevel ~at rby hearing experts over~he course ~f a w0rki n9 d,iI'Y; and tl1lrat,d'llIdl'en will II i5:te.!'! to music art hrighe;r dliilil:ibel i'evels tilh~!'! that'fo:r IonS) Iperiods ,of Ii me. tUl!a'r;rln9 Wiill in'varlably suffer.

ApaA from he!'! ri ng damage. t;helf@ iUi'e o,tke.r ~riOl!cli, hea'~~11 riSks. We aile IM!Ii!I9' In a wi m:-ele$S a!ii:~. caUis ,~n H nlide.al'll.di 'r,eceiv,ed on mobll'es Wfl'ilr anywhe;~ aJild~i1e in~n'iliet can be acclllssed witho'lil' the need for cables.. The, adv:-aRtages are enormous, bringing ease,(j,nd ooiilvenlefl~ to ,Oldr lives. I~ is- elea r"liiirat mobiles a I1dwi,l\eles'S te(h1i'!QI!:')9Y' ,iI'rl:!J h~ret:o Slay burr are:w:!! PiJytng tine pl'ii'ce "e~' new fectll'II,o~ogy-~' Studies have :sh,o,weIl lha~ the rapid e~p.lnsl:o" In 'the use of 'wintleSiS 'techinology ha:5 !)!\Ought witlh it ,al new'fQlim Df 'nJd'i~tion ea lied 'electropollut olit,

('0 mpa r;edl ~ twe ge,n!emtions ago, we ,a,~e' e:~Qsed trQ woo million times rnQ,~1;l r:adi~tlQn.

The tu,nnaf'!r becty coas 5t:S, m tdllions ,of oolls whkh use faint eleamm-a,glnetlk Sltg:iilallS 1Q ~:omm!Jnic:ate wiHn ~acin mher. 50 ttia;t" the Wiece.~slilrv bi:~;IIQgth:;!l11 end physildh:~giGlI' c;haAg~;,) can happen. It lis a del]catE~ f1Ia~1.i tal hi! !ilnce. But 'b'hls ba1ance is bfiil1l 9 IUpset by the constant elCipOSlI:,I!"e 1/0 e[\ecbi'O:illa:g netic radiation. (l:MR,lr th"at we' t.ttie in eur daU,. lives ilii'ld it is IP{'iI¥ing

lhl;J!iOc: w;~t!Il"u~' blildiE!i$. ,EMR(''aln diISllUP'! and a'~teiii'·~~e Wtly1'n wtlkh, Ol.lr'C1illlii5,mrnlml.iln~:ca,te and thi!li gll'llr~ultin abnGm'IIa~ Gell behaviQu r. Some stJt::Idles have shown tinalt eiiCiPQi!OUW to wirel'e:ss tecillA,o'iogy ~'1fI ,iIif(El('l our enzyme' produ(~i)n., ilmmliJRe 's),5te'msf neniOl.!ls.sysrem and even eur moods and behaV,lo ur. Th'e mos,tOli.ll1gero!.ltS pa n. bf the phene is around lila al'iiltefll'll'iil\, Th,r:s a,~y emits e'xt!~em.elo/ pl:;ltent 'rnd'lat1:iolili wh ich has 1xi;e,iI S!l'IoWI'III til) ,taiUse grmet!l!t damagund ali'! iIIn~e~~ in ~he"ris!k;.of(il'Mew;

Reseiiilu:lh shows that 'menage,rs and yOO'II'I9 ,adil.lh;s are the 'Iallg,est ,gmup ,of ' mobile phone 1,J15e:rs. Acool\'d ing lG iii recent EU'rofi'Qmme,~er s!JINey~ 10 Fler cent ,of :e:uroFlean~ aged 12-13 own ,aJ mobile pi1tonearn,Q th.'e num'ber of chnldrenfiw:': to "~ne' ;r,ea~s oldown~ng 1'!I'i1~'b:He5J¥iI's gilEad)!, inaeased over '~he yea'rns" Childlfen are t!speiCiall,Y ''Ii',U~ nel'ab~'e Ibe~lliJ~ Ule'ir ~n,a1fns a nd l'I,ervous syst,ems. ,ife n ot ~5 iQ'lmune W iltJt.ick as adu'It:s. S'irrWi lliflm Sti:wart, ,d,)a:jrman ofr:he N!ational RladiBIBgic~1 Pl"Otecdon Board, saysU'Iere is IlIiI'!oulnting !!;videl'ii.i:!E: to prove'~he harmfull,effects ,dfwlr~ess redl1l'\ltIll~gie~ O1llnd~hat families s.tJou'l!d JiTiL)lI'lfu)r their c:nn~re!ilr"s use enh~m.,

Besides the :p!hysical-aRdi bio~ogical. ~amage. ted:'U1!,ology c.a A also hia,ve seirious llfe,i!'I'ta~ im,pilka~io.ns for children. I,t can be the G!,l.!se ,of seveife, addictive ~hay,liQur. In ,onE! 'iZase.

two, diiri'dRl1I1 'hard to be adll'l1i~ted ilillto a mental' :heal'h di!'llt in Nortihern Spain becaW"e' of 't!l1ehr addicttc'll'I K), mo:bne pho}'iles;. A:n ,itIJl'erageOf sb: hours iii day WQLi I~I .~ $penttal:~i:ng, 't:e..:.l(tlingilflld p~:ay'irncgl ga!'l\e'-S en their phones. The, d,iWcl'~~11I oould no~ be sepa:I'M:edfrQm therir phon,eS '~l1Id showed disturbed behavi'illl r Clha-t was makingl them 'fail' a~ .scllrlool •. iilitU\lY llieg,ularly d'eoelived ram'ily rmembers to obtain ID€lne:y tQ bu:y ph one ,caRiis ta fundi their desli~uaiiVe habit l1ier~e ha,~e been o~hetJ' 'aliSes ofrpl'lOll'!e. add'idion Ilke,thi,s.

liec;:hne.logy fII1Iiil!Y aliso' be d'lil ngimSI eur ibq,in Ipatterns. 'Profes~r' G'r,eernfi'eld" a 'mp, s;p«iailist in bJiiii'll development, sar),s'tha:r, tihan ks to tecilino'lo9Y. 'me:n(l:9~ Imlnds, are delieilo,p:i ng ,dilfferenlfly'from thDse ,Ofplfe¥ious g~e.m~lan$, Her mtaln oorn,cem i!io\l\er c:empll.lter games. Shl-daJms (milt: U,vll'lg iFl·~ vi rtl!'a~ wo~ld whef'e"alC!l:ion'S ar:e rewarded wlithou~ needing t:o thl nk a'O:ouUhe 1'IIIiI.;aillmJ)ncil~ions make-Ji YOll!.flg peDplJle'~6'se ,awa~ene:!lS ofwtla they are'. S!f'Je claim,s that telZhlill:!llo~ IDliingili ~i1i1 d\eCline IfIlingliistic C;M,ilitiyity.

As. technolo9!Y keep!! moving at a filRld' pace and everyone c!am€lu£S, for ,the new musthave ga:d!get.'o,f th,€! mt'imell'l~ we ca'~~Qte!![~i Iy pe~ive th,e .!o,ng..,Jienrl ,eff~, on our fulea'll~h. Ui.nr'Orhliln~lv. iU5 'th-e 1!fiI10;5t Vt~lnerable mem'be~s DfQLJ~sQd~!I th~:t, 'wlll be illf&cted.

llESTS 83

DQ ... "". -4-~

- uest~O.HS 1~~J8

Complete tihe bibie be~ow:

Wr.ite.NO MORB THAN TWOWiQlWS' AND/OR A NlJMBBB from tbe passa,ge' m:t' each answe~.

,HM,mm. resulti

Problem .new 14 .~~~~_ fit

A. .inside eers

P:rc:b~em B

distoftion-fr,eewith clear ,quality sound

Problem ,ca;palllie' ef p'Jiodm]ng

C 00lllnd at ),'; ~ _

invites childre.n b:::i incre.lse

U;, _

as loud as a lawn:mower or chainSiil/w - Qver mC9m:mended safe

18 _

'Questio,ns ,19-23

00' the: foUowing statements agr~ewith the' ,claims ,of tbe writer ill l'eadwg~S:S1'!l,8;e U

Wr.i.fJe

1"Is: if the: s:ta:te:Qil;e.Llt ;QJgrees wIth, the 'wriitertVle'Ws

NO if the statement. ,contradicts tIi:lft w.rit'e'r~s views

NOT Gnr!,N int is impos.s:ilb~e:to, s:aywba:t.tibe wri.terthWks, :aIbOllt this

19' There ate ,ofi~detabI@: 'benefits 'to our wi:reles:s WQt~dL

2.cO,Wir,-eless 'technofogyis:a permanent part ef om' lives. 2l Exposure ~o £1\.1R can, lead to cm-imina] be:barvi:o'Ur. n It; is ,Possible' to become ebsessed w~th technology;

2J U5~ng 'wclmology always heJps\\~itb academlc success ..

84 TES1i!i

damage ~o hair ce~~s &' 10&$ of hearing

rrfibe, instJr,lKtlons say "writle Ii!~ IllICIte ,tho twill WOfIds: ,Qn:dl/or ,i! iiWiII1IW rememl!ier""a,t at lem.t ,oo:e' ,Qli!IWer willwtlt8ll11 ,iI 1iI1lf1ililhr.

QuestieHs 24:-2'6

Answer the 'queSti.o.IilS bel()ww~ .NO M()RE l'HA,N TB:RE:E 'WCllRD5ifo~ each aJf:lJSWef.

24 .A.cool:ding b), .P'rlOfessor Green:t.erud., wha~ .kifld ,OfwlO,dd do cl:ruiJ_n ,occupy when. pJ.ac~g e:omp,l!lIter ga;m~,?

2~\oVhi1l!t d.oes:P:rofessor Gree.nfie~d feel chijru:e.n. ,don't P\3if aUtntiion towbe.n pillaying oompiW/,w1 gaJJ'n,es'~

2:6, AccoNing ~o POOfesSOif Gr.eeofield~ 'l'i!'bat :may be: lower in~emag.eIcSw!D() playa, lot of oomplil1t,er ~es?

ImADING P:ASSA.GE 3

'iou. shouldspe'J:l:d aibout 20mi~tI't:es on Qu.eslio~s 27..4JiO. wh~chafe b~:s~ orn.Re'~dh!:g Passage 3 beWow:

It

to ,cl~ctjves.the, anl$W~~,S ~ ~e at~~e' el"!,d1 Qf 0urfilng~rs, f1f1!.g"!!JfpI11n~ll'1:g ~ffersan aecnJratce

a ndi~llinbl:e: mel! ns 'of ~!';!(.s~!'II:aI: ~id~ntlflG!ti~n. De aibiUt~OOidentiifY cai ~UOJ1l ffl1lll'l 111 mese Iifitg~1'1ifit is a p'~rful, tOQil mn ti'n!@figihta:gain!t cll'ir1li1,e. ~It ~s.,~he m:OIS~ oomffiGiAly, used, [Oi'emi'EC e:1li:dem~:e,often"GIJ~per'l'"(;Irmin9 othef AlIIellilod\li ,ofir:d!entiliication. ihe~e da.)I1's., ,o~de{r mettn,ed.s 'lllIf ~n ~fllllgerpf~nlil"ig~ wh!'ch collllid 'ta~ WMiKS, lFia,ve '9Iivenltila"l io Ili'Iewe~~ fal$~rmr.:hniqttes, Uike fing;e<rflfiul'I!t.lasei!i s€alilr:liill!,g, butth.El ~!;lf'!;dph~il·sta.y~he' !Klmne, ~fi)llliWIa.t~erW:M~h way you C::(i)II~~t Iing:erprifll,t'eVid:ence, ev.ery s!~ngle Ipeir.SQfII~ Ip:nfi~ :frs. ~n]qlue.~O..l \I!i~alt; fliii'ill~!S QI.:! r- 'fin'g,e~pl'il'lltS diKereillt 'bom QI,I r n.e]gh~QIJ~1

EI:

ArgQoo Ipla!i:~to' start U'5wl:.Ill'llde;~daod winat i rU£lt'!l'pirill'lt.$ ,illl'E!'"ilnd how they are Clllieiuedi.

Afn1t~!EMP!11 ntis tl\le ai!ifans~me!'l't of sikh! rld!ges ~lnCl Nril"~Oino~tu~ tip{; QW the fijln"gl;ll'~, l1c!js ridg,e,d skilil develapswlly d'u~il1ig foeta~ dev,eIQpmel:'ltj' a~ the ~kin ~ellsg,fiow in the mo~hef!s wO:nlikb.1I1hese wid!!'J:eoli ilIf~'~!lIi1!ngedil1l,tl',;l p,i:I1:te1rllhs gtnd ~~mi;!in :tffi'!e'~me tffilrQlU:§hollt~h.e ~ll! ~ ei a permn's Ii~ (Hher visible hU:fflii1 cbaracteris:ticsj' like, we]ghtiil,nd h.eig'htj ,chal1ge 'O\IIef tIme wher:ealiii IIlgel1plrril'llts: do, 1'101. 'The reamn wh~'oeve'~ fil'l;"geirpri~nt is ulli'liqlJee i!i~I'ii:fi~ wlten

ii, itlabtSlJenes 'lZom1!line with etnvirolilmE!nt.a1 ~:nfij~!l!m~es,. sudl1 ils,~emperra,tll!lr'~ tt alitec15, the W,;l!,y'tne' ridJg!E!~lil!oth~ skun glfGW.,It l1)ijI~:5'IJhe f,i~g!e'S! ~:!NI';!Jep(ltt dile~ntr:01lteiS, b~.u:~I~liru~i! rid be"dingl!1it~ patmrn.s. ,A~ a. Iresult n~t:v!!Q' peopie ,end up halling' th:e:" Sime iii!gerIPI~i!"l'ts:. I[y,en idefll'ti:Ca~ tWlil1:!l~~5~515 di$~!mill:ar fl'1Jg~Hf.lr)[rrn~.

D

,e

It i~ not ~to' ua.,p tfu_e JQYICn.ey 'of h'o,w~he' un~.~,ueq!'u!a~Uyof Nle fi!'iVg~rp(t"t ,€arne 1000 ,dls.'Cc;v,el'ed. The lI'I'IomE!fi't mn it'iisOOJ:"Y iilt ha:~peined is not E!!i'ltirel;yGie'ilf. l'W;~wever,,'~tneJuse ~~. fing;ltrpl'irflti!l1S ~anl lije ~tr;;u~ed bat~- ~Q ~~me .ariclenrl i)iYm~~b:ms. <5l.l1ich asBJl!bylo!1l1 aW!d China, wh.ere' thuliili'llbprin~s,weFep:l'e5s~dJ 'iJlI'Ito 'i::~:a~ tablets .~ i::1lf1filffil'l business Uins.actiorns .. Whe~ner p~o,pme ti1;lJIliiS 1llime a~tu:alty. I~l'ised~he lui ~ I~Jtent JQf :&IOW 'I1r'1;g~,rrpl'ilnts We~e im,ortal1llt rof iGh1!l'iI'rili'lii~tito'iI'I pu rpO!U!S ~5! aJ!'IIc,mer n'lliat~il' ,a'lmg:e~her. Onie 'Plirnnot be s:I!,li':e ifrfthe a.a: was 'seen as ill m~I'k~; ~e oofllllrrn i:deWl~il1Y"er a ~ym'ool~~ !reSIJUf~lti :~']nd acennaCl, .wh-ere' gilli]rn:g y,9ur I11tn'ge~p~i!''I't:wa51Ilke g~,ving 'yolUlrW'CI!'d.

D

Despit-e tlM~ IlJfl!;~ertttint,y. there am' t~~'\'lII'h';J' !'11111a~e{l1 :5rg"ifieatn~ OO:!l'l~ritb1!!lt!tOi!i'!~warids ~heat:la~ysh.'off1:li1ge~p~lroII~ring.I1IS'~or:y~~lIs u:s~ha'ta li~,!I>'OOnu!ry P~r-sialll dodO'~' made: an

eilriliY S\aMmeJlliuh;at fil,e, W!I",;filnge~pri'!i1~ ire ali'~~. lM:etr~in~he17U. ~J'~Uiry; UjjUan I'Ih;ysk.i!!ln Ma!1Celle M!:l!IFlIighl st~d'!edl t!'te ,cHstiWlQlld;shl!"l'g!'5ha:pes,of II OOpS ilfilJd spira~s iinling:erprirl'ti.

tn hi:S hanDut~,~ne l'iIflIie(jnc~1 w!il!rld ~a~er fiamed .111 ,I!a,~ef.o:f !llkiinalftei~ hirm. ~,t ~S., InOWever. a'n employee'fuJ~lif teaSct l!ildl~ (iCl:mpaij~, Wnll.ii!m Her5dl~l,w~fj1 camem see the true pPtII'llUa~' of 'irlgE!fj:lriritiThg' •. He~Qk:fililLgE!~p.ri'A~dl'(I:JilIIl tihe IQc~1 peci~~\e(js a.fQ.r'm (>.hi9lfllall:u~,e for Cio:n~rn~5! ~n 6rde~oo ;ijWn'rdfr .. ~~l H I~~a~il'l!~tion wil!filng,em~in.ts ,p,md'Jeil ~ed' hf,m '~ sw,dy~hemfO.rthe nei(t~WE!fI'ty~a~s. He de:ve1'o,ecltlhe~hE!ory~hat f11l1:ge!l'prlnrslWE!r:e IlInique t.o ifllin,c'MdllJaJl aPl~1 d ~dl net cJ~an'le ~Ta:1I Q~;jia' ~!rm~tme, 11fI1 ,8BO' Henry f~nlil!rjl~ SU'!Uii~~d tli!'atfing~m!1~rns «'l!I.Ild be: ui!ied 'to ideQ:'l'~lfy CQl'iI'Vilia~ CiI1Mifil'i:!'I~. He Wl'€!'te ~o Cillilif~es QaJfWil"l ror advice, a nd~he :~~N wal5refel'lr;e~ lon~c, ~~w~I1!!i, cou~i[fl" 'Sil' [F,r'S" ~is Gallon" Gal~{lm 'al!lE:~~~~n~ pU:Dlliisihed ,aln ~1iIr-dep~hst""G:JI!I: oflingje~p:Jiil'il't sciemc~ ill'll a,g~

IE.

A!thuli.I!iih th.e 'fact tha,uaxh :pe:,BOJ'I has a tenl!lIy I.!li'IiqL!!le f1111gE!wprin~ pattern had been we~:1 dowl'll1.Mlie~fatnd aG~e."ledrof;j1 .Iong time.~i'ilii5 kl1(iw~~ge 'VIia~ not e~",r,O:litedfQ:l,(::ti~]I'i!'a~, Identi1ii:ca,tio!'l \!1L!~n ~he E!l1!r~ ~O"n ~~n.t~r:Y..llln the Piliiti br~ii'lding:j' tatitooingl all'ld mClifflli~gl had been lIlie'd~o, IfiII'Ism the ,(;rimJiinalfor wihi~ he, was. If! s~me mlul~rie5,.1Jlili~V~, WQy:~~1 hOjvethe.ir h'a!'i~ls. C;1!.!~ ,~I. Fra,!!'!c;e braf(!i~dI Cl'il mr!!'!als wl~h the't1eu~·de-n,s symbaJ. The ~OrnJ",rns tatloo.ed rnE!r~efll'a~()' .soldiE!QI'S, to stop til'U'!11IiII fmm beUlI1'll:]ng !!J@S~r1ers.

F

For many )fellI'S po! f~e ;a'ge1l'1l:1~5 in' title Wm;~em W'orid weir!!!! r€!lu~.'tOOt. ttl !.!IJsli!'Iiili19eJiP:I'll':l~ll1g, mu~h pre,fi:!:rrrffing "the' p:Opl.lnll!i melltQd Dhifie~im~.lctu!' If!fertmQ!'n ~!{5~m, 'Wlrlere di!lllll,er'l!ts'i0M Gf ~ceftahl bady parts WElr:.H:f.looooed itO ~de:ntir,'a ciIi'imll"1JalllThe: tu.m;lll1g p.oln't was ilil1903 willeR i pl'lsoneli' ~-~he! niillmeGf'WIIIII West Was d~tmi~led iIA~~ ~aiven~r~M Fed~ra~I'~!I'I~;1):enJU:ary, A:ma~!'lIIgi~. 'Winl had a~:mo~t(ih~ ~a!1fle Be:n:In!@:r'I measYiJ'eme;n~5 ss aJl1:Oth.~r pr~sol"ll.~r residlngl at the Wl'Y :samE pfiiSOI'il" wl)lli)se narr:Q,I~ lhappened ~6Ib!l!'Wiiliiam West. It was ol'llydUTIleiw

i !I'I..ge~Ii.l.liintS ~h'a~ c@ultl~lll~he1ii'n a ~ar[, [From 'that pO!Trn,r.an •. 1 !i!g(eWl'lnitJl rig became' :I:h~ sW'lldiawdl for lCiiillJI~aI i!!l~f1Itilficarlillon.

6

firlg~,JP:rill".tingl wa!!i ~f~ef:L!111'! ide!l1!ltil.fyl!1l9 peOi~~it wWh -a Ii! is~O'ry'of c:r~ A'1E! ii'md wih~ W~1'Ii! Ir,5!IV~ en .ill dafaba,sEi. H,owever, in sjtuatiorl:S whefE! thill! perpetratorwCiS net.en the datatt:lli~'iJn~

a crime hBIlt rno'WiirlneSifles.,~he s~teflllliteill shart. firn.ge,rrptint c:h:emit!l~1iI is:a tnewu«hnologr

~ha~ un wo~k: alon,giSlC£eb'i1ldi~iafil: .. l fingeil'pri'~nil'llig' ~iJ"find Iliil'Ulfre ,clUell, thall"l 'e'l!l'e:j" b~rom. FII'OM orgiln~c Ii:':OmpDU !'ids !h~ft Ibehind en ,iiil ip;rint< a sc:leriitist ~n~e:111 if the ,euolil is a child, an ,ard'u~t, a matu re person or a !5m,e~er. '31'11 d niulCh m0rE!. It ~m_s,aftef ,ilill thse yeillri$. fingeR continue to, point the wa,y;

Q:uestio,ns ,27:"'32

Reading P'assage: 3 has seven. parag;rapbs, A~G'.

Choose' the' cO[[Iedhead:irn,g: for pa:ra.g.nphs B-'G froli1l'l thelist ofhe:.ad:in:gs beillow;

List ()If Head.ilii!.,

i KeypeopJe ttha:t madea d.iB:l~~n,c~ .0, An a]~:tt'n3itive ~ofingerpdn,tffiilg iiii 'The significanoe ,of pdn.m

i:v How to' ~de,ntify ,1,1. a:inlinal V'FaHerns in the making

vi Hamill" conlllecti(lllS

Wi &:cifulg new d,cve],opme:Dts viii A ,str,ang~ ,coin.ctdencc

b: PuniisWnga crimina],

x ,An, mlCertlllw, PM~:

Euwp:Ee 27'

2'8

29

30

31

3l

Wllum mm(~i~8, Ilieadtn,~m ipa~graph'S, bl!,,!;a:lleful as there al'\e mGI'IE! QpHruil& llilalil,

disl'f! aJie'lpa~waphs. iJihese mt,ij h~p are~ deslsme:dl WI,~(I!]!h!!'e pu., ,oFtielil tefiefiri",I:t,CI olily spoecific detl'lil$

widlin ill paragrn,lIh. rath~r thillf! life main [tift :oftlile whole' pCii'i;l .. pll .

PangraphA Paragraph. B . ParagqpbC P:aTa~aph D P,atagrnphE P~ragraph .(1 Paragrnp.h G

Ut

Comp~ete the seetenees,

Cilloose: NO MORB 'fliAN TWO WORD'S fmRl. fu~ pamLge for eacih, ,anJl·\~eil".

3,3 UnUke othe'r~~ tha:t 'You can see, fiDge~pil'ints

neeer cbanse.

34· .A1dllougli1. g.€ndj:rnIDty' the same, ~do not: share the same

fin.g:e:rp:dnts,

,35 A fiDi~rpri.n~ waS a substitute for ~ _ ......... ~ ~n Indi.m ,contracts.

TiESTS 87

.Do the fuIlo,wtng, sl~men!lisagrtl~ wim tihe inmrmaUon given ~nReadin_g PWilS'aige 3? Write

'lB:.U:E P:ALS:E

NOT' G~VE.N

lfthe s:ta:teme;n:t agrees witlllrhe. il:1llim::Ma!tio[J .~fthe S'la1tJ.ll€:J1t ClOln!t:rad!~.c:ts~e mform~~on :ifthere lsno infOIi'j}]jitiOW':! en tMS

36 fin:gefPMtin:g is tilile o~ID.y ef.fedw'v,e~,ethcd fc~ i.de~Ufying 'r.ir~al8. 171'b:eridg~8 .dpatterrn-s mat make ~,f fin:gC!I'p.rmts de\iielopbe:ro:re hirth. 38 MaJp~ghloonduc~~d. his stn.ldiesrun It~y;

39 Rom. sQ~diers 'wewe'latwc;td! t:Qpr.eveljtilic'Jn fWmOOmli!~iUin_.g v1oJefWtrnmes.

.. 'fmge1Jl!l'.~~tche:mlstty earn i&iOlt~ if a,fmnge~.d:nt be[OJ1gcsto'1L1l eWd!edy pers:on.

WR'ITIINGI WRITING T:ASK I

You mo-uJd spend about :210 mm.u~e:s on thlstask,

The diaB~am below ,mows, two diff~rent processes folf mtli_[lufacturmg black tea. Summ.arise "fueilmf(lrm~tiQn bYS>I,lruectm,g il'I.nd, ~epo:rtiIi.g me main ifeamres; act.lJi mab wmpatilSo:Qs 'where relev:ant

W[Ue a't least 1 SO "W'Ords.

I only bud. &: 2: toplea\fes

'" pid.ed fOl good quality rea

Wl'fHERlNG (aii.r passed tilu(lll\gh l,eaves Oil racllt)

.'

1'IAn'l'rrONAL MEnIU'D' (loom mal MOD,ERNM:ETH()D c~ b~p)

IO:UIN(j: (1eaves :wl!ied lat. lIi1md bml!:;£Il) CUII'ING '(~,e3!v.e.s cult. tem and curled)

I enZ,~mle5i, ,r,~leacSro from ruew'es

\II

OX[DATIONIFE'RhmNTATION (ro1Jted ~,earlililS ,spread 1(111 'tiJ~~/reme.l'I~)

ftalVouI a.nd aroma re!,eased

'W!ilelllYlHlli'iilW tio cksaibe' a pfoceS5. l{emember to start

by s",ud:yiitrl,g U1!e diag,am c<lrrefully. Don~1 dart wrritiog !lintli11OLI r,UililJle y.ou uOO'~~ wfrIa;Ulippens it eam 'stage: ef

'Ou! pl"Q(ieS5,

"

fJmN'GIDRYlNG

Un ,000velillMt airdrye~rs.)

D WRITING TASK 2

YO'll. shQuld spend about 4]0 minures on this tacS:k~ 'Write aooum. th~ foUowklgtop:k:

In ,sO'm,e' C-6UiNlwies YDIUilg"wo,.lIB '.tAW little 1:e'liNJ"ii! filil'illl!' and laiN' unlde .... " ':iiJlt oJ'prusure ito w.i!rk lJ\Q"li! ,OiNl Md., s,g,d'il£S"

Wl~t11 dQ' you think laTe d!e ,Muses of thi's~~'

WIUfl saiflliQf'f.5 ~n you su.t?'

G~v,e reasons for yOUi atnsw~r ru'id inClude any relevMt ex:am,p]es .f.ro:rn your own know.~edge Of ~e;rienoe~

W[fb~ aft l~st 250 words.

When dis~ss-l!i1gcause5 and sDtutiolUi,

remember to preselilt ,i! dear ,allid logtcal arprnent lnll!!I'ga:lIIlse'lill pllmgrol,lil!'. US-e' linking :pll!~ wCbas One i'ie(iS0fl wb!l .... Another fii!usun iJ$ d'iat •• " 101lie' c:ouse(ur Mis ,is HiNtt',.,. " A WlJgrw mll.!e

S,P'EA~IIN'GI P:A_RT 1

The examiner asks the 'CMl!did~te about him/herse]f. b~s/he:r hom-e. 'WO!I:k 01: studies and other fw:nn:i3t teplcs,

Y~u:rl(i(d ,;)f'eaJ.

,.Whe:r,e is f,our hometlown?

'. How long harve you lived there?

,.Wh.<llt is there to see 31IJu:iI do in.yOlM' lo<:rua:l"ea:r

,.Wh.at .bnpifiovements woldJd you ]Wk: to se:e:olad!e: iiml yOiUI' local ,UlIea,?

PARTl

'i0l:1. will hav~ to taJkalDout a topic f(iiI' one to two minlll!tes. YO'1lJ!, have one mInute ~o thWmk abom: what you're' go.i:ng 10 say~ iou. can make some notes to heIDp you if you wffi.sih.

,Describe a :fli,end ithart you. spend a lo,t ,of 'lime wirth. YOI!JI. should. 51 _,,::

M1Iol'ile' per.il(Jn.~s whe.re you met

wh~t kinds ,of'ilitn,gs you dQto,g~e.i

and. expbit!why YO'D like spendiing time wi:th. this pe.rson.

M~etmg people:

~, Could you. d:@'sc.,cjibe some oommoEi ways €If meetin,g, people in your ,S(l-.ciety?

• How have 'the w,ays tn whkh 'we meet peop~e noiW:; dlallged frem

thc:pasU

• IiowlmffiJortm,u is it to mike a good first impress~on!

:1F,riend$'hi,p

-What quaLi;tie-s do you look for Wn. a. &i~n.d?

• Do YOt!il, prefer 'to have a lar:!~g:ro1ilP of friends, and acq~lIlah:ltiil~ (l<r :3, few clos~ fdends?' [Why?]

,.What are the differences bet'\veen fidi!..ndships made as a ,child ;and thooewe make as an iJJdult~

When YOIii ,ill1e' Oilil5weriQg 'queitiJ!lII1!S,)in Rart ,3. dart, bli!i at:r~id 'I'il

. !iii." ~cru't,e' nat sure akun !i~metfhU1g. HliMever, dlJrft Jll$t s~V ',Qff't..tliJl)w.Use Iplilra5U'5IJ1clil ,as .m nllt 5t1lV. tlYit perhillP:S •• '. Olle ,pm:sibilJ'tg ,i!; that ••.• ' lete.

ItTESIT&

IliSTIENIN.G

SECTION 1 QUedious l~JO Om,TfltJU ,Qu:estioiuS 1 a'l:tI:z

Oomplerefue S1efj,re~,Q~s be~~w.

Wrlle .NO MOU THAN TWO WORDS' .ANDIO.l~ A HUMBER tor eaeh MiIswer; .Ex:a'm,le

The caller works <lisa ~_~~~.~~~'4£;~b~e.r;_· ~~ __

Co:m.f.~e'~e the .n.o~es be1o,\y;

Write NOJ:fO~jfi "BAN 'fHI.II 'WORDS AND10R.A. NUMBER: fOf each aIDsmr.

E.x1t_pi]e

CO.~p3!~y name: ,B.unJ,:mn Umdt~

NiameofCUe:nt: 3 ~

Addfe.ss~ Do::wn la:n:gwag¢ Sch~o~

.4~ ~ _

.Brig~ron

Con~aJ;:t n:umbe:r:S t:o !be o~n:t~ctOO' OD, 012'73512634

Pick-~p tttne~ " ~~~~

WJ:i!!f! yf,ILl! MVi!!m !l;:Qm,p~e,tl!! ~(i~,. !'lead the: q!!les,tlolil!li: Ica~lly· befj!)Il' J'@u l~~teI1l.TIl' to pmdid:willalt ~i~ ,M iinfbnl'!j);lw!1!

.: (names;, liIumR<S;, etl::;,) yclIliI Imigfilt !ilee!lll

Answer th~ (jj[l1~tiOi!lS belo'w.

Wtffite NO MOoR_!, 'f:HA.N l'RR:lBWClID5 forearo _swe:r~,

d

tCb.Close fffi:le oom~~tlem-.r .A" '8 ,o:r (:. It SaUy JackSQ:rnis

A a~nJ'.vers~ty~ec~urer~ BilI,Uml:ivers~ty student

,e a :s'ecrem_ry' :am the u:ivers~ry~

~ZWhait does Sally sayalbourt bank 'iUX:OU[I!l!is,?

A YO:J!.!!. M'~ 'o<b1iged to open a. ,new o~ea:tthe Ilf.Ulil'\!'~rs.lty.

I; T.iIlemaltetsh:ould b~ ,d:ffisCl1ll1ssdWlliilil! ~.e D'i:rec~(l!!:, ofS~ud:~es. C SOm1e St'lldeillJtsflO~' nothav'e1 to worry all:IIJ~~ openi~~ one.

,sECTIO:N2 'Q',rle!SUo'ns .1.1: -20' ,0, 1HT'''_O~ QUleStit!)ns ,11 an:d 12

answering mul,tipJe oooiee qpe~1r!liIs" ,~m~ftIlbef' tIiIlt asc'yoU~e' mistem'tlilg;, 'yl'm !lll!ity l1ea.rl wor'dsfmm 'Il~~ooee o,~n-;;. A~td m005ltng:i1!iI QP~~Just b~a~ Y'IR! I1lI.l,whi!ilIl'tiI one M~he wD~ds: il'!tjh!d~ITM answer !ini;Y be >!:! ~plitwaSI!! ,af s,ytrlDil1yn'1l iGf 'd1ll!k~ w,~rd'{!il'.

CQmp~e~e the table..W:u;:loiYil'

Wr'i1ie.NOMlJRE 'fHAN' T.H.REB WOWS A.ND:lO:R ,A, ,NUMBER fo]; ea,ch a]]:swe:~

'tUne

Ulam

T01i1:r ofo;lmp1!.:!s Se~sIO:I1<S: to develop 13

Talk to studenltSand:

15. .

.Mo:r~~b:m bS .. ~~~~ sodetiesmd sports ch:lllEls.

I 2.~Spm

1'7.

Whicih THR!'E staJteme~ts are tN,e abou:l:bbe e:~t:eftaffiml:m:e.llt p.f\o<gn'limme'? CMOSe: 'TH:I..f! ~e:ttelS A-F.

,Ii Sdy cMu1;~lreveaJ: liIe Dar,ne (lithe band reI!!: the .firstparty . .. 8 StYidJe~nts eM brmg aJ guest ro,ebe opel1lin:gparty ..

C Thle:re wll bea eencert inLh.e Co:tswQld 'h~tre en MO!!ld:ay. DThe!!JC is an ~m:PQrtan't e¥e:.n:t on Thursday.

,I There is nofo:rmalli dress '-od.e for the fmheri BaIL

.F :S~lld~'Ilts$h()iu]dcl:u~cl< t_~e iD@tice 'bo<11rd. f.or cb_ges;rotffile aw..o1J!ln.(!edprog~R1e.

SECTION 3 'QNest.;'ons 2J~30' ,O,lEST'6!_OiJ Q;r:l:esti,(J't,t:$ 2J~23:

Whk;b. TH)!t8E' sym!p!ttQ:m1i 'Olf oo:mpuls]v:f; ,eating dioor1Cler an: m~iIlijon:€d~ Choose l'lUllEE ~e~tefs .A-I= •

.Aover:>ea:ring

".""',., ,. 'L.

» ex-ces:s W~Jgl~t

Cwe~gbt loss

'.n ... , h

JIll oo!lls'tantJI~g~

E dep:ressh')o

F OO'!lnn,uo~s eaUn:g

Q:,testi,o'us l4~;2'8 Comp~etE the flowcll.ad below.

Wri1e, NO.MOlRlB THAN I'W,O WO~' fOtr eac:ffi:l~wer.

W'ihm ~u have'ta' ~1.etll'UtemdR.!m a 1M;, I"2I!i1m1beJi'ltflt,elldlth!!! lm~rtio~ ~erY ~\V,e'Mt'

5IO')lDi.! 1iI!1KI.'i'f, exadty 'whm:lldni!l ,af lnfQ~~m'f(l!lWe w"i~gfo:~

COmiP~d~ the Slelil!tenc;es below:.

W:rillte NOMOlm 'fBilNl''WO' WOmSf"ore,am aml~we.r.

19Viihat disease can,.mff'elJ1€r.s, ,(ilf oCIJIWpulswe ,e~ting ,diSlO[de[' develop?

SECTION4 'QU6S'ti'O'JJS .31-4Q' ,0, 'IESiF 11.104 Q:uestiO!NS ,31 -.33

ChOOSle the oo:rl,ect~eUer;, A" B Oil" C.

3,:IWba!t doestbe speakew say .dlloutnew5pa(penJ?

.A Th~f never repo!i'tdewi~Oipme:ll!tswn.sde:fice aceillJilia:t.erny.

I, He became: i:r.neres~ed i.n his :subjec~ b~ause ofa newspapef refo.rt. C Tbey amy !report devclc~meEIJ1!Si~rel1erwaMe energy tecffilnoJo,gy.

32 V{h~! s~gnifj.cmteve~l!t. tnok p~ate in. lli 9.56~

.A Sd€'nUsl:\5 drs'Co~!OOcl a~ew :SOIRee ,of energy; B, A. ii1Iew type of power station came int:o serrire, C HeJ:i\Imi wasfirstp.rod~oed. ,&'\)m hycl_r(ligen.

33 Whil!t deestbe sp.e3Jkeli oolls~del' tobelile main pro!b~em. w.ith. .n~dea:r WS~Ol1l?

A Iwres'ponsible SCiJeillt~8t:8 make fa]se ,cl!aims Orn:1i. the s~.bj€ct. B It takes roo'~ongto prod!li!(ie:th~ ooli[uired reactio.n,.

C Th,e reaetlen 'hals n.ot produced. usable ,qu.an[l:~tleso:f!mergy,

IQl,uestiJons 34 land ,3t; Camp~d~ th~se~rten,e;es bek)w.

Write: NO ,M:OJU1\ THAN TWO' If!ORDS .AND/OR A NVMBERw!r each ;.'I!I1swer.

3,i l'empe:ra:l1l!WI'eS ofat:]ea:s~ ~~~~~~~~degr,ee-sm needed :fo;r :&slon

'~o ~a:kJ~plac~.

35 Cl\~ltiI:lJB, tlli:i.e press;u:l:ie req;nh'ed ina _~~_~~~~~~_ iIs ,Q,m!lllffiOif 'tecbnologiC3llli. poo:b~e'I11I.

DQ- t· ," 2£ A,ft

'_ "eS,IGns ,,;jiU-"ft.'

Cmnplere'tbe summary be~ow"

Wdte NO MOe' THAN 'TWO WiOlWS For eadl,an;swer.

In O:ridJef fom' D~cl.earfus~o,n to poodnce use.wJ, qu~titie~ !()If eDe~gy" ,i8crope-8 of hydrogel1millst be bmll,ghm, tuOg,etner d extr,g'l'l]ely hwgh oomper.l!tures and pressures. A number of

36 ~ __ will suspend r:!:Ite fuel: so that it ,does net OOime: i~to, (onmct

with tbe sides of the 37 . Another one will raise th.e

~empe:tature of the' meJ pellet to rnatreqwr,ed to start the' 38 ~ _

Exm, eD,ergy released ill: 'mis, P:lIl)cesSwiill beused to, produce 39 _

that, can be used toge.nel."'a!t:ede~tdcity.lt is be'JJjev;ed, tha~ the am,OUD~ o:f,enef-g-ytbat ,callil be:

produoed from. 40, , .................. ~ ,Qf:msion fuel~s eq_iiJiwrne.nt to 'tilat which

am bspreduced fooM 1 O~OOO 'lonnes ,of fesstl fuel

When you have till complete a1S11111ml'lf;}P.

!reme.mMi'MlteHme 5UliI'I1Illil!')' c;afnefw1ly IbeWre' YOlilIUst(!n.ln'501)le cas.e;!i\ VOl:! may tre' allle! m 1!I'li'edid the .aBSWI!Il' from, die 'iIQntext.

'6 usn

IREADING

READINIG PASSAGE I

CI

You. should spend] about 210 m~:nu,f!~S on. 'Q~;II.~s,tiio~s 1- U, wMti! are bssed en Re."mng ~s~ge m bemow;

A,

The 17011si!11 !Br:~mlll'l~wwr:d~~preadll1l'o¥erty ,~ln:t !1l5~ n"cfim~ and ~hosl!! ~Qim/i1clkd of c~ll'iI'Iies, fa!i:~d h:a~Slh pE!I1I:a~~ie;&;ul1lcllild:~ng~raflli$pfi.lrta~i~tlm Qne'af Brita~I1i's oWlli:lieaS oolol'liies.. Si~ce 15c 11 S. «ltllVi1rts I'!'oo b~en tlrrJill!ll~fIDr~ lQ '!!I!'i]taln's ~erii,~i1!n t:olo!'l!'te's. both as pU!'Iisihiment lI!'1l;d a ~,~rm of labotll'. butUli~ pl'iliaioo was hahed: Dy'tihe ~\I''OhJlthZlJll;auy W:al~ in Al'IIterica (,~nS-17M).irMe B!~iil:iS'h !O\Il;lnnIMent d~~itled to es:fa,liiii~h a l1!~ pril!!on c'OIQ!'nJ_Y. Mti:I IMg,ny 'B~,y in Ne,w $QuthWales was< ohelE!r! as ~he' slm. ~ta·Ptil'ilili'(ook, e\!1p1~o:~inQl t~e sOu,theaIU

OOllSt ~f Au$~la in 177C1, ~a~: :nal1lloo~he !~a rid New Sr!)utt:nl Wal~~·a fll;f,~lai~edl it for IB!'iltainJ Bet\!lloon '~1'~7 ,~nd1800, aJIlil"loot r~OIOJ)D! oollllvkm, difw\l1om ~b,Gl1:.l~ 1:5;'000 W'€!1'e W€!men:. W'e.:e senlt Kl' A;ustil"a~iat(l·sen!'e: 'i~ril~nCi.!!li rafll9in'gFrom 1 )iltla rrs 'l!a~ife.

II

'E~evE!n :ships sil!t :faU ~r,am Eng~!alnd 1!'iII 17137~,taTt.'ie '~h.el1~s~ 'g ~1l):UP of about 7SQi Bilitlsh ,orzl;mT:Cltts! tOt G!!ius~lfalia. Thl¥Aeetl!elKl'ied IGiiny Bay i!l'l Jj,t";~ary 'll7tt lo:ut lriei!diiy S'~'!I1ey ~ve wac~ seriOCted as Oil lmI'Iom sl~ita,bire sJ.te 'f:o:rffi1e 11te:w s@t~1!emelm!~wMC:h iii,te,~ became ~he dEy

o,f ¥1'1i!y. ThefiB~fe·w )rnl1ffi w,efe llIifficu~it,·Wntil :5ev~1IQ f~d5Iillo.rtag~~ i#yl '1912. M~e\i'er. ~rllm;" w~we ~~VOO1l me~Ha'~:sa.nd prwa~. gardE!Wls\. (onvlf:t~ worked 10111 thise {am'll!S. ,O',r 'Oi1'l ~Oil1stll'u.cr,l;e:l'l pi'Qjef.B :~.tlChi!s lluUdinglllOiJds Sind bl1kJge'5, ~1~nq!1glr1 tille ~Wlemeilin wall; 01 pni:son (:QIOJll,y; few oor:lvic\l5 s~Nedtf;telr !!iel:il't:ef!c:es~n ]a n. They I~v:e.:ll!'l hqUi$E!S t~Q hid) bl:.lnlt: lilal'll1se]v,esj. alnd estal:illsbJefI famlili'eS, busirneSSie5illfilfarlffis, A~e;ttme,mM~ was a'ilsa ,es~ablnS!'hed on Nor(ol ~ hilill!'ll;8, where' s~JilII'reconvias weH;! 5ElIM fo~ 'li:r~mes ~o!lll'lml,lt1ed ,after' a~ntval in '~he !Z:olony. Tw,Q mOir;e se1!t:I'eme:nbs :were eSMIaUislltedl Of! Valin Illem'E!l'1Ii'S Laflld (I'IQW TilJ51m;ania), iM

~I eea and '1 iCJ4,.

,C'

CO,l!1vlQllls, net iln~l,ved In iPlIJbU:c work we~',ilIis,S:~Q ned~o, free setl:le:~s, prOi!.!Ir:a'inrg. WraiJou,rr I" e:\'(chal'll,ge'fur~d_. d~~nin9 ,i1I~nd ~he[lter.Seml'! mastel's ~lieated~I"re' c0niUfds ,cfuelily. and·ti!tre pun'llshm:eif!'ltofirf!rWi~tI,p;artic::uli3in¥ IfI~he' E!a~~1 dilill\!sfooullll b.e a~l:)itl'illl'}l' lIfi1:~ sal~g~. LacM:a1l'l MaC:~!,II!alri~, '9;GWm®~·~ ~!e:wS@!\\l~h W~I~s ~a:m 1:800 1:0 1,i1'9', ~Jd(,lp~ a m~~le lIh~ma!'!,~ af)p:l'I1!ach. t'hi!' E!!'!Io~ufaged convirum refl:Jirfilill, by feWil~d'llng good b~tna~iOlJlr, e:veli'lgrilfllrlill'lg lParclDn~ tQ c,QnvlCts :i:m,forl1l' Hne:tr serill1ll'il:l;ie wl;lIS(;Omi~~ete~. Th5eemalil'd~j~t5" u'tney l.'IIere a.~1E1dj. were giv'eI'll,'land and gl:illfer,hlFll'leilit altSlstillnJt€! I.i:i heillp th~m start :faJI'm~li1g. His pO!II:li:lu WeJrE! unpopular 'oo~h w:UtJh Brifish iuilJ'her1'til\!!S and 'We~li~ny free ~~tt~ers. h~we'!(e[r, ,a nd the' ne~t g('j'llell:nar~wert\1' urn:d.ruf!fders t(l ·ensurce~hat nfe for oonvidsOOcalt:il1lfli ltI!l1ctr s,tfiimer and more iOofl'l'~ooIUed1.lh~ire w.ef'! tf!a'~S:her p!IJlPli~h'menlls f~:r ~~ool'l!d of{e"ije;r~. ~uc!n .!lc!l. ~r\l<iirlg inlfle tr~'n g,a;n~5: whem rrne:n were chaJl'lecl t:og.ftiher 1/0 ~arry o~t ~hC!lUiS!il'tg work all th~ Iroads, 0f bailing Sfe'.rItto peG'lal ~l:tleNe,n(s. '!Mnere,1~:t.:IrqiisJnni'te.1l1 'wa~ delill:m,~mlr bmtall,.so tlmia!t it wbul~ irt(;;t as a dl~l'e~ref1lt.

D'

Illn the ~ljflli yel\llf$ ,oJ sel'tlem,ent:, 'Ii'h!'l' tOrl!yi(~ :gJre<ltly ~~bl'!um'ooiOO he Jmrnigra!1llt:s1and 'Seit~ei.l's. ~ n .~ 81 O~ eOll'!vlc:~s I'IIIlIlade' up a~llTioS1: ;60 pert:e!l'l~ of~'th:e IPQPu~!ation."ar1Ld over 20.~(mO new Ulfi'llil~tsaf1!iiv.ed ~e;twe~n UI21 ,jnd 1:13,0. :[venl hl ~lg31. OOIl'l1i!lrW ~tiH IQ{i)mp~~eGl4\S ,fJetrLli::e~t of the p~piula~lon.;wlth ,e:x~Co:l1V~c:u i!!Ad E!Mandlpls:ts IliiIiIika"ng UIP another 30~E!~ent .25 pera!l'It 'If the 'Dj)IJ~!atiorn Inew 'tDnsi~l~d ,~f peOp.le ~:ml :nfi! t~. (io~~JI'lies.l1Ili! ~ $~~e. pEf;lF,lI~ lQ:lllm_~!1iIb.eiJj\ool ooil'l'l,i!il~~.

:E

lI1e,lllt·!j,t 'QlriOiJiJ at fmes:e,ttiers' had l!Il"II'i~~d in A:~f>tl!"a Ili~ lli!, ']7'$1.300 ,s~"~hei~ fCWJtlU}'u:lircl~'he new land. Their numbers, grE!W~ with abo,ut ,B)ono ~ settlE!!Il,Saf~ilJlflgl in thie '1B~Os tt:l taRe adVlilttage of fme I'.anlll g;rnann al'llo 'h~p ~Qnvid latu}'iJw~ In '18~] ,~he ~E!l':lijcsh! 'g~~irnef1'~ @,je:JPed Ili'f!f;:I,neytQ SlUJppO!rt n~w !!l(n~:~rs,. ~ap~niQ®o' a'Ufact skimed woriters "'w!d 's!l ngl~womei~ili$ Immi:gil'a1il~s •. ~tween 18811 and' 1 MQ,. more~h'lln 410;000 itfflmi,g'~I1,t$ arrive.dln :AYi~~ralia.

F

I1li1ring~he ~182.o.~ tl'il€ir,E! WitS iii lel1l.gtlilly', carn,paigf!l W win 'lJerl:aiFl fiI9~Kfo;r emanclIP!sts,. whidl1was opposeli.l by we-al~hylTe:e ~nlers, bll tii!lel,8~Os;;"eeimlmrgraMlt~·'tl!l New Sou~h Wale!!! a nil! van GJ~mem la~c!~ ~!'II!~'appy·about IUvln.g ~ n a pris.o n !l:'Oh;!i1~ whe'l',e ,d'r;l'il IHbemes were [r,esuillc~ed' ali'l~1 ~onviGt ICltm~iJlr r;eIl'l/Jlt.e"d ~'n ~lowwa~e5.. il'llCrea!lffinsl1l"voicedlOheir O',fU.lSllition 'm, naMIP~na~!onw Again" w,ei!:~~h:y ~!aIIiUl!ow,mllf5, iilI!sagreecL b~~ a growi'l"l91 n~m'oo1li ,ef ~~fbfmie1i5 in en,g~:ilnd were alsa oppQSedta ;ClOiflvic;,t~ftl,osportll,tipfll.,11 n l:a~B, fa cern roit~ec set lJIJl ~.

th~ IBnntiTi!ih Pa rli[ifllm!l!I'i!Jt ~mme,ndedblhalt Ure gbvi!~nme:nt, en,d)ual'll!sporti~loi1i'l't'Q New

louth Wales i,nd ~flIn IDiem,E!iIi'It Land~ i1.IfiI,d ,at.Q.llfih as.iignmef'!t,mJ~ Bl1i~l~n du IV ab~li~ned 8"SSignmellll't, and trans.poan:atie:n ~ at: ~'St·t0 New :5QUiItirI Wa~m - WillS, hi:a'rrm!!llll'll,MD.

G

1i~llU'~r.l{U't.a~t~n ,C!on&lruJea~ hbwe\r.e{. Kl' "lhsr !Z!!ilonii'!S an.d :s-efi'l:lemems. 1111 the l1Mmls. moS'lL IBriiEish ooll!lr,lliCli weil'e sen,tt:o \faA Diem~~ Land. wh,erre the 8r'iti!~h gGwr.mll M~ intro~u(.e~

a 'C!.a'nv~~~5'lf~W{"ba~d. ~n S'ta!le~ 'oh~!'tIlI\ wi~h®hec.onivi!':'l:s, 9afnrns iACfej§iAQI I~evels af ~r'~Qm 'Iffbrf~mtli'l.ueGl,g,ood roehavioJlJr~ TM'IlS:PQrtaIHlen t:o the e.Uiem lc::o~G;nies was atro.l:hl~efJ iln 118!i~, ~'Il(DfIltra!f.t.~11I:e (io:n!l,r;ttlt fI)I'SOOllll'll ~n, WeSit.emAu~~r-a:U~ ~alri rnl B5~1"i!:t ~hE!' req!.lliest (If the Wes:teJ1r1 A~stfillian"gCl1!i'e:mme1l'l~ aflHf oontiWlued until l86$. C:Ol'iVi&W, s:tiW,ed Pillln: ,o:ft"u~;rr Sl1!fIIte.noos il'l Britain oowm b~ifli~~rilln~pOJl!~Mo~hecJ;ih;)'nv, w.he:r:e th.ey wO{l',ked ,~!I'I badlyne(da:di IPrublk 1Z;ol"1!iSt)~UG:r~cf1l Prioilloct'S u[ll'Ider~~sb:!. ;Si[.ilar~o, '~hiittf,ued i Il'I 'lam DiemSn's Land.

CI

Which'fHRE.E oft:he :foUa-wing .$taJt:eHl(!nJt.S: De true of (tree: :setde1i8 i:I1IDe .AusLtal:i~ p.risoQ ooloniles, ac~ordm!il: to fbe~ex:t?

HI, "four answers, may be glve:1l ilflMliy order,

A. They W~[\e .IDawnly silGiUe:d loY'Qf~.e:rsmd. single women.

B Th~y am~. wernoomed 'Gover,nor M~':q.!:aJ~r1e'sPQ~~cies,

'C .2:5 pera:n~ oHhem We:l1e bon:!. in. the colonies,

n 160,.0001 ,o:ftffi1~mwe:~tw' Austlr,a1i~ beh!.roo!ll 1787 and ,~,86iS,. I1B8.000 of them ar,rivedi I:I]! Au~uaru~a, in. the 1.8:1015.,

iF Th:.ey l~stabUs~d. fanllits. bus:in~sS€$ ~df¥ms,

'G Con.victs who wmrea:ss~B:ned totlli:lem prov:~d!ed themwIDth~abo1![f;; H. They ,cam[paig~fldliIIIJ favour of ,ema:l'I!c:if~st ri:ghts.

Read~!Dg~ss~g~ 1 has $eVen.pamgrapi'!:s, .i\."lG. C'Jl.ooiSe~h~oor~c~t he:.adi:n_g, fi@ll ~~agr~ph:5, B-G frem tblil list ,o:f headlaTI1gsbe!ow:

Liist. ofH:eadJi_ng:s i, Free selttlers

ii TlanSPQ!1'~tion of.oonvicts 'Ul The enid of t~spc[f:tat~Qf;iJj iv GOin;vi~~ruffi{~

v The co.i.ollilial PO,Pu.[lltm.o.li]J.

\11 'fhet[\eaune~t of IbOnv~cts v.i Opponents oftIanspoda:Uof:l 'V.m. l'.he flr:s;~se1tleme~~

Eumr·~e 4,

5.

6,

,

:8

9'

Patiilgrnl'ph A. Pau_grnpbB faJ;lI;g~p:hC faro.gm::at'h D farng~~b'!E P,ara.gl!:'aph.F P.:nagrapb '6

WhePI,[ilIII5Wl!ring

iii _ttiple .c~otQe

lliJliles!loR 'w,ttfiI rntittiple an~ make sure yo~ . un:d~lId whO' '!1!f whiH: the' ,uestlQli1llrefel's to. He:Ii'e',

·we are lonly iiuer-esllet1In'fj;,eese,ttI,eli'S mth!!! A'!!lStia~ta!ilp~l;!!illoolo~s';.

So we are only Uit~ete5ka lIiI sUfemenlS ,lbOiUttle

It

,

- 'Questions J0-13

Complete tb,e D.O~e8 be]ow"

Wrlt:eNtJ< MOlRE THAN 'fHJ'D'WOlIDS for ,oochatl!swe't.

events, p~ding firM :settlliement

• 16,1,S - "DI'I'vic~ -firs~ tiOimspa ,red 10 10 contrdlled

b)l'Bri't~in

·,1 no - CookdCllftnll,:!!l1m: A,u5,traHall GOil,5:Uor Britain. ~alling it

n ~~~

., 775- ~ 183, - ~ReliQI1OI~lonar1 War ln Ame'ji'ic:a h:a~ts b'anspGAatiorntlli,ere'

'. '178'1- Botany Ba1 chosen ,as site for new'Z, ~~~~~~: fim 'QO'R'iict

fleet ,sel5 sall

READIN'G PASSAGE 2

lou should spend aibou:t lOI ,l:lI1u:mte-s, onQ1JAStjjo~s 14-J6,. whrucll ,ar,'€: based en :I,eading, PassSl,ge 2 b~IDow:

Craws C,an be C'raftsmenl too

,A jf,emarkable colon), ,ofr ~n\!len1!Q,rs has emerged '00 an 'solat:ed Pacific iSllalfllll. They can fashion tool'll, Oyt 'm mM:eliia Is scaveri~edff;QITi ~he IIG Itlforesf. Tney ean e~en ~stom]le ampl fO:-r'J 'g'iiven joll, Mee,ttllle CII'CWS ,af New (a~~{)nii;!t,

TIn iil1l~ei':S ,a,ii dl%re:rse as Fr-eud. Eingels and ThO'!'IlIl'S, (ilrilYie QfilC,e pon~~ed to ike uie 'af 1)00115

as beilrlg ,iI dd nino be<halOliiol.lr of: human beTn9~, Thef! i~ w·e,s wl.IlI'ICiittla't ImIliln:t al:illliilll:a'ils also, !I.!lsedthe:m" fwm fh~ 1i;shing stlolcS' of ,,,pes·to '~he wociks dnlpped en osu-I,ch eggl lby Eg)!1ptian 'IIU IbJres. Coows3re p~rticulal'l)t' Cfa'fil:y. !:arDeii' ,sWdJiie5, shawed th!.t't ~he.y ,aRNIII'nQ~t hUIiIl!!ln-Jike in ~helr use of 'tools, .With 't:@cihnlll'lbgical fe~tll.lre5lhat mamh 'the stone and bone f.Ool,cUlI~u,es, ,that emerged ~rn~r1lgliP,j\lmlitwe Inl.-ilmilil11S between 2~ million and' 70,,000. BC.

BI~t ,only h~mans"WerE' thol!ght tei havecthe bl'i!in powerJ.li!qulred 1i'Q'Ji ,cumulative

hetn l1ologl,cal,e;vQIiutil:o:n. Thlis i~5, the skill for ~n'l1ow~lo.n tha~t,ao!~,oW" illru:'eSt:ors two, 00111 ~Oil'l ~w;s il9iQ'friKI:I'II'I'treatin9 fJI!a~.e-5\ ~f 'f1in~ fof rus..>eii1 cutting, 'to I1tI:l'lliI'lQ' km'lhl'e~, bhrd'e5. ,a ~rowheads and axeheads.

Now' this'uliliqlue'aUiIiIi'lure o:f hlJm'ans has ab_o 'tumed 'OU~ 'to be a friattel'il1lg deirlJS'io,l'l. A new study shows malt the CI'DWS af New aledo'l"lia Iilfe inventive'. With their evaMn_g leaf'Klols,lhe bi'rd's ha!iJe lee~BdI manl ~ff lPIis pedestal.

IDr Gal/In Hiu n~ and! Dr 1~lJsse~ ~ Gray of the' Unw,efSity of ,A~ddillnd hrililii'f!sp,.erlt th,e lpast decade !>1udyiingreatheredr '~chno!iOgy lin New Callooon;ill., 9.00 mn lies nonh-eiist 'of. Au:sl1ralia. After an ifll'tel'l5i\le, 'field SlIr'Vey rof r!OOlI, c:row in d'UitfY, the' scientrl5U (Qunddlalt ttl e I)irds flp the leaves of the pondtNItJ:£ tree to wlliion~_hte-e dJi!S~in~tYpe'5 oftoo~ for 91fl.l'tlr afli.d, ffl,~:ec~ e:x#raGltlol'l~ Wldle; na rrow ind ta~l~ed"

!long ago., ~he bi rU, dl$cB\I'ered 'that they could ri'p the ,senated ei:lgi!! off '~he leaves 'to m,a~e a wide KlfJI. The sk;iIIr spread and the C!IDW& ho:nedtpi}ls, wl~n finer w~l'kiIng tips;, by eithe'r

na rrowlfng tools or tapeli n'lg "tihemr. '~BeEawetihe leaves irM rein'llfo,reed tI)!' ~@,l.Jgh 1~'ar-aUelfibws. the ta~fied de~ig"'l :iSl made' in :st:eps.1Ilie cmw nip~ 'tt'le le~r" rip.:s: 'lIang the 1iibres" Wil'i'ii'lles; arnether CUt and! t,eall'S again. repeating uln~n it has a: t.ool With ~s.uilily twO, three- Or kmr 'st,eps.~

leafteol mal'lufa<rwrn is al'l,ex,a1mple of ~ul'luJt:!: 'Ine bi'f'dis leillffi 'd'imllgh elliilmple ilna'lhelr toQI-m<:lkifil;g wisdo:liI'I 'grows ~n sO,iPhiiM:i~atco:1'I dowl'uh-e gell'ler-atil.ons. The CJ:()W'S i,p:pe:a:r r:o ha!rei the' cQ;gnitiVE' I'Eqlil'ireM,enils,f,or 'Cy! mY!li;l~i\te., ,though md1imei'rtary, tseh nologiM! eVrljl"ilJtl&~:1'I" ,~a1id' DIi' Grar. 'T"eQi! mllm,diu!wre rn New Caltedol11j1iln 'l:lfOW5, ~hOW5, stJiik1jng flex~btility aAd innO';y'a~tCll'l:

The ability ohhe birds to fnnov,Bite i~'furtiher shown b~ their maRing ofcttlettoofl&. They often Sil:r,fp atwlgl of leaves andl cyllt qff just beil~ow iii :5he~ed o«~llo~t to oea1ie a hook tOr get bug'S, Out. Th~' ~so LIse ,slrlilpler 'WolS' te IDt11raa grubs ffom. ~he' dead wl)od ah~ees.

Prof Alex Kat,elnik,. fellow (ilf Pe,ml'lbroke Gollege. Q~rd. prai~ed the study illS 'edreme:ly im:pol'lan~~ I~ ~emplE!mems hl:s own researc;h, wi:l:h Dr Jlac!kie Oirli;llp,pe'll anti AI!exWeir;, wh1lch has tll.um!Ei b-ttythe New Ca'ledonillil"ll ~row il'1ilto:il1 star by l'ewearllil'iQ her 10 be ~h~ lim. animal, othei'~han rnlilllll" to sliiiaw a ibaSiI c lli!ldef:s~ail'ldingl of cause' ~nd etified.

B@Uy began making 'rnals after her fJ~rtner sfil-atalled, awav iii hook made (Qr her lorY the resedtc:her'S. forciiing IlIH' IiOr make her own from 9i1lrtl!anr wirt!, to' IiiM'ih out morsels t,Oil'll i'rube. She' wedged the ,end of tile wi re il'lloo t!fYe billr5J!' of tile foodwbe 'ilifid~urn~ her he'il,gllQ f(!11TI tihe' I1ic~(Jk WlTa~ allil:lazed ~he Ir,eseareller.i iis~h.at sbe (l'an e'llre<n adta,~t Iter hooks if ~h'eY ,illjI'@ l'!1,ot u,p 'teli th e jO:b\ somethil'ligi that ewn o'hilmp(ll'Izee.s are lInil'br!e '1:0 do,. AlthQ!llgh chi'mp~ ruse stidks in E!il(peirim ents., th~y hav,e not shown anr)' huma n-like uru:l'ersmn dtlng of basic physical laws,'Whl!11I'I s'he starts ben!lliA.9 the. wile it is, as frf she has a dea robJeC'l:ille" ei,iien Olr'l"ec.tinQI tlile' ii!ingle, of~l1e' h~Qk rrfit ~s' not right' s:al!lt P'f';OUta,cell'lik. 'AI~hQu'g'h m:a:!I1Y aflliM'all:S !lI!llie'

tO~t5. pu~pOiSeful modificatl()1"1 o~ objec:1:S t'QI :SQlve '!I'I~W p!iCbli!iii'l"ls, ~:tf'l0'I!.Iut,a'ili11i1g Qr prrrDr ,expel1!enceJ is vJ'rtu~'IIy unknown:

'Whtl!e we h!We lbe~1iiI empJila,slslngllhe ifU:lii'!litdiJill ~hllity ,o,f animal:S n'ke ~1ty ~O' sorh/e' pr'obi!ems" the NI!W.Ze-alj.lf'i,d realm hi1s, hlefln E!'.mpl1l<a,iSPM 1001 maflufac~lJllie. the cullitural 'tlradiltiof:l!s ,al1ld tranSlmrS:5ion of ~nftmil'l!artlon il'll 'the 'wi~:d: saiid IP,r'oftcacel nn~. 60111 stlr,alnds ,of reseaKh ~re ~relill~d by how the crows a~e not sened't~lI~ pr,~gfilmm:ed to use a teol, lil~e a spidel' and his web. Ini§~adr t!lile' bir:ds '!I!reaElve!]y In!leflt new .kiinds r~f ~i!ilols to solve probifems ~In'ld 't::o:lf! shafe skll1~ with ,I!),tlilers.

The ~row'film'lly are the Eill1l15tejns 'O!fthe a,l,I'ian wc:rld. 'though' poor KiaceWnlk lldldedthat a't lea,stiri 1ii!riMS of ttlol m~l(lng. the PaCine OIOWS ire flfflarterthiln tHe. r IrUbh oo'U5.iifll5. 'W~ have n,ot yet identified what it is, that m'a~e!i, these craws !!iospedal, lhou:gh It is someti1JllIg ~El' do with eoolog,ocal d~tl;lim~ta!'il~es:said ~r'of Kac:elnlk.

Or'lCi{! iJiden'tist'S have got '~o 'Eke batmm 0'£ what ma'kes PadlifJc CirQWS mast,e.r t,oolmakelr:s, ~he,y mil!)' ha,ve tD '~Ilink aga in alilol.lt hgw th]s s~m E-vblwd in humans ..

d

Dn u 14 '-.

- I",NeS'u6',ftS, . - J7

Complete tbe diagrmns a-

Choose ,NO' .MORE 'fHAN" TWO WORD'S from the p!iilsm,ge for each 31nSwe1'.

1,4 l.he ,q;rll},W .millik§ 1!~Clilit Wlfi Ute l~~thm

_~~~ ~~~<lv.'1.r

&:o.laE:iolfi .D.f~ c;~w'i }.eaft~·o1,

• U;~~~~ ~roo'l

II. SectiOll,

.11 ~~~~ k10ID

Wilb J. :3 '~r 4 smps

QU1eSfi,OHS .J,8,-22

Classi:fy thefoUawing statements as rerelrrrng: to the ,a'Gw(s) in A. 'the study by HUlUIt ,an,d Gray

B th.e s~nd:y byl<8:celnik!, Cbarppelil aDd Weir

C both smdtes

-- .. . . '" l I When yeu have'tofabe

a dIagram flmsmbe.r'l1att all tile ,answ8fS wm umatfy be foimd in one smio~ ,of 'ra Ra5:SiJ,&l!.

Write the ,correct le~te:r" A" D, '01' ,e.

18, can shar:et:oo.~-maki.l1'l :!i.kills vrith other' crows 19' can make special tools fOlra particuEa:r purpose

2>0, cml. oolvep.robJems by unde:rstarJlldin:g Jlither than. ,~e~8 Z,1 cen make 'tools better than, British crows can

lJl ,can maJi'M~.cmlie 1110H.S k) extrac1 :fG<od

Ques,ti9HS 23~26 Complete the summary.

Choose .NO.MORE THAN TWO WORDS' &om me passage for each,~:t.

ltused to he tilIo~,gh.t: 'l:iilalt Gnly hyman beings used 'tools. Even . .a£t1ec we learned. that man.y

ether 2:3· ailso' do so, i~ was still b~]j1W'e:d. tnalt only humans

we[-e inteJ]igeliJit enough to gradlJ)ally' evolve better tools, A. study oJ ,croilWS, :in

24! • how;ever. shoW'S tha:t these bi:rds use:3. (leaf too~ which

has been evolved over sev.eralge-ne'rations. A CrOW ina:Do.tllilers:wdy has sbmfll. the' l1!u.m~nI.i!~ aibility to UIi.ders:tallJdl25;m o:r-d~r ~o mMllli,dilc[nrettlcmS;

whkh.not ,even 26 Can do,

READING P:ASSA:GI ,3

You should spen!d. a:ilQr\l:t 20 m~nlMites Qf1I Qu:e'StiOOlS :2:'7-41,o"wltkh. are b'oli8ed ,0:0 R.ead~mlg hss~1t~ 3 beillow~

tDIMing ii:nt:'ot:he Worlld'

A,littlle-knl()wnislanrd co:mlmunity eome'silM from, the 'c'o!ll'I.

Ball:ik in eawly '1 'Sl61.few ,aut~ide d1i~ OOTfiidal'5 o:f dwll1id~i!1,g IBlin~'shpowef' had he\1ro tilf 'b'l1e allll~ipelago ooln~red~nil:he m~in l~s~iindl,bfltiS'ti'fl ~a"(u nh~., ~1!f:Q'm which '~i1e .~atte'~dl b~an~s; ~hCit 'make' up ti1ae 'QIf.lilYJp' t~okthte]r nam'e.

Itwo,u~d l~~ea rd~ima~cc:~ltank i!1l,r!J,p'1iol'1l~ an:d an 'emeiii"9.ency elti,ua~iQ:n~hat Vli\Cu:.Ild,g,ftllb Ule'!itUenMol1l,of tlm:e media,ro tin IlgaLti1iel'ltitilnrte this my5'oo,liiou~. ,au~po5t ofth-e' BJritish fm:pire. l't~me:c:iI~nat lh:e ,i!i~i!ll'I(ts:, !'\~ ImO!le~n!;lin IP~n~,p'rki~ tin the SO!:lllth-er,t1Atlafillt!€ Q~eini, ai,mlll$~ e.qutdlSitant between BUerlQS: Aires in 'fitll,lIllh ,Atlmerlr,"~1 and C1I',pelbwi!i'Iin S!@JI>J~h A.frkl1!~ premr,~d ~Gtw be f{ll!Jn,d~

The sa nUl' ~n be ~~idd ti::1,e .:a:sm ~, SlO' fE'SldE!l'iIrtSIOT 11']51£" n dC!1 tI~l"Irha.€it ~h~~ til m~. They

Hived 'on ~he rr,e,maM,s!tis'lfand 'Qn~he eil'l~~re pllll1le\;TiI'Iere' wa~ Ina a~rp~!!t, n'l:)tw~s~n-ere SP:i'fOl! ~,.blilild one' Orl!i tiI1i_ll rnQunl!allra.~lI;!s, c;I~bl.!l1'Ide ,m~eatlna !ffi'oflliiltlllle 'ocean. The QfiI:ly I~aribouf. iilmp~mmralil[:tt dur'~n9 ~G'!!Iglh weaUIE!I, wa~ ~ .500 rmiJ~e:!j;di~li!ltf!;Qnmr the neare~t main'lialld pon, 'Ca ~ T~!ri,. ~GmWil'!!J n~~UQ!'iIi5.Wnh tihe O'u~5~dewortl: rr,eli,ed predomi nilifl.tl~ ,Oili'l siig,nals to PIlSi5ir:tgl1ffil!i.hiIf'l9,b~at'S rilinG! the afillfi'Uill '1/,1S:lrt Qf~hiE!~~i 1:t!at SiJ~pIHed~he·~c5IaJ:'i;die'~ 1Ni~h th:e g~,~s tb!:~ i1::Olllld na~p'~!!Ice~helm51ws.

For this l,I!\',a:s ,is"elfr''lIeli'ill'!I't cofmllmiI!JPI'lt,~ !~~!1Jd ,o.f tf1:i1lir abill1ity ro ~uwvive alai h~:p eac.h other rfltin1les Qf adverStt:Y. Colonised eal~y in~he' '11 ~ eernu rYr !!If'IIti1 ~ De~~berl 9~2. Rlio;ney had

II!IIQt beenl ~)!J:_h1a'nged :Cll'lrMec IslaJn;d. HiWlfe\ii'er. wal" .. tiime ,(J9ru,lf-ticll'i!~5iUU;1 "ewdeve~opm.ent, in Ipar~lllllulilUI new ~!~hin~l~ni(ilustl';y. ~aVl,\'m!he 1tit:!~I!'i!lnTngs cHinks wh~(tn ImealnUhat the :i5!llander1 had 11;) aoo;o,p,t~hey w~re' fil,OW Ipar~ ClUhe .Gldll:i:rrII, W(lr'lliIinQWmre:~ rrlll!Jeintne fillder memlbe~cS of the Ic.iorllflm,ul"li~ Iffiigtnlt M'~ist ~u~h ~nan.ge..

De liv,es. ()f~n-e' islillndei'~ tklk«.i~ q~ietly alof'lg;, i:a~geiliY i9~o~eij' as tJ'l:ie 'gQveMme'Jf'I~ .of' Britain ~rU~~gll'~ w]t1t'Ilargt1!fe-.vefll1S 'Ofn~rre·wot1h:i: st]ge. UI!I1til ttn~ 1~~9i!"u'"i"g QfAMS:lJS't 11001. ~r~h tr:emers and f()~k faHs; beg~ n 1;)11 the 6i1'i, but by <:kroiber t~e ~sJtuadQI1II haclg:otSQ bad ~hail: t~e islllalrld h'adt:Q beev'a-OuiDd. Th~ en~ire P.QPUtili011! evenlt!lillU,y found Uaerm'Sle~~ln Engl.an{i" whef;e dle,y '~~ rn~:l with !i;l~~ne.d, al"ldi 'Y!l'!e:~ected !ilJtitrtntiallJ from 'the Mid r,a,.1IlIey welle' ho!ued ,a,1: i;l! mmtall'~ Cia mp jl!Jst ol!tsitde tiM! :p'prt 'Of Soutl1iaumpml1l,

Camlna iQjIiiIl,a ~l;Jtb.t~rpp7,'I1l,1 is!lIlndand lkIitiVi rig h:ad UitJI:le' ~,o~I!lIre 10 t,",e 'in nesses and

,tWI ~mdu~ml b;lliIl:!' Imi[!l:ti.y,e.s, !!If'tiIle British I~~e<s du~lf'lgr wlfiilt:e~;s.\:!l!,I\er'al of f¥1e !!'Ider iU5.~in·dler'S 5'Y~ooml~d. The .gQV'eWImefl't d~'d ,.01 £~ rn 'ro. kfll,GW what to oler tt\ei~m~[lIIllie[:!!, 'there wa~ ,ng nelN:5~a!ool!!llt wha~ w,a~ h:a]PrJ;)enlng to 'tl?eir Mme[ial7!d.i :i'll"Id "~fuefy)uU'e' l~tI~d \{E;1I')I' bleak, fnlflese W~fe: peo,ple wh:o' had built up tl'l.eir own way of life fQ:[" 'O\I'er onlir l'i:un'Ii'rn(i riJ'IIlctfiAy jliea r~, lI1ey were a ,~o.mpad ,~cmmtoni~ w,rro"sllilillr-ecl '~!Irlliy Il~VI!1'iI1 mlllllil;y I'ihl:)A'lI!S, be,tweern t"MW1,. al'!d' [oOV!l'il~ ~med 'thM~heh' w~ (If lim was 10 be deS1t:'~y(ed.

d

'FO!ritlJna~~If)i'. 'a!'ll;d desp~te ~he ~is1afildlirs r:eluctia'i1ce w, halve any dean n~s, w,nli~thllli!' m:ed:~a; wh,(I,the:y 5!t!5[pef!l:adllooMd en them as nJ~Wrt'al cHillrij;~~it~e~.he i:lI!it>entionl :nel,ed ke~i~r n~e:lir P:Ugl"nt illl'!tihe py'b:~i~ 'eye. Evel"u,yalll~f wdi!d mme th,vaugh 'thart'me i,sla'f!l,fj was a~ail'l habita'blJie

til nd. despite S~Jl.Q)i'lgl reslj,sta nce'~~'m tine' Brm~h Gove~l1'merin., the vMt ,majority ,aHh:€;: ~~~an~ern '!Ieood ta, r-etlJl rn~ tl.Ulfll'linglltl'eirba~ks ol"ltilh.e 'teirilllll'taJ1D~o ns of'th~ ib:l'igih'i.\t ~li9hts af~hel'~ ~iMPQralry home tn f:av()U,f .;Ifbn'ellt',owfl.

De lartt. ,eJf ttte ,~e~umrllg islilrllcleffi aniv~d, ]n If\4a·vember 1 %5 .and. wi~h the .~ebuflhlln.g of~ne . 'l:ifaWflsh ~I!I'!nil1l,m fndlJ!15'I[J and a growing: de.ma rLdfO.I'~he Isb.':lndts .sta'mps aflillongiS't dedic.aledi ,oolneclTl(l:rsrollQ""willf'l~ tJ1he pu'b~ i(li:ty ~lJJmd I~)I th~ Yol'ar'lic eruI~llienj i~he ~~oc;alecol'il;o:m:y' s;ealill !tl(j"We~.illtihauglFi )t~mIiWilU nications re.a!]noo as diM eju'l;t as 'l:11I!}! h.~d E!l!,!Ier been. Mk''iIa!~~ Pa'r,SQflI'$, ,ill young ,BritJIim 'll'l~,u::her who ~s eJ]l'llIP~oy,e,d 0111 tine' isla nd. re~aII15~ha~ there wa~, DO mle\!'i~iOn and mn~iI'~mtlhe Dutsi'(!e wo.~r,d ilrri,veft JuSil: ,eight times ,iii ~ea'r. ~Iwas alllcwedto 'Send a ~I OO''Word '~.elegfalill'l h,Ql1lilI:e 'OI"iC~iiil ;manti'll; he Iweta n~ 'and 'ge!l:ting new~ "!om h,e:me .b.l"0u.!!Ih"t a IlJI[mlP' W' WI, H~~~~~:

1Ii:nJ]'Ig~ have. dhalng~d With .dev,e1g1pmE!fIIts In mdl!'l~h:)~lY. bU1: alt'dte beginntng !lJIftfue pres.en! ,cl!!AttUrythe t~sll{lli'ld wlIl):again 'fl.llit off from th,e ,ms:t of th,e w~:rld when, on, MJay2S«i ~ijth ,til ~~i~J1i~i!,"e ~@ ~-e tll1['(1Il,Ulgh~he' are~. I~ '~il,u$'ed e%tei!ilSiive darml1,ge, kfi!CCi~l.liIilgI'@ilJt the radifo ~tado.fI and SiJtelHt:e Mlephl:!lnelinkas, well ,allllaiIVI1ng~ne islalft!1Jel:'s·:w[th®1JJ~ e:f;elt:tn(:it}l. ~t 1M)uldl be ,al weeilt~efiC:!Iie newsoftlrll~,~'i5a~tI~r lliieac:ned l,o!'l!~hlll'l!l alncl .!Oeve.roll mon~ ~kl. tU;lfPr,e~1 resC:l.IJe palZik1l9~'Gould bE ag'r,eed: to helplhe r,slal1l,de,rs IlI':eilui'l'd,

Tooay th,e :isilind boastSi~$ ,()Wn 1'fI~eme[ qafit FcQf~he ,,~t ~ime peQP:h~ ,~an oo~rwh~t ~h~ i1iern:r> tihey wis'h~0 olnafnfroN'lI abW'<Id <i!c~yalll¥ loolii: like 'b~fE!ttOil¥ pUKh~elW'!eml - it big il,onl!JS ~n a (i.l1~~e ~I'l!~ffi .YQI;iI have t, wa1ut !1I'!!~nlf IMenth15:OO rEt€iTrw a;n Ord~f whlb.h m~glht Ip,Jmr:e to' be· lm!Suirable for ~he IPU~P'Qs.e YO:lil h:a.d 1m'! mind .. At last.. it se-ems, ni5t:arll' d\:l 'Eu nlaill has I1I)inedlfle wonl~d.

Questiions .2.7 ,and 28

Choose the cfiu,ectleUer. A" S, ,(; or D.

,],7 The' wdt.erdiesawes, the isl,ands ,of l'risan. da Cunha. 'as, It d~fficu~t to,f:in.dm an emerg~ncy;

.8 :<1 ploo~: the m~i:a. ,didn't: ~nderst,afii:L

,e somewhere dJffe:rer:1;t cou[!Iftr:ies ,~ai:me:d. 'to own. I) unknown to n~ost members ,of tbe pubUc.

28WbJat does the wrl'(er say about the islanders?

.A They could, go fo:r "y~switb no contact wwth ours~de.rs.

n They bad 1'1:0 means of,leam:ng, the .islmd ~o speak t\o ,otll:!ers. ,(; they exobao,g;e:d m.,essa;ges with boatsther went past [bern. D They trn.yelll!e:d to, the'ma.in~and on the: ,supWrd'y sh~p"

CI

:0'0 the foUowing sta:teme[1[fs agree w.itb the ,daiDlS of the writer i:n Re,ad i fiB Passage 3~ 'Wrrite

NO

if the slta:tement agr~es witb [he w:riter's view'S iftbe sta:temen:t oontradicts lh:ew:dtell"S vieW's,

ifi:t: is lmfossj,b~e to SlY what the wdter thinks abou,t this

29 People Hvi:og; OQ. Tl'.~stan (h! Cunhill, are total)!' sel:f~smnde:n:t. )0 The ]sla,nde:l:5 cf!ttcn, ,get m

31 Some ~slandel'S W~ roludant torelurn after the ",oleani,' ,erupti.on. 32 The se]Ung ,of PQ~ta~ stamps has geoernred r,evenue for the wslander$, 13 There is no television service oa Tristan da,Omha.

Wilen saylilill:if stailemen,tsagree 'with wlilattihe WriWrHYS. Iii~mber ~haltiNOI melns~e statement

I .dfi~·alfy ()~illtndicts!liM: writefs 'oItey,o. ,AI mUinel'iit wli!ithJ 5ee:m's sltSJ:il:tly di8'erentN' _!'I:t, dl~ 'wiI'it:et say:!. is more lt~l!ly to be NO~ IiIVet

IQ.uestions 35-40'

Complete the summary;

Choose NQI .MORE 'llIAN TWO WORDS from. the' pass'age for ea.dl. ~f1swer.

fiT$! oolOlllj:sedi in the e.a:rly part: of ~he 19111 Gern:t_y~ 'nistaD. da Cunh.a,remai.ned. unb:lown ~O'

the a:trention (If361 ~~. After spending two years as :r-efug~es in

31 ~ ~~. th.e Bdtisllll:io<vemmenit .reb.lclI:anuy aIltowedrhem, to

oOfupleted. 'pa:rdy bOCa/use of a new illl~~t~st in the" __ ~~~~~~~~~ D:is~sler 'was ~o ,gtrilb tbe island a.g~in neady forty years later 'When a

·40 diCstroyoo. many buildings on the' island.,

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