MOLALITY An alternative unit of concentration to molarity is molality.

The molality of a solute is the number of moles of that solute divided by the weight of the solvent in kilograms. For water solutions, 1 kg of water has a volume close to that of 1 liter, so molality and molarity are similar in dilute aqueous solutions. To figure out the molarity of a solution, simply work out the number of moles of the solute (Probably from the molecular weight) and divide by the weight of the solvent. It's probably the case that you're given a volume of solvent rather than the weight: use the density to convert between the two molality (M) = moles solute/kg of solution To convert a volume and a molality of a solution to moles of solute, simply solve the above equation for moles of solute: moles solute = molality * kg of solution Example 1: If you have 10.0 grams of Br2 and dissolve it in 1.00 L of cyclohexane, what is the molality of the solution? The density of cyclohexane is 0.779 kg/l at room temperature. Solution 1: First, work out the number of moles of bromine. Br2 has a molecular weight of 159.8 g/mole, so we have 10 g / (159.8 g/mole) = 0.063 moles BR2 Next, convert the volume of solvent to the weight of solvent using the density 1.00 L * 0.779 kg/l = 0.779 kg Now just divide the two to get the molality 0.063 moles Br2/ 0.779 kg cyclohexane = 0.080 molal MOLARITY Another way of expressing concentration, the way that we will use most in this course, is called molarity. Molarity is the number of moles of solute dissolved in one liter of solution. The units, therefore are moles per liter, specifically it's moles of solute per liter of solution. Rather than writing out moles per liter, these units are abbreviated as M or M. We use a capital M with a line under it or a capital M written in italics. So when you see M or M it stands for molarity, and it molarity = moles of solute means moles per liter (not just liter of solution moles). You must be very careful to distinguish between moles and molarity. "Moles" measures the amount or quantity of material you have; "molarity" measures the concentration of that material. So when you're given a problem or some information that says the concentration of the solution is 0.1 M that means that it has 0.1 mole for every liter of solution; it does not mean that it is 0.1 moles. Please be sure to make that distinction. Normality When you need to compare solutions on the basis of concentration of specific ions or the amount of charge that the ions have, a different measure of concentration can be very useful. It is called normality. We will deal with normality more completely in the lesson on acid-base titrations and give it just a cursory mention in this lesson. For that reason you can ignore objectives 6-9 and examples 13-17 in your workbook for this lesson. The normality of a solution is simply a multiple of the molarity of the solution. Generally, the normality of a solution is just one, two or three times the molarity. In rare cases it can be four, five, six or even seven times as much. The symbol for normality is N or N. Whether the multiplying factor is one, two or three depends on the 2+ formula of the chemical and what it CaCl2 Ca + 2 Cl is being compared to. Note that 1 M CaCl2 = 2 N CaCl2 calcium chloride has two moles of 2.4 M CaCl2 = 4.8 N CaCl2 chloride ions for every mole of etc. CaCl2. Because of that, the multiplying factor for calcium chloride is two. AlCl3 Similarly, for aluminum chloride the multiplying factor is three. Al + 3 Cl
3+ -

MOLE FRACTION The concentration of a solution refers to the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent. There are many ways to express, quantatively, the concentration of a solution. Some solution properties depend on the relative amounts of all the solution components in terms of moles. The mole fraction of a solution component Xi is the fraction of moles of component i of the total number of moles of all components in solution. moles of component i Xi = -----------------------total moles of solution The mole fraction is: moles of target substance divided by total moles involved The symbol for the mole fraction is the lower-case Greek letter chi, . You will often see it with a subscript: solute is an example. Example #1: 0.100 mole of NaCl is dissolved into 100.0 grams of pure H2O. What is the mole fraction of NaCl? Solution: 1 100.0 g / 18.0 g mol¯ = 5.56 mol of H2O Add that to the 0.100 mol of NaCl = 5.56 + 0.100 = 5.66 mol total Mole fraction of NaCl = 0.100 mol / 5.66 mol = 0.018 What is the mole fraction of the H2O? 5.56 mol / 5.66 mol = 0.982

pH
Problem #1: A weak acid has a pKa of 3.994 and the solution pH is 4.523. What percentage of the acid is dissociated? A comment before discussing the solution: note that the pKa is given, rather than the Ka. The first thing we will need to do is convert the pKa to the Ka. Then, the two values we need to obtain to solve the problem + given just above are [H ], which is pretty easy and [HA], which is only a tiny bit more involved. Solution: 1) Convert pKa to Ka: 3.994 4 ¯pK = 1.0139 x 10¯ Ka = 10 a = 10¯ Often the identity of the weak acid is not specified. That is because, with few exceptions, all weak acids behave in the same way and so the same techniques can be used no matter what acid is used in the problem. In cases where no acid is identified, you can use a generic weak acid, signified by the formula HA. Here is the dissociation equation for HA: + H + A¯ <===> HA Here is the equilibrium expression for that dissociation: + Ka = ([H ] [A¯]) / [HA] + 2) The pH will give [H ] (and the [A¯]): + pH 4.523 5 [H ] = 10¯ = 10¯ = 3.00 x 10¯ M Because of the 1:1 molar ratio in the above equation, we know that + 5 [A¯] = [H ] = 3.00 x 10¯ M. 3) This means that the only value left is [HA], so we will use the equilibrium expression to calculate [HA]. 4 5 5 1.0139 x 10¯ = [(3.00 x 10¯ ) (3.00 x 10¯ )] / x 5 x = 8.88 x 10¯ M + 4) Percent dissociation for an acid is [H ] / [HA] and then times 100. 5 5 3.00 x 10¯ / 8.88 x 10¯ = 33.8% Problem #2: A solution of acetic acid (Ka = 1.77 x 10¯ ) has a pH of 2.876. What is the percent dissociation? Solution: + 1) Calculate the [H ] from the pH: + pH 2.876 3 [H ] = 10¯ = 10¯ = 1.33 x 10¯ M 2) From the 1:1 stoichiometry of the chemical equation, we know that + the acetate ion concentration, [Ac¯] equals the [H ]. Therefore, 3 [Ac¯] = 1.33 x 10¯ M 3) We need to determine [HAc], the acetic acid concentration. We use the Ka expression to determine this value: 5 3 3 1.77 x 10¯ = [(1.33 x 10¯ ) (1.33 x 10¯ )] / x x = 0.09993 M = 0.100 M 4) Percent dissociation: 3 (1.33 x 10¯ / 0.100) times 100 = 1.33% Comment: the first example is somewhat artifical, in that the percent dissocation is quite high. The second example is more in line with what teachers usually ask. The usual percent dissociation answer is
5

1 M AlCl3 = 3 N AlCl3 2.4 M AlCl3 = 7.2 N AlCl3 etc.

Hopefully, this gives you an idea of the nature and value of normality and its relationship to molarity. As mentioned earlier, it will be covered in more detail in the lesson involving acid-base titrations.

between 1 and 5 per cent. However, the 33.8% answer, while not commonly found in introductory chemistry classes, is possible. Problem #3: A generic weak acid (formula = HA) has a pKa of 4.401. If the solution pH is 3.495, what percentage of the acid is undissociated? Solution: 1) Convert pKa to Ka: 5 Ka = 10¯pKa = 10¯4.401 = 3.97 x 10¯ + 2) The pH gives [H ] (and the [A¯]): + pH 3.495 4 [H ] = 10¯ = 10¯ = 3.20 x 10¯ M 3) Determine the concentration of the weak acid: + Ka = ([H ] [A¯]) / [HA] 5 4 4 3.97 x 10¯ = [(3.20 x 10¯ ) (3.20 x 10¯ )] / x x = 0.00258 M 4) Determine percent dissociation: 4 3.20 x 10¯ / 0.00258 = 12.4% 5) Determine percent undissociated: 100 - 12.4 = 87.6% Comment: the calculation technique discussed above determines the percent dissociation. Notice that the above problem asks for the percent undissociated. Be aware! The problem above goes one step beyond what is normally taught. This might show up as a test question. Problem #4: A weak acid has a pKa of 4.289. If the solution pH is 3.202, what percentage of the acid is dissociated? Solution: 1) Convert pKa to Ka: 5 Ka = 10¯pKa = 10¯4.289 = 5.14 x 10¯ + 2) The pH gives [H ] (and the [A¯]): + pH 3.202 4 [H ] = 10¯ = 10¯ = 6.28 x 10¯ M 3) Determine the concentration of the weak acid: + Ka = ([H ] [A¯]) / [HA] 5 4 4 5.14 x 10¯ = [(6.28 x 10¯ ) (6.28 x 10¯ )] / x x = 0.00767284 M (kept a few guard digits on this one 4) Determine percent dissociation: 4 6.28 x 10¯ / 0.00767284 = 8.2% pOH

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