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Designing Teaching and

Learning 2019

Assessment 2
Lesson Plan Analysis
Lesson 1 – Bin Liners

Sarah Hassan 18416682

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Table of Contents
1.0 Lesson Plan Analysis ……………..…………………………………… 3

2.0 Modified Lesson Plan …………………………………………………. 5

3.0 Academic Justification ………………………………………………… 8

4.0 Learning Portfolio Web Link ………………………………………….. 10

5.0 References ..…………………………………………………………….. 11

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1.0 Lesson Plan Analysis

102086 Designing Teaching and Learning

Assessment 2: QT Analysis

1 Intellectual quality
1.1Deep knowledge
1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Comments: The lesson facilitated discussions outlining why the topic is of importance and its
relevance is presented throughout the lesson. This allows for key concepts to be covered, with
all syllabus outcomes being identified.

1.2 Deep understanding

1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Comments: Deep understanding of the topic being taught is being achieved, as the students
demonstrate their knowledge through the use of discussion and self-directed activities.

1.3 Problematic knowledge

1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Comments: Class discussions allowed for individual perspectives and ideas to be shared.
The activity also involved questioning of their basic assumptions and knowledge.

1.4 Higher-order thinking

1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Comments: Students primarily present low order thinking a good portion of the lesson.
However at least one question in the discussion, and one activity which most students
demonstrate high-order thinking

1.5 Metalanguage
1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Comments: Some use of metalanguage at the beginning of the lesson, where the teacher
explains key terms such as polyethylene, which is relevant to the topic being taught.

1.6 Substantive communication

1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Comments: Substantive communication among students and/or between teacher and student
occurs throughout the lesson and involves at least half of the lesson. The teacher is
continuously facilitating discussions.

2 Quality learning environment

2.1 Explicit quality criteria
1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Comments: The teacher provides a criteria for what is to be met in the class activity, where the
teacher and students monitor and examine the quality of their work.

2.2 Engagement
1–2–3–4–5 Comments: All students were deeply involved with the discussions and class activity
provided, almost throughout the entirety of the lesson.

2.3 High expectations

1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Comments: most students were encouraged to participate in challenging tasks and to take risks
as part of the task. They were recognised for their work and effort.

2.4 Social support

1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Comments: Social support was strong in the classroom, as the teacher provided supportive
comments and feedback and encouraged all ideas presented by the students.

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2.5 Students’ self-regulation
1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Comments: All students almost all of the time demonstrate autonomy and initiative when
participating in the class activity, where they were encouraged to establish their own creative

2.6 Student direction

1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Comments: substantial student direction, as the students had the flexibility to create their own
work using their own ideas. However, the task was initiated by the teacher.

3 Significance
3.1 Background knowledge
1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Comments: Students background knowledge is consistently presented in the class discussions,
where they were able to make connections to out-of-school experiences and knowledge.

3.2 Cultural Knowledge

1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Comments: Vague and superficial cultural knowledge was presented in the class, where they
only addressed some aspects of plastic bag use.

3.3 Knowledge integration

1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Comments: The lesson provided no opportunity for knowledge integration between other
KLA’s of subjects, all knowledge was strictly based on science and the topic of plastic bag

3.4 Inclusivity
1–2–3–4–5 Comments: In most aspects of the lesson, student inclusion was minor or trivial in comparison
to other groups. Paired activity may have encouraged the pairing of students of higher ability
relative to others.

3.5 Connectedness
1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Comments: Students recognise and explore connections between classroom knowledge and
out-of-school knowledge, in ways that create personal meaning through personal experiences,
in ways which encourage students to limit the use of plastic bags.

3.6 Narrative
1–2–3–4–5 Comments: Narrative is not used throughout the lesson. The students were not given many
opportunities to apply personal scenarios to the lesson.

Identifying Areas for Improvement

QT model
1) Cultural Knowledge 2) Inclusivity
3) Knowledge integration 4) Narrative

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2.0 Modified Lesson Plan
Science Lesson Plan – Bin Liners

Syllabus: Science Stage of Learner: Stage 4 Topic Area: Earth and Space

Outcomes Assessment Students learn about Students learn to

SC4-13E Explains how Informal formative ES3 Scientific Classify a range of the
advances in scientific assessment. knowledge influence the Earth’s resources as
understanding of choices people make in renewable or non-
processes that occur regard to the use and renewable.
within and on the earth management of the
influence the choices Earth’s resources. Investigate some
people make about strategies used by people
resource use and to conserve and manage
management. Non-renewable resources,
e.g. recycling and the
alternative use of natural
and made resources.

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Time Teaching and Learning Actions
Lesson Preliminaries/Administration
5 min • Settle students into the classroom
• Mark the roll

Direct instruction
10 • Welcome students and remind them of the topic
mins • Introduce students to high density polyethylene as a non-renewable resource used to
make plastic bags
• Key ideas for the lesson are cause and effect with questions being “why do we use so
many plastic bags in Australia?” And “what is the effect on the environment?”
• Another key idea is solutions with questions being “what have governments done to
solve problems caused by plastic bags?” And “what can citizens do to solve problems
caused by plastic bags?”
• Give overview of activity:
• Designing renewable alternatives to plastic bags using newspapers
Teachers will show students a design and they will improve that design
• Give overview of thinking tools to be used:
• Think-pair-share
• Cause-effect map
• Pros-Cons-Questions

Think-Pair-Share Activity
10 • Give students true/false statements worksheet with questions like “the Average plastic
mins bag is used for only 5 minutes but can take up to 1,000 years to break down in the
• Students have 2 minutes to individually answer the questions (think).
• Students then have 1 minute to discuss their responses with the student sitting next to
them (pair).
• Teacher will then lead class discussion based on worksheets for 5 minutes (share)

In the ‘share’ component of this activity, students are advised to share their personal
experiences of plastic bag use with the class rather than only with the person next to them. i.e
how they are used or not used in their homes and lifestyles, and to give real-life scenarios
where plastic bags can be replaced.

Get the students to ‘think’ about the difference between western science and indigenous
knowledge, and how the use of plastic bags were non-existent in the Aboriginal culture before
western civilisation.

After the class discussion is over, allocate the students into groups of approximately 3-4 people
rather than pairs, and provide each group with a specific real life scenario.
Students are to discuss how the government and the citizens can solve the problems that arise
within the scenarios, and share their answers with the class in their groups.

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Cause-Effect Mapping Activity
10 • Give students cause-effect map worksheets
mins • Students have 2 minutes to think of as many reasons for why we use so many plastic
bags in Australia
• Go around the class to check student understanding. Highlight the link between the
causes identified and the production of high density polythene bags.
• Students have 2 minutes to list as many sub-effects of the production and use of plastic
bags. Circulate to assist students.

Rather than relying on students volunteering to answer the questions, the teacher could ask
each student to give one reason why the use of plastic bags are high in Australia. This will help
to ensure that all students get involved and share their ideas rather than relying on those who
continue to answer all the questions.

Direct Instruction
5 • Teacher to show students how to construct a biodegradable bin liner by folding 4 sheets
mins of newspaper. The bin liner will fit into the teacher’s waste-paper basket.

Pros-Cons Activity
5 • Teacher invites students to highlight the pros and cons of the biodegradable bin liners.

Student-Centred Activity
15 • Students to identify ways to improve the non liners using the MAS sheet.
• Students to work in pairs to refine the newspaper bin liners. Circulate around the room
to assist students.
• Students demonstrate their improved designs to the teachers, using the teacher’s waster
paper basket as a test.
• Teacher to encourage peer support during demonstrations.
• Summarise and close the lesson.

Before closing the lesson, allow students to reflect on what they have learnt and have a brief,
informal discussion on how this topic can be applied to other subjects in school, (e.g.
Geography), and how it is important to apply what they have learnt, to their everyday lives
outside of the classroom.

How am I measuring the outcomes of this lesson?

Learning Outcome Method of measurement and recording

SC3-13ES Informal questioning of student understanding as the lesson progresses.

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3.0 Academic Justification
The science lesson plan presented was ambiguous was clear, concise and comprised of both substation and
insubstantial elements which were analysed using the NSW Quality Teaching (QT) model. This was used to
support or critique the teachers method of teaching and learning in the classroom. Despite being a well
thought-out lesson, there were some elements of the QT that needed improving. These four areas were;
cultural knowledge, inclusivity, knowledge integration and narrative.

Cultural knowledge is defined as the ability to integrate ideas of acceptance of diversity. This includes
accepting other traditions, religions, beliefs, skills, knowledge and practices of diverse social groups. An
aspect of cultural knowledge which has be integrated in the modified lesson plan is the encouragement of
sharing personal experiences with the class. Here, students are able to understand that people use plastic in
different ways, and some households, lifestyles and cultures discourage it. Providing students with this
knowledge has been proven to increase student interest, engagement and learning. Also, by integrating
Indigenous cultural knowledge in the lesson plan, students are able to think beyond their daily lives and
explore what it would have been like for Indigenous Australians before the introduction of plastic bags. As a
result of exploring different cultures and world views, students establish intercultural understanding, as they
are taught to value other peoples traditions and beliefs (Cobern, 1996). The Australian Curriculum
Assessment and Reporting Authority (2012, p.14), argues that there are plenty of opportunities to integrate
intercultural understanding. This will allow students to learn and appreciate the contributions made by
diverse cultural perspectives within the scope of science.

Inclusivity in the classroom is defined as the participation of all students and groups in the discussions and
group work presented in class. Although the teacher did provide positivity to students and valued their
contributions, there were many students who were overtaken by higher achieving students and those who
possess confidence to present ideas and answer questions. Therefore, in order to enhance inclusivity in this
lesson plan, the teacher is advised to ask each individual to contribute and give one answer as to why plastic
bag usage is prevalent in Australia, rather than relying on students volunteering to answer the questions. By
encouraging student participation, studies have found that this will ultimately enhance student academic
achievement, and increase confidence (Barnard, 2014). Also, inclusivity in the classroom has been regarded
as a “push” for under achieving students to reach the same level as the rest of the class, as well as it being a
means to “maximise potential” (Scanlon and Baker, 2012). Another modification made to the lesson plan
was to incorporate group work. The implementation of group work in the classroom has been found to be a
more effective strategy of teaching, as opposed to traditional teaching techniques (Karim, 2015). Benefits of
this method of teaching is not only that students have the opportunity to express their ideas, but also are
encourage to respect and accept the opinion of others in the group. This can be achieved as the teacher
expresses these qualities,, the students will then reciprocate this behaviour amongst each other (Shevlin,
Michael and Rose, 2010).

Knowledge integration is the application of other subject areas, where students are able to apply appropriate
background knowledge to enhance their learning experience. In saying this, the learning guide lacked in this
area as the class was solely focused on science. As preciously mentioned, the modified learning guide
addresses the aspect of cultural knowledge by integrating Indigenous Australian history into their content.
The application of knowledge integration has been proven to enhance student learning within several subject
areas, as they are able to apply their knowledge into other learning areas. This application will significantly
improve the understanding of the content being taught.

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Narrative was another poorly executed element of the QT model, as the teacher provided little to no
narratives or scenarios in the class. The use of narratives is important in order for the students to be able to
visualise the content being taught. For this reason, the modified lesson plan included the use of real-life
scenarios provided by the teacher, whereby the students were asked to discuss with the class in their groups,
ways in which the government and citizens can solve the problems which arise in the scenarios. The use of
narratives has shown that it significantly improves the issue of disengagement with science in particular.
This is because narrative use explores alternative options of communicating the content (Avraamidou and
Osborne, 2009). In saying this, using narrative as a mode of teaching in the classroom serves the purpose of
understanding the world and allows the students to invent new ideas and concepts of the narration (Prins,
Avraamidou and Goedhart, 2017).

Overall, this lesson plan has been modified to improve on cultural knowledge, inclusivity, knowledge
integration and narrative within the classroom. While making these modifications, it is crucial to ensure that
student engagement and encouragement was maintained throughout the lesson.

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4.0 Portfolio Link

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5.0 References

Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2012). General capabilities in the Australian
Curriculum. Intercultural Understanding, Sydney, Australia

Avraamidou, L., & Osborne, J. (2009). The role of narrative in science education. International Journal of
Science Education, 31, 1–25.

Barnard-Brak, L., Wei, T., Schmidt, M., & Sheffield, R. (2014). Inclusivity in the Classroom and
International Achievement in Mathematics and Science: An Exploratory Study. International Journal
Of Educational Reform, 23(2), 116-132. doi: 10.1177/105678791402300202

Cobern, W.W. (1996). Worldview theory and conceptual change in Science Education. Science Education,
Vol 80, pp 579-610.

Gondwe, M., & Longnecker, N. (2014). Scientific and Cultural Knowledge in Intercultural Science
Education: Student Perceptions of Common Ground. Research In Science Education, 45(1), 117-
147. doi: 10.1007/s11165-014-9416-z


Language, Literature And Teaching, 12(1), 97-106. doi: 10.30957/lingua.v12i1.74

Prins, R., Avraamidou, L., & Goedhart, M. (2017). Tell me a Story: the use of narrative as a learning tool
for natural selection. Educational Media International, 54(1), 20-33. doi:

Rose, R., & Shevlin, M. (2010). Count me in!. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Scanlon, D., & Baker, D. (2012). An Accommodations Model for the Secondary Inclusive Classroom.
Learning Disability Quarterly, 35(4), 212-224. doi: 10.1177/0731948712451261

Scanlon, D. (2003). Learning strategies expected in content-area inclusion. Developmental Disabilities

Bulletin, 31, 11–41.

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