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# 1

Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 1
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
Aim:
The major steps in the Finite Element Method is
presented as a matrix method for the exact
solution of a one-dimensional rod example and a
two-dimensional truss example.
Aim
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 2
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
The basic steps in the finite element solution process
is shown below.
Overall process
Element formulation
Assemble element
quantities to global
vectors and matrices
Solve primary variable
in global system of
equations
Identify global
variables to element
dofs and compute
secondary variables
Identify global
to local
Identify local
to global
vectors and
matrices
Element
deformation
Solution
procedures are
not discussed
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 3
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
Illustration of discrete system
The assembly procedure is shown for discretesystem in order to
illustrate the notations used .
Equilibriumof two-spring system.
Free Body Diagram
u
1
k
1
F
k
2
u
2
P
k
1
F
k
2
P
( )
1 2 2
u u k − 1 1
u k
R
( )
1 2 2
u u k −
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 4
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
Illustration of discrete system
The assembly procedure is shown for discretesystem in order to
illustrate the notations used .
Equilibriumequation for nodes
F P
( )
1 2 2
u u k − 1 1
u k ( )
1 2 2
u u k −
( ) F u u k u k · − −
1 2 2 1 1
( ) P u u k · −
1 2 2
]
]
]

·
]
]
]

]
]
]

− +
P
F
u
u
k k
k k k
2
1
2 2
2 2 1
Internal force
from element 1 to
node 1
Internal force
from element 2 to
node 1
F KU ·
Later we will see that this
is an assembly of element
stiffnesses
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 5
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
1D rod example
x,u
fx=ρg [N/ m
3
]
L
T
xQ xP
Q P
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 x,u
Split into 4 equal
sized elements
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 6
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
Find stiffness matrix of element by exact solution
1D rod example
x, u, f
u
1
, f
1
u
2
, f
2
1 2
EA, L
L
u u
AE AEe A f f
1 2
2 1

· · · · − σ
]
]
]

]
]
]

·
]
]
]

2
1
2
1
1 1
1 1
u
u
L
EA
f
f
2
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 7
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
Element analysis – systematic formulation
1D rod example
( )
( ) ( )
Nu ·
]
]
]

]
]
]

− −
·
2
1 1 2
u
u
L
x x
L
x x
x u
]
]
]

·

1
1
L
T
s B
s
e ]
]
]

·
2
1
u
u
u
]
]
]

·
2
1
f
f
ext
f
E
[ ] Bu ·
]
]
]

− · ·
2
1
1 1
1
u
u
L dx
du
e
]
]
]

1 1
1 1
L
EA
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 8
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
A note
The Tonti diagram for the continuum equations
has and in the finite element
formulation for the geometric relations.
However, in the equilibrium relation
becomes for the finite element
formulation.
The disappearing minus is due to the fact that the fe-formulation gives the
effect of the stresses inside the element on the nodes. These forces balances
the external forces on the nodes.
The integral in the fe-formulation is due to the approximation, we fulfill
equilibrium in an average sense.
1D rod example

L
T
s
T
∇ −
u e ∇ · Bu · e
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 9
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
x
=Aρg
1D rod example
x, u
u
1
, f
1
u
2
, f
2
1 2
EA, L
2
2 1
gL A
f f
ext ext
ρ
· ·
equal to nodes (EbE) and
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 10
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
Identification of global to local notations
Use same node numbers and equations numbers .
1D rod example
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4
1 2
e
Elements
e
Nodes
1 2
1 1 2
2 2 3
3 3 4
4 4 5
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 11
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
1D rod example
The assembling procedure consists in an identification
between notations on element level (element number and
local node number) and on global level (equation number)
1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5
1 EA, L 2
2
1

1 1
1 1
2 1
ext 2
1
2
1
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
·
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
]
]
]

f
f
q
q
L
EA
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
·
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

5
4
3
5
4
3
2
1
5 . 0
5 . 0
1 1
1 1
F
F
F AgL
U
U
U
U
U
L
EA
ρ
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 12
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
1D rod example
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
+
·
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

− + −

5
4
5
4
3
2
1
5 . 0
5 . 0 5 . 0
5 . 0
1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1
F
F
AgL
U
U
U
U
U
L
EA
ρ
3
2

1 1
1 1
3 2
2
1
2
1
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
·
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
]
]
]

f
f
u
u
L
EA
1 EA, L 2
1 1 2 2 3 3
3
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 13
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
1D rod example
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
·
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

− + −
− + −
− + −

5 . 0
1
1
1
5 . 0
1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1
5
4
3
2
1
AgL
U
U
U
U
U
L
EA
ρ
What happens if we have ordered the node numbers 1,5,2,3,4 ?
Howcan the point loads Q and P be applied?
1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 14
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
1D rod example
1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5
F
2 ( )
1 2
U U
L
EA

( )
2 3
U U
L
EA

( ) ( )
2 2 3 1 2
F U U
L
EA
U U
L
EA
· − − −
Nodal equilibriumfor node2 gives
Interpretation of assembly process
as summation of contributions to nodal equilibriumequations
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 15
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
1D rod example
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
·
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

− + −
− + −
− + −

5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1
F
F
F
F
F
U
U
U
U
U
L
EA
Interpretation of assembly process
as summation of contributions to nodal equilibriumequations
( ) ( )
2 2 3 1 2
F U U
L
EA
U U
L
EA
· − − −
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 16
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
1D rod example
Not possible to invert matrix, no unique solution
due to rigid body motion
Properties of K
Real, symmetric but not yet positive definite
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
·
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

− + −
− + −
− + −

5 . 0
1
1
1
5 . 0
1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1
5
4
3
2
1
AgL
U
U
U
U
U
L
EA
ρ
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 17
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
1D rod example
Unknown reaction force, fixed node δ
δ ρ
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹−

¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
·
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
]
]
]
]
]
]

− + −
− + −
− +
0
0
0
1
5 . 0
1
1
1
1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1
5
4
3
2
L
EA
AgL
U
U
U
U
L
EA
Now the matix is symmetric and positive definite.
First solve unknown displacements and thereafter
the unknown reaction force.
( )
1 2
2
R
AgL
U
L
EA
+ · −
ρ
δ
Unknown
reaction forces
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 18
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
1D rod example
Unknown reaction force, fixed node δ=0
Now the matrix is symmetric and positive definite.
First solve unknown displacements and thereafter
the unknown reaction force.
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
·
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
]
]
]
]
]
]

− + −
− + −
− +
5 . 0
1
1
1
1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1
5
4
3
2
AgL
U
U
U
U
L
EA
ρ
1 2
2
R
AgL
U
L
EA
+ · −
ρ
4
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 19
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
1D rod example
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
·
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
16
15
12
7
2
2
5
4
3
2
E
gL
U
U
U
U
ρ
Solution is
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 20
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
1D rod example
Exact solution
Nodal displacements
E
gL
2
ρ
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 21
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
1D rod example
Reaction forces can be found from element contributions.
(only one element contributes in this example) but here we
use the globla equations. However, here it is only one
element that contributes to the reaction force so both variants
look the same.
Mg AgL
AgL AgL
R
AgL
U
L
EA
R
· − · − − ·
− − ·
ρ
ρ ρ
ρ
4
2 2
7
2
1
2 1
The total weight is
the reaction force
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 22
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
1D rod example
The strain and stress can be computed in every element. The
element relations (1 and 2 are local nodenumbers )
Element 1
ε σ
ε
E
L
u u
·

· ·
1 2
Bu
( )
A
Mg gL
E
E
gL
E
gL
Bu
8
7
2
7
2
7
0 7
2
· · ·
· − · ·
ρ
ε σ
ρ ρ
ε
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 23
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
1D rod example
Element 2
Element 3
Element 4
( )
A
Mg gL
E
E
gL
E
gL
Bu
8
5
2
5
2
5
7 12
2
· · ·
· − · ·
ρ
ε σ
ρ ρ
ε
A
Mg
E
E
gL
8
3

2
3
· · · ε σ
ρ
ε
A
Mg
E
E
gL
8

2
1
· · · ε σ
ρ
ε
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 24
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
1D rod example
A
Mg
Lg
4
· ρ
Exact solution
Nodal average stress
5
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 25
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
Solve deformation and stresses for truss below
2D truss example
P
EA
L 2
EA, L
1
2 3
1
2
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 26
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
2D truss example
Global equation numbers
1
2 3
2
1
3
4
5
6
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 27
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
Element, local equation numbers
2D rod example
]
]
]
]
]
]

·
]
]
]
]
]
]

4
3
2
1
2
2
1
1
v
u
v
u
u
1
, f
x1
u
2
, f
x2
1
2
EA, L
v
1
, f
y1
v
2
, f
y2
θ
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 28
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
Identification of global to local notations
Element 1
2D rod example
1
2
2
1
3
4
5
1
2
2
1
1
4
3
2
1
4
3
2
1
ID ·
]
]
]
]
]
]

]
]
]
]
]
]

·
]
]
]
]
]
]

v
u
v
u
2
1
1
2 3
2
1
3
4
5
6
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 29
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
Identification of global to local notations
Element 2
2D rod example
2
3
4
5
2
2
2
1
1
4
3
6
5
4
3
2
1
ID ·
]
]
]
]
]
]

]
]
]
]
]
]

·
]
]
]
]
]
]

v
u
v
u
2 3
4 6
2
1
1
2 3
2
1
3
4
5
6
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 30
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
Find stiffness matrix of element by exact solution
2D truss example
x, u, f
x
y, v, f
y
u
1
, f
x1
u
2
, f
x2
1
2
EA, L
v
1
, f
y1
v
2
, f
y2
6
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 31
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
Find stiffness matrix of element by exact solution
2D truss example
u
1
, f
x1
u
2
, f
x2
1
2
EA, L
v
1
, f
y1
v
2
, f
y2
θ
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 32
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
Find stiffness matrix of element by exact solution
Axial strain
2D truss example
u
1
u
2
1
2
v
1
v
2
θ
u
a2
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) θ θ ε
θ θ
θ θ
sin cos
sin cos
sin cos
1 2 1 2 1 2
2 2 2
1 1 1
L
v v
L
u u
L
u u
v u u
v u u
a a
a
a

+

·

·

¹
'
¹
+ ·
+ ·
( ) θ cos
1
u
( ) θ sin
1
v
( ) θ cos
2
u
( ) θ sin
2
v
u
a1
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 33
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
Find stiffness matrix of element by exact solution
Axial force from axial strain
2D truss example
[ ]
( ) ( ) θ θ
ε σ
sin cos
2
2
1
1
· ·
]
]
]
]
]
]

− − · · ·
s c
v
u
v
u
s c s c
L
AE
AE A N
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 34
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
Find stiffness matrix of element by exact solution
Forces at 2
nd
node
and we must have equilibrium so that
2D truss example
u
2
, f
x2
2
1 2
1 2
y y
x x
f f
f f
− ·
− ·
v
2
, f
y2
N=Eaδ/L
f
x2
f
y2
The total force must be along
axis as the rod can not
( )
( ) θ
θ
sin
cos
2
2
N f
N f
y
x
·
·
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 35
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
Find stiffness matrix of element by exact solution
Thus we have
2D truss example
[ ]
]
]
]
]
]
]

− −
]
]
]
]
]
]

·
]
]
]
]
]
]

·
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

2
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
v
u
v
u
s c s c
s
c
s
c
L
AE
N
s
c
s
c
f
f
f
f
y
x
y
x
]
]
]
]
]
]

]
]
]
]
]
]
]

− −
− −
− −
− −
·
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

2
2
1
1
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
2
1
1
v
u
v
u
s cs s cs
cs c cs c
s cs s cs
cs c cs c
L
AE
f
f
f
f
y
x
y
x
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 36
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
Element analysis – systematic formulation
2D rod example
s
e
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

·
2
2
1
1
y
x
y
x
ext
f
f
f
f
f
E
[ ] Bu u · − − · s c s c
L
1
ε
]
]
]
]
]
]

·
2
2
1
1
v
u
v
u
u
]
]
]
]
]
]

·

s
c
s
c
L
T
σ s B
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

− −
− −
− −
− −
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
s cs s cs
cs c cs c
s cs s cs
cs c cs c
L
AE
7
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 37
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
The ID vector can automate
the assembly process
2D truss example
Assembly of first element stiffness matrix
2 3
2
3
4
5
6
( ) ( )
[ ]

4
3
2
1

1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
2
1
2
4 3 2 1
2 / 1 45 sin 45 cos 45
1
2
2
1
1
1
]
]
]
]
]
]

·
]
]
]
]
]
]

]
]
]
]
]
]

− −
− −
− −
− −
·
·
· · ⇒ ·
ID
ID
v
u
v
u
L
AE
k
T
o o o
θ
What happens if the upper node is given as first node of element 1?
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 38
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
2D truss example
Assembly of first element stiffness matrix
[ ]

4
3
2
1

1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
2
1
2
4 3 2 1
1
2
2
1
1
1
]
]
]
]
]
]

·
]
]
]
]
]
]

]
]
]
]
]
]

− −
− −
− −
− −
·
·
ID
ID
v
u
v
u
L
AE
k
T
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

− −
− −
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
L
EA
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 39
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
2D truss example
Assembly of second element stiffness matrix
2 3
2
3
4
5
6
( ) ( )
[ ]

4
3
6
5

0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
4 3 6 5
0 0 sin 1 0 cos 0
2
2
2
1
1
2
]
]
]
]
]
]

·
]
]
]
]
]
]

]
]
]
]
]
]

·
·
· · ⇒ ·
ID
ID
v
u
v
u
L
AE
k
T
o o o
θ
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 40
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
2D truss example
Assembly of second element stiffness matrix
[ ]

4
3
6
5

0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
4 3 6 5
2
2
2
1
1
2
]
]
]
]
]
]

·
]
]
]
]
]
]

]
]
]
]
]
]

·
·
ID
ID
v
u
v
u
L
AE
k
T
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

− +
− −
− −
0
0 1
0 0
2 2
1
0 1
2 2
1
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
L
EA
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 41
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
2D truss example
Global system
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

·
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

− −
− + − −
− −
− −
4
3
2
1
4
3 0
0
0
0
0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1 0 0
0 0
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
0 1
2 2
1
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
0 0
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
0 0
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
R
R
P
R
R
U
U
L
EA
Fixed displacement
no 1,2, 5 and 6 with
unknown reactions
assembled directly
This matrix can not be inverted due to
rigid body motion in solution – there is no
unique solution
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 42
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
2D truss example
Global system
]
]
]

·
]
]
]

]
]
]
]
]
]

+
P U
U
L
EA 0
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
1
2 2
1
4
3
( )
]
]
]

+ −
·
]
]
]

2 2 1
1
4
3
EA
PL
U
U
]
]
]
]
]
]

·
]
]
]
]
]
]

·
]
]
]

]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

− −
− −
4
3
2
1
4
3
0
0 0
0 1
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
R
R
R
R
P
P
P
U
U
L
EA
P
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
8
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 43
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
2D truss example
It is now possible to take the compute
displacements and find the axial deformation,
strain and stresses in the two elements using the
previous derived element relations
[ ]
( ) ( ) θ θ
ε σ
sin cos
2
2
1
1
· ·
]
]
]
]
]
]

− − · · ·
s c
v
u
v
u
s c s c
L
AE
AE A N
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 44
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
2D truss example
Element 1
( ) ( )
[ ]
( ) [ ] 2 2 1 1 0 0
4 3 2 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1

2 / 1 45 sin 45 cos 45
1
+ − ·
⇒ ·
]
]
]

− − ·
⇒ · · ⇒ ·
EA
PL
L
T
T
u
ID
B
o o o
θ
( )
P
P
EA AE A N
2
2
2 2 1
2
1
2

1
·

,
`

.
| +

· · · · Bu ε σ
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 45
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
2D truss example
Element 2
( ) ( )
[ ]
[ ]
( ) [ ] 2 2 1 1 0 0
4 3 6 5
0 1 0 1
1

0 0 sin 1 0 cos 0
2
+ − ·
⇒ ·
− ·
⇒ · · ⇒ ·
EA
PL
L
T
T
u
ID
B
o o o
θ
( ) P P
EA AE A N
− · −
· · · ·
1 0
2
Bu ε σ
Direct FE
formulation
2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 46
Discretisation
Element analysis
Assembly
Solution
Element analysis
End
END

Direct FE formulation Discretisation Element analysis Assembly Solution Element analysis 1D rod example Element analysis – systematic formulation  (x − x) u(x )=  2  L  u  = N u  2  − 1 T B s Adx = A σ    f1  1  f ext =    f2  L EA  1 L − 1  −1  1   Direct FE formulation Discretisation Element analysis Assembly Solution Element analysis 1D rod example A note The Tonti diagram for the continuum equations has e = ∇ u and e = Bu in the finite element formulation for the geometric relations. The integral in the fe-formulation is due to the approximation. Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 8 Direct FE formulation Discretisation Element analysis Assembly Solution Element analysis 1D rod example Determine nodal due to distributed load f x =Aρg Direct FE formulation Discretisation 1D rod example Identification of global to local notations Use same node numbers and equations numbers . These forces balances the external forces on the nodes.5 + 0 .5  2        U 3  = ρ AgL  0. ( x − x1 )  u 1  ∫ s L E e e = du 1 u  = [− 1 1] 1  = Bu dx L u 2  2004-01-16 u  u =  1 u 2  Prof.5     F  U4 4     U 5   F5      The assembling procedure consists in an identification between notations on element level (element number and local node number) and on global level (equation number) Prof. L 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 Direct FE formulation 1 1 2 1D rod example 1 EA. The disappearing minus is due to the fact that the fe-formulation gives the effect of the stresses inside the element on the nodes. Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 9 Prof.L 2 3 2 3 Discretisation Element analysis Assembly Solution Element analysis 1 2 1 2 EA  1 − 1  q1   f 1     =   L − 1 1   q2   f 2  ext Discretisation Element analysis Assembly 2 3 EA  1 − 1  u1   f 1  2  =   L − 1 1  u 2   f 2  3   1  −1 EA   L     −1 1  U 1   0 . 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 1 EA.5      U 0 . f 2 A ρ gL = 2 The element load is lumped equal to nodes (EbE) and gives also consistent load Assembly Solution Element analysis 1 e f 1 ext = f 2 ext 2 Elements e 1 2 3 4 Nodes 12 12 23 34 45 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 7 Prof. we fulfill equilibrium in an average sense. L u 1.5   2        U 3  = ρ AgL  F3    F   U 4   4   F5   U 5      Solution Element analysis 1 −1  −1 1 +1 EA   −1 L     −1 1 U 1   0 . Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 11 Prof. However. u u 2. − ∇ T s in the equilibrium relation becomes∫ B T s A d x for the finite element L formulation. Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 10 Direct FE formulation 1 1D rod example 1 EA. f 1 2 Element analysis x. Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 12 .5      U 0 .

4 ? How can the point loads Q and P be applied ? EA (U 2 − U 1 )− EA (U 3 − U 2 ) = F2 L L Prof. First solve unknown displacements and thereafter the unknown reaction force.5      U 1  2         U 3  = ρ AgL  1     1 − 1 U 4      0 . fixed node δ=0 Discretisation 1D rod example 1 + 1 − 1  EA  − 1 1 + 1 − 1 L  −1 1 +1  −1   U 2  1  − 1       U 1 0   3  = ρ AgL   − EA  δ       − 1 U 4  1  L 0     0 .2. Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 16 Direct FE formulation Unknown reaction force.5  0  1  U 5        Unknown reaction forces Element analysis Assembly Solution Element analysis 1 + 1 − 1  U 2  1      U 1 EA  − 1 1 + 1 − 1   3  = ρ AgL       L  − 1 1 + 1 − 1 U 4  1    0 . fixed node δ Discretisation Element analysis Assembly Solution Element analysis 1D rod example Direct FE formulation Unknown reaction force.Direct FE formulation Discretisation 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 1D rod example Direct FE formulation Discretisation 1D rod example Interpretation of assembly process as summation of contributions to nodal equilibrium equations 4 5 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 Element analysis Assembly Solution Element analysis Element analysis 1 −1 − 1 1 + 1 − 1 EA   −1 1 +1 −1 L  −1 1 +1   −1   U 1   0 . Prof.5  −1 1  U 5       EA (δ − U 2 ) = ρ AgL + R1 L 2 − EA ρ AgL U = + R1 L 2 2 Now the matix is symmetric and positive definite. Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 15 Prof. Now the matrix is symmetric and positive definite.3. symmetric but not yet positive definite 1 −1  −1 1 +1 −1 EA   −1 1 +1 −1 L  −1 1 +1   −1   U 1    U  2     U 3  =  − 1 U 4    1  U 5     F1    F  2   F 3  F   4 F 5    Solution Element analysis 1 −1  −1 1 +1 −1 EA   −1 1 +1 −1 L  −1 1 +1   −1   U 1   0 . Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 17 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 13 Prof.5  1  U 5      Assembly Solution Element analysis EA (U 2 − U 1 ) L F2 EA (U 3 − U 2 ) L Nodal equilibrium for node2 gives What happens if we have ordered the node numbers 1. First solve unknown displacements and thereafter the unknown reaction force. Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 18 .5   U   1  2         U 3  = ρ AgL  1     1 − 1 U 4      0 . no unique solution due to rigid body motion Prof.5  1  U 5      Not possible to invert matrix.5. Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 14 Direct FE formulation Discretisation Element analysis Assembly Solution Element analysis 1D rod example Interpretation of assembly process as summation of contributions to nodal equilibrium equations Direct FE formulation Properties of K Discretisation Element analysis Assembly 1D rod example EA (U 2 − U 1 ) − EA (U 3 − U 2 ) = F2 L L Real.

The element relations (1 and 2 are local nodenumbers ) ε = Bu = σ = Eε Element 1 u2 − u1 L EA ρ AgL R1 = − U2 − L 2 7 ρ AgL ρAgL R1 = − − = − 4 ρAgL = Mg 2 2 The total weight is the reaction force ρ gL (7 − 0 ) = 7 ρ gL 2E 2E 7 ρ gL 7 Mg σ = Eε = = 2 8A ε = Bu = Prof.Direct FE formulation Solution is Discretisation Element analysis Assembly Solution Element analysis 1D rod example Direct FE formulation Discretisation Element analysis Assembly Solution Element analysis Exact solution 1D rod example U 2  7     2  U 3  ρ gL 12   =   2 E 15  U 4  U 5  16      ρgL 2 E Nodal displacements Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 19 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 23 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 20 Direct FE formulation Discretisation Element analysis Assembly Solution Element analysis 1D rod example Reaction forces can be found from element contributions. here it is only one element that contributes to the reaction force so both variants look the same. Direct FE formulation Discretisation Element analysis Assembly Solution Element analysis 1D rod example The strain and stress can be computed in every element. Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 22 Direct FE formulation Element 2 Discretisation Element analysis Assembly Solution Element analysis 1D rod example Direct FE formulation Discretisation Element analysis Assembly Solution Element analysis 1D rod example ρ gL (12 − 7 ) = 5 ρgL 2E 2E 5 ρ gL 5 Mg σ = Eε = = 2 8A ε = Bu = Element 3 ρLg = Mg 4A Exact solution Nodal average stress ε = 3ρ gL 2E 1ρ gL 2E σ = Eε = 3Mg 8A Element 4 ε = σ = Eε = Mg 8A Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 24 . Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 21 Prof. (only one element contributes in this example) but here we use the globla equations. However.

f x1 x. L y. Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 29 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 28 Direct FE formulation Discretisation Element analysis Assembly Solution Element analysis 2D rod example Identification of global to local notations Element 2 6 3 1 5 4 2 2 3 2 1 2 Direct FE formulation Discretisation 2D truss example Find stiffness matrix of element by exact solution 6 3 5 4 2 3 Element analysis Assembly Solution v2. f y2 2 Direct FE formulation Discretisation Element analysis 2D rod example Identification of global to local notations Element 1 4 2 5 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 3 6 3 5 4 2 3 u 2.Direct FE formulation Discretisation Element analysis Assembly Solution Element analysis 2D truss example Solve deformation and stresses for truss below Direct FE formulation Discretisation 2D truss example Global equation numbers 6 5 3 2 4 3 3 EA. f x2  u1 v  1 u 2   v2  1   2  =    3      4  Assembly Solution Element analysis EA. local equation numbers v2. u. L v1. f x2  u1   1  5 v  2    1  =   ⇔  6  = ID u 2   3  3        v2   4  4 1 Element analysis EA. f y2 2 u 2. f x1  u1   1  1 v  2    1  =   ⇔  2  = ID 1 u 2   3  3        v2   4  4 Prof. f y1 1 u 1. Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 27 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 26 Direct FE formulation Discretisation Element analysis Assembly Solution Element analysis 2D rod example Element. f x Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 30 . v. Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 25 Prof. f y1 1 θ u 1. L 2 2 Element analysis Assembly Solution Element analysis 2L EA 1 P 2 1 1 1 Prof. f y v1.

f x2 Assembly Solution Element analysis EA. f y2 Forces at 2 nd node 2 u 2. Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 33 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 34 Direct FE formulation Discretisation Element analysis Assembly Solution Element analysis 2D truss example Find stiffness matrix of element by exact solution Thus we have Direct FE formulation Discretisation 2D rod example Element analysis – systematic formulation − c  − s B T s Adx = Aσ   ∫  c  L    s   c2  AE  cs L − c 2   − cs  cs s2 − cs  f x1   − c  − c  f       y1  =  − s  N = AE  − s  [− c  fx2   c  L  c         f y2   s   s     f x1   c2 f    y1  = AE  cs  fx2  L − c 2     f y2   − cs    Prof. f y2 2 Direct FE formulation Discretisation Element analysis 2D truss example Find stiffness matrix of element by exact solution Axial strain v1 sin (θ u 2 cos (θ v 2 sin (θ ) ) u a2 v2 2 u 2.Direct FE formulation Discretisation Element analysis Assembly Solution Element analysis 2D truss example Find stiffness matrix of element by exact solution v2. f x2 N=Eaδ/L f y2 f x2 f x 2 = N cos (θ f y 2 = N sin (θ The total force must be along axis as the rod can not support moment loading N = A σ = AE ε = c = cos (θ AE [− c L s = sin (θ −s c ) ) ) ) and we must have equilibrium so that f x 2 = − f x1 f y2 = − f y1 Prof. f y1 1 θ u 1 cos (θ ) ) u a1 v1 u1 θ u2 u 1. L v1. Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 31 Direct FE formulation Discretisation Element analysis Assembly Solution Element analysis 2D truss example Find stiffness matrix of element by exact solution Axial force from axial strain  u1  v  s ] 1  u2     v2  Direct FE formulation Discretisation Element analysis Assembly Solution Element analysis 2D truss example Find stiffness matrix of element by exact solution v2. Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 . f x1 u a 1 = u 1 cos (θ ) + v 1 sin (θ )  ⇒ u a 2 = u 2 cos (θ ) + v 2 sin (θ ) ε = u a2 − u a1 u − u1 v − v1 = 2 cos ( ) + 2 θ sin (θ L L L Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren −s c  u1  v  s ] 1  u 2     v2  Element analysis Assembly Solution Element analysis s cs s2 − cs − s2 − c2 − cs c2 cs − cs   u1   − s 2   v1    cs  u 2   2  s   v2   35 E e ε = 1 [− c L −s f x2  − cs  f  y2   2 −s  cs   u  − s2 cs s2   1  v u =  1 u 2    c s ]u = Bu  v2  − c2 − cs c2 36 f ext =        fx1  fy1   2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 1 ) 32 Prof.

Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 Direct FE formulation Discretisation Element analysis Assembly Solution Element analysis 2D truss example Assembly of second element stiffness matrix 6 3 5 2 4 2 3 Direct FE formulation Discretisation Element analysis Assembly Solution 2D truss example Assembly of second element stiffness matrix ID 2 = [ 5 T 6 0 0 0 0 − − 3 −1 0 1 0 1 4] 0  u 1  0   v1    0  u 2    0  v 2  − − 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 −1 0 1 2004-01-16  1  AE  0 k = L −1   0  1 2 2    EA   L        1 2 1 2 2 2 ID 2  5  6 =   3    4       0  0  0  0  40 θ = 0 ⇒ cos 0 ID 2 T o = [5 ( )=1 o sin 0 4] ( )= 0 o Element analysis 6 0 0 0 0 3 −1 0 1 0 2 2 1  1 AE  0  k = L −1   0 Prof.2. 5 and 6 with unknown reactions Direct FE formulation Discretisation 2D truss example Global system  1 +1 EA  2 2  1 L   2 2   −  EA  − L     1 2 1 2 2 −1 0 2 −  1  2 2  1   2 2 EA  − 1  L  2 2 − 1  2 2  0   0  1 2 2 1 − − 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 0 0 − − 1 2 1 2 1 2 +1 2 − − 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 0 0 −1 0 1 0 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 0 0 2 2 −1 0  0   0   R1  0  0   R     2   U   0  0  3  =    U 4   − P  0   0   R3          0   0   R4   0  Point load assembled directly Element analysis Assembly Solution Element analysis 1  2 2 U 3  =  0   1 U 4  − P      2 2  1   P   R1 2 2  1   U 3   P   R2  − = = 2 2   U 4   − P   R3      0    0   R4 0  1  U 3  PL    U  = EA  − 1 + 2 2   4   ( )       R4 R3 P R2 R1 This matrix can not be inverted due to rigid body motion in solution – there is no unique solution Prof.Direct FE formulation Discretisation Element analysis Assembly Solution Element analysis 2D truss example Assembly of first element stiffness matrix 6 3 5 2 4 2 3 The ID vector can automate the assembly process Direct FE formulation Discretisation Element analysis Assembly Solution Element analysis 2D truss example Assembly of first element stiffness matrix ID 1 = [ 1 T 2 1 1 −1 −1 − − 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 3 −1 −1 1 1 − − 4] − 1  u 1  − 1  v1    1  u 2    1  v 2  1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1  AE 1  1 k = 2 L 2 − 1  − 1  1 2 2    EA   L        1 2 2 1 2 2 1  2  ID 1 =   3    4                38 θ = 45 o ⇒ cos 45 o = sin 45 o = 1 / 2 ID 1 = [ 1 T ( ) 2 1 1 ( ) 3 −1 −1 1 1 4] 1  2  ID 1 =   3    4  37  1  AE 1  1 k = 2L 2  − 1  −1 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 42 . Lars -Erik Lindgren −1 −1 − 1  u 1  − 1   v1    1 u 2    1   v2  2 2 What happens if the upper node is given as first node of element 1? 2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 41 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 0  u 1    0   v1   0  u 2    0  v 2  ID 2  5  6 =   3    4 39 2 2 1 +1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2004-01-16 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren Direct FE formulation Discretisation Element analysis Assembly Solution Element analysis 2D truss example Global system Fixed displacement no 1.

Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 44 Direct FE formulation Discretisation Element analysis Assembly Solution Element analysis 2D truss example Direct FE formulation Discretisation End Element 2 o θ = 0 ⇒ cos 0 ( )=1 o ID 2T = [5 sin 0 = 0 ⇒ 1 B = [ 0 − 1 0] 1 L 3 uT = 4 ]⇒ PL 0 EA ( ) o Element analysis Assembly Solution END 6 [ 0 1 − 1+ 2 2 ( )] Element analysis N 2 = A σ = AE ε = EA Bu = P (0 − 1 ) = − P Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 45 Prof. strain and stresses in the two elements using the previous derived element relations N = A σ = AE ε = c = cos (θ AE [− c L −s  u1  v  s ] 1  u 2     v2  Element 1 θ = 45 o ⇒ cos 45 o = sin 45 o = 1 / 2 ⇒ B= ID 1 = [ 1 T ( ) ( ) 4] ⇒ 1  1 − 2L  2  PL 0 EA − 1 2 1 2 1  2  2 3 uT = c [ 0 1 − 1+ 2 2 ( )] N 1 = A σ = AE ε = EA Bu = P 2 43 Prof. Lars -Erik Lindgren ) s = sin (θ )  1 1+ 2 2   =  2 −  2   2004-01-16 ( ) 2P Prof.Direct FE formulation Discretisation Element analysis Assembly Solution Element analysis 2D truss example Direct FE formulation Discretisation Element analysis Assembly Solution Element analysis 2D truss example It is now possible to take the compute displacements and find the axial deformation. Lars -Erik Lindgren 2004-01-16 46 .