DRAFT FEB 07, 2008

STANDARDS / MANUALS / GUIDELINES FOR SMALL HYDRO DEVELOPMENT
SPONSOR: MINISTRY OF NEW AND RENEWABLE ENERGY GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

CIVIL WORKS

GUIDELINES FOR LAYOUT OF SMALL HYDRO PLANTS

LEAD ORGANIZATION: ALTERNATE HYDRO ENERGY CENTRE INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, ROORKEE

CONTENTS
S.No. TITLE Page No.

1. Guidelines for Layout of small hydro plants 1.1. Introduction 1.2. Guidelines for layout of shp 1.3. types of scheme 1.4. run – off – river scheme 1.5. canal falls schemes 1.6. toe of dam schemes 1.7. renovation of existing plants 1.8. layout methodology – general 1.8.1. Data collection 1.8.2. map studies 1.8.3. Field Visit 1.8.4. Mapping and site investigations 1.8.5. Conceptual Design 1.9. Layout of Run – off – river Schemes 1.9.1. Determination of plant flow capacity 1.9.2. Determination of FSL of Head Pond 1.9.3. Feeder Canal 1.9.4. Desilter 1.9.5. Power Canal 1.9.6. Other Water Conduction Structures 1.9.7. Forebay Tank

1 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10

References 3. Lowest Down Surge 3.9. Weight of Steel Surge Tank 3.1. Benefits and Economic Evolutions 3.9.10. Penstrock Intake 1.4. Layout of Canal Falls Schemes 3.9.1.8.3. RET Screen 3. Layout of Dan Toe Schemes 3. Examples of Project Layouts 10 10 12 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 16 16 17 . Determination of Capacity and Energy Benefits 3. Penstock 1.2.7.9. Provision for Future Expansion 3. Powerhouse and Tailrace 3.9. Surge Tanks 2.5.6.8.

The initial findings can be useful in designing the scope of investigations needed to reliably evaluate the scheme. Table 1. • Access to site and space for structures and site roads. If the findings of this phase show that a scheme appears technically and economically feasible then more detailed prefeasibility and feasibility studies can be commissioned.2 Guidelines for Layout of SHP The following topographical features favour the development of economic layouts: a) Waterfalls b) Rapids c) Irrigation canal falls d) Toe of dam locations e) Canyons and narrow valleys f) Major river bends Small hydro plants are most often associated with features a) to d) and infrequently with e) and f). 1.1 Check List on Site Conditions Factors to consider: • Climate • Condition of main road to the area.CIVIL WORKS Preamble This part provides guidance on layout. Introduction The objective of this phase of study is to produce estimates of preliminary costs and benefits of a scheme and to assess its economic viability. In layout studies (conceptual design) the engineer shall also take into account other site specific conditions. as given in the following checklist.1 GUIDELINES FOR LAYOUT OF SMALL HYDRO PLANTS. hydraulic and structural design of civil works and on the maintenance of civil structures and related hydro mechanical equipment. This section provides guidelines on the conceptual design of small hydro plants. • Foundation conditions and slope stability • Developable head • Penstock/head length ratio AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008             1  . Often the work of this phase is done with incomplete site data. 1 1. weight and width limitations on bridges.

Almost all canal fall projects undertaken to date have been constructed many AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008             2  .0 m to 5. portions of the water conductor system may have to be constructed as box culverts. depending on site conditions.0 m) the energy potentials are significant given the large flows available. pipelines or inverted siphons.3 Availability of construction materials (sand. lumber and impermeable fill. the desilter would be built as close to the intake as possible. Preferably. It should be noted that the waterways upstream of the desilter must be designed for turbine plus flushing flows and while downstream turbine flow alone is sufficient.5 Canal Falls Schemes Canal falls are locations along an irrigation canal where the level of the canal is stepped-down in a fall structure to better conform to ground elevations. Although the developable heads available at such structures are often quite small (2.1 and an example of a small run-of-river project is Figure at end of this Section. A typical example of a mini hydro scheme is shown in Figure 1. but can be located anywhere along the water conductor system where relatively flat land can be found. Most often the water conductor system will be a concrete masonry canal of rectangular cross section. However. 1. aqueducts.4 Run-of-River Schemes A typical run-of-river project would comprise: • Low diversion dam and intake (head works) • Desilter • Power canal / Power Tunnel • Forebay tank / Surge Tank • Penstock • Powerhouse and tailrace If the water carries a substantial sediment load (say more than 200 ppm on average) a desilter would also be required.4. aggregates. tunnels.• • • • 1. as required) Local services and skills availability High water levels and tail water and head pond flow rating curves Others Types of schemes The most common development schemes for Indian small hydro projects are of the following types: • Run-of-river • Canal falls • Toe of dam • Renovation of existing plants 1.

more conventional bulb or Kaplan turbines layouts were selected. • Use of speed increasers to permit use of small low cost high speed generators. A typical example of this type of development is the Sirkhinda Mini Hydel. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008             3  .3 shows the main features of this project. All efforts should be made to minimize costs while maintaining efficient operation. These conditions favour the use of Kaplan turbines. These plants are often subject to large variation in head and flow and turbine selection must take this into account. All canal fall projects must include provision for flow bypassing so that irrigation flows can be maintained during periods when the plant may be out of service. Therefore sediment abrasion of turbine components would not be a problem with this type of development.6 Toe of Dam Schemes A toe of dam project would comprise an intake and short penstock. thus eliminating the need for very costly intake and draft tube gates. as practical. powerhouse and tailrace canal returning flow to a main irrigation canals or river. careful attention to hydraulic design is required to minimize head losses at the canal entry. The intake and penstock would normally be constructed in parallel to the outlet works. The power plant intake and penstock may be incorporated into the diversion works or spillway. compact intake-power house and tailrace canal rejoining the irrigation canal below the existing fall structure. A typical plant layout includes a bypass (power) canal.years after the original canal project had been completed and were subject to the following constraints: • That the new powerhouse would be constructed without interfering (or with minimum interference) of irrigation system day-to-day operations. As hydraulic losses have disproportionately high impacts on the economics of low head developments. trashracks and flow restitution in the tailrace canal. At other sites. Figure 2.0 m and unit capacities up to 500 kW). Depending on the operating rules of the reservoir toe of dam reservoir may produce significant amounts of firm energy. to ensure that irrigation on water supply releases would not be interrupted during periods when the plant might be out of service. or only secondary energy. toe of dam projects are located below storage reservoirs that would effectively trap sediment entering the reservoir. or constructed as a separate facility in an abutment.1. Typically. This approach provides above water access to turbine runners. 1. Innovative solutions include: • Use of vertical axis semi-Kaplan units in a siphon elbow (used for heads up to 4. • That the new plant should not jeopardize the safety of the existing structures.

may be considered technologically obsolete because spare parts are no longer manufactured. Deficiencies in civil works should be identified and requirements for refurbishment defined.1. These are three fundamental options to evaluate in a renovation project: • Plant abandonment. electrical and mechanical equipment. With the above data in hand the scope of renovation should be evaluated by comparative studies of selected development concepts (options). flood hydrology and spillway flow capacity. where operating and maintenance costs are increasing due to deterioration of aging equipment and structures. Combining several renovation activities together will reduce the cost of downtime and lost energy production.A typical example of a toe of dam development is Dukwan SHP. Other items. Renovation projects are often initiated by the necessity of major equipment repairs such as runner replacement or generator rewinding. In terms of economic parameters such as b/c ratio renovation projects are often found to be very attractive.7 Renovation of Existing Plants There are many old hydro plants in India. Also plant efficiencies are decreasing due to wear of turbine parts. 1. Condition assessment of equipment should be done by qualified electrical and mechanical engineers using approved testing methods to evaluate condition and performance. notably electrical instrumentation and switchgear. In reality some plant components can continue to perform satisfactorily well beyond their conventional service life where site conditions are favourable and maintenance work has been regularly performed. Replacement of these items with modern components should be assessed as part of a renovation project. Based on the findings of these condition assessments lists of items requiring repair or replacement should be prepared and opportunities for upgrading identified. Such conceptual AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008             4  . Assessment of civil structures should include a re-evaluation of structural stability. It is customary to assign standard service lives to structures and components mainly for the convenience of economic and financial analysis. civil structures. which would be incurred if renovation was done piece-meal. Therefore it might not be necessary to replace some components simply because they have exceeded their conventional service lives. This minimizes the cost of lost production which is a significant factor in the economics of renovation projects. At such times it is opportune to undertake a complete refurbishment of the plant.4 shows the main features of this development. • Plant renovation • Plant upgrading A renovation project should start with a thorough condition assessment of the plant including hydrology. which could still be in good operating condition. Figure 2.

15% in capacity. Typical benefits from this option are: .5%. Options for modernization of switch gear. This improves plant reliability and extends service life. If generator rewinds also required.1% . execution of the required civil works can become quite complicated as these works may interfere with existing structures and / or ongoing plant operations – • AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008             5  .design (layouts) should be developed in sufficient detail so that reliable capital costs and benefits can be determined and the relative merits of each option reliably evaluated.Recovered efficiency 5% . • Plant upgrading Plant upgrading usually implies substantial increases in plant output.15% 8. a plant may be abandoned in favour of a major redevelopment of the site as part of a much larger project.5% .Increased capacity 6% .5% . then new designs with improved insulation material and more copper should also be considered.Efficiency improvement turbine 3% . protection and control should also be assessed.5% . change in site conditions could result from excessive flow diversion from upstream. 8. Plant Renovation The objective of plant renovation is to restore the plant to its original condition. Occasionally. Civil works are minimal in this option and are limited to necessary repairs to restore structural integrity and function. Although the basic objectives of this option would be achieved with replacement of turbines and generators (if required) of the original designs. For example. Unless the original design included provisions for these expansions.12% in energy. The following paragraphs elaborate on the objectives of each type of option: • Plant Abandonment Abandonment might be the preferred choice where site conditions have changed excessively over the life of a project or where renovation costs are found to be excessive. These approaches all assume substantial increases in power plant flows that would require additional civil works above the necessary repairs as noted in the proceeding sub section. Upgrading could involve additional units in an extended power house or development of a new powerhouse on the opposite bank or replacement of existing units with larger units.Efficiency improvement generator 0.5% . it may be worthwhile to consider new runner designs for improved efficiency.

in NWT. Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamation Technical Service Center (available on internet) • Guidelines for Evaluating Aging Penstocks (manual) ASCE ca.1. Careful analysis and planning of construction activities will therefore be necessary to minimize such risks. An interesting example of an upgrading project is Bluefish G. Further guidance on various aspects of plant renovation can be found in the following references: • Guide to Concrete Repair U. All from the International Energy Agency – Paris • Renovation.S.1 Data Collection All available maps and documents including: site or regional hydrology data.S. Upgrading and Life Extension (RMU&LE) of Hydro power Stations. Benefits from upgrading projects are very site specific but often can double the output of the original project. If the selected design appears economically viable then more detailed feasibility studies would be undertaken in a later phase of studies. 2007 1. aerial photos.8. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008             6  . IEA Guidelines on Methodology for Generator Upgrading. 1995. • Civil Works for Hydroelectric Facilities: Guidelines for Extension Upgrade.4 shows the main features of this project. Manual Published by Central Board of Irrigation and Power. ASCE Hydropower Task Committee.General Layout or conceptual design involves the identification of all practical alternatives and the evaluation of such alternatives in order to determine the optimal conceptual design. IEA Guidelines on Methodology for Upgrading Controls. market surveys. Modernization. The recommended layout methodology includes the following sequential steps: • Data Collection • Map studies • Field Visit • Mapping and site geotechnical investigations • Conceptual design • Economic evaluation • Report on preliminary studies 1. Canada. geology reports should be collected and reviewed. Figure 2.introducing additional works and risks. • IEA Guidelines on Methodology for Hydroelectric Francis Turbine Upgrading. New Delhi. previous planning studies.8 Layout Methodology .

1. such as: grass land.3 Field Visit The field visit provides an opportunity to obtain an appreciation of site topography. as recommended in Section 1. The extent of the mapping should be sufficient to cover all alternatives envisaged and to allow for reasonable adjustments (re-alignments) of structures. On larger projects. Careful attention should be paid to the cost components with AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008             7  . waterways. geology and access for roads and transmission lines. diamond drilling.13 of the Standards.8. routes. preliminary access roads and T. It is also recommended that the team include local representatives. geological mapping and (possibly) seismic surveys may also be required. broken rock or solid bed rock. desilting tank and powerhouse and to decide the side of the river best suited for routing of the waterways. their elevations and co-ordinates can be determined with portable GPS equipment. a field visit will require 1-3 days depending on the remoteness. 1.L. These locations. deep soil. size and complexity of the site. access roads and T.L. It is also recommended that surveyors also record ground conditions on their maps. but should at least include collection of sand and rock samples to test for suitability for concrete production.8. Typically. It is further recommended that an outline of preliminary studies report be made at this time and a check list prepared before going into the field.1. sparse or heavy forest. It is also recommended that the inspection team include at last three professionals: a hydrologist. 1. This will help to establish which important information is lacking in order to obtain it during the field visit.2 Map studies Potential development schemes should then be laid out on available mapping for guidance during the field visit. routes.5 Conceptual Design In this activity preliminary designs and cost estimates are prepared for each alternative and benefits evaluated. Field visit should be supplemented with photos and a field inspection report prepared. From these on-site observations it is often possible to identify practical locations for temporary facilities. flow regime. a geologist and a hydropower engineer.4 Mapping and site investigations The scope of the mapping and site investigation programs should be prepared following the field visit. head-works.8.8. Their practical knowledge of the area and its people could be invaluable. ephemeral on perennial streams. The relative merits of each alternative are then be assessed by economic analysis to determine the best alternative. For small projects high head schemes extensive site investigations are rarely required.

conventionally taken as the level for the mean annual flood (Q2). QT% = flow equaled or exceeded T% of time.9 Layout of Run-of-River Schemes: 1. For the lateral type the resulting FSL should be compared with the natural high water level. normally Q100 for SHP (or Q10 for temporary type head-works of minihydro schemes).9.2 Determination of FSL of Head Pond Three types of intakes are suitable for low head diversions: lateral intake. but such changes should be relatively minor and unlikely to change the choice of optimal alternative. In this section preliminary design parameters are suggested to facilitate layout and sizing of project components. 1. Tyrolean intakes would be favoured for mountain streams and for relatively small plant flows up to about 2 m3/s. The need for spillway gates is determined considering the AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008             8  . trench intake or Tyrolean intake. Also the MFL should be calculated for the design flood.2. Section 2.1 Determination of plant flow capacity Plant flow capacity should be developed with reference to the flow duration curve (FDC) for the site. at which point a lateral flow design should be considered. Trench intakes would be favoured in relatively wide plains rivers for plant flows up to about 20m3/s. These preliminary parameters should later the refined in component optimization studies in detailed feasibility study or design phases.vary from one alternative to the other. 1. such as: access roads. Less attention is needed for determining the cost of common components.4 of the Standards.1 of the Standard provides rules on determination of diversion heads for each type of intake structure. since their values will not affect the outcomes of comparisons between alternatives. The following preliminary criteria are suggested: For isolated plants: QP = Q90% For grid connected plants: QP = Q35% Where: QP = plant flow capacity (m3/s).9. Lateral intakes would be favoured on relatively narrow rivers and for medium to large flows (5m3/s and above). Preliminary design is based on data developed in the above steps and hydrology studies performed in accordance with Section 1.

6 Other Water Conductor Structures Where topography is unfavourable other types of water conductor structures may be required.7 Q (m3 per m3/s of flow).20 Qp flushing flow for desilter operation (assuming continuous flushing type).9. For flows up to 2. Where practical a distribution weir is preferred at the entry to the tank. a straight sided section converging at 2:1 is satisfactory. otherwise a transition section expanding at 6:1 will be required. while for larger flow reinforced concrete should be considered. Preliminary design of the settling tank (parallel wall section) can be derived from the following formulae.Q (m3) VT Length (L) = (m) 4D L (m) .0 mm).9. They should be designed to carry 1. as noted above. In such cases the engineer will have to develop more detailed layouts in accordance with the relevant standards and guidelines.4 Desilter A continuous flushing hopper design with four hoppers is recommended. Choice of construction type would be the same as for feeder canals. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008             9  .9.20Qp which provides 0. 1.5 Power Canal A design velocity of 1.2 mm and larger.9.0 m3/s canals in masonry would be preferred.5 m/s is recommended for preliminary design of the power canal. For a design flow of Q (flushing flow plus plant flow): . 1.Tank Volume (VT) = Vs. 1.elevation of the MFL and whether unacceptable upstream flooding upstream flooding would be caused with a simple overflow weir design. d = 2.Width (W) = 4 This design is based on excluding silt of 0.5 m/s to ensure no sediment deposition (based on coarse sand. .3 Feeder Canal Feeder canals transport sediment laden water from the intake to the desilter. Preliminary canal dimensional design should be based on V = 1. Four hoppers with depths of W/2 are also required below the rectangular tank bottom for flushing. At the outlet end a converging transition is also required.30 Q (m) .Depth D = 1. 1.Specific Volume (Vs) = 50.

0m between the tank FSL (spillway crest) and minimum operating level.0m to 2. . then calculate maximum length of penstock: Te Lmax = 3. The economic diameter of a penstock can be estimated as below: AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008             10  . (m) V Where: Hn= net head on turbine (m) Te = effective governor closure time.8 Penstock Intake The concrete volume of a typical penstock intake is approximately 15.Qp.1.f1 Where: (m3/s) QP = plant flow f1 = unit price of reinforced concrete (Rs/m3) C1 = cost of intake (Rupees). 1. If L< Lmax. no surge tank is required. if H/L > 5 a surge tank or turbine bypass valve may be required.9.Mini hydro plants with load controller. The penstock intake should be protected with trash racks but gates can be omitted for mini-hydro plants. For preliminary design the tank volume can be determined using the following formula: V= Qp ×120 (m3) The tank area would be calculated assuming a difference of 1. Exceptions to these requirements are: .9.High head plants with Pelton turbines If H/L > 5. max = 6.9.7 Forebay Tank For projects.9 Penstock Check head /length (H/L) ratio of the proposed penstock layout.QP m3 and net cost can be estimated as: C1 = 15.0 secs V = flow velocity in penstock (m/s) [for penstocks with varying diameters Aequiv = L/ΣAi/Li and V = Q/ Aequiv].14 Hn. where water is conveyed by canals a forebay tank is normally required at the transition between canal and penstock to handle transient flows due to changes in plant operation and also to facilitate plant control for plants operating in water level control mode. 1.

55 ⎜ ⎜ 2 gH ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ or 4 Q .L.0015 m If t max ≤ t min Wt = 24.H = max head at turbine with normal waterhammer (m) (Use 1.5 tmin.D = diameter of penstock (m) . f2 Where: L = slope length of penstock D = diameter of penstock Vf = concrete volume. D= π 3 .D2) 0.L = length of penstock Calculate 1 t min = (9.82 and Cost (C2) = Vf.0000272 HD + 0.0 +1.5 ⎜ min max ⎟.25 Sarkaria’s equation based on V = 3.25 D) × 3 m 10 t max = 0.5 t min .⎜1 − min ⎜ t ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ max ⎝ ⎠ ⎞ ⎟ tonnes ⎟ ⎠ tonnes If For surface penstocks estimate volume of concrete saddles as: Vf = 3.3Ho for Francis.5 (L. footings f2 = unit price of footing concrete C2 = estimated cost of footing (m) (m) (m3) (Rs/m3) (Rupees) AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008             11  . 1.L tmax > tmin ⎛t Wt = 24.⎛ Q2 ⎞ D = 3.15Ho for Pelton) . Weight of Penstock Steel: An approximate estimate of steel penstock weight can be calculated as below: Input data: .D.L.⎜ min ⎜t ⎝ max ⎛ ⎞ t ⎛t +t ⎞ ⎟ + 24.D.4Ho for Kaplan & 1.0 m/s Use the lesser of the two values.0 0.D.

Section 2. . to control excessive generator runaway speeds and to contribute to system speed regulation.10.Where : A = cross section area of upstream pipe (m2) L = length of pipe.s2) H0= steady state head on turbine (m) 1. It is conservative. surge tank to reservoir (m) c = head loss factor as hL= c.V2 (m-1.8 ms-2) = length of pipeline between forebay reservoir and surge tank (m) = cross section area of pipeline (m2) = upswing (m) = downswing (m) = steady state water level in surge tank (m) = static water level in surge tank (m) and bo as defined below: AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008             12  .1 Cross-section area of surge tank (As) = (m2) 2 gcH 0 .installing turbine bypass valves.addition of extra machine inertia (typically by adding a flywheel to a horizontal axis unit or extra mass to a vertical axis generator). As surge tanks are expensive all options should be evaluated. A preliminary design methodology for surge tanks is outlined below. .pressure relief devices. 1.2 Highest up-surge: In order to dimension the surge tanks it is also necessary to know the maximum and minimum water levels that can be expected.9. An approximate method is shown below that is based on Parmakian’s method for balanced design (Parmakian – 1960). This method provides equations relating the following parameters from which the maximum and minimum surge levels can be calculated: Q0 As g L A SA SB H0 Hs Hf = initial steady state flow (m3/s) = cross-section area of surge tank (m2) = acceleration due to gravity (= 9.The volume of anchor block concrete is of the same order of magnitude as concrete saddles.6 AL 1.6 of this Standard provides guidelines for this task.9. 1.9.2.10 Surge tanks Surge tanks are required to protect long penstocks from excessive water hammer pressure rise. Alternatives to surge tanks providing some of the benefits of surge tanks. include: . therefore assume cost of anchor blocks as 66% cost of saddles (or derive a more exact cost from detailed layouts).10.

The RETScreen Model can be used to obtain preliminary powerhouse cost estimates. = Ho . Qe L/ A S B = 0.89 . W.1 Powerhouse and Tailrace Preliminary powerhouse layout requires the selection of appropriate generating equipment and estimation of the main powerhouse dimensions.Hf + SA 2 Lowest down surge: For lowest downswing calculate Hf = pipe friction losses + minor losses + Ve 2 2g (where Qe = flow demanded by turbine) Hf AS g bo = . for preliminary analysis. As g L/ A Vo2 2g S A = 1. as explained in Sub-Section 3.05 bo−0.6 of this Standard.29 x 10-4 x (HV) 0. Practical considerations regarding foundation conditions.S f Minimum W.For maximum upsurge calculate: Hf = pipe friction loss + minor losses + bo = Hf Qo . preliminary powerhouse layouts can be prepared. in surge tank = Hs .SB 3 Weight of steel surge tank (WS): Ws = 1. Coffer dams are not usually needed as interconnecting canals can usually be build 3.L. Using these basic dimensions.88 b0−0. Preliminary Dimensioning and Layout of Hydroelectric Power Houses. Alternatively.Hf . powerhouse cost estimates by a parametric estimating technique are satisfactory. Layout of Canal Falls Schemes There are rarely more than two alternatives for development depending on which side of the existing canal the diversion canal and powerhouse would be located.96 (kg) H = Height above c/l of penstock to centroid of tank (m) V = Volume of tank cylinder (m3) 3.2 AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008             13  .H f Max.91 . access and the like will probably decide the optimal arrangement.L. Preliminary guidelines on unit selection and basic layout dimensions can be obtained from IS 12800: Guidelines for Selection of Hydraulic Turbine.

For isolated or stand alone projects firm energy is of greater interest. Design of cofferdams and other protective works must be done with equal care as these works form an integral part of a successful project. Firm capacity. Normally. RET Screen RET Screen is a computer model developed by the Government of Canada.net. Examples of successful designs can be found in CBIP (2003). Attention must also be paid to hydraulic design to minimize head losses.5 3. foundations. Firm capacity should be calculated based on the capacity that can be produced with Q90%.4 3.retscreen. Layout of Dam Toe Schemes. Deceleration of flow velocity should be avoided. practical consideration of site characteristics. For run-of-river hydro schemes average energy benefits are determined by integration of the project flow duration curve (FDC) using the net head appropriate for each flow class.7 of the Standard. including Hindi. Benefits and Economic Evolutions The determination of benefits and economic evolution should be carried out in accordance with Sections 1. Layout concepts should be based on successful designs of similar plants. Occasionally original designs will include provision for addition of a power plant. Energy output should be expressed in mean kWh per year. Department of Natural Resources and available freely over the internet at www. The model is available in several languages.6 AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008             14  . As for plants at canal falls. For grid connected plants the optimum capacity should be based on benefit-cost analysis using appropriate incremental costs for energy and capacity. voltage as appropriate. For this exercise it is convenient to express hydraulic losses as a function of Q2. These values should be selected in consultation with the responsible State or Central Government authority.4. 2003) gives an inventory of Indian hydropower plants with salient data and drawings. Determination of Capacity and Energy Benefits. Indian practice is to base firm energy determinations on the Q90% flow from the FDC.6 and 1. 1. The purpose of the model is to compute costs and benefits. Layout concepts should be based on successful designs of similar projects. or distribution line. access and the like will probably determine the optimal arrangement. maximum head loss is normally found to be between 2% and 10% of gross head. Central Board for Irrigation and Power (CBIP.3 during periods when the canal would be out of service for annual maintenance. firm energy and mean energy should all be referenced to the transmission.3. for small scale run-of-river 3. For isolated SHP the capacity providing the least cost of energy should be selected. Acceleration of flow velocity through the entry is acceptable if economically justified and compatible with flow conditions at the power plant intake. including greenhouse gas analysis.

Overall data requirements are much less in this option. The program is setup in Excel and comprises four screens.3 Equipment Input : Type of turbine. The currency for all cost and financial calculations are input in this screen.4 Cost Analysis Two options are offered: detailed cost analysis or formula costs. Output : Estimated turbine efficiency curve. Output: Annual energy production.6. along with the applicable conversion rate Rs per Canadian $ 1. Qr. ΣHL. The list allows inclusion of additional items one for each division of the work list. flow or capacity) for each structure. as below: 3.2 Hydrology Input Data: Flow duration curve (FDC). Input: Choose the method that is most suitable for cost analysis (detailed or formula) then select economic parameters in accordance with Section 1. η gen. 3. using hydrology and equipment data from Screens 2 and 3. Output: FDC and load duration curve (LDC) in tabular and graphic formats. If the formula analysis method is chosen cost components are determined from parametric equations for each structure. For preliminary design and planning studies the utility of this option is enhanced if the model is first bench marked (on calibrated) against recent projects and escalation factors and main unit prices adjusted to fit.1 Energy Data Model Input Data: H.6. the latest version now allows the engineer to enter work quantities and unit costs against a comprehensive list of work items.6. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008             15  . If the detailed analysis is chosen. the engineer will have to provide quantities and units costs for the list of work items contained in the program.00. transformer losses and parasitic losses and hydrologic & equipment parameters as calculated in Screens 2 and 3. 3. 3.7 of the Standard. Data comprise characteristic parameters (geometry. While originally intended as a tool for preliminary studies utilizing mainly map data. Qp.6.projects. The program calculates the energy benefits which are reported in Screen 1.

net AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008             16  . Dover Publishers (1963) Hydroelectric Power Stations in Operation in India. References Indian Standards Cited IS 12800 (Part 3) Guidelines for Selection of Hydraulic Turbine. CBIP (2003) 3.7 Provision for Future Expansion The engineer should think about the possibility of future expansion and consider providing features that would facilitate such work in the future.8 RET Screen International: Clean Energy Project Analysis Software Natural Resources Canada Ottawa Website: www.Output: Capital cost estimate 3.6. preexcavation of the foundation of a future unit and the like. Other References Waterhammer Analysis J. Such provisions could include addition of a branch in a penstock.retscreen. Parmakian. An appropriate structural addition could greatly simplify expansion of the plant in the future with significant savings in cost and schedule. 3. Preliminary Dimensioning and Layout of Surface Hydroelectric Power Houses.5 Financial Summary Input : Financial parameters Output : Project costs and savings Results of financial analyses Cost of power.

1 KEDERNATH MINI HYDEL AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008             17  .9 Examples of Project Layouts: FIGURE: 1.3.4.

AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008             18  .

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AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008             20  .

AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008             21  .

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