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quantity Vector quantity Error Systematic errors Random errors QUANTITIES that are measurable PHYSICAL QUANTITIES that cannot be defined in terms of other physical quantities PHYSICAL QUANTITIES produced from the combination of base quantities through multiplication, division or both POWERS of the base number 10 to show a very large or small number GROUP OF LETTERS placed at the beginning of a word to modify its meaning,which act as multipliers QUANTITYwhich has only magnitude(time, temperature, mass, volume, distance, density, power) QUANTITYwhich has both magnitude and direction(force, velocity, displacement, acceleration, momentum) DIFFERENCE between actual value of a quantity and the value obtained in measurement CUMULATIVE ERRORS that can be corrected, if the errors are known. (zero error, incorrect calibration of measuring instrument) ERRORS that arise from unknown and unpredictable variations in condition, andwill produce a different error every time.(human limitations, lack of sensitivity, natural errors, wrong technique) ERROR that arises when the measuring instrument does not start from exactly zero ERROR in reading an instrument because the observer¶s eyes and the pointer arenot in a line perpendicular to the plane of scale PROCESS of determining value of a quantity using a scientific instrument with astandard scale ABILITY to register the same reading when a measurement is repeated(improve ± eliminates parallax error, greater care, not detective instrument) DEGREE to which a measurement represents the actual value(improve ± repeat readings, avoid parallax/zero error, high accuracy instrument) ABILITY to detect quickly a small change in the value of a measurement(thermometer ± thin wall bulb, narrow capillary) EARLY CONCLUSION that you draw from an observation or event usinginformation that you already have on it GENERAL STATEMENT that is assumed to be true regarding the relationshipbetween the manipulated variable and responding variable
Zero error Parallax error Measurement Consistency Accuracy Sensitivity Inferences Hypothesis
Chapter 2: Forces and Motion Distance Displacement Speed Velocity Acceleration Mass Inertia Momentum Force Impulse Impulsive force Gravity Free fall Forces inequilibrium Resultant force Work Energy Gravitational PE Elastic PE Kinetic energy Power Efficiency Elasticity Spring constant Elastic limit total route taken by a motion CHANGE IN POSITION of an object from its initial position in a specified direction Distance taken with consideration of direction RATE OF CHANGE of distance RATE OF CHANGE of displacement RATE OF CHANGE of velocity AMOUNT of matter in the object PROPERTY of matter that causes it to resist any change in its motion or state of rest PRODUCT of mass and velocity pulling or a pushing ACTION on an object Action which will alter the state of motion of a body in a straight line Change of momentum RATE OF CHANGE in momentum LARGE FORCE which acts over a very short time interval FORCE originated from centre of the Earth that pulls all objects towards the ground FALLING of an object without encountering any resistance from a height towardsthe earth with an acceleration due to gravity An object is said to be in a state of equilibrium when forces act upon an object andit remains stationary or moves at a constant velocity SINGLE FORCE which combines two or more forces which act on an object Work is done when a force causes an object to move in the direction of the force. Potential or the ability to do work ENERGY STORED in the object because of its height above the earth surface ENERGY STORED in the object as a result of stretching or compressing it ENERGY possessed by a moving object RATE at which work is done Rate of change of energy ABILITY of an electrical appliance to transform energy from one form to anotherwithout producing useless energy or wastage Ability of an object to return to its original shape after an applied force is removed FORCE needed to extend a spring per unit length MAXIMUM STRETCHING FORCE which can be applied to an elastic material before itceases to be elastic
PRINCIPLE Hooke¶s Law Hooke¶s law states that the force, F applied to a spring is directly proportional tothe spring¶s extension or compression, x, provided the elastic limit is not exceeded. Principle ofconservation ofenergy Principle of conservation of energy states that total energy in an isolated system isneither increased nor decreased by any transformation. Energy cannot be creatednor destroyed, but it can be transformed from one kind to another, and the totalamount stays the same. Principle ofconservation ofmomentum The principle of conservation of momentum states that, in any collision orinteraction between two or more objects in an isolated system, the totalmomentum of the system will remain constant; that is, the total initial momentumwill equal the total final momentum. Newton¶s firstlaw of motion Newton¶s first law of motion states that a body will either remain at rest orcontinue with constant velocity unless it is acted on by an external unbalancedforce. Newton¶ssecond law ofmotion Newton¶s second law of motion states that the acceleration a body experiences is directly proportional to the net force acting on it, and inversely proportional to itsmass. F =ma Newton¶s thirdlaw of motion Newton¶s third law of motion states that to every action there is an equal butopposite reaction.
Chapter 3: Forces and Pressure Pressure Gas pressure Buoyant force PRINCIPLE Law of Floatation Law of floatation states that the weight of an object floating on the surface of aliquid is equal to the weight of water displaced by the object.(weight of object = weight of water displaced) Pascal¶s Principle Pascal¶s principle states that a pressure applied to a confined fluid is transmitteduniformly in all directions throughout the fluid. Archimedes¶principle Archimedes¶ principle states that the buoyant force on a body immersed in a fluidis equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by that object(buoyant force = weight of water displaced) Bernoulli¶sprinciple Bernoulli¶s principle states that the pressure of a moving fluid decreases as thespeed of the fluid increases, and the converse is also true. FORCE acting normally per unit surface area FORCE per unit area exerted by the gas particles as they collide with the walls oftheir container (due to the rate of change of momentum) Theupthrust acting on an object due to the fluid displaced when an object is immersed
Chapter 4: Heat Temperature Thermometricproperty Thermalequilibrium Heat capacity Specific heatcapacity Latent heat Specific latent heat of fusion Specific latentheat ofvapourisation DEGREE of hotness of an object PHYSICAL PROPERTY of a substance which is sensitive to and varies linearly with thetemperature change A STATE when the net rate ofheat transfer between the two objects are zero and their temperature are the same The amount of HEAT ENERGY required to raise the temperature of an object by 1°C The amount of HEAT ENERGY required to increase the temperature of a mass of 1kg by 1°C The amount of HEAT ABSORBED OR RELEASED when a substance changes its state without achange in temperature The amount of HEAT ENERGY required to change 1 kg of a substance from solid state to liquid state without a change in temperature The amount of HEAT ENERGY required to change 1 kg of a substance from liquid state togaseousstate, without a change in temperature
PRINCIPLE Boyle¶s Law Boyle¶s Law states that the pressure of a fixed mass of gas is inversely proportionalto its volume provided the temperature of the gas is kept constant(PV = k) Pressure Law The pressure law states that the pressure of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature (in Kelvin), provided the volume of the gasis kept constant(P/T = k) Charles¶ Law Charles¶ law states that the volume of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional toits absolute temperature (in Kelvin), provided the pressure of the gas is keptconstant(V/T = k)
Chapter 5: Light Refraction PHENOMENON where the direction of light is changed when it crosses theboundary between two materials of different optical densities as a result of achange in the velocity of light. DISTANCE of the image from the surface of water (or the boundary betweenthe two mediums involved) DISTANCE of the object from the surface of the water (or the boundary between the two mediums involved) TOTAL REFLECTION of a beam of light at the boundary of two mediums, when the angle of incidence in the optically denser medium exceeds a specific critical angle GREATEST ANGLE OF INCIDENCE in the optically denser medium for which theangle of refraction, r = 90° MEASURE OF ITS ABILITY to converge or diverge an incident beam of light
Apparent depth, d Real depth, D Total internal reflection Critical angle Power of lens
PRINCIPLE Laws of Reflection - the angle of incidence, i, is equal to the angle of reflection, r (i = r) - the incident ray, normal and reflected ray will all lie in the same plane Law of Refraction - The incident ray and the refracted ray are on the opposite sides of the normal at the point of incidence, all three lie in the same plane - Obey snell¶s law Snell¶s Law The value of sin i/sin ris a constant.
IMAGE CHARACTERISTICS Virtual Real Laterally inverted Upright Diminished Magnified an image which cannot be projected (focused) onto a screen an image which can be projected (focused) onto a screen an image which left and right are interchanged an image which in vertical position image formed is smaller than the object image formed is larger than the object
Chapter 1 ± Waves Waves Wavefront A disturbance that transfers energy between 2 points through vibrations in a medium, without transferring matter between the 2 points LINE that joins all the points vibrating in phase In phase = same direction, same displacement WAVE in which the vibration of particles in the medium is perpendicular to thedirection of propagation of the wave (water waves, light waves, electromagnetic waves) WAVE in which the vibration of particles in the medium is parallel to the direction ofpropagation of the wave(sound waves, ultrasound) Waves that have the same frequency and with constant phase difference MAXIMUM DISPLACEMENT form its equilibrium position TIME TAKEN to complete an oscillation, from one extreme point to the other and backto the same position. NUMBER OF COMPLETE OSCILLATIONS made by a vibrating system in one second DISTANCE between successive points of the same phase in a wave DECREASE in the amplitude of an oscillating system is called damping. (Internal damping: extension and compression of molecules (External damping: frictional force/ air resistance) Resonance occurs when a system is made to oscillate at itsnatural frequency by an external force. The resonating system oscillates at itsmaximum amplitude. The frequency of a systemwhich oscillates freely without external force Change in the direction of wave that occurs when a wave strike an obstacle (direction ; f = ; a ; = ) Change in the direction of travel of the waves caused by the change of speed of the waves as they pass through different mediums (f = ; v ; ; direction ) The spreading of a wave as it passes through a narrow slit or round a small obstacle (f = ; = ; speed = ; v ; direction ) SUPERPOSITION of two waves originating from two coherent sources (coherent = same frequency, amplitude and in phase) The superposition of 2 waves which are in phase to produce a resultant wave of maximum amplitude The superposition of 2 waves which are in phase to produce a resultant wave of zero amplitude Line joining all the points where constructive interference takes place. Line joining all the points where destructive interference takes place. Longitudinal waves in which the oscillations of air molecules take place in the direction of wave travel
Longitudinal Wave Coherent waves Amplitude Period Frequency Wavelength, Damping
Natural frequency Reflection of wave Refraction of wave
Diffraction of waves Interference of waves Constructive interference Destructive interference Antinodal line Nodal line Sound waves
PROPAGATING WAVES in space with electric and magnetic components. Thesecomponents oscillate at right angles to each other and to the direction of propagationof wave. LIGHT with only one wavelength and colour Amplitude of sound Frequency of sound
Monochromatic light Loudness Pitch
Principle of superposition Principle of superposition states that at any instant, the wave displacement of the combined motion of any number of interacting waves at a point is the sum of the displacements of all the components waves at that point.
Chapter 2 ± Electricity Charge, Q Current, I Potential difference, V Electric field Circuit Resistance, R Superconductor WORK DONE to move a unit of voltage in a circuit RATE of flow of charge WORK DONE when 1 Coulomb of charge moves between 2 points in an electric field Region surrounding a charged body A FIELD in which electric charge experiences an electric force CLOSED LOOP through which charge can continuously flow RATIO of the potential difference across the conductor to the current flowing through it Material whose resistance becomes zero when it is cooled below a certain temperature called the critical temperature TOTAL ELECTRICAL ENERGY supplied by a cell given to1 C of charge flowing through the cell
Electromotive force (e.m.f.) Power Power rating Electrical energy ³12 V, 15 W´
Amount of energy transferred in 1 second RATE at which it consumes electrical energy. Total energy supplied by a electrical source When a potential difference of 12 V is connected across the --- , it will produce ---energy of 15 J per second
PRINCIPLE Ohm¶s Law Ohm¶s law states that the electric current, I flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across the ends of conductor, if temperature and other physical conditions remain constant.
Chapter 3 ± Electromagnetism Electromagnet DEVICE in which magnetism is produced by an electric current TEMPORARY MAGNET which acts as a magnet when the current is switched on and ceases to be a magnet when the current is switched off REGION in which a magnetic material experiences a force as the result of a magnet or a current-carrying conductor MAGNETIC FIELD with the field lines pointing towards or away from the centre of a circle. PRODUCTION of an electric current by a changing magnetic field (conductor cuts across amagnetic flux ±OR± a change of magnetic flux linkage with a coil)
Magnetic field Radial field
Root mean square Transformer
VALUE of a steady current/ voltage, which would produce the same heating effect in a givenresistor. EQUIPMENT to raise or lower the potential difference of an alternating current supply
PRINCIPLE Faraday¶s Law The magnitude of the induced electromotive force (e.m.f.) is directly proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux linkage with the solenoid or the rate at which a conductor cuts through the magnetic flux. Lenz¶s Law Lenz¶s law states that an induced electric current always flows in such a direction so as to oppose the change (or motion) producing it.
Chapter 4 ± Electronics Thermionic emission Doping Work function Cathode ray Cathode ray oscilloscope Conductor Semiconductor Insulator Junction voltage Rectification Smoothing Logic gates
EMISSION of electrons from hot metal surface Adding a small amount of other substances or impurities to semiconductors to increase its electrical conductivity MINIMUM ENERGY required to eject electrons from surface fast moving ELECTRONS travel in a straight line in vacuum measuring and testing INSTRUMENT used in study of electricity and electronics MATERIAL which allows current to flow thorugh them MATERIAL whose electrical conductivity is between conductor and insulator MATERIAL which does not conduct electric current POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE acting from n-type to p-type material of a diode across the depletionlayer CONVERSION of a.c. to d.c. by diode PROCESS where output is smoothed by connecting a capacitor across load the acts as a reservoir and maintains potential difference across load ELECTRONIC SWITCHES with one or more inputs and one output.
Chapter 5 ± Radioactivity Atom Nuclide Proton number Nucleon number Isotopes Radioactivity Radioactive decay Radioisotope Half life Nuclear energy Nuclear fission Nuclear fusion An atom consists of a nucleus which is made up of protons and neutrons, with electrons orbiting the nucleus. TYPE of nucleus with particular proton number and nucleon number NUMBER of protons in the nucleus of an atom NUMBER of protons and neutrons in an atom ATOMS the same element with the same proton number but different nucleon and neutron number (similar chemical properties but differs in physical properties) SPONTANEOUS DISINTEGRATION of unstable nucleus into a more stable nucleus with the emission of energetic particles or protons The spontaneous and random emission of radioactive rays from unstable nucleus or material to become more stable ISOTOPE with unstable nucleus that tends to undergo radioactive decay TIME TAKEN for the activity of atoms to fall to half its original value TIME TAKEN for half the atoms in a given sample to decay Energy released during the decay or reaction of the radioactive nucleus The splitting of a heavy nucleus into two or more lighter and smaller nuclei with the release of energy. The fusion of two or more small and light nucleito form a heavier and larger nucleus.
PRINCIPLE Einstein¶s Principle of Mass-Energy Conservation The change of energy is linked to the change of mass by the equation
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