MATLAB Fair Record (Model) | Filter (Signal Processing) | Modulation

# DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

Experiment: 1

AM, FM and PWM using MATLAB
AIM To implement a program in MATLAB to generate Amplitude Modulated (AM), Frequency Modulated (FM) & Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) waveforms.

PROGRAM Amplitude Modulated Wave clc;clear all;close all; t=0:0.0001:0.015; m=input('Modulation Index:'); fm=input('Signal frequency:'); fc=input('Carrier frequency:'); x=sin(2*pi*fm*t); y=sin(2*pi*fc*t); e=(1+(m.*x)).*y; plot(e); title('Amplitude Modulation'); xlabel('Time'); ylabel('Amplitude'); OUTPUT Modulation Index:0.5 Signal frequency:100 Carrier frequency:1000

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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

Frequency Modulated Wave clc;clear all;close all; a=input('Amplitude:'); fc=input('Carrier frequency:'); fm=input('Signal frequency:'); m=input('Modulation index:'); n=0:0.001:0.2; y=a*sin(2*pi*fc*n-(m*cos(2*pi*fm*n))); plot(n,y); title('Frequency Modulation'); xlabel('Time'); ylabel('Amplitude'); OUTPUT Amplitude:1 Carrier frequency:100 Signal frequency:10 Modulation index:5

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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

Pulse Width Modulated Wave clc;clear all;close all; fs=100; t=0:1/(5*fs):2; x=sawtooth(2*pi*20*t); m=0.75*sin(2*pi*t); k=length(x); for i=1:k if (m(i)>=x(i)) pwm(i)=1; else if (m(i)<x(i)) pwm(i)=0; end; end; end; plot(t,pwm,t,m); axis([0,-1,-2,2]); title('Pulse Width Modulation'); xlabel('Time'); ylabel('Amplitude');
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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

OUTPUT

RESULT The programs for AM, FM & PWM signals are implemented in MATLAB and the output waveforms are generated.

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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

Experiment: 2

Linear Convolution
AIM To write a program in MATLAB for the linear convolution of 2 sequences.

PROGRAM clc;clear all;close all; a=input('First sequence:'); b=input('Second sequence:'); c=fliplr(b); d=length(a); e=length(b); f=[zeros(1,e-1),a,zeros(1,e)]; g=0; i=d+e-1; for h=0:(d+e-1) j=[zeros(1,g),c,zeros(1,i)]; k=sum(f.*j); con(g+1)=k; g=g+1; i=i-1; end; m=0:d+e-1; stem(m,con); title('Convlouted sequence'); xlabel('Time'); ylabel('Amplitude');

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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

OUTPUT First sequence:[1 2 3 4] Second sequence:[4 3 2 1]

RESULT The program for convolution of 2 sequences is implemented using MATLAB and the resulting sequence is graphically generated.

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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

Experiment: 3

FIR Filters

AIM To write a program in MATLAB for implementing FIR filters. PROGRAM clc;clear all;close all; rp=input('Enter passband ripple:'); rs=input('Enter stopband ripple:'); fp=input('Enter passband frequency:'); fs=input('Enter stopband frequency:'); f=input('Enter sampling frequency:'); wp=2*fp/f; ws=2*fs/f; num=-20*log10(sqrt(rp*rs))-13; dem=14.6*(fs-fp)/f; n=ceil(num/dem); n1=n+1; if(rem(n,2)~=0) n1=n; n=n-1; end; y=boxcar(n1); %LOW PASS FILTER b=fir1(n,wp,y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); subplot(2,2,1); plot(o/pi,m);
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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

title('Low Pass Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised Frequency'); %HIGH PASS FILTER b=fir1(n,wp,'high',y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); subplot(2,2,2); plot(o/pi,m); title('High Pass Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised Frequency'); %BAND PASS FILTER wn=[wp,ws]; b=fir1(n,wn,y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); subplot(2,2,3); plot(o/pi,m); title('Band Pass Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised Frequency'); %BAND STOP FILTER b=fir1(n,wn,'stop',y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); subplot(2,2,4); plot(o/pi,m); title('Band Stop Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised Frequency');

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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

OUTPUT Enter passband ripple:0.05 Enter stopband ripple:0.04 Enter passband frequency:1500 Enter stopband frequency:2000 Enter sampling frequency:9000

RESULT The program for FIR filters are implemented using MATLAB and the corresponding frequency responses are obtained.

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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

Experiment: 4

Butterworth IIR Filters
AIM To design & simulate Butterworth IIR filters using MATLAB. PROGRAM Low Pass Filter clc;clear all;close all; rp=input('Enter passband ripple:'); rs=input('Enter stopband ripple:'); wp=input('Enter passband frequency:'); ws=input('Enter stopband frequency:'); fs=input('Enter passband frequency:'); w1=2*wp/fs; w2=2*ws/fs; [n,wn]=buttord(w1,w2,rp,rs); [b,a]=butter(n,wn); w=0:0.01:pi; [h,om]=freqz(b,a,w); m=20*log10(abs(h)); an=angle(h); subplot(2,1,1); plot(om/pi,m); title('IIR Low Pass Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised frequency'); subplot(2,1,2); plot(om/pi,an); ylabel('Phase (radians)');
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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

xlabel('Normalised frequency'); OUTPUT Enter passband ripple:0.5 Enter stopband ripple:50 Enter passband frequency:200 Enter stopband frequency:400 Enter passband frequency:1000

High Pass Filter clc;clear all;close all; rp=input('Enter passband ripple:'); rs=input('Enter stopband ripple:'); wp=input('Enter passband frequency:'); ws=input('Enter stopband frequency:'); fs=input('Enter passband frequency:'); w1=2*wp/fs; w2=2*ws/fs; [n,wn]=buttord(w1,w2,rp,rs);
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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

[b,a]=butter(n,wn,'high'); w=0:0.01:pi; [h,om]=freqz(b,a,w); m=20*log10(abs(h)); an=angle(h); subplot(2,1,1); plot(om/pi,m); title('IIR High Pass Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised frequency'); subplot(2,1,2); plot(om/pi,an); ylabel('Phase (radians)'); xlabel('Normalised frequency'); OUTPUT Enter passband ripple:0.5 Enter stopband ripple:50 Enter passband frequency:1200 Enter stopband frequency:1000 Enter passband frequency:4000

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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

Band Pass Filter clc;clear all;close all; rp=input('Enter passband ripple:'); rs=input('Enter stopband ripple:'); wp=input('Enter passband frequency:'); ws=input('Enter stopband frequency:'); fs=input('Enter passband frequency:'); w1=2*wp/fs; w2=2*ws/fs; [n,wn]=buttord(w1,w2,rp,rs); [b,a]=butter(n,wn); w=0:0.01:pi; [h,om]=freqz(b,a,w); m=20*log10(abs(h)); an=angle(h); subplot(2,1,1); plot(om/pi,m);
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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

title('IIR Band Pass Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised frequency'); subplot(2,1,2); plot(om/pi,an); ylabel('Phase (radians)'); xlabel('Normalised frequency'); OUTPUT Enter passband ripple:0.4 Enter stopband ripple:50 Enter passband frequency:[800 1200] Enter stopband frequency:[500 1500] Enter passband frequency:4000

Band Stop Filter clc;clear all;close all; rp=input('Enter passband ripple:'); rs=input('Enter stopband ripple:');
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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

wp=input('Enter passband frequency:'); ws=input('Enter stopband frequency:'); fs=input('Enter passband frequency:'); w1=2*wp/fs; w2=2*ws/fs; [n,wn]=buttord(w1,w2,rp,rs); [b,a]=butter(n,wn,'stop'); w=0:0.01:pi; [h,om]=freqz(b,a,w); m=20*log10(abs(h)); an=angle(h); subplot(2,1,1); plot(om/pi,m); title('IIR Band Stop Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised frequency'); subplot(2,1,2); plot(om/pi,an); ylabel('Phase (radians)'); xlabel('Normalised frequency'); OUTPUT Enter passband ripple:0.4 Enter stopband ripple:50 Enter passband frequency:[800 1500] Enter stopband frequency:[1000 1200] Enter passband frequency:4000

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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

RESULT The IIR Butterworth filters are designed using MATLAB and the output waveforms are obtained. Experiment: 5

Chebyshev Type 1 Filters
AIM To design & simulate Chebyshev Type 1 filters using MATLAB. PROGRAM Low Pass Filter clc;clear all;close all; rp=input('Enter passband ripple:'); rs=input('Enter stopband ripple:'); wp=input('Enter passband frequency:');
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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

ws=input('Enter stopband frequency:'); fs=input('Enter passband frequency:'); w1=2*wp/fs; w2=2*ws/fs; [n,wn]=cheb1ord(w1,w2,rp,rs); [b,a]=cheby1(n,rp,wn); w=0:0.01:pi; [h,om]=freqz(b,a,w); m=20*log10(abs(h)); an=angle(h); subplot(2,1,1); plot(om/pi,m); title('Chebyshev Type 1 Low Pass Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised frequency'); subplot(2,1,2); plot(om/pi,an); ylabel('Phase (radians)'); xlabel('Normalised frequency'); OUTPUT Enter passband ripple:0.5 Enter stopband ripple:50 Enter passband frequency:1000 Enter stopband frequency:1500 Enter passband frequency:4000

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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

High Pass Filter clc;clear all;close all; rp=input('Enter passband ripple:'); rs=input('Enter stopband ripple:'); wp=input('Enter passband frequency:'); ws=input('Enter stopband frequency:'); fs=input('Enter passband frequency:'); w1=2*wp/fs; w2=2*ws/fs; [n,wn]=cheb1ord(w1,w2,rp,rs); [b,a]=cheby1(n,rp,wn,'high'); w=0:0.01:pi; [h,om]=freqz(b,a,w); m=20*log10(abs(h)); an=angle(h); subplot(2,1,1); plot(om/pi,m);
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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

title('Chebyshev Type 1 High Pass Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised frequency'); subplot(2,1,2); plot(om/pi,an); ylabel('Phase (radians)'); xlabel('Normalised frequency'); OUTPUT Enter passband ripple:0.5 Enter stopband ripple:50 Enter passband frequency:1500 Enter stopband frequency:1000 Enter passband frequency:5000

Band Pass Filter clc;clear all;close all; rp=input('Enter passband ripple:');
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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

rs=input('Enter stopband ripple:'); wp=input('Enter passband frequency:'); ws=input('Enter stopband frequency:'); fs=input('Enter passband frequency:'); w1=2*wp/fs; w2=2*ws/fs; [n,wn]=cheb1ord(w1,w2,rp,rs); [b,a]=cheby1(n,rp,wn); w=0:0.01:pi; [h,om]=freqz(b,a,w); m=20*log10(abs(h)); an=angle(h); subplot(2,1,1); plot(om/pi,m); title('Chebyshev Type 1 Band Pass Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised frequency'); subplot(2,1,2); plot(om/pi,an); ylabel('Phase (radians)'); xlabel('Normalised frequency'); OUTPUT Enter passband ripple:0.5 Enter stopband ripple:50 Enter passband frequency:[1000 1200] Enter stopband frequency:[800 1500] Enter passband frequency:4500

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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

Band Stop Filter clc;clear all;close all; rp=input('Enter passband ripple:'); rs=input('Enter stopband ripple:'); wp=input('Enter passband frequency:'); ws=input('Enter stopband frequency:'); fs=input('Enter passband frequency:'); w1=2*wp/fs; w2=2*ws/fs; [n,wn]=cheb1ord(w1,w2,rp,rs); [b,a]=cheby1(n,rp,wn,'stop'); w=0:0.01:pi; [h,om]=freqz(b,a,w); m=20*log10(abs(h));
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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

an=angle(h); subplot(2,1,1); plot(om/pi,m); title('Chebyshev Type 1 Band Stop Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised frequency'); subplot(2,1,2); plot(om/pi,an); ylabel('Phase (radians)'); xlabel('Normalised frequency'); OUTPUT Enter passband ripple:0.5 Enter stopband ripple:50 Enter passband frequency:[1000 1200] Enter stopband frequency:[800 1500] Enter passband frequency:4500

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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

RESULT The Chebyshev Type 1 filters are implemented using MATLAB p waveforms are obtained.

Experiment: 6

Chebyshev type 2 Filters
AIM To design & simulate Chebyshev Type 2 filters using MATLAB. PROGRAM Low Pass Filter clc;clear all;close all; rp=input('Enter passband ripple:'); rs=input('Enter stopband ripple:'); wp=input('Enter passband frequency:'); ws=input('Enter stopband frequency:'); fs=input('Enter passband frequency:'); w1=2*wp/fs;
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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

w2=2*ws/fs; [n,wn]=cheb2ord(w1,w2,rp,rs); [b,a]=cheby2(n,rp,wn); w=0:0.01:pi; [h,om]=freqz(b,a,w); m=20*log10(abs(h)); an=angle(h); subplot(2,1,1); plot(om/pi,m); title('Chebyshev Type 2 Low Pass Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised frequency'); subplot(2,1,2); plot(om/pi,an); ylabel('Phase (radians)'); xlabel('Normalised frequency'); OUTPUT Enter passband ripple:0.5 Enter stopband ripple:50 Enter passband frequency:1000 Enter stopband frequency:1500 Enter passband frequency:4000

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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

High Pass Filter clc;clear all;close all; rp=input('Enter passband ripple:'); rs=input('Enter stopband ripple:'); wp=input('Enter passband frequency:'); ws=input('Enter stopband frequency:'); fs=input('Enter passband frequency:'); w1=2*wp/fs; w2=2*ws/fs; [n,wn]=cheb2ord(w1,w2,rp,rs); [b,a]=cheby2(n,rp,wn,'high'); w=0:0.01:pi; [h,om]=freqz(b,a,w); m=20*log10(abs(h)); an=angle(h); subplot(2,1,1); plot(om/pi,m);
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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

title('Chebyshev Type 2 High Pass Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised frequency'); subplot(2,1,2); plot(om/pi,an); ylabel('Phase (radians)'); xlabel('Normalised frequency'); OUTPUT Enter passband ripple:0.5 Enter stopband ripple:50 Enter passband frequency:1000 Enter stopband frequency:800 Enter passband frequency:4500

Band Pass Filter clc;clear all;close all; rp=input('Enter passband ripple:');
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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

rs=input('Enter stopband ripple:'); wp=input('Enter passband frequency:'); ws=input('Enter stopband frequency:'); fs=input('Enter passband frequency:'); w1=2*wp/fs; w2=2*ws/fs; [n,wn]=cheb2ord(w1,w2,rp,rs); [b,a]=cheby2(n,rp,wn); w=0:0.01:pi; [h,om]=freqz(b,a,w); m=20*log10(abs(h)); an=angle(h); subplot(2,1,1); plot(om/pi,m); title('Chebyshev Type 2 Band Pass Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised frequency'); subplot(2,1,2); plot(om/pi,an); ylabel('Phase (radians)'); xlabel('Normalised frequency'); OUTPUT Enter passband ripple:0.5 Enter stopband ripple:50 Enter passband frequency:[800 1500] Enter stopband frequency:[1000 1200] Enter passband frequency:4500

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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

Band Stop Filter clc;clear all;close all; rp=input('Enter passband ripple:'); rs=input('Enter stopband ripple:'); wp=input('Enter passband frequency:'); ws=input('Enter stopband frequency:'); fs=input('Enter passband frequency:'); w1=2*wp/fs; w2=2*ws/fs; [n,wn]=cheb2ord(w1,w2,rp,rs); [b,a]=cheby2(n,rp,wn,'stop'); w=0:0.01:pi; [h,om]=freqz(b,a,w);
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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

m=20*log10(abs(h)); an=angle(h); subplot(2,1,1); plot(om/pi,m); title('Chebyshev Type 2 Band Stop Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised frequency'); subplot(2,1,2); plot(om/pi,an); ylabel('Phase (radians)'); xlabel('Normalised frequency'); OUTPUT Enter passband ripple:0.5 Enter stopband ripple:50 Enter passband frequency:[800 1500] Enter stopband frequency:[1000 1200] Enter passband frequency:4500

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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

RESULT The Chebyshev Type 2 filters are implemented using MATLAB & the output waveforms are obtained.

Experiment: 7

FIR Filters Using Window Methods
AIM To design & simulate FIR filters using various windows such as rectangular, Hamming, Kaiser, Hanning, Blackman & Bartlett windows in MATLAB. PROGRAM- RECTANGULAR WINDOW clc;clear all;close all; rp=input('Enter passband ripple:'); rs=input('Enter stopband ripple:'); fp=input('Enter passband frequency:'); fs=input('Enter stopband frequency:'); f=input('Enter sampling frequency:');
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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

wp=2*fp/f; ws=2*fs/f; num=-20*log10(sqrt(rp*rs))-13; dem=14.6*(fs-fp)/f; n=ceil(num/dem); n1=n+1; if(rem(n,2)~=0) n1=n; n=n-1; end; y=rectwin(n1); %LOW PASS FILTER b=fir1(n,wp,y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); subplot(2,2,1); plot(o/pi,m); title('Low Pass Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised Frequency'); %HIGH PASS FILTER b=fir1(n,wp,'high',y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); subplot(2,2,2); plot(o/pi,m); title('High Pass Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised Frequency'); %BAND PASS FILTER wn=[wp,ws]; b=fir1(n,wn,y);
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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

[h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); subplot(2,2,3); plot(o/pi,m); title('Band Pass Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised Frequency'); %BAND STOP FILTER b=fir1(n,wn,'stop',y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); subplot(2,2,4); plot(o/pi,m); title('Band Stop Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised Frequency');

OUTPUT Enter passband ripple:0.05 Enter stopband ripple:0.04 Enter passband frequency:1500 Enter stopband frequency:2000 Enter sampling frequency:9000

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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

.

PROGRAM-HAMMING WINDOW clc;clear all;close all; rp=input('Enter passband ripple:'); rs=input('Enter stopband ripple:'); fp=input('Enter passband frequency:'); fs=input('Enter stopband frequency:');
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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

f=input('Enter sampling frequency:'); wp=2*fp/f; ws=2*fs/f; num=-20*log10(sqrt(rp*rs))-13; dem=14.6*(fs-fp)/f; n=ceil(num/dem); n1=n+1; if(rem(n,2)~=0) n1=n; n=n-1; end; y=hamming(n1); %LOW PASS FILTER b=fir1(n,wp,y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); subplot(2,2,1); plot(o/pi,m); title('Low Pass Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised Frequency'); %HIGH PASS FILTER b=fir1(n,wp,'high',y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); subplot(2,2,2); plot(o/pi,m); title('High Pass Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised Frequency'); %BAND PASS FILTER wn=[wp,ws];
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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

b=fir1(n,wn,y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); subplot(2,2,3); plot(o/pi,m); title('Band Pass Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised Frequency'); %BAND STOP FILTER b=fir1(n,wn,'stop',y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); subplot(2,2,4); plot(o/pi,m); title('Band Stop Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised Frequency');

OUTPUT Enter passband ripple:0.02 Enter stopband ripple:0.01 Enter passband frequency:1200 Enter stopband frequency:1700 Enter sampling frequency:9000
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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

PROGRAM-KAISER WINDOW clc;clear all;close all; rp=input('Enter passband ripple:'); rs=input('Enter stopband ripple:'); fp=input('Enter passband frequency:'); fs=input('Enter stopband frequency:');
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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

f=input('Enter sampling frequency:'); beta=input('Enter beta value:'); wp=2*fp/f; ws=2*fs/f; num=-20*log10(sqrt(rp*rs))-13; dem=14.6*(fs-fp)/f; n=ceil(num/dem); n1=n+1; if(rem(n,2)~=0) n1=n; n=n-1; end; y=kaiser(n1,beta); %LOW PASS FILTER b=fir1(n,wp,y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); subplot(2,2,1); plot(o/pi,m); title('Low Pass Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised Frequency'); %HIGH PASS FILTER b=fir1(n,wp,'high',y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); subplot(2,2,2); plot(o/pi,m); title('High Pass Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised Frequency'); %BAND PASS FILTER
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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

wn=[wp,ws]; b=fir1(n,wn,y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); subplot(2,2,3); plot(o/pi,m); title('Band Pass Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised Frequency'); %BAND STOP FILTER b=fir1(n,wn,'stop',y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); subplot(2,2,4); plot(o/pi,m); title('Band Stop Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised Frequency');

OUTPUT Enter passband ripple:0.02 Enter stopband ripple:0.01 Enter passband frequency:1000 Enter stopband frequency:1500 Enter sampling frequency:10000
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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

Enter beta value:5.8

PROGRAM-HANNING WINDOW clc;clear all;close all; rp=input('Enter passband ripple:'); rs=input('Enter stopband ripple:'); fp=input('Enter passband frequency:'); fs=input('Enter stopband frequency:');
Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18 Page No: 39

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

f=input('Enter sampling frequency:'); wp=2*fp/f; ws=2*fs/f; num=-20*log10(sqrt(rp*rs))-13; dem=14.6*(fs-fp)/f; n=ceil(num/dem); n1=n+1; if(rem(n,2)~=0) n1=n; n=n-1; end; y=hanning(n1); %LOW PASS FILTER b=fir1(n,wp,y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); subplot(2,2,1); plot(o/pi,m); title('Low Pass Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised Frequency'); %HIGH PASS FILTER b=fir1(n,wp,'high',y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); subplot(2,2,2); plot(o/pi,m); title('High Pass Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised Frequency'); %BAND PASS FILTER wn=[wp,ws];
Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18 Page No: 40

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

b=fir1(n,wn,y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); subplot(2,2,3); plot(o/pi,m); title('Band Pass Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised Frequency'); %BAND STOP FILTER b=fir1(n,wn,'stop',y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); subplot(2,2,4); plot(o/pi,m); title('Band Stop Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised Frequency');

OUTPUT Enter passband ripple:0.03 Enter stopband ripple:0.01 Enter passband frequency:1400 Enter stopband frequency:2000 Enter sampling frequency:8000
Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18 Page No: 41

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

PROGRAM-BLACKMAN WINDOW clc;clear all;close all; rp=input('Enter passband ripple:'); rs=input('Enter stopband ripple:'); fp=input('Enter passband frequency:'); fs=input('Enter stopband frequency:');
Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18 Page No: 42

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

f=input('Enter sampling frequency:'); wp=2*fp/f; ws=2*fs/f; num=-20*log10(sqrt(rp*rs))-13; dem=14.6*(fs-fp)/f; n=ceil(num/dem); n1=n+1; if(rem(n,2)~=0) n1=n; n=n-1; end; y=blackman(n1); %LOW PASS FILTER b=fir1(n,wp,y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); subplot(2,2,1); plot(o/pi,m); title('Low Pass Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised Frequency'); %HIGH PASS FILTER b=fir1(n,wp,'high',y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); subplot(2,2,2); plot(o/pi,m); title('High Pass Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised Frequency'); %BAND PASS FILTER wn=[wp,ws];
Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18 Page No: 43

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

b=fir1(n,wn,y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); subplot(2,2,3); plot(o/pi,m); title('Band Pass Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised Frequency'); %BAND STOP FILTER b=fir1(n,wn,'stop',y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); subplot(2,2,4); plot(o/pi,m); title('Band Stop Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised Frequency');

OUTPUT Enter passband ripple:0.03 Enter stopband ripple:0.01 Enter passband frequency:2000 Enter stopband frequency:2500 Enter sampling frequency:7000
Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18 Page No: 44

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

PROGRAM-BARTLETT WINDOW clc;clear all;close all; rp=input('Enter passband ripple:'); rs=input('Enter stopband ripple:'); fp=input('Enter passband frequency:'); fs=input('Enter stopband frequency:');
Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18 Page No: 45

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

f=input('Enter sampling frequency:'); wp=2*fp/f; ws=2*fs/f; num=-20*log10(sqrt(rp*rs))-13; dem=14.6*(fs-fp)/f; n=ceil(num/dem); n1=n+1; if(rem(n,2)~=0) n1=n; n=n-1; end; y=bartlett(n1); %LOW PASS FILTER b=fir1(n,wp,y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); subplot(2,2,1); plot(o/pi,m); title('Low Pass Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised Frequency'); %HIGH PASS FILTER b=fir1(n,wp,'high',y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); subplot(2,2,2); plot(o/pi,m); title('High Pass Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised Frequency'); %BAND PASS FILTER wn=[wp,ws];
Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18 Page No: 46

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

b=fir1(n,wn,y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); subplot(2,2,3); plot(o/pi,m); title('Band Pass Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised Frequency'); %BAND STOP FILTER b=fir1(n,wn,'stop',y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); subplot(2,2,4); plot(o/pi,m); title('Band Stop Filter'); ylabel('Gain (in dB)'); xlabel('Normalised Frequency');

OUTPUT Enter passband ripple:0.04 Enter stopband ripple:0.02 Enter passband frequency:1500 Enter stopband frequency:2000 Enter sampling frequency:8000
Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18 Page No: 47

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

RESULT FIR filters using Rectangular, Hamming, Kaiser, Hanning, Blackman & Bartlett windows are implemented in MATLAB & output waveforms are obtained.

Experiment: 8

Circular Convolution
AIM To write a program in MATLAB for the circular convolution of 2 sequences.
Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18 Page No: 48

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

PROGRAM clc;clear all;close all; a=input('First sequence:'); b=input('Second sequence:'); d=length(a); e=length(b); if(d>e) f=a; g=[b,zeros(1,d-e)]; end; if(d<e) f=[a,zeros(1,e-d)]; g=b; end; n=0; i=length(f)-1; for h=0:i k=sum(f.*g); con(n+1)=k; n=n+1; g=circshift(g,[0 -1]); end; stem(con); title('Circular convoluted sequence:'); xlabel('Time'); ylabel('Amplitude'); OUTPUT First sequence:[1 2 3] Second sequence:[5 4 3 2]

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18

Page No: 49

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

RESULT The circular convolution of 2 sequences is implemented using MATLAB & resulting sequence is graphically obtained.

Experiment: 9

Linear Convolution Using Circular Convolution
Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18 Page No: 50

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

AIM To write a program in MATLAB for the linear convolution of 2 sequences using circular convolution. PROGRAM clc;clear all;close all; x=input('Enter first sequence:'); h=input('Enter second sequence:'); n1=length(x); n2=length(h); N=n1+n2-1; x=[x zeros(1,n2-1)]; h=[h zeros(1,n1-1)]; for n=0:N-1 y(n+1)=0; for i=0:N-1 j=mod(n-i,N); y(n+1)=y(n+1)+x(i+1)*h(j+1); end; end; disp(y); stem(y); title('Linear convolution using circular convolution'); ylabel('Amplitude'); xlabel('Time');

OUTPUT Enter first sequence:[1 2 3 4] Enter second sequence:[4 1 4] 4 9 18 27 16 16
Page No: 51 Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

RESULT The linear convolution of 2 sequences using circular convolution is implemented using MATLAB & resulting sequence is graphically obtained.

Experiment: 10

Discrete Time Sequence
Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18 Page No: 52

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

AIM To generate discrete time unit step, sinusoidal, exponential & addition sequences. PROGRAM clc;clear all;close all; N=input('Enter length:'); %UNIT STEP SEQUENCE x=ones(1,N); n=0:1:N-1; subplot(2,2,1); stem(n,x); title('Unit step sequence'); xlabel('Time'); ylabel('Amplitude'); %SINUSOIDAL SEQUENCE x1=cos(.2*pi*n); subplot(2,2,2); stem(n,x1); title('Sinusoidal sequence'); xlabel('Time'); ylabel('Amplitude'); %EXPONENTIAL SEQUENCE x2=exp(n); subplot(2,2,3); stem(n,x2); title('Exponential sequence'); xlabel('Time'); ylabel('Amplitude'); %ADDITION OF 2 SINUSOIDAL SEQUENCES x3=sin(.1*pi*n)+sin(.2*pi*n); subplot(2,2,4);
Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18 Page No: 53

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

stem(n,x3); title('Added sequence'); xlabel('Time'); ylabel('Amplitude'); OUTPUT Enter length:21

RESULT The discrete time unit step, sinusoidal, exponential & addition of 2 sinusoidal sequences are obtained in MATLAB.

Experiment: 11

DFT & IDFT
Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18 Page No: 54

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

AIM To find Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) & Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT) of a sequence. PROGRAM clc;clear all;close all; x1=input('Enter sequence:'); N=input('Enter samples:'); xk=fft(x1)/N; n=0:1:length(xk)-1; subplot(2,2,2); stem(n,abs(xk)); title('Magnitude Spectrum'); subplot(2,2,3); stem(x1,angle(xk)); title('Angle of Fourier Transform'); xk1=ifft(xk)*N; subplot(2,2,4); stem(n,abs(xk1)); title('Inverse of Fourier Transform'); subplot(2,2,1); stem(n,x1); title('Input Signal');

OUTPUT Enter sequence:[1 2 3 4]
Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18 Page No: 55

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

Enter samples:3

RESULT The DFT & IDFT of a sequence is obtained in MATLAB & output waveforms are obtained.

Experiment: 12

Linear Convolution Using Overlap-Save Method
Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18 Page No: 56

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

AIM To compute the linear convolution of 2 sequences using overlap-save method. PROGRAM clc; close all; clear all; x=input('Enter input sequence:'); h=input('Enter impulse sequence:'); N=4; if(N<length(h)) error('N must be >= length of h'); end; Nx=length(x); m=length(h); m1=m-1; l=N-m1; x=[zeros(1,m-1),x,zeros(1,N-1)]; h=[h,zeros(1,N-m)]; k=floor((Nx+m1-1)/l); Y=zeros(k+1,N); for k=0:k xk=x(k*l+1:k*l+N); Y(k+1,:)=circonv(xk,h,N); end; Y=Y(:,m:N); y=(Y(:)); stem(y); title('Overlap-Save Method'); ylabel('Amplitude'); xlabel('Time'); OUTPUT
Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18 Page No: 57

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

Enter input sequence:[1 2 3 4 5] Enter impulse sequence:[3 2 1]

RESULT The linear convolution of 2 sequences is obtained using overlap-save method and output waveforms are obtained.

Experiment: 13

Linear Convolution Using Overlap-Add Method
Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18 Page No: 58

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

AIM To compute the linear convolution of 2 sequences using overlap-add method. PROGRAM clc; close all; clear all; x=[1,2,-1,2,3,-2,-3,-1,1,1,2,-1]; h=[1,2,1,1]; N=4; y=ovrladd(x,h,N); disp(y); ‘ovrladd’ function function y= ovrladd(x,h,L); nx=length(x); m=length(h); m1=m-1; r=rem(nx,L); n=L+m1; x=[x,zeros(1,L-r)]; h=[h,zeros(1,n-m)]; K=floor(nx/L); Y=zeros(K+1,n); z=zeros(1,m1); for k=0:K xp=x(k*L+1:k*L+L); xk=[xp z]; y(k+1,:)=circonv(xk,h,n); end; yp=y'; [x,y]=size(yp); for i=L+1:x for j=1:y-1 temp1=i-L;
Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18 Page No: 59

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

temp2=j+1; temp3=yp(temp1,temp2)+yp(i,j); yp(temp1,temp2)=yp(i,j); yp(temp1,temp2)=temp3; end; end; z=1; for j=1:y for i=1:x if ((i<=L&j<=y-1)|(j==y)); ypnew(z)=yp(i,j); z=z+1; end; end; end; y=ypnew; ‘circonv’ function function[y]=circonv(x,h,N); n2=length(x); n3=length(h); x=[x,zeros(1,N-n2)]; h=[h,zeros(1,N-n3)]; m=[0:1:N-1]; M=mod(-m,N); h=h(M+1); for n=1:1:N m=n-1; p=0:1:N-1; q=mod(p-m,N); hm=h(q+1); H(n,:)=hm;
Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18 Page No: 60

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

end; y=x*H'; OUTPUT Columns 1 through 13 1 4 4 3 8 5 -2 -6 -6 -1 4 5 1

Columns 14 through 19 1 -1 0 0 0 0

RESULT The linear convolution of 2 sequences is obtained using overlap-add method and output sequence is obtained.

Experiment: 14

Distributions
AIM
Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18 Page No: 61

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

To generate Gaussian, Poisson & random distributions using MATLAB. PROGRAM clc;clear all;close all; %GAUSSIAN SIGNAL x1=gauspuls('cutoff',50e3,.6,-40); x=-x1:1e-7:x1; y=gauspuls(x,50e3,.6); %POISSON SIGNAL lambda=input('Enter value of lambda:'); m=input('Size of first array:'); n=input('Size of second array:'); R=poissrnd(lambda,m,n); %RANDOM SIGNAL p=input('Enter value:'); d=rand(1,p); subplot(3,1,1); plot(x,y); xlabel('Time'); ylabel('Amplitude'); title('Gaussian distribution'); subplot(3,1,2); plot(R); xlabel('Time'); ylabel('Amplitude'); title('Poisson distribution'); subplot(3,1,3); plot(d); xlabel('Time'); ylabel('Amplitude'); title('Random distribution'); OUTPUT
Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18 Page No: 62

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

Enter value of lambda:0.05 Size of first array:10 Size of second array:20 Enter value:21

RESULT The Gaussian, Poisson & random distributions are implemented using MATLAB anf output waveforms are obtained.

Experiment: 15

Frequency Sampling
AIM
Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18 Page No: 63

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

To obtain a filter using frequency sampling method. PROGRAM clc;clear all;close all; N=33; alpha=(N-1)/2; Hrk=[ones(1,9),zeros(1,16),ones(1,8)]; k1=0:(N-1)/2;k2=(N+1)/2:N-1; theetak=[(-alpha*(2*pi)/N)*k1,(alpha*(2*pi)/N)*(N-k2)]; Hk=Hrk.*(exp(i*theetak)); hn=real(ifft(Hk,N)); w=0:0.01:pi; H=freqz(hn,1,w); plot(w/pi,20*log10(abs(H))); hold on; Hrk=[ones(1,9),0.5,zeros(1,14),0.5,ones(1,8)]; k1=0:(N-1)/2;k2=(N+1)/2:N-1; theetak=[(-alpha*(2*pi)/N)*k1,(alpha*(2*pi)/N)*(N-k2)]; Hk=Hrk.*(exp(i*theetak)); hn=real(ifft(Hk,N)); w=0:0.01:pi; H=freqz(hn,1,w); plot(w/pi,20*log10(abs(H)),'.'); ylabel('Magnitude in dB'); xlabel('Normalised frequency \omega/\pi'); hold off; OUTPUT

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18

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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

RESULT The filter is obtained using frequency sampling method in MATLAB.

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18

Page No: 65

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

Experiment: 16

Up-sampling
AIM To up-sample a given finite length sequence. PROGRAM N=input('Enter length of sinusoidal signal:'); L=input('Upsampling factor:'); fi=input('Input signal frequency:'); n=0:N-1; x=sin(2*pi*fi*n); y=zeros(1,L*length(x)); y([1:L:length(y)])=x; subplot(2,1,1); stem(n,x); title('Input sequence:'); xlabel('Time n'); ylabel('Amplitude'); subplot(2,1,2); stem(n,y(1:length(x))); title(['Output sequence, upsampling factor=',num2str(L)]); xlabel('Time n'); ylabel('Amplitude');

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18

Page No: 66

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

OUTPUT Enter length of sinusoidal signal:25 Upsampling factor:2 Input signal frequency:100

RESULT The given sequence is up-sampled and the resulting waveforms are obtained.

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18

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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

Experiment: 17

Down-sampling
AIM To down-sample a given finite length sequence. PROGRAM clc;clear all;close all; N=input('Enter length of sinusoidal signal:'); M=input('Downsampling factor:'); fi=input('Input signal frequency:'); n=0:N-1; m=0:N*M-1; x=sin(2*pi*fi*m); y=x([1:M:length(x)]); subplot(2,1,1); stem(n,x(1:N)); title('Input sequence'); ylabel('Amplitude'); xlabel('Time'); subplot(2,1,2); stem(n,y); title(['Output sequence with downsampling factor ',num2str(M)]); ylabel('Amplitude'); xlabel('Time');

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18

Page No: 68

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

OUTPUT Enter length of sinusoidal signal:25 Downsampling factor:3 Input signal frequency:100

RESULT The given sequence is down-sampled and the resulting waveforms are obtained.

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18

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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

Experiment: 18

Random Sequence
AIM To generate a random sequence in MATLAB. PROGRAM clc;clear all;close all; N=input('Enter length of random sequence:'); y=linspace(1,N,N); x = 0+sqrt(1)*randn(1,N); disp(x); plot(y,x); title('Random Sequence'); OUTPUT Enter length of random sequence:12 Columns 1 through 7 0.1139 1.0668 0.0593 -0.0956 -0.8323 0.2944 -1.3362

Columns 8 through 12 0.7143 1.6236 -0.6918 0.8580 1.2540

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18

Page No: 70

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB RECORD

RESULT The required random sequence is obtained using MATLAB.

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. SCT College of Engineering Pappanamcode-18

Page No: 71

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