Date: 23rd November 2010 Class: tr10sem04 Tutor: Claus Westh

Pilot project

Group members: Cecilie Alexandersen Emanuel-Mihai Kakuja Christina Kyhl Spangenberg Alise Vilumsone Laimonas Remeika Michael Hougaard

Table of contents:
Introduction:.........................................................................................................................3 Scope....................................................................................................................................5 Method.................................................................................................................................6 Sampling Method.................................................................................................................9

How to improve self-services in Copenhagen airport?
Copenhagen airport is the leader in check-in options. Figures from the international industry organization IATA,1 shows that Copenhagen airport is the airport in the world, which have the largest numbers of airlines offering their passengers to check-in using the self-service kiosks.2 Since 2006 the development within self-service in Copenhagen airport has been growing fast, and the new technology is received in many different ways by the passengers. You can check-in using the self-service kiosks, online where you can also print your boarding pass and via mobile phone. In April 2009, 58% of the passengers in Copenhagen airport chose to use self check-in. that is 18% above the industry average. 3 The numbers are growing fast, and now in 2010 the number are above 70% of the passengers uses the kiosks, (and soon they will experience that they can do more than just check-in, they will also be able to order meals and pay for their overweight. – Need information from HH) In “Stockholm,Arlander” they are in the middle of a new experiment from the US, where they not only have to check in on the self-services, but where they also use self-service for baggage drop. Copenhagen airport is the largest workplace in Denmark4 and an exciting environment to be a part of. Every month more than 1.5 million passengers travel through Copenhagen airport5. Every year the number of passenger increase and that is why they constantly need to improve the service. We thought it would be very interesting to see how the service is in the airport and if the passengers are willing to use the self-service the airport provides. Copenhagen airport have used a huge amount of resources to be the leading airport in self-service. Numbers show that to keep the standard that Copenhagen airport is known

1 2

IATA: The International Air Transport Association NRMODE=Published&NRNODEGUID=%7B9ABDB602-2F99-4B43-87E87BB8DBBED6B1%7D&NRORIGINALURL=%2FCPH%2FUK%2FB2B%2FAirlines%2FNews %2FRoute+News %2F2009%2FSelf+service+checkin.htm&NRCACHEHINT=NoModifyGuest – 16th of November 2010 3 NRMODE=Published&NRNODEGUID=%7B9ABDB602-2F99-4B43-87E87BB8DBBED6B1%7D&NRORIGINALURL=%2FCPH%2FUK%2FB2B%2FAirlines%2FNews %2FRoute+News %2F2009%2FSelf+service+checkin.htm&NRCACHEHINT=NoModifyGuest – 16th of November 2010 4 - 16th of November 2010 5 – 16th of November 2010

for, they must achieve a minimum of 906 percent of passengers using self-check-in. This counts for mobile phone, Internet, CUSS check-in or other.7 As written before,? Percentage of all passengers uses self-service check- in. We would like to examine through research and questionnaires which segment of passenger are not using the selfservice kiosks and why? We would like to find a solution so Copenhagen airport can live up to the fullest and fulfill passenger’s satisfaction in the future. Therefore our research question is:

“How to improve self-service in Copenhagen airport?”
In order to examine our research question, we will use theories and models (which is our secondary data?). We will also do a questionnaire which we will hand out to the passengers in the airport and use the results as our primary data. In addition to that, we will time the passengers in Copenhagen airport. We would like to see if there is any difference in time spent on checking in, when you use the self service kiosks or use the manual check in.


Possible models and tables Service management, chapter 4, page 70, figure 4.1 “Levels of service innovation”Service management, chapter 4, page 71. figure 4.2 ”The NSD process cycle.”Service management, chapter 4, page 72 figure 4.3 “Service design elements”Service management, chapter 5, page 96, figure 5.1 “Role of technology in the service encounter”Service management, chapter 5, page 98, Table 5.1, “Evolution of selfservice” Chapter 16,

Service Gap Model / Servicescapes model Capacity planning and queuing models

6 - 16th of November 2010 7 CUSS: Common-Use-Self-Service.

Although it is generally considered that research questions are done by the lack of information, our group did had such a problem . At the start we thought about the Kastrup airport more precisely about how to improve the passenger handling at the airport , because it offer wide range of information from the personal, passengers ( which represent primary sources ) to literature (because there are a lot of studies on the subject ) , statistics from the airport and it website (which represent secondary information) . After establishing the subject (Kastrup airport) and the problem area (which is efficiency in the airport), we found more information and so funnel to the one which became our research problem: how to improve self-service in the Kastrup airport. The funneling toke place because of gathering the in information and realizing that the feasibility of the initial idea was very low given the allocated time and the multitude of variables. Also the information gathering process helped define the final questions because on the airports website we clearly saw a problem the number of people using self-service was far lower than the airport was designed. The application usage of this project is that it allows the airport to increase the number of passengers it handles resulting in a higher profit and a much pleasant experience for the passenger, beside this it is also beneficial in for the airline companies that are using the airport because passengers will not miss there flights thus the company will not have complains.

The aim of any questionnaire is to do as much exact representative of the population as possible. However, the sampling of individual units of the population is not done in a random manner because the final selection of people to be included in the study is in the hands of the interviewer. The interviewer is able to make judgments about the people when deciding whether or not to approach a person

Method of collecting secondary information At the beginning of the project every one was searching for information about the research problem to create as much of an exact picture as possible of the research possibilities and to know what fields maybe implicated in the research. After the interviews and organizing the date, in group meetings it will be decided who will search for which hypothesis. Hypothesis being a result of interpreting the date gather trough interviews.

Method of collecting primary date When we conducted the interview each one had to interview a specific category of the research population , for example one will only ask the middle age women while another will only ask the middle age men , another the young men etc . thus avoiding the possibility of obtaining more information from some parts of the researched population then other parts (for example asking more men then women) . A structured interview can be made in order to collect both quantifiable and qualitative data. The goal of a structured interview is to standardize the interviewing of respondents so that differences between them will be minimized. Most structured interviews contain mainly closed-ended or fixed choice questions, just like self-completion Responses Non-Responses Total

These types of questions facilitate the data processing. On the other hand they might be too guiding in terms of possible answers. The self-completion questionnaires are absent of interviewer effects and they are also quicker and cheaper to administer. By having respondents fill out the questionnaire themselves the response time usually decreased as respondents could complete the questionnaire at their own speed. There are some disadvantages to self-completion questionnaires. For example, the researcher cannot probe or collect additional data, cannot explain to respondents when they don’t understand and there is greater risk of missing data as respondents might skip questions they don’t understand. In this study, the researcher encouraged respondents to ask if they were in doubt with something to reduce the risk of missing data and ensure that respondents understood the questions correctly.

1.Gender: Male Female  2. Age: <18  18-23  24-29  30-35  36-41  42-47  48-53  54-60  60 -65  65 < 

3. Which check-in method do you prefer? Check-in kiosks  4. If using regular check-in how long did you wait in line? 0-5 minutes  6-14 minutes  15 minutes < 

Regular check-in 

5. If using self-service did you wait to get a check-in kiosk? Yes  No 

6. How would you rate using the self-service kiosks? (Bad) 1  2 3 4 5  (Good)

7. How long did it take to get through baggage drop? 0-5 minutes  6-10 minutes  11-15 minutes  16-20 minutes  20 minutes < 

8. What is your opinion about self check-in? It takes too much time  It is too complicated  I would prefer someone to help me  It is too crowded  I think it is fast and it saves my time  I am afraid of doing it wrong  9. Why do you travel? Business  Pleasure 

Purpose of the questions in the survey:

Gender: To determine if there is a difference in the use of self-service gender-wise. Age: To investigate the specific age groups where service gap exists. Which check-in method do you prefer?: Considering servicescapes and service gap models we can see what people prefer. If using regular check-in how long did you wait in line? According to queuing model we can investigate if it saves travelers’ time effectively and is beneficial. If using self-service did you wait to get a check-in kiosk? To have an understanding of how many people have used the checking in kiosks in practice and investigate if there is a service gap. How would you rate them?: To determine if there is some room for improvement. How long did it take to get through baggage drop? Based on queuing and servicescapes models to understand if there is something that can be changed. What is your opinion about self check-in? In order to determine what is the specific service gap for customers not using the checking in kiosks. Why do you travel?: To determine if there is a same ratio of travelers in both groups using the self-service.

Execution of Research
Here we are going to write what we found out by observation

Sampling Method
Because Copenhagen Airport has more than 20 million passengers a year this study does not have the time and resources to do a longitudinal survey of passengers.

Target Population
This study will undertake to sample the population of international passengers departing from Copenhagen Airport in November. . All passengers departing from the airport in those days constitute the population. The researcher does not have access to a list of all units in the population so it is not possible to make a sampling frame. Access to passengers on these days is provided by the authorities at the airports.

Sampling Criteria
To be included in the sampling frame passengers need to be at least 18 years of age and have Used the self-service system at the airport. The best sampling method is probability sampling because it allows the researcher to administer tests of statistical significance that allow inferences to be made about the population from which the sample was selected. In this study, the nature of some questions requires the respondents to have experienced the self-services provided by the airport.

Sampling Process
As mentioned above, respondents must have experienced selfservices in the international terminal area before being approached for inclusion in the study. When deciding what weekday and time of day was best for this study, both convenience for the researcher personally and maximum amount of passenger traffic flows were taken into consideration. Professionals at both airports were conferred with in determining which days and time of day had good amount of traffic flow.

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