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Aba and Mysterjum Co~ncfio&:
A Cornparison of the Writings of Aleister Cronley and C.G. Jung
Lloyd Kenton Keane, B.A.
A thesis submitted to the fadty ofGraduate Studies and Research i partial fùlfibent of n the requirement for the degree of
Master of Arts
Carleton University Ottawa, Ontario March, 3 1 1999 QcopyriBht 1999, Lloyd Kenton Keane
prêter. Ni la thèse ni des extraits substantiels de celle-ci ne doivent être Unprimés ou autrement reproduits sans son autorisation. de reproduction sur papier ou sur f o m t électronique. The author retains ownership of the copyright in this thesis. Neither the thesis nor substantial extracts fiom it may be printed or otheMrise reproduced without the author's permission. . L'auteur a accorde une licence non exclusive permettant à la Bibliothèque nationale du Canada de reproduire. loan. paper or electronic formats. Acquisitions and Bibliographie Services 395 Wellington Street Ottawa ON K1A ON4 canada Bibliothèque nationale du Canada Acquisiins et services bibliographiques OcEawaON K 1 A W CaMda 395. nie w~ington The author has granted a nonexclusive Licence aiiowing the National Library of Canada to reproduce. dism%uteor sell copies of this thesis in microfonn.1+1 National Libraiy . L'auteur conserve la propriété du droit d'auteur qui protège cette thèse.. distribuer ou vendre des copies de cette îhèse sous la forme de microfiche/nlm.na.
visions. is by Western Esotencist (OccuItist) Aieister Crowley [187S. Mysierim Coniunctionis. Included in the appendices of this thesis are five figures.1 611 9 interpretation of the aichemîcai tradîtion as a method toward individuation. and dmg-induced experiences were not only valid but essentiai for the completion of the Great Work and the acquisition o f ever deepening and widening gnosis in the quest to become W y human.The second work. presents psychologist C.Lama Anagarika Govinda's theory of Mdtidimensionai Consciousness and anthropology's Cycle of Meaning are used throughout the present work in order to fâcilitate a more in-depth understanding of these two diverse traditions. Both Crowley and Jung can be seen as pioneers who attempted to foster apo&@asïc world-view in which various states of wnsciousness such as dreams. a comparative chronology ofcrowley and Juag and a text copy of Crawley's "channeled" work: Liber AL vel Legis. . Jung's [1875.G. The finit work.ABSTRACT This thesis is a wmparison of the works of two seemingly dichotomous individuals. fantasies.WVj. Magick/Li&r Aba sets out the major thrust of this prolinc author's theories wncemhg Magick as a proçess towards spiritual attainment. Magick and dchemy.Magrck/Ziber Abu. These two men were individuals who were dissatisfied with the predominantly momphan'c worldview of "Western" culture.
nk my parents (Fintan and Donna) and m .1 would Like to thank several people who helped me through the course of researching and writing this thesis. Ariei." Thirdly.) William Heidrick and Hpenaeus Beta XOofthe and Caliphate 0. Furally. y Professor John Dourley. F i 1would We to th. 1wouid iike to thank Martin P. editorial wizardry. Nahi.O for their exceiient editorial and academic work on Crowley (anci for Bill's prompt answers to my e-mail questions!). for his indespensaôle encouragement. n the . fiancée Beth for their mending support not ody in regards to this thesis but to my choice of academic discipline (sorry about the Business degree dad!). and assistance i eiucida~g nuances of Jung's themies. Starr (Secretary to the Chancellor ofthe A-. Second.A-.and Sandeep) for hdping me keep grounded in "the real world.T. 1w d d tike to tbmk m advisor. 1wouid like to thank rny close fiienûs (Catherine.
.................. 10 Multidimensional Consciousnes and Symbols........................... Hadit and Ra-Hoor-Khuit : The Trinity of Liber Legs .........................................1 Chapter One: Two Theories on the Nature of Symbols and Their Role in P m o d Tramfiormation........................................................................................................................................................... -47 MagfckiZiber Abu of Aieister Crowley.. -80 The Alchernical Conjunction as Psychological Process...... -74 The Fundarnentals of Analytical Psychology........................................ -44 Liber Legis and the New Aeon...................... s 39 Crowley and the Golden Dawn............................................. .................... 112 Magick and Analytical Psychology.... 128 131 ............................................ .............. -65 Part Four: &A qta ........ -45 Nuit......... Part One: Mysticism...... -90 The Symbolic Ingredients of the Mixture............ 111 The Magician and theAlchemist................................. 122 The Stages of the Great Work.................... 15 Chapter Two:Aleister Crowley and the Western Esoteric Tradition.......................................... 53 ...................................................................................................................-95 Summary of the Three Stages ofthe Conjunction...................... The Quest for Gnaris and the Paîh Toward Whoieness: Conclusion................................................................................................................................................ ..................................... 25 A Bnef Biography of Aleister Crowley.......... Figure One..........Tabk of Contents introduction.................................... Jung.G............... ........................-135 Bibhography..............-22 The Hemetic Order of the Golden Dawn and the Tree of LZe-.................................................... 20 The FundamentaIs of the Western Esoteric Tradition ....... 70 Summary of Chapter Two. 143 Figure Four........................................................................... 124 The Role of Sexuality in the Great Work .................................................................................................................... 72 Chapter Thm: The Conjunction of Car1 Gustav Jung........... ............................... Crowley a Anti-Chnst............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 100 The Drive Toward Wholeness and Active Imagination......................................... II The Cycle of Meaning and the Nature of Symbols..................................................... 37 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 75 A B i e f Biography of C......................... .. -54 Part Two: Magick............. ................... 1 4 2 Figure Three....................................................................... 58 Part Three: Magick in Theory and Practice............ 3 6 The Three Stages of the Conjunction............................................ -85 The Conjunction......................... 144 ................................................................................... 104 Sumrnary of Chapter Three................................................. -41 The Book of the Law... 141 Figure Two................................... 108 Chapter Four: Crowley and Jung: A Cornparison.................................................
....Figure Five....................................................... 145 Figure Six (a-c) .... 147 Appendix Two.................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 154 ........................................................................ 146 Appendix One.........................................................
Charles (et d).-1- lan. ego identificationwith experîence deriveci fiom a single range of phases that excludes other alternative phases. and is thus the only phase appropriate to the accrual of ùiformatiotl about self and the ~ o r l d . For North American culture. typidy tends toward m m q b i c comciousness. waking and sleeping.namely. New Y a k Cotumbia University Press. . Braia SvmboL & Eraieri- 1992 p. One reason for this interest could be that both Crowley and Jung represent indinduals who were not satisfied with our culture's dominant view of consciowness. Jung. ." and the like). The reasons for this interest are as varied as the types of people who read them. with no interpenetration between the two.G. =s view has been termed "munqkmfc" m the sense that it only acknowIedges or ernphasizes two states of consciousness. . .oduetion Ln the past twenty years there bas been a ~mticeable inaease in tbe popilanty of tbe ideas and works of both Aleister Crowley and C. the only " r d world" experiend i that unfolding i the sensorium during the "normal' s n waking phase (which includes many subsidkuy phases me "hi&" "sleepy7" "dnink. Any fonn of consciousness wbich occurs that i s antithetical to the monophasic view i usudy viewed with scorn or controlled through s legislation' According to Laughlin (et ai-): The experience of North Americans . By adopting a more poljphasic mode1 of consciousness we ailow ourselves to explore 2 Laughiia. ~ Polyphasic consciotmess is a view which acknowledges the validity of various levels of consciousness (such as dreams and altered states ofconsciousness (ASC)which may be brought about thrwgh various means) as valid and endemic to the 1human condition.155.
The nrst purpose is to d o w those who are already fhdiar with the Western Esoteric Tradition and Crawley's work but who lack a grounding in Jung's biography and psychological modd an opporiunity to enter into a psychological rapport with Crowley's theories. As a resuit of this attempt at moving away f?om the mollopharic world-view both Crowley and Jung have beeu heavily criticid in some ckcles as being too e c c e d c in their views. There are two primary purposes for u n d m g the preseat work. visions.in bis own way. s t out to question and change that worid-view. especialiy those works involvingthe more esoteric subjects such . WMe this may be tnie in some s d portion of thek work on the whole both Crowley and Jung can be seen as individuals who were not satisfied with the predomiium e world-view and each man. one who i s interested in Jung's Wntings. Crowley and Jung w r concerned with moving towud a p i p h s i c world-view ee which placed value on dreams. This grounding in Jung is important primarily due to the h t that a number of modern authors within the Wsen c etr Esotenc Tradition (or those clahhg to be fàmiiiar with its premises) employ Jung's terminology and models (such as archetype*shadow.-2- consciousness more deeply and more & y than if we remab in a strictly moI1opIyLSic paradigmgm3 Crowley and Jung were wncemed with approaching consciousoess fiom Both the perspective that ego-identification was only one srnail interpretation of reality and that human consciousness was fm more cornplex than generally understood. and self)without M y comprehending or elucidating their s p d c meanhg as fowid within Jung's thought.d e d paranormai and transpe~aal experiences. and s o . Simüarly.
379-429.-3 - a alchemy. Dallas: Spring. who and *Sx:James. S i . . Stanisiav Grotd are examples of psychologis*. insearch: h c b o~QBY Relimou. it is hoped that tbis work may foster more d e m i e study f?om within or Urvoving tbe Western Esotezïc Tradition and help to elimlliate or lessen the apparent unfarniliarity of the subject within the discipiine of Religion Many religious traditions are concemed with psychology and the exploration of the ümits of human consciousness. Albiny: S m e University o New York Rac f 1988 and B e v d the Braig Ailmgr State University of New York Ress. 1985. 1979. The seconci purpose of this work i to enter into a cornparison of the biographies of s Crowley and Jung. many contemporary psychologists have deait with the importance of spintual development in the course of îbei researches. pp. Le. Both Crowley and Jung have iateresting parallels a ! contrasts m throughout their biographies which could explain why these two men chose very dinient approaches towards the same goal. Judeism and Islam to h d suiuble examples. may h d that many ofhis theories and Unerpretations resonate with the Western s Esoteric Twdition in g e n d and with Alekter Crawley's wntiags in particular. anà Grof Staddav.. This cornparison is undertaken in the hope that the reader may corne to appreciate the motivating &tors which &ove both Crowley and Jung to explore the psychological and spiritual levels of human conscioumess. Wfiam lames4. Hillman. W l m The Vu*oa of IWiniGg E ii la . The Advaimrc d-D&mmy. - New York: Pen- 1982. One need only consider the main branches ofBuddhism and Hinduism as well as the various philosophicai and mystical branches of Christianity.Cari Jung. Iaws ~illman~. James.- . the shidy of the naaire of human co~ousness and the potential of human developman. Also.
pp-1-5." Initially it may seem u n u d to the reader that the present papa is a cornparison of two seemuigiy umelated works. %ortune. one fiom the occuitist Aleister Crowlq. one Eom the Western Esoteric Tradition and one f?ompsychology and compare them f r similsrities as weil as ciiffierences in an attempt to M t a t e an enrichcd o understanding of each tradition. 9 Also known as Liber Aba aod Book 4. pp. Dioa The Mvsticai Qsbrhlb Maioe: Weiser. Each person attemptedto reconde the seemingly dichotomousrealms ofpsychology and reiigion ûne tradition which also attempts to bridge the apparent gap between spirituality and psychology.Perhaps the - 7 See: James:Varieties. From psychology we will review Carl Gustav Jung's Mysterium Coniunctionis? specifïcally the last chapter entitled "The Conjuncîion. 1991. pion- in their own ri& there are in fàct many simiiarities in boththeir writhgs and their Iives. footaote 1. the Western Esotenc Tradition.ref'used to accept the limitations of the reductionistic medical maîuiaiist modei ofthe humao being7. . Though one might be tempted to t h d c that there are formidable diffaaiash e e n these two individuals. The purpose of this work es memioned above. From the Western Esoteric Padition we will examine Magck/Liber AM by Aleister C o l y which contains the major thrust of this prolific rwe author's understanding of the Western Esotenc Tradition. [1875-l!Mq and the other from the psychologist Carl Gustav Jung 11875-196 11. 10-12. i to take two works both fkom s prominent individu&. is what has been termed by Dion or tu ne' as the "Yoga ofthe West" namely. and which b s tended to be ignorexi by serious nrnAemic research.
Crowley insisteci that bis stuclaits and anyone foiiowing his teachhgs mun apply the "scientSc method"12 which involves the intricote recordhg ofali thoughîs aad experiences related to that individual's spiriîual progress within the Western Esoteric Tradition. Some examples of areas which Crowley shidied included the effects ofvarious dmgs and somatic techniques (including sex and yoga) in brin- about altered states of consciousness. Crowley's ofim arcane writing style and the t'act that many of his writings are highly subjective have led many schoiars to ignore his copious wodcs which inciude very diverse areas of study. W~tbouî Team. for guess woi4 we we as strictïy sci&c as biologists and chmiistn. Each experience encountered by the -dent mtiny. for vague cbamr." CrowIey. contributions of philosophicd and cosmologid theories relevant to the Western Esoteric Tradition and Qabalahl1not t mention his rnany poems. was to be thoroughiy examined with the strictest In some ways this study of experience is sllnilar to current understandings of 'OThterm " e t r Esatcric Tradition" WU usd i pbce ofthe vague ancl o h misunâerstood tenu Wsen be n "Occuit Tradition" and will rd' specincaîiy t tbose traditions beginning i the eariy 1800's.Brackets art m k . AZ: New Falcon. aitical essays.most meaningfid similarity between them i thaî both Crowley and Jung approached the s problem of spiriniality and psychology as an individuai progression towards wholeness.192.p. n LITherrseoftheterm"~"i t h a ~ w i l i ù e u s d t b m i y h a a t b i s p a p r t o r d a ~ c a i i y t o t h e w Westem Esoteric Tradition The spclling "Kabbabhnwill rdér t the mystical tradition o Jrdaismo f '&kmember always that we have 00 use for piety. Aleister Crowley's path led hirn to the heights and deptbs of his own mind and body and to the Limits and f i g e s of the Western Esoteric ~C8dition'~. we &mami perœpti~n. 1W4. W e ban cmorion fhm tbe start. even and perceprion is not acccpaMt untü we have mrit sure of its bases by a shidy of wbat we call tbe [mental] 'tendencies'. and novels which o range fiom the erotic to the mystical. More wiil o n be said about this issue i Chapter Two.
) '&I have written t i book to help the &miter. Mune: WQsa. more commonly. 1997. Where Crowley was a Western Esotericist who followed the "scientific methodn Jung claimed to be a scientist who had a deep interest in esoteric matters i general but it was the n occuit art of aichemy which warranted his special attention. . Crowky wouid refer to this "objective" approachto the Western Esoteric Traditionas "Scientificlllwninism"u or.a d aU the rcst-to M l themeives p e r f e Teach in his or ber own poger fiuiction"lbid. the Pugiiisl. enough to be part of the elect. especiaily fkom within traditions üke anthropology. the Aim of Religion. hs the Factory Girl the h & b m t i a the Slcn~grapbcr. p. the Biologist. Of Jung's coilected writhgs two works arguably standout as nimmanes of his methodology and the substance of his psychology. Magick? For Crowley this book was to represent a d g h t f o n v s r d guide wbich could be employed by anyone to discover th& True W and realiz+ the eventuaï goal of spinturl wholenesd6 This was no small clah i a period of the Wsen Esoteric Tradition which was composed of n etr many "secret" Orders which professed to hold the keys to the uoivene for those who wae lucky. Though MagicAZiber Abu cannot possibly encapsulate the entirety of Crowley's thought. and in some cases rich. the Poe&the Nmvy. The first work is The A ~ w e fo Job r %e banner-head for Crowley's occult bi-annuai magazine The EQuinox was: T h e Method of science. it does represent the core of bis teachings and will be used in the present cornparison." '?bis puticuiar spelling of Magîc will be drat wüh in Chaper Two.O. Magick! One work which reveals the most complete and thorough reflection of Crowley's understanding of Magick is Liber Aba(BOOA 4) or simply. 125. t W t k & the G m d .T.-6- phenomenology. k Golfér. atLllOtation anâ editiag by Hymenaeus Beta (Outer Head ofthe Ordo Tempii Orienfis (0. Introdiiction. tbe Gmcer. L ~ o s t h publisbed in ooc volurne as Magidc Bock &Liber AbaRutr 1-IV. ~ i y Second Revised Edition.
in other words the divine realm experienced on earth.W. C. One may be incliwd to disregard Jung's fiscination witû alchemy as inconsequeatial to his understanding of the psyche and its inaimic drive towards wholeness. Jung's. understmd'ig and model ofthe psyche. In Chapter One we wili review two hs models on the nature and f'unction of symbols. Hulï-Éranslator) N. o 18 J u g . 14. T i work will be divided inîo four chapters. especiaiiyGerhard Dom ( 1 6 c). J-Prkemn University Press.F. (R. The latter ofthe two works wüi be cieait with in this thesis as i involves the l8 t arcane language of symbols with which both Jung and Crowley were thoroughly f h i k . For Dom and many of the latter dchemists the quest was no longer for the Literal transmutationof base metaIs into gold b t rather the transfoCrnation ofthe individual fkom u theprinui materia of the gros human being to the purifieci and sanctifieci king who ctwelis in the ums mnrilius or the "One World". 14 A@steriiunr Conzmcti~nis. ..C. For Jung thealchernid writers. is taken from the writings of Lama Anagarika Govinda. CoUecteü Wokr. Multi-Dimensional Consciousness.G. C.-7(1957)" and the second i chpîer VI (nie Conj-on) s of C. The alchexnid tradition dso gave Jung a new language through which he could describe the depth of the human progression towards wholeness in highIy rich and symbolic images. Vol.457-556." foiiowed by volume and page mtmber. ~p. 1970.W. This model is important because it reflects a central assumption made in Esoteric traditions that symbols have an -sic power which m o t be reduced to a ~ one person's application That is to y "~ung. represented a form of histoncal validation for his. any s a h e q m î citations wüi bt hftnedt as "C-W. This inclination would be a grievous error. The 6rst model. 11.
-8say the symbol fùnctions i a way which is n t iimited to the mdium through which the n o
symbol is made rmimfiat whether thaî is a physical reprrsenistion through art or through the
use ofvisuaikation as in some forms of Tanme meditation The second model, the Cycle
of Meaniog, is nom the discipline of Anthropology (specifically the wrïtings of Charles
Laughlùiand J. Ian Prattis). The second mode1 offas a vay usr:fbl method i understaudhg n
how symbols are ailturally m e c i and reediorced. These two m d e l s will help us to
understand the highly cornplex and rich symbol system which is attachai to both Jung's interpretation of alchemy and Crawley's understanding of the Western Esoteric Tradition.
Chapter Two will begin with an introduction to the Wsen Esoteric Tradition and etr
the magid Order, The Hermetic Orda ofthe Golden Dawn Foiiowing this introduction a
bnef biography of Crowley wilf be given followed by his understanding of spintual
transformation as found in MagicWLiber Aba. Chapter Three will give a brief outhe of the major premises of Analytical Psychology followed by a short biography of Jung and an examination of his understanding of
psychologicaVspUituai ansformation through the alchernical process of the ConjunctionThe fourth and final chapter wiU be a cornparison of the two individds and their
models. The similarities and differences will be noted and summarized. To aid in the cornparison there i a chronology at the end of the papedg s
Fiody, 1 would like to S o m the reader that the undertaking of this thesis was
"stigated by m petsonai studies (at an academic and personal levei) and experiences y
involvhg the W s e Esoteric Tradition spannïng the past ten years. As a resdt of these etm
experiences and assumptions =me of m pmonal "phenorninologicai &a" has been y
incorporated iato my understanding of said Tradition a d wiii inevitably be refîected in the
Two Thcoria on tk N m r r of S p b o b and Thtir Rok
in PemonI) T101wforma#ion
True, without falsehood, certain and most true, that which is above i as that which is s below, and that which i klow is as that which is above, f r the perîomwce ofthe s o miracles of the One Thiag. A d as al things are fkom Oae, by the mediation ofOne, s aU o things have theu birth fiorn this One Thing by adaptation. T e Sun i its father, the M w n h s its mother, and the Wmd carries t in its bdy, its nurse i the Earth. This is the féther of al1 s perfection, or consummation of the whole worid. Its power k i n t e p h g ifit be tunieci into earth .
-ïhe Emerald Tablet of Hermes Trismegistus
Tmth did not corne into the world naked ,but it came in types and images. One will not receive the tnith in any other way . . .
-The Gospel o Saint Phüip f
This emphasis on images and symbols such as a rna@da is sharpiy contrastai by Zen's (Ch 'an) comparably austere m e n (lit. In order io M y appreciate the nature and Naction of these symbols t is nesesary to lay the foundation of this cornparison by introducingtwo important models which deal with symbois and their use in spirituai and psychologicai transformation nie first modd is "Multidimmsiod Co~l~~~*ousness" as developed by Lama Aitagarika Govinda Multidimensiond Consciousicss and Symbob Although Lama Govinda is writing fiom the perrpective of Vizjruya1$0 Buddhism. paper. In VajroyaM the m e piays an essential role in spiritual transformation.-1 1- Throughout this work we wiU be dealing with two traditions. . the m&zla is vwslued by the . Sitting absorption or m d t t o ) eiain practices. o healuig or identification with the attributes represented by the various beings encountered . Far f?om the visual two-dimensional figwe of cloth. Through mentai and physical development the practitioner is able to project himselfor herself into the realm and utiiize the power of the mQndcIIa f r very ptagmatic purposes such as . alchemy and the Western Esotenc Tradition. his observations on the use and power of symbols are relevant to the present cornparison. practitioner as a three-dimensional representation of certain realms or palaces of existence. or sami. which are imbueci wdh cornplex and sacreci symbols and images. In the Vajrayhtradition there is a great emphasis on the use of symbol and image in spiritual transformation.
. In tbis way the medÏtator has completely identifieci his or her consciousness with that of Vairocatt41. In this model î k higber halons art fkwcr in number ami mer+ complcx while the lowcr belons are mimerarr a d simple (anexample would tbe human body which is ma& up of many simple bolons. Wilber uca Anhur Koestler's term s "holarchy" (From his book Gbost i the n . which in tum m k e a cornplex homosapien who is part ofan even more cdmplex system ofooUcctivity.However. When the figure is sufnciently visuplireci. Used i this way the symbols have a tangible and pragmatic a on the n e c t person or persons using them. See for example: Wilber. the image is "brought down" to envelop the meditator. For example. The main pre- of Muitidirnensional Consciousness is that there are various strata or levels of comciousness or perception which can be experienced by the individual.d. ie-cells. S ~ i n t u a î k snirit ofevdutim Boson: ShambbaIa. Ecolow.hioros. aot %type of model i alm M t with in gmit ddail by Ken W-r. 1995ey Tbe . These levels of consciousness are arranged in a hierarchp where a "lowei' level of consciousness cannot comprehend a higher level. if the practitioner is mcditatllig on the nimykh of the Five D m - Buddhas and he or she wishes to cuitkate Dhmmacatahr Wisdom (iiight into the empgnesS [ SutyatZj of ali things) then the white image of Vairouunz in the center of the m+Ia wouid be the focus of the meditatioa The meditator would begin by visualizing their sur~oundings cotresponding with the colours found on the rnankda? Next he or she as wouid V UJ e the figure of V i o c a m (with ail its endemic ~ymboiism) i âi S Z sïtti~~g above their head. the higher levels of wnsciousnes not oniy comprehend the tower but they encompass and integrate them as w e ~ ? %e term hierarchy (Gk. Ken S . 1978) wbere a holon i s Srnula whole and a part ofa greater whole. London: Picador. order) in this context i meant to uiiply an implicît ader mches of interco~ectedaess of d o m .-12- therein.
Govinda kgias this @ed model wïth whpt he d e s c n i i as "point cooocioume~~. Govinda d a s not end his model at Our threedimensiod M e of g consciousness. more comprehensive unity. the h e is made up ofmany points and i able to t s comprehend its parts and at the same tirne be bwnd by its own structurai iinritations. Foundaîioq. pp." to P i t consciousmssis d l e to comprehenda line because i is only on î aware ofis individuaï boundary. and in faa all things. However. and designs are wnceivablebut spatial relationship of planes is not recognized." In "twodimensionai"coasciousness the points. H e states that when one realizes that each ofthe previous stages. but ody 'relativized' or put into another perspective of ~ a i u e s . without destroying the individuai characteristics of the integrated lower dimensions.. lines.In Foundations o f f ibetan Mysticismz4. m e s . 2 17-2 18.218. %id. . ." Point collSCiousaess then leads "linear consciousness. ~ ~ Each of the aforementioned stages leads to an ever expanding and wida m reference. "coaditioned %ovinda. in "three-dimensionalconsciousness" each of the previous forms of consciousness can be conCaved of in th& totality? Govinda states that: . However. p. Govinda purports tbrt there are stages of ever widening perception towards wbich one cin deveiop SeaSitivÎty. in a wider. the consciousnes of a higher dimension consists in the COordinateci and sUndtaneous perception of severai systems of relationship or directions of movement. The reality of a lower dimension is therefore mt annihilatecl by a higher one. are conditioned by a myriad of f-s (Pali: patick-ppaIl: lit. . The next two stagesare"twodimensionalcoaociousness"and Wuee-dimensionaicoI3SCiousness.
. visuaiized in meditation. planets. p. That is to say that the symbo1 will have a causal co~ection with nIbid. are real (as real as the mind that creates them). CiMliZations. In short. a thougN or an event. For example he States: A thing exists only in s fkr as it acts. races. when attainiag Enlightenment Thus. an infinite mutual relationship of ail thugs. whiie the merely thought-conceived historicd personaüty ofthe Buddha is unreai mthis sense. the symbols or images used in ritual can be undastood as existhg simultaneowly on many levels of consciousness. we arrive et the perception of a cosmic worldorder. "dsed").2 19.arising") one begins to gain insigùt into the 1aw of cause and & t (Sk: k karma: lit. comprishg nations. ifit is an active symboi. beings and events. is r d in its activity and wili be experienced as wch. The Tem Dhurmakwa in tbis usage reptesents the ïme uature ofthe univerJe as transcendeutai reality. belonghg to the pa~t. untii we f i r d y naliEe the u n i v d t y of cons ci ou^ in the D-aa. Through observation of the various phases of h i c chaiii-reaction one becomes conscious supra-individuai M c ïnterrelatedness. humpaity. For Govinda symbols help to activate the inner vision and that Uiner vision in tum helps to augment change. An active o symbol or image of spiritual vision is reality.A non-acting symbol or image i ernpty fomg at the best a decorative construction or the s remembrance of a coacept.~' The important aspects of Govinda's modd which apply to the present work revolve around the notion thot a symbol or image.IIItbis sense the Dh~aIiB u d k s . They are not ody simple hes or points but participate in the entirety of the universe. solar systems and 6nally the whole universe. Reality is actuality.
Conternporary researches in the anthropology O ~ C O ~ ~ ~ ~ O U S ~ ~PidS S us in understanding where and how these symbois develop and how they relaie to the human brain and its agency in their production and reinforcement. . through wtiich imer experience is mnslated into visible form .the individual who is entering into a relation with the symbol or image in the samc way a stone dropped on a stül pond wiii have an & t on the surfàce of the water. in which the highest bwledge and the noblest endeavow of the human mind are ernbodied. In the past thüty yeen there has been an increasing arnount of study done in the field of anthropology aod consciousness.Theü visualization is the creative process of spiritual projectioo. k the cause and e f k t can be measu~ed tbough perhaps not with the same method or degree of accuracy. because theu reality is thai of the humenpsyche." Once the symbol is actïvated there is no concern as to w e h r or not the symbol is "reai" or hte 'Msualized" because there is no longer any differentiation made between the two States. In either case. They are symbols. Such visions are not hallucinations. which now takes on a reality of ts own. What was previously envisioued through m d exerciseand meditation hes taken on a reality of its own and fiu~ctions autouomously f?om the origiaal application The Cyck of Mtrniag iad the Nature of Symbds Lama Govinda's model of Muiti-dimensional Consciousness demonstrates how a symbol can hction on many levels of perception huitaneously and gives ontologicai status to their power. independent of its creator. Here is a Einal citation fiom Lama Govinda which clearty retlects how symbols are understood in the Wsen Esoteric Tradition: etr The subjectivity of Ümer vision does not diniinish its reality value. . .
ess. 1974.) or what it means to them but. r i t d . interests i "Death Breathn and oher f o m of aitered States of coosciousned' and Charles n D. The Cycle of Meaning" demonstrates how a symbol fhctions withui a given woddview. how does it change or affect them bothbiologicaliy and psychologically. pp. 3 2 ~ eLauehlin_ CbarJes (et a9. Victor. 1990. an author from tbe e Western Esoteric Tradition. e 1992 as well as Launhlui_ Biogenetïc S New Y r :Columbia Uaiversity R.112. Laugblin and the Biogexietic ~tnicturalist3~ helpeâ Iay the foundation for serious have researches imo the nature of consciousmss fiom the anthropological m v e . See Prattis.Interestin*. Brain. This '%o~sciouniess"approach d o p o l o g y i important because it attempts to to s explain not only why cenain groups of people use a symbol (which may include art. (Practical Sinil Maeica Minn: LlewelSn.Ian Prattis Sad his J. ok 31 33see Figure one. Fraier U:D:. or spirituai gui&. Ncw Yodc Cdumbia university Press.Anhxmlonv at tbe EdPe. Ian. 171-204. 205-229. A usefiil tool îkom anthmpology which will help us understand how symbols fiuiction within a given symbol-systemi the s Cycle of Meaning. myth.Anthropologists like Victor W. perhaps more importantly. At the top ofthe cycle we see the cosmology ofthe people or culture in question That cosmology or ontological assumption is reflected in the d t w e ' s mythopoeia interpretation ofthe mythopoeia (such as art and rihial) is reinforced by a "sham&"' The That M ~ e e example fomr7scoiicept of liminaiity i Turner. 1997. drama. SYmbOL & Ewaience. For Praîtis' work on "Death Breaîhn ( a form of breath amtrol which changes brain chemistzy. New York: U i e s t Press of America. 33-38) discusses the use of 'T3eaîh Posturen for involringan altered state of oonscioumess. 1969. thus causing altered States ofcoIISCiousmss) s e pp. %term~shamanw isuudinthiscase to nqnesent wprson(orgmupofpaople) position of hterpreting the mytbapaeia such as a gumt priest. 95.The Ritual RmrF: Stmaiire and for n Ami-Structure->CH:Aldine. pp. who mightbe inîhe . Turmr with his work on w. etc. J. EhpxWy nvriy pp.
Our ailturd shamsns are not bomd to hterpreting one all pervading view and as a result may break off fiom one Cycle of M e h g to form yet another. if the society utilizes a form of hplluchogenic dnig in th& ritual practice and an individuai has an experience in an altered state of coasciousness it i up te the s shaman to give meanhg to that expezience. In such a society the sbaman plays a crucial role in the wodd-view. Bath Crowley and Jung can be ~ e e n individuals who attempted to create their own Cycle nom as their respective fields. In the case of "post-îndustrializedn societies there is. However. Le. What results is a closed cycle wbch is perpetuated by the culture's shaman.. the experience went too far hto the "psychedelic dm". For example.-1 7- reenforcemenî influences the direct expexienœofthe individual The direct experience i~ thai again iaterpreted by the shamanic agency.1~ reinterce the to endemic cosmology. In this way there is Little or no chance ofthe Cycle being broken as aaything which is wntrary to the estabtished world-view would be viewed as evil and avoided or shunned. the e m e n c e tbai would be interpreted as negative or "demonicn. This interpretationthen fÙncti01. no single established world-view. should the experience threaten the world-view. generally speaking. For our purposes the Cycle of Meaning reveals how the symbols and other s mythopoeia fouad in both Crowiey and Jung's w r i ~ g fûnction within their respective 1Ms- For example many of Crowley's visions and spirituai occurrences are heavily influenced by . The Cycle is usually applied to "prcindustrial" societies where there is a firmly established wortd-view.
Since Crowley was operathg nom within the cosmology of the Western Esoteric Tradition. CrowIey (et .then reenforces the world-view and interprets any direct experience had by the patient. as shaaiaa. oe s . The analyst. thaî the visions experienced by Crowley were "literal" in the sense that the entities existeci in a concreteor ontologicai mamer (though they might have). he would have been experiencing what was being reedorced through the Cycle of Meanhg as it appears w* i that tradition. %e 37 35 uinox Vol. Ïi. If a patient is being treated through the methods of Analytical Psychology then he or she can be as adopting that world-view.one sbould note that the Jungian aaaiyst aiiows h r the unique nature ofan individuai's psyche so theu r l as "shsimsnn i aot absolute.-18- the Western Esotenc Tradition. This niddoes not depreciate the validîty of experiences but does give an alternate meanhg to his writings. a wmplex set of rituals and ~isualizations. 5-256.). IV subject of Crowiy's experïences are dcah with i a dctnil in Part Two of the prisent w o k His experiences appear here o d y as an scampIe of the Cycle ofhkanhg This use of the Qde oîMeanïng is not mcessuiky "orthbQxn brrt it does give a dinerent interptetation of Jung's method of Anaîytical pSYcbo1ogyogy Mowwer.T e h al. ME: Weiser. he was also in a sense creating his own Cycle of Meaning. no. neçessarily. which intum reconfirms the Analytical cosmologyn As with Crowley.~ These rituais r d t e d in various visions and experiences wbicb are couched in the symbolism of the W s t a n Esoteric Tradition but they also refiect very subjective material. This does not mean. Not only was Jung writing from within the larger context of "Western"culture. Certain implications of the the Cycle of Meanhg wrrelate with Jung's methodoiogy.Crowky's The Vision and the Voi# records his experiments withEnochian Magic which invdved. in Crowky's case. pp.
Ultimrtely the effectiveness of the therapy is in the bands of both the a d y s t and the &Sand. . In the case of Crowley and Jung we oee that they both anempted to break the dominant Cycle (for Crowley i was the Western Esotaic Tradition and for Jung it was t Freudian psychodysis) thereby creating th& own Cycle of Meaning in which they themselves became the primary "initiatof'- Both Multidimensionaî Consciousness and the Cycle of Meaning demonstratethat in traditions such as the Western Esoteric Tradition and alchemy symbols h c t i o n in a very complex manner. As we begùi to look at the iives and writings ofCrowley and Jung we will see that symbolscan aiso help in opening consciousness into a morepot~htzsicparadigm by aiiowing for the validity of symbols and non-conventional f o m of wnsciousness.-19- this ïnterpretation does not diminish the d d i t y ofthe mtbods used by Jung.
MagrcWLiber ABA To Know To Dare To Will To Be Silent .Magick i the Science ofwidersta~ding s oneselfaad one's conditions.The Four Powers ofthe Sphinx . It is the Art ofapplyhg that derstanding in action- .Crowiey.
He later wrote three major wrlcs on rbe occult: Traiiscendental Maeic (1855). astrology.34. Gnostic.x) helped to rekiadle interest in the Western Esoteric Tradition. Squared h k e t s am mine- . no. The Hïstorv of WC (1860). oaniely. alchemy. ." We are primarily concemeci with definition "b)" but with one resewation. 39 Amoitr. The Kev to the Grand Mvsîeries (186 1).Each of these works (the latter king traaslated and publïshed in Crawley's bi-annuai occult pendcal: Tire Equinox vol. that it would be difficult to concede to the fàct that the tradition or "current" reached its apogee at the tum ofthe century when many more Orders and sources are in existencetoday than at any time in the lgm or eariy 20"' centuries combined.b) A airrait appearing in the second haif of the nineteenth century with Eliphas and reaching its apogee at the mm of the century. Occult.38as "Occultism.. New Yak State University of New York RaS 1994.Unfortunately there is no simple definition which encompasses the myriadof diverse traditions f o n d i the Western Esotenc Tradition.1. and Esotenc to refer to the same tradition. The Western Esotenc Tradition as referred to throughout this paper is defined by Antoine Faivre. .Some will trace the history ofthe Tradition to the farthest reaches of human bstory while others wiii view it as nothing more than a modern device of romantic h c y . o p.e. Ameg t Wesîern ESotericism. magic.Sulpice for teaching doctrines contrary to the dogrna of the Chwch. S p e c i f d y we will be e x p l o ~ what is g known as Ceremonid or Ritual Magic which employs a very complex system of phîlosophy '%%ivre is the chair of "Histo~y Esoteric and Mysticai Currents in Modem aud Contemporary of Europen at the École Pratique des Hautes Études at SorbonneAlphonse Louis Constant [c1810-187q(betler known under t e pen-name Eiiphas Levi) was a French h deacon who was expelled from St. %iwe. and the Kabbalah]. In order to clear up any potentiai confüsion it wIlt be necessary to defme some key terms." Accordiig to FaMe: "O~cultisrn'~ used in these two meanitlgs: a) any practice dealuig is with these sciences [i. Both scholars and practitioners wüi use n the terms Hermetic.
1890-1946).-22and symbols. which the practitioner a d o r his or her mentor may gauge his or her progress.Faivre defines gnosis as a form of knowledge which is udïke sciemific or rational knowledge. though he points out that gnosis does not exclude this form of knowledge but incorporates it. 41 . We should note that the terxn 'WesternEsoteric Tradition'' k i s ~ o m m o n l y used by those who foiiow the contemporary revival of the second defiuiifion of Faivre's "OÇÇUItism" and by those who p d c e Cenmonial Magic so it wili be retained for the remainder of this work? Perhaps one of the most acninite dennitions of the Western Esoteric Tnditioa cornes fkom The Mysticai OabalahU by Dion Fortune @said. I k t Crowley and otbers within tbt tradition d n e the practices of the movement. Gmms is "an integratiug One should note tbaî îbe Wesîem Esoteric Tradition has no connectionto the Spiritualism mrvements ofthe 19¢ury.Fortune describes the Wsen Esotexic Tradition as the '"Yogaof the West" which &plies a set of etr practices which help to deveiop the pmctitioner's mind and body towards the goal of spirituai wholeness. The progress is in actuality a development of a particular kind of gmsfs. It is in the spirit of this fining description of mentai and spiritual discipline thaî we CO~MU~ with the task of introducïng the Western Esoteric Tradition and Alaster Crowley's role within it. The Fundamentais of tbe Western Esoteric Tradition Like al1 initiatory traditions the Westeni Esoteric Tradition acts as a structure withi. Violet Firth.
e-g.is loosely based on the developments ofIsaac Luria (1 534-72) and otha contemporary Kabbalists.''~~ One wmmon thread of gnosis which can be said to hoid the majority of the subtraditions of the Western Esoteric Tradition together is Qabolah but more specifically the image of the Qabalistic Tree of Lie. and the univer~e.-23Irnowledge. Beauty) we find that it corresponds to certain DMae attributes which reflect Beauty? Aside from this interpretation Crowley and other initiates of the Hermetic %xshorn Scbolem in Maior Trends in Jewish Mvsticism (p.. The actual form of the Tree used in the Western Esotenc Tradition.213) r ~ e (be term Tifereth(Beauty) i s s rady used instead I se d oc gives the term Rahomim ( C o ~ o n for the sYnh sefra Since tbere are nta h lm ) few. as seen in Figure Two. a grasp of hdamental relations inciuding the least apparent t exist among the h various leveis of rrality. they also fùnction both as a system of occuit correspondences and an outline for the initiatory process. Witbin the Esotenc Tradition each of the ten sefiarepresent not only the traditional Jewish Kabbaiistic atîributes or qualities of divine emanation. humanity. It was Jewish Kabbaîists and then later Christian Kabbalists who populsrized a standard image of ten seFra (or spheres of divine emanation) aud twenty-two comecthg "pathd'which the Western Esoteric Tradition commody employs to this day. For example ifwe take the sixth sefra "Tiyeret" (Heb. wuras within the Western Esotdc Traditionwhich coasistenîiy employ Rahanrim we will f only use the tenu E i e frr . among God. Wbile there may be dEerences i the a n d interpretation and application ofthe Tree nomperson to personor Order to Orda ït remains a valuable tool in understanding the main tenets of the Westefll Esoteric Tradition. i any.
p. or the eximmities o hamanity and DMaity would not be what they are. T o p e YeUow Diamonci. D -the rd . o For most Orders withuithe Western Esoteric Tradition the Tree of Life fùnctions not ody as an image for personal meditationand contemplation. .ounteredmiichinomfaoltyworld Whocwldimagineal~~=l~ typeof being? Tenpsrtsdivkamdoniyonedegreehirmnn! SbortofaniacarnateGod. Vismr-Hiwi-fism-R5na. Essentially the Lamen ï s a symbo1 which tepresents the idivîcîual anâ his or ber spiritual aspirations. O= 6 c ". Zelator 1"=IO O shows the initiate has one "part' divinity while be or she has ten "partsw hnman nature (tbe grade also corresponds to Malkirt the lowest sefiruon the Tree of lifé.) The second G a e of the G.nonedsucba nature d d posïbiy mnnif.the For the purpose of this cornparison it is not necessary t "decode" each ofthese examples. and it ikuld tûedore be a brvsory d ail the otber symùola in ooeWMqicW Liber Aba.thraigh a human body. huer Traditions ofMa* p-99. yet it must be posibie for a being of tbat degree to ex&.the Element of Air ( *). the ~amen* ofthe Magic*n. Some correspondences which are included are: the Sun ( a ) as astrologïcd the correspondent. î k Grade ofNeophyte is symboiized as 0 ' 4 indicating the initiate's flcdgiing status.Kefher. in much the same way a m e l a %e Lamen is &asimple phîe whicb (king worn wer the heart) symbiizes Tiphnrah. it i enough t know that eadi of the sefia o s o of the Tree of Life are imbued with a similar iist of a t t n i e s which range fiom the v r o s aiu world mythologies t aspects of the physical body.Order of the Golden ~ a w n ~ ' wmpiled many other correspondences from very diverse sources. Tbe next Grade. Thus. Iacchus-ApoUo-Adonis. . 11 1 (emphncis i s Crowky's). P h a n q the Lion.. This grading is meaa as a means of monito~g spiritmi evolution but it also tends to lead to proôlems wiîh power strPggles W l m Gray brings up anotber ii la interesting implication WU system: this It shouid be obvious that the De W e d e s c n i is more ofan ideal to be achieved than an actualitytobee#. Four Princes ofthe Tarot. Oiibmm.the Egyptïan g d Ra. . *'The circle and r<luaic foUowiog the gnde numbers have symbolic -gg The cïrck represents d ï v k nature while the square represents rmiadaae or human nature. f Gray. Theoricus 2'= 9 shows that the initiate has progrrssed towarQ the goai ofthe Grade Ipsissimus 10"=1O which corresponds to the higbest s#ra. the Golden Dawn Grade of5 mysteries ofthe C c f r i n as weii as othen miiro.
A l é x ~ e v e n S ~ f o r t h a t ~ ( o r ~ O f t b e ~ o f f ~ ) o n e ~ a O r need to be part of a ''traâWto consider oneselfa Wiccan or Wfîch .T.). A.is used in the Vajrayibz tradition. even within an Order it is the individual who must study. e d i a a n ~ o r ~ w h o a r i e e c I e c t i c a n d b o m a s p e c t s h m each one- %ere i a similar occurrence in W i a a While îbem are many a ~ i claiming lineage 6rnn Gaald s u Gardner. Socieîy ofthe Inner Light (S.04.O. "Know T&ySelf.) and many Orders ci?liming lineage h m tbe Hernietic Order of the Golden Dawa This üst i nec in any way oomprehensive nor does this list tak in accumt s al1 the UidMduaIs who maynotbe i s v o h .k 0. Neiither the Order nor the initiate's tutor has the power to "initiate" in the truest sense of the word. In order to understand the Tree and how it fimctïons within the Western Esoteric Tradition and how Crowley would corne to interpret it we will approach the subject by analyzing how the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn used it in its initiatory practice.should one accept the tenuous evidence s of an unbroken heage clairned by several modem Orders) an Esotenc Order which was 4g~ome more well lmown Orden in existence today include the OrQ Tempii Orienüs (O.T.L." There are many people who for whatever teason feei no compulsion to belong to an Orda yet they feei drawn to the main axiom ofthe Western Esoteric Tradition. The Golden Dawn (1 887-1923) was (or z.A).O.T. The Etrmetic Order of the Gdden Diwn and the Tree of Life Before b eg this section it is important to note that one does not need to be a member of any Order to be considered a part of the Wests Esoteric ~radition. the Builders oftbe Adyturn (B. but it also acts as a structure for spiritual evolution. practice and undergo the ritual transformations." Although we wiil be approaching the Western Esoteric Traditionfkom the perspective ofan implicit symbol system of a particular Order within the Tradition this i no way implies that d Western n Esotericists must be a member of any Order to be able to participate in the Tradition? Findy.O has appmximately 3000 memben to date). Argenteum Astrum (A.
-26- founded by three occuit minded Masons. Sumial Liddel "Mac Gregor" Mathers (185419 18). Yeats ( 1865. D .William Robert Woochan (1828-189 1) a d D .William Wyrm Westcott (1848r r 1925) were responsible for the cresltr*onaad perpeaiation of one of the world's most important and influential Esoterk ûrders. Aiien Bennet (1 872- 1923) who becaïne a key figure in introduciag Buddhism to England (as Aaanda M d q a ) through what was to be known as the "Buddhist Society". Though there w r many more ee important members not mention4 in this list it should be apparent that the Order was a gathering point for many individuais who were ciraof the human potentiai. The e v e n d founders of the Golden Dam discovered a msuluscript as the "Cipher Manuscript") which was written in an easily translatable code. WoodmPo n and Wesîwtt the Adeptus Exemptus Grade (7=4). author and actress Florence Beatrice Farr (1 860. Aleister Crowley to name but a few. and of course.1939).19 17). At the height of the Order the mernbership inchideci author and poet W B . ï h e Orda W ~ S actuaüy granteci c h e r on the authority of a woman biown as Frâulein Annr Sprengel. Various tests (Wfitten and o d ) as weii as performance and lmowledge of rituai conduct are ammion methodsemployed to regulatethe *'Then2 is rtill a geat deai of dcbiuc as m the uaac~cc MF. The individuai's process was monitored by his or her superiors. niis "mythical"51figurewderred upon Mathers. The manuscript containeci an address ofFraulein Anna Sprengel i Stuttgart Germany. to the exploration of the possibilities The Golden Dawn was actually divided into three distinct Orders. spimgel. American scholar Arthur Edward Waite. . a charter to form an Urder in England and the power to initiate individuals into that Order.
and rebirth. The first is in refèrence to the eiementary or fow1datiod material given to the initiate in the fom of "KnowledgeLectures. symbols ofthe Zodiac and alchemy. The Second Order was d e d the Ruseas Rubeae et Alaea C u i (or simply: RR et AC) the Third rcs and most rnysticai Order was known by the initisls A-. Maine: Wekr. Essentially îhey r e p m a pmcess of spintual evolution foliowing the patteniof spirihial initiatioa.~~ %ter Crowiey wouid come to caii his own orda A . iifé. of course. "tbe principle ofbalance betweea thefillars." These lectures iaclude such informabon as the Hebrew alphabef". 1984.. Tbe Inner Traditions of Manic.(Argenteuin A m ).= Tbe Three Orders were divided into t a hierarcbicai grades ranging n o m the Neophyte 0°= O~ up to Ipsissrnus 10 O= 1 . Vermont Destiay. The Fint or "Outer" Order was the Goiden Dawn proper. 'STbe C<Kmiwieâge Leauries* am be f in Regarâie's Tbt OddcD Dawq Mion: Llawiiyn. up to NePoEhPhiIosophur are the Grades known as the C'Elementd Grades. William. p.99. or any T ' inteiubd. In Figure Three we see how the Three Orders and the ten Grades are arranged on the Tree ofLZe.-27- process of the initiate.T b e y c d d equally. .A-." Elemental in this particular case can be taken two ways. Workbg fiom the bottom of the Tre+ MolLu-Zehtor. a .. i s among otber things.) Rituai M & ofthe Golden Dawn. tbreepoistsoftht Compassor Square. Tbe three Qts foiiowing the-1 . 1997. Son. and Hoiy Ghost. siad for Father. as well as introductory rituai and meditation practice~. The first Grade?Neophyte 0°= 0a7 a preüminary Grade i s and thus appears outside the Tree. For the purpose of this work the tenu "Golden Dawn" WU refer to the Order as a whole. i-e. deata. A. 1988 and d King's (ed." Gray. tiueepointsoftbeheart. a daim thai he was pmpagaiing the a as third Order..
that is to and i say Earth does not necessdy refer to the ground we wallc on.Water 0. Prior to enterhg the Second 56 AIso known as Ether. but it is also the Wd of the initiate which helps to bring the other Elements under control . the body. On the top poht of the pentagram there i the eiement of S p w which combines ail four Elements. " ~ l s oWerred to as the H g e Genius or the Hoiy GuardiaD Angelihr . In Figure Four we see an image of a pentsgrsm where each of the four lower points represents one of the four Elements. mmdane coacems such as money and physical secunty. A i . Water can be taken as the deep unconscious. On the mic~ocosmic level Earth representsthe physicai worid. s by bis or h a superion. Air is the iideliectuai c a p e and the capaaty of Reason withm the individual. The Grades which follow the Elemental Grades of the Golden Dawn iatroduce to the initiate the philosophy and theones behind practicai magic.-28- The 0 h use of the term "Elemcntai" is in refcrence to the S a c r d Elements ofEarth tCa). F e (A)).(&). Ifthe initiate has an overly intellectuai nature then he or she would meditate on a d cultivate the amibutes of the grounding essence of Eanh tbus acting in a compensatory menner.bring and into balance the various parts oftheir psyche. wfiiie Fire has the qualities ofthe more volatile emotions such as hast and anger.These Elements are not to be taken Iiterally. The duty of the initiaîe i mt only to memorize d be tested. The initiate s is not simply invedgatiag their own "hteriority" they an also aîîempting to brhg the baiance ofthe Elements under the authority of divinity through the aid of the "Higher Selfn wbich is considerd the dMne spark intrinsic within each person. on certaincorres~ondences symbols but he or she must al.
as is more cornmon today. and rnagic. as aspects of one's own unconscious) withm a rituaiiy codhed space (this can be attempted in actudty o via mentai training (Astral woik) simiiar to Jung's r understanding of active imagination)). Mina: 198%- . the Middle Pillar. These ritrials can be found in Regardie.Thoth. Hermes/Mercury are similar in nature. concerneci with the dnnlopmeat of the divine presence within the e. and tbe Ra# Ctoss Ritiial." The Second Order marks a change in foais. IsraeL The Golden Dawn. An example wodd be invoking the Egyptian god of kwwledge. the Banishing Rituai of the Hexagram.The Tarot is defhed here not as a form of cartomancy but as a symbolic representation of the Universe wherein each of the syrnbols have various s on leveis of rneaning. The initiate is taught skills such as ritual invocation and evocation. L . images. initiate.-29- Order (RR et AC) the initiate was involved in ritual and @e c which was compietdy theurgîd in nature. Enochian magic. the initiate now comes to employ the symbolic language which compriseci the Knowledge Lectures. or postures to activate those aspects w i h Thoth represents withia one& hc Evocation is a calling forth the more "chaotic" forces (taken either as objective realities or. commuiilcatioo. Tarot. Haviag been taught the basics in the First Order. Enochian magic i a fom of Esotericism founded by Dr-J h Da (1 5271608(9?))and Sir Edward Kelly (1 555-1 593) which involves the wmmunicaîion and interaction of the Magician with "Angelic" bangs across various CcEthyrs'7 levels of or S h i mnrh riaiats ait the ~csscr of Bmishg Rimai ofthe Peniagram. and advancecl application of the Invocation refm to bringing in the essence of a god (archetype). The initiate wouid be taught to use certain items. development of "Astral Senses".
and the Cup corresponds to Water. the Wand corresponds to Fire. Knowledge). a . is to aid and teach the initiate the necessary wisdom to cross the Great Abyss which separates the Second and Third Orders." A the t "Sec James. there is a boundary between the n Second Orda and the Thkd Order. Tbe Enochian Mapick of John ïke.61 the lower Grades o f the F i Order the initiate was In attempting to cultivate a baianced personality where no one factor was dominantmirirint In the Second Order the initiate attempts to forge a comection with the "Higher Genius. o n to "~his ides is very dose t Victor Tiirm's undaaandiog of h ï d i t y . This bouodary i known as the Abyss which lays in the pseudo sefira Do ' t s u (Heb. Each of these subjects will be dealt with in greata detaü as the need arises. Geofny. The Holy Guardian Angel (sometimes writîen as HGA)is perceMdbothasbehg part of the initiate as weil as consisting ofan element which i trans-personal and which traasceads s the "Pseudo. As we see i Figure T h e . MN:LlcweIiynT 1998 for an m this foml of western Esotexicism.-30- existence. the Dagger conesponds fî to Air. Aside nom these faaon the most important undataking of the Second &der i what is known as the Knowledge and s Conversation of the Holy Guardian Angel. or wax) corresponds to Earth. The Abyss represeots a b a n k or "buffef' between rational and monophic consciousness and a fonn of trans-ratio@ tram-persod consciouswss wbich hcorporates apo&pbsic paradigrn." The El- Weapoas are tools which correspond to each ofthe Elements: The Pentacle ( h di& of wood. brass.Self"60 the unenlightenedsense of" ' The role ofthe Holy Guardian Angel or P.
^ The rituai generally useci by the Golden D a m to attain this Knowledge and Conversationis based on the "AbramelinOperation. (SL hiuic<ihgot-Uatbers trans and a ) l. 1976. each initiate's experience would be different but the basic understanding is that "'theBabe of the Abyss''." i tbis oratory the initiaîe is to n spend a prescnbed amount of time in solemn prayer. has dergone a coqlete shift in wnsciousness where ali semblames of the "Pseudo-Self' have been discarded including the bond between the initiate and bis or ber Hoîy G u d h n Angel. Bascd on a w m s a ï p t ci%id.65. The type of prayer i lefi to the h i t h e s but it must "issue fkom the midst o f your heert?' As the Operation progresses the time spent in prayer increases from a few minutes a day to several hours and the initiate must observe a fast throughout the &paid During the six months the initiate is to avoid any 63nte~ookoftk~acred England: AqUanus."" This Operation is wpposed to fast six months and begins with the iaitiate setting aside a rom within one's house or a place specifically sanctifieci which is to become the "oratory. Again. I4&œcduy- . of the tangibility of the e x t d world. To PU those who dwell below the Abyss the initiaîe of the Third Order has corne into contact with.-3 1- threshoid of the Third Order the h i h t e must &ce or rather must experience the Chaos of Cboronzon. a d the v a y d e n c e of the imtiate behind. the denizen of the Abyss. if not actually become one oc the "Secret Chi# who help guide the destiny of huma nit^. to employ a phrase fiom Crowley. Foiiowing the pattern of tbe World's descent r n y b the initiate mua lave J prrconccived and preconditioned notions of the subject-object I dichotomy. p.
-32contact with the outside world and i f *
is not possible then he or she is to avoid any kind
of communication or sensual s i u a i n as much as possi'ble. The culmination of the tmlto
Operation cornes with the invocaîion of the Holy Guardian Angel. According to Abramelin the Angel:
will never a b d o n y o y he will lead you in the Way ofthe Lord, and he wili watch carefùiiy over you to assist y o y and consent unto the present Opcration of the S a d Magie* so that you may be able to c o n h the Spirits occursed to GoQ unto the honour of Your Creator, and for your own good and that ofyour neighboura
The "Sacred Magic" referred to in the above citation is not only the invocation of
one's Holy Guardian Angel, it is also an evocation of the Archangels who i turn corürol the n
Four Infernal Princes and their legions. The main premise is that the initiate, with the aid of
his or her Holy Guardian Angel, utilizes certain sigh or seals to bind the demonic beings into
servitude. Whde this i the format of the Operation as found i The Sacreci e s n
c of Abra-
Melin -the individual application and experiences of the Operation within the Golden Dawn
would Vary from initiate to initiate. As we d see later, Crowley actually took seven years
to complete the Operation. For the GoldenDam the emphasis was not s much on the literal o subjugation of demons as on the c o ~ e c t i o n the initiate with the Holy Guardian Angel as of
a form ofpsychopompa which would aid the initiate in forming a Linlr with their ''Higher Self'
and e v e d y the Tbird ûrder!'
However, we should keep in aind that the Golden Dawn
As we s i d i see, Jung has a simüareqerieaœ with a figure oamed Philemon.
generally fl that the only way t reach the Third Order was throughthe uitimnte initiation, et o
Le., death Crowley would corne to denounce this assumption and claim that it was n t ody o
possible but essential for the init*teto attempt to attah membedip in the Third Order, wtde
living in this incarnation.
While f w of the themes fouad throughout the Three Orders are unique in and of e thernseives, as there are many simüar Î f not identical attributes i mmy different spirhd n disciplines, they are wmbiaed in such a way that the initiate is guided through a graded initiatory ritual practice which employs a surprisingly coherent and cohesive oystem of
Masouk, Egyptian, Gnostic, Hetmetic, Kabbalistic, and mystical C r s i n mythologies. hita
These symbol systems coupled with the many tools and weapons of the type of Censnoniai
Magic practiced by the Golden Dawn cause a deep imprint, through variau drivers " on the ,
psyche of the initiate?
6eIne cirivers which axe common i the Wsen Esoteric Tradition appeal to eoch of the six senses. For n etr
example to c t Crowlqr l ie m the circle, square, t n a n g l ~ vessels, larobes, implements, etc.2) Souad -the invocations [these are dont by v i b ~ n tbe names in a certain manner wbkh remnates g throughout the whole body] 3 ) s - the Penumes,e.g,iocease a d oüs. 4)Tutc- the Sacraments [îhis varies fiom traâition to tradition tbougb wine and bread are oommcm.] S')Tau&- as uadcr 1). 6)nIiidthe combinaiion ofall tbese and refktion on tbeit signincanœ. These unusuiû Mpressions (1-5) produce u n d brain-cbanges; htaoe tbcir summacy (6) i ofumwai lrinA Its projection into the s apparent& phcnonicnalworid i thexdore mm9inl, Crawley, Tbe GoeQ, Maine: Weiscr, 1997, pp.10-17s (CharksD Laughiin et al., New York . (Sqnared bracLets are minc). In Brain SvmboL & Columbia, 1992, p. 146-7) we see a more sophisticated expianation of tbe &ect that drivers bave on the uutonomic newuus system (ANS)and bow thmugh a "aining" or learning pr~ccss drivcrs can have a profoued &ect on the ANS thereby transfOIIIilIIg tbe p e m d t y through altered States ofconsâouswss
( 0 691his~0~inin~of~~~d0g~ssr~n~ctishp~artcdinbir~nlhio#, the Ed~e,p 2 0 to the pcubkm afGsymbdicapptopriationn in SOQeiy's qaest for rinial. HowRrcr, i tbe .2, n case ofthe Western Esoc#ic Tradition and tbe Gdden Dawn fiw ofthe ritaal facets are qpm@ami w i h u t a thonnigh oniyoftk çocidmytbo1ogical sources but more imporîady, the psychologically mudormaÉive qualities.
its beauty and iagenuitythe Goldai Dam was aiso a ohinoiog example ofthe
abuse of power, jealousy, misplaced loyalties, and pahaps worst of all i light ofthe asnue n
and role o f the Order, egotism Most of these complicationsantered around the political
issue of who had the legitimate authonty to uutiate and who did not. Near the end of its
hiaory the Golden Dawn feu into disrepute. The documents which the Orda was founded
on were thrown h o question Two of the mahi founders of the Order (Westico~and Woodman) left the Order leaving Methas sole autoctat- A largely poiitical schism within the
Second Order erupted b e e n W.B. Yeats and Mathers around various issues such as
authority, temple propertyI and imtiatory heage. Crowley applied to the Second Order
n during the schism, while Mathers was i France, but wu rrfused. Crawley's lack ofrespect
for authority and his bi-seXU8Lity d
e it diflicult for the members of the Second Order to
a m p t Crowley as one of rher own C o i y had sided with Mathers as he felt that M a t h s rwe
was the legitimate leader of the Order and tooked to Mathers as a guru. The Yeats "camp"
was becoming more concernai with Mathers' dictatorial personality and C o l y naturally rwe
put himselfat odds with Y a s and the Second Order. et
This issue of power is one of the mein difnailties with many Ocailt Orders then and now. If Mathers claimed to be tbe only individuai in the Order to have contact with the
"Secret Chiefs" and they are the ones ( r d or imagined) who bestow the authority it becornes
very dif!licult to prove tbat he was o was not the legitimate leader- Even to this day there are r
examples ofindividuais copy writing the name bbGolden Dawn".Through the use ofthe legal
system (a modan form of "Secret ChieW) wntanporary Orders can enforce tbeir own
interpretation of what the Western Esoteric Tradition should look lïke. I f anyoae e l r
infilliges on this view they are forced to c d o r m or fixe being sued.
The egotistic atmosphere of power stnides and ïmposed moral constructs
demonstrates that even though the Orda had the potential to funaon as a Û a n s f o d v e initiatory society, and did in many respects, ulterior motivations and desires surfaced w e hn
psychological tendencies were n t kept in check? o
This la& of mental dïscïpliw and
psychological introspection would becorne a central theme ia Crawley's later adaptationof
the Golden Dawn's rituals and theories. One could argue that in many ways Crowley failed
to practîce what he presîhed. Many aspects ofCrowley's persoaaiity stand contrary to his
claims of spirihial enlightenrnent. His ïnûated sense of sels his, at times, racist, sexist and
classist tendencies refiect more of an udividual who has regressed rather than progressed. However, despite these "character flaws" Crowley still reveals penetrating and poignant insights into bis own spintual nature and the nature of those who came in contact with him
The above has been an extremely briefintroduction to the Golden Dawn and does not
do justice to either the beauty or rne1odrPmabrou@ about by a thorough study of the history
of the Order. The primary informaton for the introduction cornes fkom four main sources
which, when taken together, fonn a reasonable background to the history and workings of
70~och "checksn wodd aime in tbe form of varioasinterviews with mcmkn ofthe ~ o Olda (in the d with tbe individrial'ssripervisor and his or her peers as weU as the case of initiation) or with individual's own exp1oration and hmspeaio11,
The nrst i The Golden Dawn by I s
d Regardie." The modern one-volume work
compiles much ofthe riniol, symboüsm, and Knowledge Lectures of the Golden Dawn and
is a much clearer introduction îhan Crawley's publication of d a r works in the f h t volume
a thorough though unsympathetic oveMew of the Golden Dawn and the people involveci?
A third source which is as equaliy usefui as Howe's book in introducing the main figures o f
the Golden Dawn is R A Gilbert's The Golden Dawn Scra~book." The firuil source7Rituai
Mapic in ~ n n l a n by' Francis King, is aiso v q thorough in its treatment of the history of ~ ~
the Order within a greater historiai context.
From within this oflm m e a i atmosphere of the Golden D a m Aleister Crowley first heard the potent words of the Neophyte initiation which would prove to be profouadly
infiuential throughout the remainder of his Me: Inheritor of a Dying WorJd, we call thee to the Living Beauty. Wanderer in the Wild Darkness, we call the to the Gentle Light. Long hast thou dwelt in Darkness. Quit the Night and seek the ~ a y . "
%owe, Eiiic. The Manicians of the Golden Dawn, Maine: Weiser, 1984.
%me adarnantiy inoias thmugbanThe Maeicaans Of tbe Golden Dawnthat he i neither an ûcdtisî s nor a 'Magician' yet coatinnes to make statements ofjudgmcnt on both Occaltisn and magk without having ever expienceci any of tbe ritrials or practiœs himleelf .
''~ilbert,RA, Tbt Go1&1 Dawn Scrabbodr, Maine: W&X,
A B M Biog.phy of W
t t r Crowîey
Aieîster Crawley was t d y a f'ascinatingand complex individual. Besides his wd@s
and adaptations of the Wsen Esoteric Tradition Crowley was also 8ccomplished in etr
mountah climbingn chess7', p ~ e t r y ~ ~ , essaysm, and short stories. Crowly was also wntiqg
ïnvolved i a great deal of experimentationwith aitered States of consciousness through the n
use of varîous trance states inducedby such methods as meditatiod -, o n
sex. Most of these parts of his Lae will not be covend in the brief biography which wiii
foilow. Oniy those occurrences which are essential to Ma@ck/ZiberA k will be addressed.a
n~rowleyC several weU lmmn lwuntains incl~ding CnimbLing cmface at Beachy Had M the ïxtaccihuati & Popocatépetl i Mercico (1900) as weU as an attempt on K-2 in 1902. n
In his 6rst biography of Crawley, The Manic of Aleister Crawlev, GB: Fmhick Muller Ltd, 1958, p. 19. John Symonds redis: “Crawley, who was capable ofgiving a good game to a professional chess piayer had won his haî€-ûiueJ, reptied -S., '1 wish I did [kaow bow to play chess]; I've been trying to learn for the 1st s* years-"(Squmd bradrets are mine.) i .
% a q ofCmwley's poemr are too d c for t average RadCr to be interesid k However. three of his poems are in tbe (nsf9rd AmboIow u Mvstical Verse m~boIsoo, D H S (a). f CO: Acropolis Bodcs, ad)a d many of bis more engaging poems are cdleded in Aiekter Crowlev: Selected Poems, Selected and Edited by Martin Booth. GB.:CNCible, 1%.
'OExamPlesdCmwky or esayin can be f New Falcon/O.T.O., 1998-
d in: Tbe Revival ofMa&
and ûther EssavsEssavs Lu Vegas:
His fither. He felt no need to leave the Christian tradition. .432. 12. p. Crowky begm to question the l@amaCy of the Christian mythology aad he r d in MagcMiber A h : "After bis death 1was t o m with intense pasistency. logical and inhumane typegs In maay ways C o l y s recoliection of his mother imnored his feelings toward Cbristianityrwe' Crowley felt that the Christian tradition was suppressive and destructive. i Crowley's relationwith his mother was a constant sourceof annoyance as can be seen in the foilowing citation fiom Co~essiom: The importaut points about the woman are that h a schoolmates d e d ber "the linle Chinese girln. only to explore al facets of it. Edward Crowley. and that ber powerfûi naturd instincts were suppressed by religion to the point that she became. Crowley's rwe relation with his M e r was generaliy a positive one and upon bis death on &ch Crowley was thrown into a depression *ch 5 '. was a L y preacha for the a ultmorthodox Plymouth Brethrenu as wd as the owner of C o l y Breweries. As can be seen i n w Crowley. a brainies bigot of the most narrow. MagicWLiber Abu.Aleister Crowley was born on Oct.. statement Crowley began to explore the "darker" aspects of the Christian tradition such as the figure of Satan and the imagery of Reveiation. Warwickshire. 1887 affecteci hirn deeply.1875 as Edward Alexander Crowley at Learnington Spa. that she painted in water colour with admirable taste destroyedby academic training. &er ber husband's deatb. till 1said: E ü be thou my good!nu With this v.
" 1bad been perfikctiy genuine in my ambition to lead a Me of holiaess. the idea of intimate communion with 'Jesus' was constantly present to my mind. . but wthcr the narrative nor the poetry ma& aay deep impression on him.H e prrfemd the ee Dragon. espcially those in Revehtion The Chnstianity in his home was entirely pleasant to him. though not entirely innocent." '% the eariy cbpkxs of his antnhiography Cmiwley rdas to himsclfin the third person as he fdt the person who was the Crawley &bis youth was a sqmrate ~ ~ K O Q be amid not relate t. He was f b c h t e d by the mysierïous prophaic passages. p. . He. of medù cempaigns iabeling him 'The wckedest Men in the World. like most cbildren. whom o *~row1ey. p." Many of Crowley's works have a decidedly anti-christim tone but this issue is a complex matter.I asked one of the masters one day how it was that Jesus was threg days and thre N hs in the grave although cxucitied gt on a Friday anâ risenogain on Sunday momhg. and the Scarlet Womsn. and yet bis sympathies w r wah the opponents ofheaven . . .44. For bis d e youth the ody source ofiiterhi~ avaiiable to him wss the Bible. as being more excîting. . the False Prophet. the Beast. He couid mt expiain and said tbat it haci never been explained.-3 9- his later writings he d e no concession to s d nomis and as a result was the victim.U. '%id. Con/essions. So I f o d a t e d the ambition to becorne a shiniag light in Christianity by doing this thing which had never yet been done. was d r a w to the more cofourfiil charactezisticsof ScriptureWhat foiiows are two c t t o s which help decode some of Crowley's feehgs toward the iain Christian tradition: The Bïbie was hiswonly book at this period.
"" Despite these views on Christianity Crowley stata that as late as 1894 he was still writing hyrnns and poems of Christian piety. given the post-Wctorhn and Brethren atmosphere. Daniel Co." Despite his "'satanism" Crowley felt the Brethren was the ody true way towards Salvation: "Indeed.Il Yogi Publication Society.publishd in 1974 as Crowlev on Christ (edited by Francis ln King). 1974) Crowley gives a fascinahg reply to Shaw's prefâce to AndrocIes and the L o .-Aâvemaqp accuser) as the new fiontier's figurehead. 1accepted the thcology of the Plpouth Brethren. Bernard S w v (Liber 888. The Collccted Works of Aleister C m & 3 vols. p l Accordhg to St.. Crowley's. W. Many of the p a m s found in bis Coiieded Worksgl are i n f i i d with a sense of reverent vmeration In his book Tho & . that this Sin wap the sexuai act and began to explore it with great vehemence. and to this hour I cannot teli why. 1simply went over to Satan's side. interpretation ofthe M e in 91 Crowley. For the young Crowley this sanial Sacrilege became a new fiontier to conquer with the Bibiid figure of Satan (IW-Heb.Eventually Crowley turoed his curiosity and kecninterest and knowledge ofScriptUre towards an attempt to define and carry out the Ultimate Sin which was sympathetic to those figures within Scripture he felt drawn towards. London: C. Eventually Crowley came to the conclusion. c 1974i: . my fkhg away nom grace was not oecaJioned by any iateiiectd qualms. . In fkct. . 1could hardly conceive ofthe existence ofpeople who might doubt it.which develops his. Ltd.
My satanism did not iutafcre with it at d.and Christianity a fiendish. As we shall see many of Crowh$s eariier views ofChtistimity." . 1 remember askùig whether people often died during the ceremony. ChriSti. He aiso felt that these traditions cornprised wbat he t m e d the "Old Aeon" while his work was to help establish a new Aeon for ~umariity. ~ n World's T & m . was nyiagto take the view that the Christianity of hypocrisy 1 and cruelty was not mie Chnstianity. I saw myself as %id-.73. 1 was not even put off by the faft that its ceremonies wae talchg place at Mark Enasan's Hall. I cüd not h t e God or Christ. The sum of the matter is that Iudaism is a savage. AZ:New Faiwn. I took the Order with absolute serioumess.ofJesus. sexuality and morality helped to develop his lata writïngs on the philosophy and definition of the Western Esoteric Tradition.nity. It was only when the development of my Iogical fàdties supptied the demo~l~ttgtion the Scnptures support the tbeology and practice that of professihg Christians thaî 1 was compeîled to set myseif in opposition to the Bible itseK It d a s not matter thaî the litentue is sornetimes magdicent and that in kolateci passages the philosophy and ethics are admirahle. p.~~ Crowley and the Coiden Dawn Aleister Crowley became an initiate of the Outer Order of the Golden Dawn on Nov. Crowley felt that the dogma ofChnstiaaity md Judaisrn repressed and nded one's True Wï. A £inalcitation from his recoliections of bis earty years wiil act as a swmution of Crawley's view ofchristianity which followed him throughout his He: ItsamsasifIpossessedatheologyofmyownwhichwastoail intents and purposes. superstition. P e d q Cmvley's m05t sciühg PHPEL on Christianity c m be foiiid i: Crowky. but merely the God aad Christ of the people whom I hated. 1had no idea that i was a tlat fonnrlity and that the members were for t the most part muddled niiddle-class mediocrities. 1991- .
V-1 reign over you.entering the Hidden Church ofthe Holy Grail. de6niteiy no! or Not Yet!) 8"=3 fi Veri Universum Gks yici (V.O1 Sonuf VmMg(0-S.V. on the shores ofloch Ness. but that's strictly spcaking beyonci it. in yogk terms. 'Tt's a somewbat &roWe <ML Mainly. M initiation was in fàct a sacrament. in QabaiMc terms. By extensiog it mnbe tbought to inchde the amhmen& across tbe Abyss. Each oftbeir temples arie directed towards Bol*.Taken h m the Enochian Calls) 7 ' 4 Ou M h (OM-No.O) Personai email." y Part ofthe process ofinitiation of the Golden Dam was to pick a magical mono (genefauy the mottos are i Laîin) wbich was to represent a spintual goal or a part of oneselfwhich the n initiate wishes to cultivate. By the time Crowley had taken hïs Portal grade. This state of my sou1 serveci me w d . Jan 29" . 0.V. the "Great Work" is the whole praçess of initiation aad mysîîd experiemx.T. the revolt was dready in full "Some of Crowley's other maios weie:6"=5 O. roughty the middle ste-p. Broaüïy.itinclrdesK&CofikHGAas ss. Crrrwicy tend& to place it with -nt of Saniâdbi.V. up to and i n c l u d i n g t h e c o ~ o f ~ ~ o f r h e A b y intbatsetting. 97 This house. It was at this t h e that Crowley purchased Buleskine HOU&' ait as a place to begin the Abrameiin Operation. the "Great Wark" i fùWment aftbe taslr of incanmion. Crowley's Neophyte motto wos Perdwabo wbich he translates as " will endure imto the I At the time of his initistion Crowley would have been referring to his endurance and dedidon to complethg the Great Work of spirituai development." W s i Htidnck flreasure Geaeral. However.V. 4O28'W and i the kiblah or diredon of s prayer for aii Tbelemitcs (devoîces of Crawiey's Law).1999.TO by "- - Mega Therion (The Master Thenon W o r The Great U) %Theterm "Great Work* is uud by CmwIey in variair ways. a preliminary to the Adept degree of the Second Order. the Operation was short due to the schism mentioned above. .% Following the initial initiation Crowley quickly dwoured the following 'Xnowledge Lecturesnor lessons and in May 1899 Crowley took the Grade of Philosophus 4" = 7 a which is the last Grade of the Fust or Outer Order. ib looitadat 57" 14'N.-Inmy Lifttimt I have coaquered the aniver~e the forçe of tndh) 9"=2 O..
Frlcenstein_ d in chbing i ordcr to n stay focused at the ta& at hanci.For instance: 1hsdextracteci the MagicaiFormula ofthe Ritual ofthe Nenphyte and 9% Regardie. .swing.1858) was a weii know mamtsineawhom Crowiq had met in 1897. . Thmgh Eckenstein klt that Crow1y's with magic and myaicismwas a wask of t h e ht did train Crowley in advancd forms of mentaï coocenbrationwhich be. challengeci and repudiated.93 %car EcLeos*in (ô. Eve in the Trianele. "Mac Gregor"Mathers7in Paris. Crowley was b a m d nom M e r advaucement in the London group (Mathers was in France at this t h e ) despite the d e h i e wuning contained i Mothas' mzuiifesto: " tI n W discountenance and will check and punish wbenever 1h d it in the order is the attempt to criticize and interfere with the private Le of mnnbers of the Orda . p. . Afier ajuvenile battle ofthreats ntain and thefts by both "Mathers' Camp" and the "Yeats Camp" Crowley lefl for Mexico for a long needed hiatus fiom the Western Esotexic T a i i n rdto After distancuig himseiffiom rnagic for a p&od Crowley returned to the Great Work i 1901 with renewed dedication: n On May l* 1find in my diaxy the foliowing words: "1solemnly began anew the operations of the 'Great Work" I had mapped out for myselfa dennite progranime [sic] which was to combine what I had leamt h m Eckensteing9with the methods of the Order.Borb E&enskh a d Crawley attcmptcd to climb Chogo Ri in L 2 at a m time when the p s h of the Himalayas wcrie aaeqmi. Soon after meeting with Mathers Crowley w s aven his Adeptus Minor 5 a O= 6 a Gnde by Matbers. The private üfe of i f a person i a matter h e e n himselfor herself and hIs or her Gad? s In 1900 Crowley came to the aid of his mentor. Crawley's i i i t o nor Matbers' capacityto initiate anyone. Eckawein marks one ofthe fcw penpie w b Crowky bad a sincere fondness for thm@out his iüè. The wisdom and authority of Mathers was doubted. . M e r the initiation Crowley acted as an agent of Mathets in order to determine who was loyal to Mathers and who was n t Needless to say the "Yeats Camp7' did not acknowledge o.
p.Square o l.21. the form of self initiation described by Crowley still implies a Western Esoteric 'Cycle of Meaning." Though there may be na " ~ s h a m a n "n the strictest sense to he@hterpret and i reinforce the experiences. This titlt sbaald pobably be AL. p 2 4 . Li s Balance. Rose. In essence Crowley's -lier training in the Golden Dawn would iay the foundation of his experiences as it would have for anyone else wbo entered the Order.Initiation. fkom some discarnate entity(ies). Confesnns. The r d t was that Crowley was informeci by bis newlywed that he was to invoke the Egyptian god Horus but in a mariner which was Merent fiom the methods 100 Crowley. 1now smplified tâïs and got rid of the aeassty of the physical temple by expressing it in a series of s v m d operationdm em Through his experiences in Mexico Crowley found thrit one could be selfinitiated thereby ovenidhg the need for an Order or mentor wbich had not been the case More. 11~ the first edition tbir Book was called L [ i r . . Tùt Book of tbe Law Crowley's 6rst wife. f ~ the Master Key t its Mysiuies. bracketS are mine. n through Rose.Tbt Law is for A! AZ: New Falcon. went into a trance on March 1 4 . The next important incident in C o l y s life which had an impact on MugcMiber rwe' Aba is his contact with Aiwass wtio dictateciLiber AI wl togssub Figum CCYXas&hwd by XCIII=118 ?O DCLXYl'" or simply The Book of the Law.applied it to a Ceremony of Self. 1996. and "Justicewi the Tarot. which r d t e d i a message behg givento Crowley ("They're waiting for yo~"'m). one would d be operating fiom within a very specific symboli system. However. Liber L v d Legis] L i the sacred leita in the H d y 0'n s Twdve-fold Table wbkh forms the triangle which stabilizes the Uoivttseoivttsethe Later oflibra. a r d t h c i r m r m k r 3 1 . TL" as tbe "L" was heard by the n voiceofAiwarbaseen A L i S f b C f r ~ t ~ Q f f b t ~ f o ~ ~ I C t l C I S .2. 1904." € r ~ w i e y .
'O7 Liber L q i s and the New Acon Crowley divided history into three sections or Aeons which dected stages ofhuman developmem. 'ou % r s s h d d mt be taken iiunlly as tbe Egyàan gal but rp<bcr as some =entity" wbdba pbySCai Or menrai. This p e n d corresponds to early matriarcbal s Societies which emphaszed the Goddess. he came to the wnclusion that Aiwaz was in fàa his Holy ûuardisn Ange1 and spread the message of the New Acon This wmplex message is smmwkd by one W O ~ : &)cq pa (~helema-Wi). Crowley entered a trame -te wherein he received dictation fkom what he d e d a prater-human entïty named Aiwaz (Aiwass).-45- tau& in the Golden Dam. After putting Rose through several teststmCrowley was convinced ofthe validity of ber request and began to invoke H o r ~ s . 1 %e rituai Cmwley used for th& prrpose cm be foand i Part IV ofMagiiaWiberAbu. pp. & 10" 1904.9. The &st stage i the Aeon ofISs. This dictation was inibdy titled Liber L velL. who was ~ years later. pp.as AU-Mother. n 105 See Appendk Two fot the text of Liber Legis. The second Aeon '03see M d . 'Crowley. April8.egisand was iater changed to Liber AL vel Legis to coafonn wah artam Qabslistic assumptious made by C r d e y latter m bis ~ a e . i this caseIsis. For one h o u a dPy '~ over three days. . which bas the qualities of Horus. The Universe i this n n Aeon was seen as being deriveci from the bomty of the Mother and thae was no differentiationmade between the individual and bis or her environment. 415419.411412 for a record of these tests.
no secd of purpose in them. W e are ctiildren.) in the Second Aeon. The thifd Aeon. al1 devices for soothing fraaous infsnts. the asswnption that the sun died on a daily basis and resurreected again every moming led to the assumption that the individual must a be reborn b aAa deatû-" As a resuit of this understanding there is an emphasii on corpses (Corpus Chistf. the Aeon ofHorus the Crowned and Conquering Child. etc. as the AU-Father. For Crowley Osiris. began i 1904 with the reception ofLiber L uef Logis and symbolizes n the culmination of the influences of the previous two Aeons. the atrocities which occur daily and lave us unmoved and hrtrdly wonïed. Consider war. claims Crowley.the relia ofBuddha and the Christian saints. Homs i seen as bi-ssacal or s and his Father(Osiris). In eafiy patriarchal societies. How this . Ln the Amn ofHomsthere i elso an underlying tone of "chilnishness" s I the introductiont The Book ofthe Law Crawley's surmution ofthis Aeon i. whole nations d i e by disputes t between boys. in n o s some ways. as accurate today as when it was written in 1938: Considerthe populpnty of the cinema.)is symboiized by the dyhg and resurracting g d Os'i. the wireles. the ôabyish enthusiasms and the rages which i excites.-46- (circa 500 BCE-1904CE. Consider sport. the footbaii pools and guessïng wmpetitioas. represents a t h e when "the Universe wos haghed as catastr~phic"'~ the r d t y ofre~ucfection based on a misundcnuadiag ofthe nahue and was of the rishg end settïng of the sua.
VOLL no. before the Aeon of Ma can at manifest Humanity must help the Chiid Horus to grow to aduithood through en intimate understanding of not only the Aeon but also each person's d e . Book of the Law. these are for i us to detemine.Nut) is traditiody perceived as the Egyptian Goddess she shouîd not be thought of in a litad sense i this n p a r t i a h application For Crowley Ni repre~e~lfed infinite vastness of the universe. The 'll"~owiiig[tbeAewdHbrus] wiliazisetheEquino~dMppStbeOoddaJdJustice~ Itmaybea hundred or ten ttiausand years b r n aow.'I2 She also represents. Bradrets arir mine. In order to better understand Liber k @ s it will be necessary to briefly review the main figures rwealed i its thne short chapters. the Egyptian goddess of Tnith and Justice. Each chapter deais with one specifiic figure in Crowley's cosmology. how the Child w U grow up. p. The &inox.1IO Crowley pooits thpt eventdly t h e MU be a fourth Aeon which will transcend the Aeon of Horus for wbich he was the Logos. reflected in the ibiûhnent of their True W a in the Aeon.Aeon ofHorus will denlop. . Though Nuit (Nu. the ut the ever presence of space."' However. p. n Nuit. 112 See Appendïx Two: Liber Legis ( .400. . in Crowley's understandimg. 10~rowfey.This Aeon is roughly descn'bed as the Acon of Maat. Hadit and Ra-Hwr Khuit: The Trinie of Liber h?gis The Book of the Law is comprised of three chapters totalhg 220 (CCXX) vases. vii. the passive quaiities which are generdy attfiibuted to the energy of Ym found in the Taoist philosophy. I 13-14) .for the Compaation of Time is mt here as There." Cniwley. The îïrst figure of the book is the Egyptian Sky Goddess Nuit who i generally pichired i Egyptim art as a Eue s n arched woman whose body represents the sky. 13.
Love. then and now. The goal of each star is to discover its True Wd." to which the reply is "Love is the Law. anci ail 'Inelemites.This was one of the rasons he insisteci that the Book could not bave come k m his uaconscious or Perhaps one of the most important verses fkom the Liber Legs for Crowley was L3: hs "Every man and every woman is a star. butthiswiiibeaddressedlater. love under ~ 1 1 Though tbis greaiag is far too complex to define in any detail. Crawley a&mMgcs Sevetal inauenœs in his m k a m h g o ofwiiland love. it is important to s understand that Wfl is not to be understood as a passhg fmcy.42) T i emphasis on Wd penneated every aspect of hs Crowley's M . in fhct. With this emphpsis on the sorrowfûi nature of üté Crowky codd not corne to tenns with the Book stating that Iifè was.The greeting used by Crowley. Co- to the view of many "%vo verses which Staod Orn are 26 and 61.The whole first chapter revolves uound N i as an energy of love and of beauty. According 10 Ocfnlt Kabbaiah. Once one discovered his or her True Wd (or orbit ifwe s i k to tc the star analog~) he or she m s foiiow tbrougbwithout restricting that wfi in any waythen ut "The word of Sin is Restrictionn(I. snchas Augustiw.lUCrowiey ut found this emphasis on beauty and happiness v a y Mcult for at the time of the reception of the Book he was deeply involved in the contemplation of the Buddliis philosophicai concept of dukkha (derins/sorrow). i "Do what e s thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law. ." T i verse is interpreted as meanhg that every penon has a unique beiug though all are part of the wholeness ofNuit. ?hose who foUow crowley'steacbings w i l l sborten tbiS nply with: 93 93/93. Law and Wd add t 93. pure joy.
" ~ Crowley and his foitowers have Wriffen l i t d y thousands ofpages on the me-g of eacb of these figures.''Magick i the Scknce anci An s of causing Change to oocur in codormity with Wifl. Maine: Wekr. The Law i for Ali.. In this context the Wd is the naturai paîh ofa spirituslly reaiized personLI'l6 The second chapter introduces Hadit (Had). 1997. Nuit and Hadit should be i taken as two parts ofa u w g whoie-"For 1 am divided for love's d e . for the chance of unionY'(I. is nowhae fomd"093) Hadit is quivalent to the Ym>g of the Taoist philosophy.l'' "Iu the sphere 1am everywherethe m e r . Generally spealaing.in The Law is for AU Crowley gives the following suamiary of Ni a d Hadit: ut The theogony of our Law is entireiy scientioc. i-e.29). T e Law i for Ail." Cmley's Dkuv ofa Drun Fiend. gives an iAPirliîrui portrait o the way in which one can diScclver O ~ ' Tnie Wül through Cmwfey's f S method of spirinial attaiamwt- ll%ese imerpretationsare fDMd thrcmgbouî CmvIey7s wriiiiigs hn primari@ in his c o m e s fauid in Crowley. as she. b s 19 1 Crowley. beyond the scope of this paper.the active d e pcinciple. in th& fùil physical sense. to put t very simply. Nuit is Matter*Hadit Motion. They are the w and the te of Chinese Philosophy. the Noun and Veh of gratnmar. in @entia7 which energizes and pushes the individual dong h s or her orbit. Most ofthe interpretatim involve deep knowledge of cornplex Qabaiah and are. the circumference. s .beyond other philosophies-is that these two infinities cannot exki a ~ a r t . Where Nuit represents the inflnite vastness of the universe. unfortunately. Hadit represeuts the ever present point within space. p-23. as that mystical huer drive or force. "%le Wi also plays s a9ii<ial mle ia Crowley's Minition dMagidc."' Hadit can also be d e s c n i .of Crowley's detractors this does not mean one can do as one pleases. Our central Truth. or.
as the destructive aspect of the Egyptian God Horus. Such i my s intimate inchidual wüi. p. the Desert Daemon of the Rabbi. this God became Alastor. It seems as thou [sic] this c'god ofwar and V n e n e is merely one who shall cause men to do their own Wills egac" by Goùig as Gods do.1p d e r to move constady fiom e galaxy to gaiaxy.3)Ra-Hoor- Khuit is the figure of retn'bution who will sweep aside the debris ofthe ofd Aeoa In the comtllentaq on III. I do not want to be cornfortable. to s i 121 C m l e y . or even to prolong W . 155. The attriiution i appropriate enough. This chapter descriis the desmiction of the Aeon of Osiris and the birth of the Aeon of H o w 'Now let it first be understood that 1am a god of War and ofVengeancen(TII.mejudice. Ra-Hoor-Khuit.'> W generally the most disturbing figure for first t m Crowley readers. instead of trying to check the inesistiïle course ofNature. Chapter One has a tone of reverence and ie beauty and Chapter Two has an overall feeling of spiritual agitation i the sense of stirring n one& towards spirihul r e a b t i o n (n many ways Hadit i synonymous with the T i s m notion of Kim&finr). =Iwander. nom one incarnation to d e r . Ra-Hoor-Khuit 120~ccordïng C m l e y Ra Mmr Khut i a deanr<ive fom ofthe p H m . is the force which actualizes or concretizes the spiritual stimulation symbolilized by Hadit. For some reason which I have not been able to trace.The third figure of Cfowky's trinity. it i to s acquiesce in the stagnation of the brain. then later the "Spirit of Solitude" of SheUy. so that the wanderer is c'accursed. to settle down in Iife is to abandon the heroic attitude. Chapter Three is filleci with a Martial (d)and destructive tone.P~ Aleider." But. 3 in The Law is for All Crowley describes the relation between Ra-Hoor-Khuit and himseif: The God of Vengeance is in Greek 'O AbUX2. 12' Ra-Hoor-Khuit." The ide0 0f"Going" is dreadtùl to the bourgeois. the root s apparendy M O A I . s . The Law i for AU.
destroys any social o spiritual féners which mi@ prevent the discovery and implication of r one's True Wd. u J ~ 7 is not.tbat is to be covered 4 t h His wings. . . . whose metaphysicai and ethicai flaw1essness has not saved its adherentsfkom losing those d e r Wtues whicb are proper to a Fighting Aaimel. a man. The religion of Hiodustan. Crowky is to be the prKst and Logos .or prophets . 52Mohammed's point of view is wrong too. but he needs no such sharp camction as je su^'^. rnetaphysidy and myJtically comprehensive enough to assure itself the possession of much truth. 53. but he was a "godn. a g a k t each o f these 'Cgodsn. . . just as a ' b d e of oid rags and a kerosene tin on a bu& may be "godn. . is i practice almost as supastitious and fdse as Christianity. Accordhg to the Book. in fict. Thus t is the eyos of "Jesus"-his point of view-that must be destroyed.ce i s t may appear negative and destructive.férr. Liars and dastards. nie most powafuiverses which r d e c t the natureof Crowley's understandingof this aspect of Horus are 5 1-5 5. which we caii "Jesus". Thethird chapter is very militant and damning.123 As can be seen fkom the above citation the author of the Book of the Law had a great deal ofanger and hostility directed towards the organizodreligionsofthe world. f One must not for a moment suppose the historicity of jes su^'^. The same rrmarks apply roughly to Buddhism"Mongoln: presumably the reference is to Conftcianism. and never was. . . . '* k e is a summsry of Crowley's comment on verses 5 1-54: Si. for the most pari. The extemal crad is mere masense suited to the intdligenceof the peoples among wtmm it was promdgated. It is his tiice-his outward semblance. There is a m a n . the role ofRa-Hoor i a positive one tbough on the auf. built of ignorance. and meaness..d e idea. So. a hith n of slaves.We must consider carefûily the patacular attack . and this piut of view io wrong because o tiis Magical GesNe of dSaaince.
Thse two factions are then joined together as one whole: Hem-Ra-Ha Crowley's cosmology w d i '? be elucidated as the need arises. Another dynemic of Horus which baiances Ra-Hoor-Khuit is Hoor-paar-kraat (Harpocrates) or the God of SilenceLz4 can be seen as the repose or the oenling of the who spiritual agitation initiateci by Ra-Hwr-Khuit. '%or greater detaiï on tbe caPmdogg see: The Law i f AU. As m d o n e d previously this work was undertaken by Crowley to act as an introduction to b s system of spiritual attainment. IV. For a more uintexpretk" appmsEh to îhe sa same see: Gram. Ra-Hoar-Kuit hprPscnts t h highcst inltling ofdivinity bmnaas can corn to know. AlÜster Cmwlev and tbe Hidden GQB G-B-: Chauser Ress. However.-52- ofthe new Aeon. Given the depth and arcane subject matter Crowky7saspirations were not M y realized. Thus. Howeva. 1973. thanks to the extensive editorial work of Hymenaeus Beta of the O.p-235).T.(Sac: Equinox. . on the most recent edition of M4g'cMiber A h Crowley's vision is closer than ever- '%owley wiU amibmebah Ra-Hoa-Kbnit (and at timsHem-Ra-Ha) wiîh Kether ( C m )on the Tree of M e .'" be With this brief introductionto key points i Crowley's understanding ofthe Western n Esoteric Tradition we now tum to MagrcWLiber Aba. Keaneth. Vol. the majority of his works d e r 1906 are either heavily infiuenced by or concerned specifically with his cosmology as explained above. i He wanted it to be an easily accessiibe work for every pason to understand and utilize.He wu charged with the duty ofspnadingthe Word of the Aton ofHorus with Ra-Hoor-nuit as his source of power.Hoor-pa~r-kraat a form ofcontainment of is grmis wherein one look iaward wMe Ra-Hoor-Khuit is directeci outwards. As a result any treatment WU cursory at best.O.
V i to transcnbe. N. any "entity" eacoUmetedcan bave an autonomous taiiiy byond t conthes of the agblt k inchidual's ego W&OUS. Sturges). p.for withait Woman man hath no powererW y '% - '+or a record ofthc WalBiig pst: Cravley (et al.000 years". hi. ermgyw) which b ~ g &O aftunüty the s potential power of tbe Giieat Beast which was C m i c y ' s role whiie be was alive.The genesis ofMbgickjfZiberA h has a very interesthg and unusual history behuid it.680- . Ma&k W i Tean. in many ways "astraln rites resemble a form of whaî Jung would d ocrive imagination exœpt i that the astrai work impiies a more iatease tmnce üke state In eiîhercase. Both the "Beast" and the "Scarlet Woman" are %les which may be assumai to refu to anyone wbo happemi t boid either oftbose o officesduring the whole period ofthe Aaon [ofïiomsJ2.) he s&tes tbat tbt Scatiet Woman i "aay Woman tbat recehes and transnits s M Solar Word and Being. Crowley.. p. 130 d tbt Vbke Eauhmx Vol. No-2-W t 1995ie nr Summer 19% E.302 Ln C m I e y 7 sThe OmamncaUd D (as fbmd in Tbe h@kd L& Quarte* News Letler i of the Ordo Templi C h i d ImeniatiOIlilf. to write a book which would set forth. 1was to dictate. p. Mary d'Este Sturges. By this means we hoped to write a book weil within the compass of the understanding of even the simplest-minded seeka d e r spuitual enlightenment? Again. in a very wmprehensiie manner.. 127 Scatlet W o n m r(p as tbe (SLt. p.No. the averagelower-class man in the StreetI was to recast my thoughts in a plunCr Ianguage. 1998.lit "force.V. through Soror Vkakarn (Le. Crowley made contact with the Secret Chien of the Third Order during what has become knowu as the Abuldu ork king-^ In this Workjng Crowky was tosENcted. whether objedive or subjective.4. ConJessions. to VOL X. Crawley's views on Magick a d mysticislll In his Conjiemions Crowley states: The idea was as follows. In an astral workhgf'(l9 11) with a seer (or S d e t Wornan1*3.m..) T b V i i â Maine: Weiser.4. in a word.287-337. . Combimdissue Vol IX.and if at any point then appeared the slightest obscurity-obsairity nom the point o f view of the eritinly ignoraut and n t partieulady o intelligent readm. powa.
superstitiouseinhus'tasms or other extraneous natter.51 ). ü where he equates various f o m ofyogo with the disciplines ofthe Western Esoteric Tradition: . no. Vol. Aîian Bennett. Part Four is UThelema:Tbe Law (previously published as 'TheEquinox ofthe Gods [The EqumOx Vol. no. and through his traveis in India (190 1-02). s Ceremonid Magick-The TrOmog for Meditation ".-54- The aaual text ofMogckZiberAba U dMded into four Put ûne is entitled ""Mysticism: Meditaüon. To better understand Crawley's approach to yoga we tum to The Eîpinux. and finaily. He states: "Part One of Book F a a acpounds the principles and practice of mysticism i simple scientSc tenas stripped of aii sectarian n accretion. Part One: Mgrtieirm (~cditation)~ Part One of M'igzcb"iber A& deais prirnarily with the general outline of the techniques of y q a that Crowley had leamed through his Golden Dawn mentor. memal discipline which is aimed at a union with God.The way of attahent of Genius or Godbeod Considaed as a Development of the Humrui Brain " Part Two i entitled "Magick: Elementary Tbeory. ïII. h this part of the book Crowley approaches the discipline o f ~ not only fiom personal experîencebut from the paspactive a of the Western Esoteric Tradition. Part Thre!e i "Magick in Theory and s Praçtice7'."'^^ The primary goal of the practice of pga i the Western Esoteric Tradition i exploration and control of mental n s tendencies or simply put.I.
Ceremonid Magic is the art ofuniting the mind to a single idea It has four methods. k n .Yoga is the art ofuniting the mimi to a singie idea it bas four methods. 1 The Holy Qabahh 1 The Saaed Magic 1 The Acts of Worship 11 U l o by iln Knowledge Union by Wfi 1 union by 1 1 ove The Ordeals Union by Courage I Invocations The Acts of l Union through Work l These are United by the supreme method of For Crowley the most important part ofthe prsctitioner's training was his o h a initial r mental discipline.1. p. iiialoyoga 4wY0ga union by Kaowiedge Union by Wd Union by Love b-ga I~arnrayo~a 1 Union through W O ~ L 1 These are Umted by the supreme method of Silence. 2. WIthout rigoroustrainingthe praditioner would be more likely to f p r q d IYMapted fmm The Eqvinox Vol. ii. p. i m. d i MogcMiber Aba. 199 as f .
pratyahaa (the withdrawal of the senses fiom sense objects). &&-(concentration).-56- to debions fabrcated by the ego.Let us determine to be masters of o u m ù i d ~ . ~~(consciousness which merges wïîh the object of meditation). that it obtpins power to see somewhat of the tnnh of thiogs . cireamhg or deep sleep in which mentai activity ceases). pr@@&u (control of the breath)and nsontrayoga (use of a sacred word or phrase in meditation). " ' ~ ~ The practitioner is led through key practices ofthe discipline ofyoga such as: aMul (posture). whether casual or s emotionai. . the g d foais o f P m ûne centers on placiog what is termed in Buddhism "the Monkey Muid" under the control of the practitioner's will Crowley states: "It i by fieeing the minci fiom extemal influences. . Once the practitioner penetmted the contents and complexes of the levels of the psyche. and smnaBH (a state of total absorption with an object which k beyond waking. The importance of these principles is reiterated throughout many ofcrowiey's works regarding the Western Esoteric Tradition ui tbe Summary ofPart One Crowky recapmilares . These practices are given in a systematic outline of both depth and brevity though it should be reinforad that the uses of the above terms though traditionai to ?Eastern7' yoga are being applied fiom within the confines of the Western Esoteric Tradition. it would be d e r for the pt8Ctitioner to differentiate the quality and nature ofvarious experiences enco~mered through rituals or "Astral Work". Thus. Unyielding concentration and prolonged visrulizotion are essential qualities in the Westem Esoteric Tradition and as a result these skills must be devdoped and honed h m the earliest stages of the practitioner's training.yoma(&cal practices).
p. 1991.Vd. ivk AZ: New Faiam.22.. I. 13' The first goai ofthe Student (the prelimioary training required More bang acceptai into the Order as a Probationer O"= 0 0 ) was to acquire a general knowiedge of v-s methods of spiritual attaùrment. .' bas been intcrpreted to mean that it W a crime to drink water that bas not been straiaed. no. The lana attr&utes merge t control all thoughts through the o concentration upon a suigie thought.43. p h . Most of the tities are either nom Crowley or works wtiich heady inftuenced him. o o Y m a stills the exnotions and passions. ÀraÛ stiils the body w i d e p r ~ i k z of helps t regulate and seares the body s that no impulses h m the body disturû the rnind. et * ' ~ ~ h r a sdMogick/ZibrrAbo. Wiîh Crowiey's formationof his own Order wc also see tbat altbwgh be foUm standmdCuIlceps of* Western Esateric Tradition bt is in bict rcmwing himsclffiam oae Cycie of Meanhg and beginnùig another." Prutydrhào marks the beginoingof the m o l of thought in general. p. which he p e ~ d founded and devdoped the y curriculum and practices. Some wocks o n Swami V i v - which were t be studied were -a-Yom o by the Sivasamhita and the Hssha~om PradZ~ikaEven More the onset of the practice ofyoga the Student hrd to have a thorough (as thorough as the penod would dow) background in the main principlcs ofthe discipliae. the A-.A-. ls you shaild kill the aninisriciitnwM a S c M i b e r Abu. Einht kctms on Yom 1 3 ' ~mmplete sumruay d t h e S m d c m reaâing lias can be maad ia llCe Equinox VOL& m.-57- his under~tii~lding the aforemenîioned principles.h.13' 136 Crowley States that religions bave tended t distort ethicai virhua. Each of these practices was to be taught to the Studan through Crawley's Order.Thus 'nonlkilling' which originaiiy o meant 'âo not excite yaurselfby staiking tigers. I i Cmley.A summug dCrowiey's interpretatio~e o f can be faiod in Eaiiiaox.
to thai In the second part the various cemnonial "Weapons". Tbe actual physical layout of the Temple was not a great matter of conceni for Crowley the . The Temple The Uagician's Tempk represents the whole of the external universe. the initiate is introduced to the symbols of the Western Esoteric Tradition which are developed in Parî Two ofMbgïcWLLiber A&. ccTools"or 'CInstruments" the Western Esoteric Tradition are introduced in of great detail.-58- AAer a generai gnsp of the individuai's mental process. Part Two: MiEkacard TBeory (CemmoW nIrgiclr= The Training Cor Meditation) Part Two of MugrcbLiber .464i an imruductionto Crowley's understandingof the s main principles of the Western Esoteric Tradition as a form of mental discipline s i * of traditional "Eastern" yoga practices. Whm the pracbtioaer sees or picks up bis o her Dagger he or she i &g r s forth the faculties ofa piercing and penetrating i n t e k t Tbe tools are u d i various rituals n either together or individually where one may need to address a particular issueu9 govemed by that particular Element or they may sirnply lay on the Mar to represent the interconnectednessof the Elements. As mentioned above (and in Figure Four) these Elemental tools have -y correspondences. What f o b w s is a briefreview of each Weapon as they are given in Part Two of Magrck Liber A&. as determined by bis or ber superior.
W h the Circle the Magician anirms the limitations implied by his or her devotion to the Great Work. the uaitmg of the subject aad object which is the Great Wo& and which is symôolized as this cross and arcle. sometimes îhe LllllSh or c m ansu&. it is a symbol of the Great* Work ' m Tou given by C m l e y i vmKd wïth the point up representingthe W U d the Magician. sometimes by the spire and Nive ofa church or temple. t afnnns the equal balance of his or her working since al1 points on the circumference are quidistant f?om the center.important aspects of rituai conducteciwkhh the Temple are thmugh the use ofvisualization Evea though the Temple could be nothiag more than a smsll room the practitioner could be standing in the Parthenon or on a floatuig cube in the vastness of space- The Circit The Circle bothconfinesand protectsthe Magician. As a result he or she no longer waaders about aimlessly in the world. "chymicai nuptial%" and in a hundred other ways Whatever the form chosen. It ako "e s hasobviousphallicooLlllOtatio~~~ TbetensquariesoftbeTouconespoadtotheten~~mtof~T~of LZe. spiritual marriage. soIlPetimes as the lirPge yoni. Wti the Circle is a T m ~hn cross of ten squares:"' The Tau and the Cucle together make one fonn of the Rosy Cross. . lu Around the Circle are piaced various divine names ( Crowley' s aw thesenames are m taken fkom the 17reIemic pantheon) which protect the Magician. According to Crowley the Circle is chosen by the pranitiowr because it afnmis his or ber ideutity with the iannite. and sometimes as a d a g e feasf mystic marriage.
"bAlimental quality") ofthe Hindus: m. Mercury thek Buidity. they represent certain arcane principles. Satfvais Mercury. equable. s The Altar shodd be adorned with symbok which reflect the laws of Nature though each Magician must devdop his or h a own system of symbolism. "Suifur represents the energy of thgs.40- The Aitar "The Altar rqreseats the wsolid brsIs for the Wo* the fixed W 1 ofthe Magician. dark? s On a practical b e l the Swurge i s appliedy & ( or symbolically)to excitea sluggishdisposition and symboüzes severity. and the Chah For Crowley "the Scourge.~.clear. and i 1 the law under which he w o r k ~ . Ulm.. tnmas i Salt. rajus is Suiphur. sluggish."'" "philosophicaialchmiy" these As with y. love to calmover excitement (as i the practice n and austerity. even fierce. three substances are not to be taken I i i d y . Salt their nxity. excitable. heavy. and the Chain binds wanâering thoughts and symbolizps concentration on the t & at band? a . Dagger. thick. Mercury and Salt [e]. The Dagga i symbolic of the abs of "blood letting") as weil as determination and d c e . raji~. " ~ ~ ~ TraMoaally the Altar is a double cube where the top of the Altar corresponds to the highest se@ra (Kerher)and the bottom i the lowest (Malkut). and tamas. and the Chain represent the thne alchernical principles ofSulnir k]. The Scougcr the Dagger.An hast exact analogy is given by the three gunas (Slct. active.
The fourth and final oil is gPlangal which represents both Ketkr and M i M . They are to be held with great respect and reverence: Furthet. the One and the Mooy. it ig a q d t y krtawed f m i a h " ' " For Crowkythe Holy Oil is made fiom four pure oils. . the qresents the =fita BiMh o the r Great Mother who is both the Understanding of the Magician and thot sorrow and compassion which results h m the wntempMon of the Universe. and that ptailiar feeiing wbich the creator ofwery work of art fals for his masterpie~d'~ . in whom glory and suffiring are s identical. is rnyrrh *ch the wisdom of God. the First and the Last. the aninide ofthe Magician to his weapoas should be that of the G d to the suppLiamt who invokes Him. Tàe second O& added to the olive. the tendemess and care of the bridegroom for his bride. The third oil i cinuamon s which represents the S@IQ TI@refwhich i the Sun-the Son.lu There are also other symbols which are used in the Western Esoteric Tradition. In this way the entire Tree of Life i blended s together into the perfèct gold. .The Oit "is the aspiration of the Magician . It should be the love of the fàther for his chüd.dl- The Holy Oil The Holy Oil anoints both the Magiciaa and his or her implements. for t upiration t not s h ambition. It i ibo tbe g . The first oil i olive which is the gifi ofs logos. The foilowing Weapons are the most cornmon ùnplements to be found within tbe Tradition. c e or chrism.
" ~ " . it i said that the Magick Cup is fiitled with the s blood of the saints. The Cup (Chdice) As the Wand is an active p h a k rderence. The Cup represents the Understanding (Bimh) of the Magiciam It is the ultimate symbol of the Great Mother. the Wand has obvious phallic symbolism attacheci to it which demonstrates its poteathi for creative acts. And as the aue cwent of thought is the blood of the minci.Also. in the Cup the Magiciaa's work is purified and renewed and into the Cup he or she must give evety &op of blood: "&nt has show that even the laws of N t r are but the conditions of thought. the Cup is a receptive womb oryoni-Wce vesse(. this view is not entirely incorrect. AU tûought m u t be o f f d up as a s a c ~ c e .-62- The Wand The wand i the most ideatifiable impiement of the Magician In f l taks the s ok wizard's power is synonymouswitù bis wmd. Crowley goes h t o a great deal of expianation ofthe nature ofthe Wand but it is enough to kmw that the wand represents the entire being ofthe Msgicipn fmsed on the Gr- Wo* Crowley b k s the Wand with the Magicai Oath or Hoiy Vow of Obedience which guides and bhds the Magician. For Crowky the Wand is a symbol of the Magician's Will and wsdom. the vast expanses of the universe.
s bd. Accordhg to Crowley every tbought and id. The Lamp The Lamp is the light o f the pure soul and is h n above th Aitar with no lower ug support. for Crowley.) UK:Aqparisq 19û6 aid ibid. his word. was a constant attack on the tranquility of the rnind. . his wisdom.97. p. the Path has becorne one with the Goal. The Divine Will that was the Wand is no more. the Cup was his understandmg.63The Sword W e the Dagger i the honed intellect of the Magician. RObeR Taroer. can be found in the works ofJohn Dedu "The Wand was the Wa of man. and the Pantade s h d k his body. the mord was his reason. and ail marks are bad marks-" i i . When the Magician l o et the Lamp ail fiides away. the Temple o the Holg Gbost'"Y In essence the Pantacle f represents a picture of the Magician's materid universe traasfomed into iu fùilest potemial. An exceiimt exemple of a Pantade.ln The Pantacle (Pentrck) The Pantacle is a flat disk of wax carved with symbols which the Magician feds represents his or her universe. the vebicle of his grace. the SigiIIum Dei Aneth.(Cd i no emocion which does mit leme a mark on the mimi. Wrthout bis anaiytical ability he felt that the Magician would be more likely to becorne overcome by emotion which.91.mu& be analyzed by the maftial vigor of the Sword. the Sword is meaLlin nature s and represents the f o - aspect of the anaiytical niculty of the Magician nrhen the Dagger pierces the Sword cleaves. ok The instruments lie idle on the Al=¶ that Light alone burns e t e d y . lS3%e The HeDtMhiPMvstica of John Dce. The Divine Understanding t was tbe Cup k no h I5%ere p.
dence.) Part Two introduces the reader to the basic theory behEd much of the cornplex symbolisrn of the Western Esoteric ~raditiotl. word. for tbe wmplex has been resolved into the Simple. and protection).Taken individually these symbols compartmentalize or emphasize separate aspects of the individual. 1975. the fWy balanced and deveioped individual. without cause and without e f k t . Eteraal. the Holy Lamp mysteriousiy bums. Wlim Pattcrirs of Wcsmn R ila @ & as f d in Tart. unconditional and sempiterd. for the subject and object of inteiiigence are One." Essentislly the symbols represent f b t s or attributes of the practitioner. Taken in coyunction ail the implements represent. The remainder of P r Two describes the personai attire of the Magician. the Book (a record of every thought. The Divine Reason t h was the Sword is no more. f r the many has becorne the One. pp. the Robe (wllcealment. and the Lamen (a pictorial symbol unique to the Magician's symbo1 system). Eoch of the '%estments7' unique to the is individual and may change over time (e-g. Cbarics T (a)Tn l -a PsvcboiOnicS.. . i in an Order the Magician may receive a new f Robe with each initiation. is this ~ight. o unconfina mextended.433471. and deed of the Magician). Without qwatity or quility. tbey do resormte with the geaaally acceptai nosms Mthin the Tradition. The at Crown (attainment of the Work).'" These objects are the main symbols used in the Western Esoteric Tradition Tbough the interpretationsare Crowiey's. And the Divine Substance that was the Pantacle is no more. P r Three of at MagicULiber Aba then takes the thwy ofMagick in Part Two and applies it in practice. '%A weii-presented imaprastimdtk symbois of tbc Wacan Esortnc Tradition can a b be f d i n Gray. New York: Harper & Row.more. symbolicaiiy ofcourse.
lldmctict Much o f P r Three is inuadated with Theiemic luigruse and symbols though once at understood they do not hterfere with ui understanding of Crowley's main points in the practice ofMagick. MugicWZiber Aba.-65- PutThiw:M8gickiaThmry. -- . alchemy. an individuai can still practice Crowiey7smethods without a c h d y accepting the tenets ofthe Aeoa ofHorus though. Throughout Part Three the d e r i led frwivarious subjects wmmon s to The Western Esoteric Tradition such astheE l e m d Weapons. 126.37. Psvchiç ûB: Aquarian Press. thou& in each case Crowky i attempting to reinterpret or s transfonn certain theories and practices to conform with the current Aeon of Horus which he clairns we entered into in 1904. formulationof Godnames.'" Crowley was atternpting to bring the abstract and seerningiy absurd practices ofMsgic to the average individual so that each pwon couid apply the symboiism a d practices to penetrate the deepest recesses of theü being and surface 157 Crowley. etc. 1957. p.. divination. See:Fo Dion. However.I Add of P r Three: at "Every intentional act is a Magicai Act"1suand we have the major crux of Crowley's understanding of the nature of Magic. Crowley would point out. he or she would be at a distinct disadvantageMmy books on the Western Esoteric Tradition will cite Crowley's definition of Magick which is given in Part Three as: 'Wagick is the Science and Art of causing Change to occur in conformity with W l " n to this definitionthe first Theorù. p. 15g~ion Fornine's m o n dMngic ïs Iess Pbrinrt than Cmvley's: " a i the art anâ r*lre d M& s c b g i n g consciamess at willn birt it also limits tbe af bow Magic inanitests in evetyday wakhg Life.
As the Magician i conducting a ntual s inside a consecrated physicai Temple he or she is also simdtaneously dweüing in a mental (spintuai) counterpart. or raîher re-discovers. for all intents and purposeq as a separate entity fkom the gross meterial organism offlesh and bone and which can partake in both "worlds". In Part One the individd Us tsught to dusohre any notion of individuality or d i l n not through a repressive action but througha passive but discipliad i t o p c i n P r Two n r s e t o . Crowley went so fm as to remove the necessity of the physical trapphgs entirely while spending several months engaged in intense mental concentration ' ~ e ~ i c z o c 0 ~ ~ 1 i s a n ~ rth ~~ r a t~ r~ its b c ~ p i t ~ o k tberaisingdthewholeman in perfect balance to the powcr of ïdhïtyW Crowlcg.'~ magician develops. and the Cup. . Mqgicmber Abu. 139. p. A the s t heart ofal1 H e d c tradition is the assumption that thae is an iaimate conneciion between the Microwsm and ~acrocosrn. the Wand.-66- renewed and fulfild Howewr. This iink is caiied the Body of Light ( a h known as the Astral Body) and it hctions. the linL The which bridges these two apparently dichotomous Mons. at introduces the symbols of the Wsen Esoteric Tradition wfiile Part Three begins with a etr treaty on the nature ofthe m a g i i universe and how the magiciani connected to t. The Body of Ligbt W e in the eariy stages of trainingthe Magicianuses physical implements sich as the Temple. the Magician d e v e n t d y budd a mentai representation of all of the items in his or her Magical repository. this undauLiag is no iight matter and i more difficult than s the yogr'c disciplines outiined in Part One.
can be ?. Le. fine body.imnnwizcd h g h the foiiowing citations: ''W~thin human body there is rnother body of approximately the the same size and shape. which is d e d by various authon the astral double. capacity f r vkdhtion. but made of a subtler and less illusory material. MagicW Liber Abu. and numberless oher nams is neturaliy fitted to perceive objects in is t own class.24 1. =in-hca. body of desire.. before this can be accomplished. the Magician must have h s or her astral senses M y i developed. to the point where wben the Magiciaa conducts an o '"~rowley. However. p."' Eventualiy.i particuiar. the Magician miut d e p d mt on îhe physical implements but on his or h a canfiilly fomied "psaal" counterpsrts.'" n I the early stages oftrainiog the Magïcian must attempt t develop bis or her astral n o seases. which is the vehicle through which the MagicÏan traveis on the Astral Ptane. This body. Crawley's gnieral understanding of the nature of the Body of Light.while crossing China on the back ofa mule. . but tbai no more is the 0 h b~dy!"'~By this Crowley miplies that the Body of Light t- erasts in its own medium in the same way the world of dreatns vay rarely imposeson the socded "reai" world ofwsking consciousness. the phantoms ofthe Astral Plane. body of light. It i of course not s "real". body of fire.
The Magician would h o w eachsymbof for Tiferet in a very intimate manner through his o her training.3-176. ï m. and . If the Magician wishes to r "travel'to or invoke the qualites of nieret but did not see any of these comespondences then the Magician would know that what he or she was experiencing was not T $ r t 1 ' iee. with commentary in h e Quinox VOL IV. An example can be made with each of the correspondencesfor nfreer &en obove on page 23.DO-i i m Supplewnf pp.a g entaal into becornes as real for the Magician as the taagile mundane world.6 In an essay in the Jounial of British Studig entitled "The Sorcerer and His Apprentie: Aleister Crowley and the Magicai ExpIoraîion of Edwardian S~bjectivity"'~~ Alex Owen gives a very £âir imerprrtation of Crowley's Astral Work which he conducted with Victor Neuburg i Algiers in 1909. Crowley ahvays iosisted tbat each individual's experience on the 1 6 7 ashai workings an be famd i The Quinox Vol. v S ~ n . which can be categorized on the Tree ofLZe. The eady training of the Magician which un include the discipline ofyoga helps the Magiciao sotiday his or her mental fortitude while the symbols and images.'" Owen states that Crowley's astral expaiences and n researches heip understaud the historiai roots of theories of subjectivity. Whiie this is not the focus of this thesis. riairil hvolving a s t d "projection") the world k i . .-68- Aswl Working ( s . the issue ofs u b j d t y is one which is centrai to the Westem Esoteric notion of the Body oflight. act as a fonn of guide for viSU81iZBtion pmctices.
Ocailtist K d Gram's absessjoa with tbe pmver d Sirius.'~ Great Beast "'This literalist intaprQotionof subjativc of oarnl entities cui ôe seen i various plaça n such as Timothy W ' s Star Saed tbeory.Fur thse authors and orbtn. or to f i o n phutmrns to suite one's idees.. of course. have inevitable subjective quatities (as they are king fornulateci in the oiind). There WU be a g m a J agreement on the main points.499-512. and Raùcrt Anton Wilson foiiow the thoughî in his Çomnic Tritrilogy." though at times Crowley seerns to imply that these realms may not be entirely extra-psy~hic. . WC cari see a shift away fFom tbc icka (wntinued. the Astrai Plane.lnSince we '"A thorwgh -nt &<hic topic cm be f d i Appendur iII of lUagicW Liber Aba. because the symbols are so sensitive. there i s the assumption made by Crowley and many other individuais and Orders in the Wsen etr Esoteric Tradition that there errist other planes o dimensions of consciousness and that these r planes have objective beulgs demonstratùtg 'Lindependentintelligence.. n 1 6 9 ~ ~ l q 9" = 1 mau> was To Mega Therion whiçh i r a d a m as either The h h î e r Therion or The . Nothing b easier than to s u a & visions. pp.Astral Plane would be unique but tht theretend to be couunon patterns which arise in such Every Magician possesses an Astral UnivaSc ptailirr to h ne just u sg as no man%experïence of the world is w~~erminous that of with another. It P obvioady iipauiûk to cwmunicrrtt wiîb i n hdcpeodtot inteiügencethe one rcil object of irtrril racrircb-if o r rllows one's imagination to scuround one with courtim of one's own cr#fi0d7O While there is an understanding that the Body of Light and its medium. and so The Master T b a i ~ n is ~ ~ to describe the principal ' abk properties of these "planes" and theV laws. line of P X Dick's rieooliection of his e x p c c h z of Valis. Each and evay man thedore that will be a Magician must explore the Universe for himself Thisispre+mùwdy the case înthematîerofthe Astral Plane.) .
" tm The noal part of MargibEiber A& was originally published as The Eauhox ofthe Gods . That i t say we will d s o e the assumption thst the Astrai Plane and the Astrai Body are dtimately psychic in ongui and that those experiences that are "astrain in nature. We WU 9mpiy state that thrr i an understmchgwitbin the Western Esoteric s Traditionand within Crowley's writings tbat our normal wakhg state ofconsciousnessis only one smali example of ''maMy" and that beings or objects can o do exist outside the r e s predomùlantly oarrow vîew of existence hdd by Society. s e nom the individuai's unconscious. w e wüi not take a stand on tliis assumption. Though the fkst three chapters of .carmot empirically prove this daim one way or the othcr. " part contains Crowley's recolldon ofhis We up to and includhg the reception ofL b rAL ie vel Logis as well as some interpretation of the text. What w can say cleariy i that these Astral WorlMgs can have a profound and transformative & t on the individuai's k psyche and we wiîi 1 s t ourselves t an indMdualistiJpsychologicaldennition ofthe Body o of Light and the Astral Plane.which was aiso the third number o f the thkd volume of The ~ i ~ The fourth .
or raîher the Gnostic tradition of which the Christ-legad is a degradation. . attempted to teach. It is the Law that Jesus Cbnst. and do what was thou wilt""'.M@çk/Ziber A& contain a great deal of maîerïalthat can be found in most "denoniinatio~ls" within the Western Esoteric T a i i n the fourth cbapter is entirely unique to Crowiey's rdto. La many ways Crawley's exuberancefor the Law mirrored his fàther's dedication to the word of Christ: Do what thou wdt s l d l be the whole ofthe Law! Rdùse this. you put yoursefbeyond its pale. particularty by those who d e d thernselves his disciples. and evcrything is Iawnil. strife-in-vain. Augustine appears to have got even a g h m e r of what he rneant.ibrr p 4 5 e y . Rabelais' 1 7 4 ~ ~ ~hdagigick%C. 4 . ùrterpretation of the Tradition. The second person Crowley acknowledges is Rabeiais (1494?-15 53). In any case the Aeon was ready for a Law of Freedom Of aU his followers only St.'" As can be seen in the above citation Crowley acknowIedged that the Law which he was propaga~g not unique to bim. He f i that only by adopting a new view of the universe d eî d individuals discover and W their Tnie Wfl. An understandhg of the Law is edd for any in-depth study of Crowley or bis adaptation ofthe Western Esoteric Tradition To hir dying day he prodytized the Word of the Law (Thelema) to anyone who would listen. Augustine's "Love. and f'all under the aûse of destiny. but neady every word he said was misinterpreted and garbled by his memies. The Law conderrms no maa. Aba. Crowiey cites St. Divide wüi agiinst itthe r d t is impotence and M e . . though he is quick to point out that the context is not the same as in Liber Legis. Refuse the Law. Accept the Law.
he or she cm never nilly attain spiritual growth ofany kind. C m l y fomd Rabelais' emphasis.on pcrsod fhâorn and various "DionysianwpusrHts among abcn. accordhg to Crowley. 16249. Sumamy of Chrptec Two A the heart ofthe Western Esoteric Tradition is the premise that the humanbeing i t s essentiaiiy divine in nature and that the individuai must corne t realize this intrinsic potential. Crowley felt that he was uaiquely qiidified to understand the human mind. For a mmwuy of Cfowley's a c k n o w l SC^ Crowicy. In some instances he even feit that the fledgiing discipline of Rabelais. the individual s then diverts the entire personaiity. Before the individuai would be able to work toward the fûlfihnent of the Great Work he or she must f U y understand his or her mental tendencies as weli as the symbolism of the Tradition itself to the satisfaction of oneself and. Burton Raiid. under the direction ofthe Higher Se% towards fÙil self reaihation of his or ber divine natureThrough his m y experiences. paralleled hy Crowley's.-72- Fais ce que veuk i fkr more compatiile with Crowicy's undetstandin8 of wbat Thelema s meant. view ofTheiema- 177 . François. i part of an Order. New York Norton. If an individuai i bindered tiom experiencing bis or h a True Wd s then. m s . 1990. in fact Crowley's Abbey ofThdema in C d u wrs pattemed dong the ssme ikm as the Abbey of the s m name in Gar-" a e ForCrowley the Law was esseatial to any trw spirihial advancement. AJeister Crowley helped to remove the necessity of long and complex rituals of Occult Orders and put the onus on the individual's meniai and spirihial discipline. his or her f superiors. Once a thorough understanding ofthe mental processes i achieved. '"RE Antecodcntsof Tbdema" as f in ~ d Revival &Mas& d 0thEssaq. o The way to realue this p o t d a l is thmugh a development of-s or an ever widening and deepening field of perception.
179 Wilson. even i his m g h n f workiag i a bit sketchy-.psychology and psychotherapy wbile useful was limiteci and was simply reiterating what Occultists had known for centuries. 1983." Ctawiey: Confissions. Freud and Jung.'" Unforhinaely much of Crowley's findings in human nature were marreci by massive infiation and hedonistic extremes. p-3- . ate a few cnimbs that feu. but aiso a man of considerable inteilect who could have been a poet of some stature i he'd had the patience. p.45."An Improvement on Psychoanaiysis h m : Crowley. The Revival of Mani& and Oiber Essavs. To sum up Crowley in relation to psychology we twn to the playwright and author. ~ ~ ~ Crowley was an individual who was highlyMercund As Mercury was paradoxicaüy both the god of communication and ofthieves we can see Crowley as an individual who was simultaneously a highly gifted and spuitual person but who aiso had very sadistic and Mated tendencies. The paradox of Crowley's personality is what tends to attract and repel many individuals to this day. Of Jung Crowley staîes: "However. . p. whether we like it or oot. for he wüi won be s fecognimi as the uodoubted Autocrat of tbe 1917 dinner-iable. His career i t the 'unconscious' is f no a voyage taken at roughly the çame tm as those otha giants of inner ie space. With the introduction to the Western Esotenc Tradition and Crowley's understanding of the Tradition we aow turn to an introduction to the main pnnciples of Analyticai Psychology and Cari Jung's understanding of alchemy as a '"~rowley declared that the Magical Tradition and the Holy Qabalah wen "tbe Chüdren's tabie h m which Freud . London: Calder.. Snoo. While the latter two started as doctors and pauistakingly staked out the 'new' area of psychology as their preserve. ami we've got to sndy him. Crowley was less r e s p ~ n s i b l e . Sa00 Wdson: Crowiey was not o d y a practical joker at his own expense.8 1. we should ail study Jung His finai conclusions are i the main correct. Tbe Number of the E?east.
16* c. With art or through nature/ Of any living creature. c.Tum to me with ywr whole hart and do not despise me because 1am black and dark. Here is born the richly honoured king/ No higher may be bom. She multiplies and gives arth to countless cbildren who are immortd and without nourishment. dmora c~lt~trrgens. 14* The King's R i d e . -RosonianphiIosophomm. for the sun has bumed me s . Ansiver of Queen Lana: Here is born the noble empress rich/ AU pbilosophas say she and her daughter are one. .and the black depths have wvered my b o .
which are the neassPry a prion determuümts of al1 psychic processes. T e h collective unwascious is a s h e d humon smicture of instinct and spirit. Jung sepamtes personal unconscious (see below) fiom the wilective uncoI1SCious.Rather than engage i a nidllaaiury nview ofthe chicai applications of ianaiytid n psychology we wiii ümit this oveMew to the philosophicai implications ofthe d e l ofthe psyche as understood in d y t i c a l psychology and what it meam to k psychologicaily "wholen fiom the perspective of this partidm model. When a p p r o d n g archnypes and Jung's mode1 of the psyche. instincts as impulses to cany out actioas fiom necessity. E m p k i Jung's. C. s Jung.W. p. p. 181 8. Tbe Coilective Unconseioiw The collective unconscious is a fhdamental facet ofJung's model ofthe psyche. e-g-. inbom f o m of "intuition. 13. .W. theory is the theoy of archetypes and archetypel images. Perhaps one of Jung's rnost enduriog. without conscious motivation In this "deeper" stratum we also fhd the a pnwi. it is nearly impossible to separate the theory of archetypes nom the collective 1 8 0 ~ ~ g C. 133. The latter is defined as: quaiïties that are not individuaiiy acquired but are inherited. 12.'* From Jung's more esoteric wntiags the collective unconscious is quateci with such terms as the GnosticpIer~ma'~~ or prima materia to illustrate its role as source of wnsciousness and all conscious archetypal expression. and C. and misunderstood." namely the archetypes of perception and appreheiision.W.107f. p-334 & 336.
p. The Personal Unconscious The personai unconscious. nor does any represemtation exhaust the archetype's possibiiity. lM Jung give~ following definition of the personai uownscious: the The lower the value of a conscious content W s . 9. in o t h a words thaî it is a kind ofunwnscious idea .s u n c o m c i o ~ ~When one refèrs to the collective unwnscïous one i e q d y referring to ~. nothhg but af-ks n s praefomm& a p o s s ~ i t y representation which is givema p r i ~ n ' . 183~ung C. 138. the more eady it disappears beiow the threshold [of coasciousness]. unlike the coUe*ive unconsciousi is the sum ofpersona1 experiences and processes. archetypes in polentia. but ooly as regardstheir form and then only to a very Limited degree .79. . " ' In otha words. ~ s o . . no matter whetber its mythologicai character is recognized or net? One misunderstandhg regardhg archetypes which Jung found discancerting was the assumption that the archetype "was determined in regards to its content. .Besides - '8Z~bid... the of ~ archetype is afonn which can be represented many differerit ways but the representationsare not thernselves archetypes. i '&lung's persona1 uirouscious i simiiar t F d s theOIy of tbe ~ L I S C ~ O U S .it is oecessary to point out once more that archetypes are not detennined as regards their content.p.The archetype i itself i empty and purely fond. .W. According to Jung: Archetypes are typid d e s of apprehensioq and wherever we meet with uniforni and regularty rraimagmodes ofapprehetision we are dealing with an archetype. From this it followsthat the unconscious is the receptacle of ali lost memones and of all contents that are still too weak to becorne conscious .
8. i so far as this comprises the empiricd personaiity. that is to say it is a sopbisticated structure in and of itdf which is constantly infiuenced by various stimuli which are both collscious and subliminal. C. s The Shadow T e shadow represents the fim step or confrontation towatds psychologicai h wholeness (individuation).If i has k e n believed hitherto that the human t shadow was the source of al1 evil. the center of the field of conscioumess. . as it were. i can now be ascertaineci on closer t -- "51ung.W."" The Ego ln C. 9 (Aion) Jung sutes that the ego is "the cornplex fictor to which ali ü conscious contents are related. p.'" Simply put the ego i our idemity i our personal field of wnsciousness.W. And. Therefiore. .3. The next "layef' of the psjche s n accordhg to Jung i the shadow.these WC mua include ail more or less intentional reprtssions of p a i d thoughs rad feelings. the ego i the n s subject of al1 persona1 acts of consciousness. t h hiddea."'" The ego is not a simple aggregate of the psyche. The ego fonns. The shadow is descriaed as .133. C. repressed. .1d the sum of d these contents the "personal unwnsci~~s. %id . for the most pan inferior and guilt-laden persoorlitywhose ultunote famifications reach back into the redm of Our animai ancestors and so comprise the whole historical aspect of the unwnscious . BndrcLÇ are mine1861ung. 9. p. when we speak of "the ego" we are not referriLlg to a static portîon of the psyche but to a dynamic process which is constsatly in flux and which camiot be desaibed exhaustively.W. .
appropriate reactions7realistic hsigbts. such as normal mstllms.W. The AnimdAnimus In Jung's m d 1 ofthe psyche there i a contra-sexual component m each individuai. The anima and mimus are autonomousfactors withùi the psyche. aot to mention the entire "objedive" worid. but aIso displays a number of good qdties. T e only way to reduce the power of the shadow is to h bring as much of it as possible to the Ligût of consciousness. Once the initial codtontation with the shadow i engaged. As with the shadow ifthe a n i m a / a n projections are not brought to the ligbt of consciousness it can have a d i s a ~ negative influence on the couscious lite of the individuai and their relations with other men lP~ung. Howeva. the shadow ais0 bas a drive to be made conscious. the third portion of the personality7 the s anima/animus. 9ü. WrtIiout s this initial petration the individual wïïi remah at the mercy of the emotiod and autonomous nature of the shadow.6. oe s For a man this contra-sexual Temaien is called the anima wMe iir a woman this "other"i s called unimus. etc? The shadow i the root of personilprojections wtiich in tum infiuences the wiiy the individual s perceives not only himselfor herselfbut others as weii. W~thout thorough (as thorough as possible) understanding of the shadow and its a innuence and its eventual imegrationthere i little hope for any me ~~knowledge.investigation tht the uaconscious man. . that k. as can be seen through projections. p 2 6 . his shadow does not con& oniy of mordy reprehensi'ble tendencies. cnitive impiises. C.For Jungit was crucial that one enters into a dialogue with the a w m h e and feminine "other" in order to bring that which is unconsciou t o the hght of consciou~~ess. can be approacbed.
9ii. According to Jung the self grounds the movemem of the psyche to the teleologid expression of individuation. The self unites the conscious ego with the uncomcious psyche. C. 17.41. One s h d d keep in mind that though the mima/aniinnrs is a bighiy abstract coacepf its role is vitai to Jung's contention that every human being is i essence a psychdogical androgyne.-79- and women. and cven various animais. etc. p. C. a chiid. society already has in place a set of collective ailturai n o m and moral education with which to anaiyze the shadow's matent whereas the mimrt/animus has no such paradigm to be measured against. 190 . It governs the process of individuation and tends the totality of the personality. The Sdf The self is an archetype of order and completion.and much of the inâividuation process n consists in making this androgyne expticit or wmcious . @Ur. The shadow is more easiiy confionteci beause. understood as the uniîy ofconscious and unconscious. the amamm4//0nmnrs ody be comprehended through one's cm projections ont0 individuais of the opposite sex. insects.12.W. p.~~ In essence the selfis boththe process and the goal of individuation It urgesUidividuationand i the product or child of individuation s 189 Jung.W. The selfis the center of this totaiity in the ssw way the ego is the center of conscio~sness.'" Instead. a quaîernity. Some symôols which represent the seif are: the circle. the square. The self can also appear in many forms. Jung. When encomtered the seIf appears with a sense of numinosity and authority. according to Jung.
The process of individuation is not. was a Swiss Râormed clergymanin K e d and wodd eventually become chaplain at the Fnedmaa Mental Hospital in Basel. but gathers the world to oneself. The process of individiiation.~~' the individuation procas is quite the opposite In fpct of hedonistic pursuits: "the self comprises infinitely more than a mere ego .-80- Individuation The goal of analytieal psychology is individuation.It is as much one's self and aü other selves.a purely cooscious effort at bringing the ego into consciousness where the ego i identifieci with the seK Etbis were the case thm Uidnri-on s would equate to ego-centrkity and a~toeroticism. is an on gohg proccss. entitled "The Aichemical Conjunction as Psychological Process". 8. . A Brid Biogmpby of C. Jung's mother (Emilie. . With this very brïef introduction to the main tenets ofanalyticai psychology we turn to a cursory review of Car1 Gustav Jung's biography. . IndÏviduation i never niOy achieved s and can only be approxinisrted. lilre that of shadow confrontation. Jung Car1 Gustav Jung was born in Kesswill Switzeriand on Juiy 26. Individuation does not shut one out Corn the world.W.226."" As we shaü see in the section below.G. née Peiswerk) came nom a prominent Churchfamily in Basel and would prove to be an influenthl figure i Jung's Be. n 191 Jung. as the ego. as Jung found many people tended to assume. J o h m Paul AchiUesJung. '%id. p.1875. individuation is represented by the Great Work of the alchemists. Jung's father. C.
Eisenarathand Terence Dawson) UK: Cambridge71937. (ed. N :-011. 1989. Lord Jesus seemed to me i x w e ways a god of death. .. appeared doubtful to me. Sectetly. i îhe p s s of very careîùi editing both üy Jung and Jané. as rweded through orthodox Christian doctrine. which useü to be read as autobiography.x?cioii: "It i now reaked tbaî this work. as aven in his autobiography Memorks. For Jung the bright and IoWig figure of Jesus. Jung felt that this drearn represented the dark or n chthonic side ofûod. See also: .'% Another pivotal vison to occur in Jung's &y tife is the infamous "turd" vision. i that he scared away the terrors of the night. Cambridge Guide to Jung. chiefly because people who talked most about "dear Lord Jesus" wore black fiock coats and shhy black boots which reminded me of burials. whïch 1 always heard praised. Richard NoU states: Thus. his love and kindness. Reflcti~rrs'~.In Jung's recoiiection of his early years. a holy man. J 1994. For example. but bimseif n uncanny. p 15." .. and tberefore a biography as "cuit legcd" The Junn Cuit. a crucifieci and bloody corpse. but insteaâ tbe myth ofa divine bero. with MDR we Q mt bavc the hwnan history of a renowned physicianaad sciemist. One &ouid note that nac al1 scbolars accep MDR as stnctly or scientifidy auîobiograpûicai. Henceforth uted as ADR. In the Surmner of 1887 Jung was admiring the Cathedra1 in Bade when he thought: "The world is beautifid and the church is beautiful and God made d this and sits above it fàr away in the 1g3~ung Memones hFsmir Reflections. Jung came to dweii on the dark chthonic side of Jesus. PoUy Young. piayed Little part in his &y me.G. helpfuL it is n me. Dremns. (Recordeci and editeû by Aniela JaEé)7New YoN: Vintage. seethat Jung was conûontedwith many spirituai dilemmas wbich we wouid eventually help to f o d a t e many of his kqr theones. Important occurrences include a dream at age three of an enthroned subterranean rituai phallus which was identifieci b his y mother i the dream as the "man-eater". C. p.
. This tbeory i also &&nt in P d Tillich's Svstemaîiç s a Theolom 3 voiuxncs. Somehow God w s forcing him to think the uathmkable. This r e d h i o n had a eathartic e f f ?on Jung. "'" The problem began for Jung with what foliowed the "and" which was that a large turd f fiom the sky and srnashed into the Cathedral. . 1s w before me the dmkai. For Jung d the thought which he fought to prevent eorn madiesting represented "the most tem'ble sin . grace had no m h g . Chicago: University of Chicago PZCSS. as though 1were about to leap forthwith into hell-fire. He im came to understand that the experïence of God was irnmediate and that there was no need for a mediator such as the "Church. God sits on His golden throne. and let the thougbt corne. a the blue sky. high above the worldand fiom under the throne an enormous turd falls upon the sparkliog new roof." These two experïences were important i that they helped Jung to understand that n God (or the unconscious) has autonomous dominion over wnsciousness and thaf ultimately 19'~he"sinn dmed t here can be sœn as tbe sin dbcooming conscious and <hat God c oniy h o m c o k o u s thtough human consci-.Jung came to the conchrsion a that it was God's intention that human beings shodd sin'" and that without the capacity to endure the potential of sin. now he could allow the vison to run its fûll course: 1gathered ail my courage. shatters if ausi breaks the waiis of the cathedra1 asundedm Instead ofa sense of e t e d damnation Jung felt a great weight Med f o his shoulders. 195644 m .blue sky on a golden throne and . which cannot be forgivean'% several days Wore the i For initial vison Juag attempted to prevmt the thought from &esting in its entirety but to no avail. . the snagainst the Holy Ghost..
In this work Jung moves away fiom Freud's cruciai emphasis I ' ~ on sexuality and its identification with Libido and the issue of incest moMs in cultural mythology. Jung and Freud soon entered into a mentor/shident relation in which Freud viewed Jung as an "heii' to his teachings and Jung.'" In 1907 Jung begui what would prove to be a pivotal fiendship with Sigmund Freud.W.-83- the unconscious can manifest as both the God of Light cdear Lord Jesus") aod the God of Darkness (the "man-eatef'). perceivd by his mother in the phallic dream. 5) especialiy chapter MI(The ~ d c e ) . was happy to fiilnU the role. and that both of these d e s t a t i o n s of divinity are equaily valid.who up to this point was actively involved in studyiag and applying the theories of psychoanalysis. Jung became concemecl with the overemphasison remrding and analyzing symptoms of patients with linle regard for helping redve the problems with which they were inflicted This obsenation lead Jung to attempt various aeatments through psychoanalytical techniques with a ceRain degree of success. huing his school years Jung was drawn towards both the Arts and Science with the latîer eventually becomuig bis dominant discipline. The friendship and mentonhip had continueci until 1912 wben Jung and Freud came to a point of contention over Jung's findïngs which are recordeci in Smbols ofTransformation (C. While Freud tended to maintain a strict literalist approach to the issue Jung . In 1900 Jung completed his medicai training and decidedto becornea psychiatrist Whiie actingas Assistant StafWhysicianpt the Burghoizli Psychiatrie Hospital.
dwu <beArtis Aurifërae Volumina Duo (1593). i order to fàcilitate his study Jung began a lexieon of several n 201 Jung.-84- extendeci hihido beyond sexuaiity and looked at incest symboticaiiy as the introvated union to the energies of the mother. . In alchexnid tenns it was the necessary nigreh or depression which must precede the Great Work'Ine next important occurrence in Jung's M (nregards to his understanding of e i alchemy) cornes in 1926/27. The symbolic language in which they were written for& Jung to put aside the pursuit for two years.204. 146-169.W-5. Jung came to realize that throughout maay alchernid t r d s e s mi phrases a n were commonly repeated.to Jung's development of his own immersion in the unconscious and his eventual interest io alchemy. 168. For Jung's accouat of hu reiation with Frad see pp. The effict was devastatiag on Iung who hed a serious psychic disturbaace. Eventualiy Jung tiimed to the alchernid works with renewed diligence.m1 many ways this break was the neces~ary In catalyst which would l e . MDR. Through this introduction to Eastern Afchemy Jung eventually begm to seek sources from the western alchernidtradition? At fust Iung found the aichemical works too obtuse. Jung was unable to c o d e to various aspects ofFrad's mode1 and the eventuril questionhg of the validity of the entire psychoadytical theory especially the reductioaistic identification of libido with saacal energy. T h e Sscrincp"meant his own sacrifice. when Jung is introduced to Chinese Aichemy through Richard Wrlheim. '%e fkû source which Jung commip9one. See MDR: p. p.InMDR Jung rewunts thaîtbc chaptermC. Then i 1913 Freud n and Jung went their separate ways.
Jung coatinued this process for nearly a decade. This was. p 205. When 1 pored over these old t a s everything feu into place: the fbtasy-images. gave substance to my psychology.The experienceswith the alcherriisl were. my experïences.thousand entries which cross reférenced common words and phrases. and the conclusions 1 had drawn from it.point toward a deeper and more compla meaaiog of alchemy. worid. . S o w dchemistq such as Gerhard Dom ( 1 4 C. . and tneir worid was m . There are many texts which are dedicated to such transmutations though not ail alchemy falls into this category. Jung feit tbat alchemy was an expression of psychologid proceoses and nowhere was this proces more fuliy portrayeci than in the Conjunction. On one level this dennition of alchemy is correct. in a se=. Alchemy tends to be portrayd as a primitive pseudo-science which was wocemed with the transformation of base metals. MDR. a rneaning which 203 Jung. In MDR Jung States: 1 had very soon seen that anaiytical psychology couicided in a most curious way with alchemy.). such as lead. into gold. the empirid material 1had gathered in my practice. 1aow began to understand what these psychic contents meant when seen in historicai perspective- For Jung d y t i c a l psychology was a fonn of inner dchemy (as opposed to the gross attempt at transmutation of base substances into physical gold) which attempted to briag together the agencies ofthe unconscious in the light ofconsciousness just as the alchemists attempted to p u r e the fiagmented and g r o s material world into a fiüS integrated and dMne heaven on earth. a cornparison with dcheay7 and the iininternipted chah badc to Gnosticism. ofcourse. a mornemousdiscovery: I had stumbled upon the historiai corner part ofmy psychoiogy ofthe U I I C O ~ ~ ~ ~ O The possiiiiity of US.
spears or sickles.others will show bodies being pierced or dismembered by swords. Each symbol acts as a snapshot fr o a specific segment of the alchemicai transformetion For exemple. the nigreh (blackenllig) and putrefàction oftbepPinrcl llMtena For the aichemist this piciure wodd refer not to iiteral death but a figurative death which is an essentiai preairsor for the alchemicai . Sung preserrts a psychoiogical iliterpretation of alchemy in s e v d places throughout the Collected Works including Vol. In the chapter in C.12. Ti hs psychologicai interpretation of dchemy eventuaüy came to the attention of Cr Jung and ai would prove to be a major influence in his We and his psychology. we can take an image of death or burial as a symbol of the prelLminary stage of the alchernid proces.W.-86aans~ends the mimadous but purely mundane process of creating gold For Dom the alchemical process did not involve the transfodon of lead but rather the transfomation of the individual towuds a union with the ground of being perceived in ail. The Conjunction The imageq and symbolsof dchemy can leave one with the impression of complexity bordering on the hcomprehensiiIe. Some images wili be of androgynous figures. 14 entitled ' e Conjunction" h g m equates the alchemical process wiîh the process of individuation. The purpose ofthis chapter is to review the alchemical conjunction and Jung's application of h psychologkal paradigm k to this process. In each case the images or symbols point to a part of a greatex proass. 13 and 14.
MuraOder. tbe ''tiwü'' or as tbe alcbemists caiied it. One must simply remember tbat certain aichemical assumptions. p. . 228E In: Edinger. and the iack of auy to epistemologicai critiMsm_ the two categories ["trirtbnanci could a d y mix. This fonn of cleaasiag symbolism i also the process revealed in the Death Card OCm) of the Tamt s x5"0wing medieval ignorance bah ofcbcmiary and ofpsycboiogy. and mn C.227. . tbe pave. 157iy 206" m"~etcunusi tbe prima mieria.467. 1997. The Hcrmtic n -Museum: Alchemv and Mvsûçign.-" Jung cited h m : C.W.resurrecîion The nigreh destroys îhe old to make way for the new. p. ''m Right at the beginning yon mat the "dragon. such as the comectionbetweenmatter and truth. . as faind i Rwb.W. ih p.501. Toronto: InaerC t . the "biachessn or the nigredo.. luag7s 'm % o Stolcius von Sto1œnberg's ViidYum (16241. Square brackets are mine. s that things for us o that have no ~ecognizable connection w t o œ awtber could enter into witual reLatiOOShjp." The mandiormation i e f k a d by pmdktïon.G. New York: Taschen. which i no s s synonymous with tbt n i p h ." the chthonic spini. o 1Vigredb The prelllninas. it is said "decay i a s wonderfiil w mi th. are a produa ofthe period but that they c m still have equally important meaning f r psychology today." Thisprino materia n s r n which m s be purified i Merauius and wiil be dealt with later-" Jung d e s c n i this initial ut s alchernical process as being equivalent with the confrontation with the shPdow. This muPt ôe dinidvcd at tbe bcgniiing of the work.14."^ As Jung states throughout 'The Conjuaction7'the aichemistsare attemptingto explain soMething they couid not "rationaliy"wmprehend s they used the alchernid process as an o andogy of one's spjrituai progressionm He conectly points out that there is no reason to throw out the findings or @ces ofalchemy simply becausethey rnay not make sense to the contemporary and "sophisbcated" mind. pp.. Edwafd F.14.I the language ofthe n dchemists." C. and tbe s disçolved bodies then tiansfomd i î "spirits. and this -et produces miking. 1995. Jung Spealung. matrer siiners uatil the nigredo dkppeam. p. stage ofthe aichemical Conjunction is the nigreh or "blackening" I alchemy matter i heated o burnedi order to rid t of its impurities.The Mvsierima LectruPs.
meem wRh considerable nsistance. C. To becorne coI1SCious of it involves recognizing the dark aspects of the personaiity as presemt aml r d .W. a standdl that hampers moral decisions and d e s convictions ineffeaive or even impossible. Everythhg becows d o m which is why the aichemists calleci this stage the nigreh. chaos. MerCufius is not only the base substance which undergoes the transformation but also the end result of the alchernical pro ces^. As can be seen i the above c t t o . In C. To gain more of an insght into the blackening we need to know more about the complex nature of MerCunus. . the 6 r s t stage of the aichemical process is the blackening of MerCurius or the conûontation with the shadow. melanchofia? Therefore.14 we see another definition of the Conûontation with the sWow produces at first a dead bahce.. W-9ii.W. the nigreh is very similar in nature to the process of n iain shadow wiifiontation.definition of the shadow in C.8. and hs it thdore. T i act is the essential condition for any khd ofseif-knowlledge.^'^ MerCurius is separateci 208 Jung."Ibid. %(Aion) has an alchernical f d to it which helps to understand the connection between psychology and alchemy: The shaâow i a moral prbblem that chalienges the whole egos personality. for QO one a n becorne conscious of& shadow without considerable moral effort. tenebrositas. Mercurius i a very elaboraîe concept in dchemy and p e h p s wen more complec in s Jung's psychology. p-501. as a d e . p. "Mercurius is mt ody îhe lapisas prima matais but the Lapis as ultitna m r the goai o f t h e@ opus.
this death" Ibib."~ Like the Roman god wbo was both healer and thief.W. s (3)He i the process by which the lower material is transformed into the higber s and spiduai. also the collective un~oaScious.462. and God's reflection in nature(5)He is also a reflection of a mysticai m e n c e ofthe artifex that coincides with the opus alchymictatl. female and universal aspects of the same image. 13 and 14 so a thorough in 21' "The Mercurîus of* alcbemists is a personincation and conaetiZationof what we w d d d today the collectiveuncoIISaous. because ofthe limitiess number of his aarnes. MerCUCjUs is seen simuitaneously as a medicine and a poison Hs dual nature is aptly applied to the i unconscious which can eitherbe iniegrated as a fom ofpsychologïcai mediciw or can be the cause ofpsychological or even physical trauma213 C. (6)As such.W. a redeeming psychopomp. a«imdc may end i reai n .474. 13.The three types of MerCurius correspond to male. 13 Jung ghes t sunmiary ofthe In h nature ofMercurîus: (1)Mercurius consists of d conceivable oppsites.~~ Generaily speaking. . an evrsive trickster. (2)He i both matcrial and spirituai. Psychologicolly MerCWIus i both a symbol of the self and the coliective s ur~co&ous. (4)He is the devil. p.lbib. 12.In other words the previous five amibutes refiect some aspect of the psychological process ofalchemy. p. 2'"If the &mand for &-kmwiedge ûwilied by f&e and is refkd.C.W. and vice versa. The image of the MerCuTius is dedt with extens~eiy C. .237. the fïrst five aspects are swllttled up in the sixth. p. he represents on the one hand the selfand on the other the individuation proass and. 'l4~ung.
In order for Mercurius to become a symbol ofopusaIchymzçum/irtsilivirdirrrtion m t if s undergo several transformationsor stages which are known as the Conjunction. pp.275-277 & C.1 : pp. Z'6ParaPhraseT Edinger Mvsteriq pp. The goal of the alchemist is to reestablishthis wholeness in the final stage ofthe Conjunction (umsnttlrtdirs. . She is at 21S~t shouid be bethat Suüùr bas a positive and n e m e side (Sulphur diipla). s See Jung. in Dom's terms which Jung assimilates. These t h e stages are. The important s concept to remember is that Merauius represents Mereut aspects or levels of the alchemicaVpsychologicai process.-90investigation of the nature of MerCurius i beyonci the scope ofthis thesis. The T h e Sîagu of tbt Conjuactioa The main cosmologicai understanding in alchemy is that the universe was oripinally a unifid whole and through the act of Creation reality beatne separateci. The fkst part is the spirit which correspondsto the alchernical substance of ~ u l p k d ' . The ihai part ofthe individuai i the body or Salt. In ae this sequence Fire is not aaed upon (and is therdore the more active and more "spirituai") and E r h has nothing to join with yet she encompasses ail that cornes before her. Air and Wtr form MerCurius while Water and Earth j o b to m a t e Salt. 4 128. 14. s Thus. the individual is both body and spirit with a sou1 wbich can partake in either side? When lwking at the sacreci elements ofalchemy we see that Fie and Air coajoin t o form Sulphur. 127.459462.The second part is the soul which correspondsto Mercurius. C W. So whi* Scilpbiir bas a putrefjing factor it i also a phpical qmsentation of solar (active) emxgy.W.) In the alchemist's world of creation the individuai is divided into three parts. the m mentafis?cuefùm and unus u munhs.
174. in his Mvsterium Lectures. C 14. 219~uog. W. the sou1 (anhdus) can be " ' g dwith the good or evil with the evii. As MerCurius. s it also stands as a symboi of wholeness as represented by its quaternitarian foundation.472. 14. p. p 2 6 & Jung.5."~ n' - "'~his woœpt i idmtical to tbe Kabhhîic Tree ofLi& where Malht bdds the c n i k Tree w i h h her. we must understand that the iadMdual stands in creation as a psychologically segmenteci king. . 1995. . s "'See Edinger: Tbe Mvaemim Lstnrq.-91- therefore passive and more "bodily". Jung states thaî since "the sou1animates the body.7." it cm join in a naîurai union with the body or a spirituai union with the spirit. %id. p 4 9 .Toronto: ïnner City. Edinger. jua as the sou1 is animated by the spirit. between the sou1 and the body and betweenthe sou1 and the spirit. Jung de~cn'bes goal ofthe mi0 mentafisas "the attainmeot offdl knowledge the of the heights and depth's of o e s own ~haracter. semous anci e~notioaal"~'~so must be separated fkom t in the fïrst alchemical and movement. In alchemical tenns this differentiated reality is d e d the uni0 mturaiis.. T o g e M a n and Woman fom the 'Iiicorruptib1e One.W. To return to the process ofthe Conjuncîion. The sou1 stands midway between the body and the spirit.""' The iroomiptiuble One i in essence idcatical to the pinta esentia or quintessence. C. she tends to favour the body and everything bodily."' Sufphur joins with Mercury to form "Man" whiie Merairy and Salt fonn 'Woman". There i a separation between the s body and the wodd. p. relates this evolution fiom tbe base eiements to the incorruptible One IO both the Pyiliagorean tetradys and the Kabbalistic Tree ofW e .
tbe inmior oneness wôich taiay we d individuation. the union of soul and spirit i the n n uni0 menrolis is equal to "theego-personaiity's coming to ternis with its own background. "Ibe uni0 mentalis. This will be dealt with in more &tail later in the thesis. the tkst stage of the Conjunction.471. In aichemical terms this would mean the spirit leads the impressionable soui towards the spirinul and away fiom the u ~ w o r l of bdiiy d appetites. ~ In order to gain a new and stronger integrdon there nrst must be a separation of the sou1 " b b . s meditation. Although Jung does in one place equate the tint stage of the Conjunction with the process of individuation( it is more acainae to view the whole alchernid process as e q d to the process of individuation and reintegrating the unitied "oneaess" with the world. I psychologid terms. min] . "In alchernical terms. and careftl investigation of desires and their rn~tives. introspection. be conceived as a psychic qdïôrium of +tes." Brackets are mise. simultanmusly7in both the Miaocosm and Macrocosm.-92- The unio mendis. The proQss of iadMdmtion is ymilar to the '%oluntaq death" of the old personality which was heavily influenceci by the desins of the body and unconscious projections.griiast the body."~ removing on& By fiom the sensuai wodd one can turn instead to the work of the Conjunction The union of soul and spirit takes place simdtaneousiy in the mind of the individual and the mind of GadThat is to say it is a process which occurs. p. this stage is known as the ai&do or whitening process. the s h a d ~ w . Psychologidy this act i accomplished througb "introversion. can be simmarirail as the removal of the sou1fkom the body by the spirit which l d s to the uiiitiilgof the soul and tbe spirit over and .
The proçess: may begiri as a punly intra-psychic mio mentkdis of the intellect or reason wt Eros. but its reality is merely potential and is validateci oniy by a union with the physicai wodd of the body. "passive" and "femimne" p ~ c i p l eof the world? Perhips more irnportantly she demonstrates the paramount necessity for the inclusion of the body in the iïnai union of opposites.fkom the body. Interestingly. representing feeiing.ifthis was the end of the process then the person would and mord discnmuiati have only a small portion o f the totality of the Worlc completed. insight 'on However. but only the mentai discipline of wisdord"' The second stage ofthe Conjunction involves the reintegration ofthe aew souVspirit union with the body and is symboüzed as the "chymicai" -age or wedding." . The mio mentols was pictured by the Fathex. since it bnngs a masiderable increase of se& knowledge as weii as of pasonai d t y . . Jung purports thaî the aichemists prepared the way for the theoIogicaI assumption of Mary in this second stage. Such an interior operation ih means a great ded.) The second stage of the Conjunction is syrnbobd in the figure of Mary who represents the bodiiy. T i paramount sepadon i the essential d e of the first stage. . hs s this mental union is only the fmt step ofthe aichemial process since this "fjrst union does not as yet make the Wise man. the Son and the their union in the dove (that 'Lspirati~n'7 wtiich is common to both. However.i the first n stage there was a union ofthe anrina with the higher mental facdties such as reason.
The caehun is a "symbolic rite +ormeci m the laboratory.I the second stage the alchemists would have ban attempting to rework the n unification of the hi* hmlties into the material components (Le. Esentially they would be reuniting the soul/spint union with the body."llg Psychologicaliy the cueIum '$vas a representationof the individuation process a by means of chemical substances and p r d u r e s . the seif as imago Dei of the individual which i found in s his or her dark residue which was burned away during the tkst stage. in the fonn of a substance.Here Jung gives an r example of how the second stage reiates to the process of individuation: The second stage of the conjunction therefore consists in making a reality of the man who has acquired some knowledge of bis paradoxid wholeness .. That i the c m ofindividuation. The o bad caelum is equated with the quintessence or heaveniy truth (the Kingdom on earth)? This heavenly truth is. psychologically. . In other words. the celestial balsam or Me-principle which is identical to the God- image. the chemicais and minerais) of the aichemical proce9s. is that no one knows how the paradoxïcal wholeness of man an ever be realized. The great diflîculty here. however. or what we today c U active . s in order f r the second stage to be completed the cc~eiurn to be produced. This action acts as a wnaetization of their spinîuai ideais. . that "tnrth". . Its purpose was to -te. the uisights gained nom the rnio mentaiis are made "real" o pragmatic.
The Symbdic Ingrcdkiitr of the Mutun The first ingreclient to be mixed with the caelum i honq.494. and the Self expresses itsdf through the plerwre and powa drives of the ego.cantaice place either spontaneousîy or it can be The artificiaiiy induceâ through certain techniques aich as foUowiBg a dream or famosy image to its The cueium "as a d e ocairs when the adysis hos consteihtd the oppsites 77232 so powerfully that a union or synthesisof the pasoanlity becornes an imperative neceSSity- Edinger gives this summation of the role of the caefum: In an uncouscious state. p. M r the unio mentalis has been achieved. t k ' s wbat the extraction of the caelum accomplishes. Honey "expresses. conscious and differentiated level. e the S a or imago Dei. one's own s ego and one's own ~eIfkentered~~~ are reaffirmed o n a drives. The ego and the Selfare mked up with each other. The consequence i that the miversai validity of egohood. p. That's what is symbolùed by the caetum? Essentiaiiy the caetum helps to remove the self h m the ego-body and ali of its projections by uniting the soui informeci now by the spirit with the body in embodied consciousness. is rescued fiom the ashes of the nigredo certain substances must be added to the quintessence."~ creation of the m e t . s p~ychologicaiiy~ joy of Lf and the Lf urge which overcomes and eiiminates everything the ie ie %id 231 Ibid. the Self expresses itsdf through an identi6:cation with the ego. Once the caelun.imaginati~n. " h e emptwiis here is on u e in a ~uogian sr contact- . sbll remains in that e g M y residue and must be rescued.495.
Where rosemary represented spirituai love.However. brings various qualities into the mixture."" In essence the flower is a "whole- O ue making medicine. Should this aspect be lacking then one wouid be stuck in the uni0 menlolis stage. On one level the rosemary can be seen as represen~g spirituai and conjugal love? On another level rosemary can represent memory which "'bringsup the whole question ofthe role ofmemory in the proces of indiMduatio~. The most important part of?. which is identical with the quatemity ofthe SeU: imo the mixture." The third ingrdent of the m d r is r o m which.but now the t h e has corne for the reverse.bis h plant is the fourgolden leaves (thus a synonym ofthe philosophicalgold). as Jung States. The fourth ingredient is the plant MerCurialis. ÿ o u hiw to pour into the flssk whatever y w find sweet and desirable and what you long for.".''~~ According to Edinger.da& and inhiiitir~g. the honey can tum iato a deadly poison should the individual becorne addicted to the joys he or she fought to wntml throughout the proces ofthe llluo menrds. T e second ingrdent is Cheiidonia [sic]. whkh is divided hto male and fernale. ForJung the flowa represems "an accentuation of value: the addition of Chelidonia projects the highesî valw. Whik you've bangoing through the stage of the unio mentalis you bad to turn your back on ail thî."*~ This memory d o w s one to rem- that he or she has a body to retum to. the Mercuriaiisrepresents sexuality T i addition hs .
to rnake the bond inviolable. 00 to s p e a k and. he added buman blood a s a tùrther ingredient-"2mThe addition of the alchernia's own blood is the most important bindiog force between the body and the pufifieci sou1 of the uni0 mentaiis. energy and passion are a necessary part of the mixture. inner and outer. 242 " ' ~ eshould note tbDt h m & s net seem t be any oôvious bamdPiy baaPatbe pnres of the caelum e o and the end resuit. The above potion is now combined and müred with the caeiunr. Though this new mixture is a puri6Cation o f the original uni0 nduraiis there is still a third and final stage which the alchemist must attain.of d t y demollSttEltes that sexual libido. the third phise. Related to the Mercurialis is the r d L which is equivalent to both the d e m partner of the aichemical mmkge and the quintessence of Sulphur. i identicai t what i d e ç c n i as the unus rnundiis. is d e h d by Edhger as: a union of the previously united substances with the world-at least that's the simplifïed version More strictiy speakhg. the unus munhus. the ums m n n h . s symbolic condition that defies any comprehensive or adequate description. It refers to a superlative experience of unity in which subject and object. are transcendeci i the experience n of a unitary reality . when complaed. Thus.i a transceadent. the cuelum b r i o s into everydayH e what was previously an abstract realization. This third stage is bown as the mus mundtrsmundtrsu' The third stage ofthe Conjunction. Perbaps the caelum cari be seen as a process which. s o s . . . Accurding to Jung '%th this figure N e red Lay] the adept mixed hirnseifinto the potion. In alchemical terms this stage is lmown as the rubedo or reddenllig. -the creation or reahtion of the umrs marndsrs.
Torox~m: Inm C t ."lu The potential world is essentially equivalent to the idea of the "ground of beiig. in a r d y fùii sense.m s"1 tME i facS he e : n it's beyond our power to descn'be v a y specificsllybecause it signifiesa union with the totality that probably belongs only. but i the goal and completion of the process. This claim d e s the third stage even more esoteric and powerfùî than the second. . iy 9 4 Jung." Jung mentions tbat Dom did not believe." Le.p. Dom redked that no one could truly and fÙUy reach the third 24%g% 244 The Mvstenes of tbe Coniunctio. but a uni0 mystca with the potential world. " * ~ ~ is not Iung quite as abrupt but does irnply cleariy that the umrs d s is not somethlig which am be easiiy put into words. . 537. Rather. with the experience of d e d ~ .. p. 1 9 . the potential wodd ofthe first day of creation. or even his adaptation to it. 14. thet the production of the &pis was the finel stage of the aichernical process.*" Jung states that Dom was not concemed with a 1 i t d fishg of the individualwith his or her enviromnent but rather a uni0 mystïca with the p o t d a l world which exists as the essence of the materiai world. but was still the i one.79. the production of the b i s was accomplished in the second stage.-98- Edinger is unable to give any more detail about the mnsd . divided into two and many." For Dom the third and highest degree of the Conjunction was the union of the whole man with the unus rrmnduS. C. when nothing was yet " n actu. Dom equated the u m r s d with ' T h e One and the Simple. *%id.PM. Ultirnaîely the umrs s m u d s is "not a ftsion of the i n d k i d d with his environment. as most alchemists did et the time.By this he meant .W.
As with Dom. and that it is chiefiy ou. However.For this reason he states to the Western reader who may have no patience for mystical rhetoric: 1would therefore councii the aiticalreader to put aside his prejudices and for once try to eXpenence on himseIfthe a i s ofthe process 1 have described. the terni MliO mystica does not neceSSzLfily reflect a transcendental or theological union but could point to a psychological union wherein the Merences between religion and psychologka1 experience are blurred . Jung concluded tbaî îhis third stage was a universaiking concept which could be found i 0 h spirituai traditions such as Hinduism.stage since it wodd be the full realintion that God i within the human king and tba the s world would be seen through W s eyes. ignorance of the psyche if these experiences appear "niystic. h g felt that a fidi and permanent psychological union sistained over a M time was theoreticaiiy impossible since one cannot have a union of that which is i e realized with that which can never be M y reaiized- . was extremely important for a deeper understanding ofthe essence of the uaconscious and its comection with consciousness. In other words the human would becorne God on Earth. 246 7T From the tone of the above citation it seerns obvious that Jung felt that the alchernical symbolism. or else to suspend judgment and admit that he understands nothing. as rdecting a psychologicai procns. For thirty years 1 have studied these psychic processes under d possible conditions and have assureci myselfthat i the alcbemists as weii as the great philosophies of the East are referring to just such experiences. n t- Buddhism and Taoism. Jung gives his definition of the third stage as the synthesis of the conscious with the unconscious.
The first stage of the Conjunction i the uni0 s . As the shadow has been brought to consciousness (again this process is never M y completed) the Conjunctiofip~pcr begDs.. and Tibetan T&c practitioners. In other words the nigreh corresponds to the confkontation with the repressed shadow material. Christian mystics. While Edinger stated perhps the only way to tnrly realize the total unification of opposites is t h u g h the ultuaate transition. In each case the experience is brief but powaful enough to transform one's dominsint wodd-view. Le. Jmg suggests throughout bis work that this unincation must be attempted and realized (no matter how hgmeuted) hem and now.not to mention Jung. S d s 7 Taoists. Summary o f the Three Stages of the Coojunctioo In psychological terms the whole alchernid process is the attempt of an individual within aloosefyoutlined traditionto uaify ali opposing f'actionswithin tbat individual's psyche in cooperatioo with the s K The pre(iminasr stage of the Conjunction i the nigredo or e s blackening which requires the individual to "bum away" the baser paris of the psyche. Grof: Wilber. and many others. Obviousiy thïs type of experienw ofuaity does occut as it has kenrecorded ôy the& Ve&. deatb. In t same way the uitimate actuakation k of the self can be glimpsed but never fUy realited.247At tbis stage MerCucius has undergone its fiaal triudonnation towards unincation.-100- The attempt to carry out the ia>us m m k s would have long lastiiig psychologid implications.
The caelum is the state where spirituai soui reincarnaîes i the body. next cornes MerCufialis which represents sexuality in ail its implications (Edinger also suggests that it refers to memory whch is necffsary i order to reunite with the body). foiiowing Mercwiaüs n is the red Lüiy which symboiizes the adept piacing him or herseifinto the mixture7and finally. other psychologicai "Ulgredients" m u t be added. These ingredients are as follows: honey for those pleaswable aspects of life which had to be abandoned in the uni0 mentalis. If this reintegraiion is not accomplished one is simply lefi "living in the heaâ'' without a grounding in the physical world or with an asceticism which denies the body. s the third ingredient is rosanory which represents conjugal and spiritual love.-101- mentalis or mental union" Here the "spirit"separates the "soul"fkom the c o h e ofbodily ~ appetites. The retum to "this worldlùiess'' is accomplishedthrough the caeium which is the divine spark which is found within the waste of the nigrecilo. Chelidonia i the essence ofthe quaternity and of wholeness. Ifleft on its own the soui w d side with the body so intense ascetic practices must be practiced in order to ''encouragenthe 4 to gravitate towards the spirit. Before the reunion can take place. . The purpose of these ascetic practices is to fàciiitate selfknowiedge. That actual reunion with the body can only n happen once the c&m is separated and prepared fiom the rsidue of the nigredo. According to the alchernical tradition the sou1 as MerCucius stands between the body and the bigher morai aspirations ofthe spirit. Once the "spiritiPng" ofthe s d is complete the new and improved union of soul and o spîrit must be reintegrated with the body.
the mixture needs blood which is the most obvious necessity for reuniing with the body and its reality. The umrs m u h s is marked by the resolution of di opposites withui the psyche. 8. as. However. The alchemist's work is now cornplete. .72-73. In this stage the selfis a link to the co11ective unconscious and the individuai's consciousness which is now fkee of the psychological projections of the uni0 nuturaIis. But there is a third stage which is highly "mysticai" and spinhial in nature. are mine. according to the testimony of the alchmis& not diequatiy bppeaed" Jung. Dom does not venture to describe what this third stage is We We know only c. C. pp. 14. that for Dom it is a uaion with the "One and the Simple" or the world before the creation of opposites (Le.. For Jung i was not theoretidy possible to live in the umrs m u h s as a t permanent state. According to Dom the lapis is wmpieted at this stage. p 5 2 Brackets . the self or Merairius.~'~ Before going on it would be prudent to review Edward Edinger's interpretation of the psychologid process of the ConjunctionU 9 b ~i e but an adequste example of this faa can be found i Juug. Jung did think it is possie for the individual to know aspects of both the wnscious and the unconscious through the mediator. Le. The individual no longer has psychological tensions whïch pushed him or her hto the aichernid procas in the fint place. becausethis elusive MerCuTius [selfl w d d then escape and r e m to its former naturie. However. The psychological alchemist must carefùüy and coosistently tend his or her imier labrat~ry. shadow confbntation/mio mentalis i never fiiUy complete Woe voiatiie esçence [nigre(do/shrhrv]so s c#refiilly shut up and preserved in the H e d c vesse1ofthe unio mentalis cauld not be left to itself for a moment. UltimaGdy r n W..2.W. C. one should be aware that the whole process fkom the shadow work to the integration is an on going process which defies completion There is no quick fix in the individuation process. separation h o subject and object) yet within the conte* of incarnate consciousness.
Both the "down" and the "up" motions are made of four stages and three steps. Stage 4 is characterizedby independent. l a d s to the first split. Misîmhm. The first stage represents the state of original wholeness prior to consciousmss. Stage 3 i autonomous? independent t)iinking. This is the step where the seifdivides i t two. a state w h m the original unity has been differentiated into a fourfold multiplicity.-103- Edinger viRHs the proces of the Conjmction as two distinct motions. At this point the Ïndividuai is living M y in this world.Tt seems iikely that this stage would be equivalent to the unio natutalis. The f h t transitional step. T i step is marked by the separation ofthe ego hs hs ?braPbtasedEdinger. p. Step (b) represents the n 1 separation from the Mother (Nature). . is e q d to Mlio rnenlols ofthe Conjunctio~Edînger quates t i to the reductive analysis ofthe shadow. autonomous king. Finally. step (a). correspondi. Eventuaiiy this fourth stage begins to l o r its luster.279-28û." Stage 2 is the begianiag of ego developmenî which i characterized by the s separation of subject aad object. Once this inadequacy takes root the individuation process begins the motion back "up" towards wholeness. one down and one up. A this point the ego otans to experience itseifas separate t 60m the world while d bang caught i the polanty between Nature (Mother) and S p a i n i 1 s (Father). The fint step. This wouid be the alchemical equivalent of the f u or elements beginning to fiII apart. At the fourth stage the individual has full psycbic differentiation and is niuy part of Society but insight into the iaadequacy of this aate of being begins to surfàce.ngto "thetheme ofthe uo World Parents.Step (c) then briogs about sepamtion fiom the Father (Spirit). For a diagram of this d o n please see Figure Five. step (a).
bere. This leads the individuai to Stage 3 and the next step. that the individual i dissatisfied with the way the world is around him or her as weU as th& subjective response to the perceived world. Once this is eccomplisbed the individuai is led to Stage 2. . step @). a person wouid undergo the process f r one primeiy and compulsive ruison. bowRrervi that no one knows bow the paradoxicai wholeness ofman can s ever be reaktaLW C-W. n The Drive T o w h Whdcness and Active Imaginath One may get the impression that the C o n j d o n is iittle more than sitting and w a t c h g the processes of the psyche in some form of reflective meditation. Two areas which have not been touched on very thoroughly but which are essemial to the Conjunctioa. Mvstenuq p 281. ~ ' the individuai enters step (c) or the M~LF mundus which lads to Stage L whae w e r s a i wholeness prevaiis.-104- Born the unconscious thus allowhg the individual to take a criticai view of his or ber desires and projections.476. Step (b) is the unithg the souVspirit union with the body. interpretation does give a helpfùi amplification of Jung's understanding of the alchernical process. As a result of this "The great malt. are the psychotogical stress which is the catalyst of the entire process and the role active Uaagination plays i the eventual alleviation of this stress. p. Here the ego has achieved the c e of the opposites and i able to endure s the paradox ofthe psyche's two-sidedaes. However. The reasonwouid o s be.14. " ~ ~ Although Jung does not recount identicaiiy the same process that Edinger does. as Edmger States. . his. 252 ?5l Edinger. Step (c) represeats a union of the ego with the self and with the world. Edinger's. According to Edinger at this level "the and eternity are Unitedand synchronicity p r e v a i l ~ . Foiiowing this crucial and mysterious ~ r o c e s s .
to Jung. is childhood. pp. %id. notable psychic 253 Jung.we becorne sometbing of a problem f r others.. Should the ego remaio in its state of projection it may not be adequately prepared for the indMduation process. C. Conscious problems fill out the second and third quarters. This is why the nigreub is tbe preliminary stage of the Conjunction. while in the iast. AU of L e accordhg a.387-403. p. accordhg to Jung. The first quarter. s to speok between one's conscïous life with one's o unconscious Me. we descend again into that condition where. In the case of extreme old age the individuai slips deqer and deeper into the u~~conscious leaving many coaflicts of n e consciousness behind. Should the iadividual decide to ignore this desire the outcorne could be psychologically disastrous. 8. lying in the east. Jung maices the followïng remark: 1wouid like to corne back for a moment to the cornparison with the suri. Once the parodoxical nature of the psyche begins to sudice there is a great d d of stress placed on the ego. in extreme old age.403. . . in most cases. . The only point i W where thae is.W. The one hundred and eighty degrees of the arc of life are divisible into four parts. Without the depression (blackenîng)to pierce the ego's projections the rest of the process would never be felt to be neassary. i n h g discussesthe developmemtof the psyche through different stages oflife.dissatkfhction he or she is wmpeiied to begïn the pnxas of indMduation This drive wouid corne fiorn the sers desire to be made conscious in coasciousness. ZY o I childhood there are no discernable problems for oneself since. is a series of co&ontations. that state in which we are a probIern for others but are not yet conscious of any problems of our own. n there is not a fully established sense of consciousness.
necessatily. were indechial at aliowing the unconscious an opportunity t make itself known. in therapy the practïce gives the patient and the therapist an exîremely usefiiltool in u n c o v e ~ unconsious complexes.~' Free association. o accordingto Jung. developed by Jung. he gives a description of the practice of active imagination. called f active imagination. Jung found psychologicai practices such asFreaidianfke association. simply moves fiom one complex to snother without. through which it could be brought to consciousness. As a response to this limitation Jung o n developed a means of aiiowiag the unconsciousa medium. in the present. The process of the Conjunction would be an example not of lookiog to the past or fbture for meaning but an attempt.-106con£iictis in "middle age. The Transcendent FunctonS. t make consciousthe unconscious conflicts in order to tàce them and o thereby gain a better understanding ofits contents i order to have coutrd over them The n actuai processo the Conjunctionparallels a psychological practice. foNowhg one particular complex t its root i the unconscious." At middle age the individual begins to doubt the choices he or she has made or see how one-sided his or her successes have been and thus laments the past or pines for the future for answers and meaning for the prestst conflicts. T i method was t& hs e active h q i m i o n In Jung's work. On a personal level the practice aiiows the g individuai 'a way of attaining liberation by om's own e f r s and of h d b g the courage to fot .
"~' Jung fOund the practice of active imagination an effecfive w r i of ~ uncove~g unconscious material whicfi was more malleable and &èctive than solely relying on dream analysis. but wbich i the course of time n and under suitable conditions wiU enter the light of cotlsciousness. the coascious and the unconscious act in a compensatory or complementary rnanner towards each other. in light ofthe Conjunction. The method o f active imagination couid be simply recording any m df - and anaiyze the outcome. thus giving a visible object for the therapist and patient to discuss. i a less n unconscious tnanner than the original dream. attempt to foUow it to its conchision According to Jung.In actual applicationactive io -n the individual an ability to reactivate a parti& dows dream or dream sequeme a d . Other foxms ofart such as dance can be used effectively as weil. und its nature is îùlly brought to conrioumess. Jimg lists four reasons why this relation cornes to be. without intniding on it. In each case it is not the perfection or degree of ski11 dernonstratedby the patienî which . The moa important ruson. Active imagination is esseatialty observing and followhg a fhntasy or dream. is the fourth: The uaconscious contains aU the fantasy combimtions which have not yet attauied their threshold intensity. A painting or drawing of a dream can be simiîariy employed.-107be one~elf.~' The therapist and patient can belp s p e d up the surfadg of these f h k e s tbrough the use of active imagination. When dream aoslysis and active h g h a t i o n are wmbhed unconscious material becomes much more comprehensi'ble.
In either case. As both Jung and Edinger bave demonstrateci. Nor is it a practice for those who are under the grip of the unconscious and have lost a grasp of the "reai" wodd.-108is important but the effectiveness of the process to bring to the Surnce those fanta~y images which were previously uncouscious.the undeaaking ofthe Conjunction wouid be psychologicaiiy harmhil. t6rough projection onto the p r i m materia. becornes the mediator ôetween the Microcosm and Macrocosm. Summmy of Chapter Thme The Conjunction is not an undertakjng of leior curiosity. those unconscious fantasies wtich are aear the threshold and then probes even deeper until the self. Jung. Jung did appreciate the spirituai nature of the alchemid tradition. the Coojunction represents one way of undertaking the natural and universal drive toward wholeness. However. oould never posit that the C o n t o n points to a Divine Behg with whorn the alchemist interacts. Although this drive can be interpreted as a specifically psychological teleology based on the actions and reactions ofthe conscious and the unconscious it can also be dersîood as somethhg beyond this limited interpretation where the summation of an individual's potential as a human king is brought into a form of actualization. Even the term "the a r ~ alchemf of suggests that thae is more to the practice than a pseudo- scient& misunderstanding of matter. the Conjunction is structurd so that the individual brings to coosciousness. as an empincist.In fact. with its inherently contradictory m e . The Conjunction can be seen as a form of active haghationpar excellence. Jung understood that the alchemists were using esoteric words and .
Perhaps in four hundred years people will look back on Jung's h g s and iw comment on how quaint bis theones about the psyche were." Eveq perception and assumption is derived fiom the psyche. which were contemporary at the tirne. through his personal @ences and those of bis patients.to explain what today could be wnsidered psychologid in nature. However. e hsooia For those who aaively attempt to bring to conscious~s portions of the psyche which are unconsciou$ whether this decision was d e fr them through u n c o ~ o umotivation or by o s personal volition.-109- syrnbols. If ignored. Jung's psychology does much the same thing as the alchernid tradition in that it uses theories like "archetype" and "synchronicity" to explain concepts which in our aimntdevelopment seem to point to something beyond the gemrally accepted v e of reality. to move towards a union with each other and s to wholeness. both the conscious and un~~IlSCious components. in much the same way that some peopIe view alchemy today. there i the pivota1 and transfomative undertaking of the Magnum Opusopus s For Jung there was no sense of somcthing being "0% psychology. that there seemed to be an innate need for the human psyche. the psyche is aot entirely subjective or . this o drive could be responsi'ble for nuwrous psychological as wU as p y i i g c l complications.More than anything Jung's understanding of alchemy a d the Conjunction demonstrate that the human condition is far more cornplex and deep than most people care to think It i fâr more simple to rernain ignorant of one's projections a d tive in s a state of unio naturalis than it is to enter into the trials and tribulations of self-biowiedge found throughout the Conjunction Jung was absoluteiy correct when he wrote: "Selfknowledge is an adventure that Cernes us unexpectedly fsr and deep?' Jung found.
is in Mme ways more precise than the medical jargon of contemporary psychiatry. I k n t the alchernical tradition. discursive language. The Conjunction revealed thïs process clearIy and as a result Jung spent a great deai of t h e invoived m e x p b ~ its symboiism. . with its highiy abstract ianguage of obtuse irnagery. For Jung the symbolism and mythology of alchemy reflected an attempt by human beings to exteriorùe the h e r proceses of the psyche. g Some critics will look upon this amplification of alchemy as supeïnuous f r understanding o Jung's mode1 of the psyche.-1 10- benevoient. To bring this unconscious poteatiality to coIlSCiousness dows the individual to understanda d Unegnte these seemingiy foreign attriiiites. Lf we wnsider thai the uncomcious cornmunicates in symbols then a symboiic language would be fm more conducive for understanding it than the limitations of -en. There is an autonomy and potential m a l i c i o ~ ~ ~present which can ovcrrideand lie~s manipulate ego-consciou~11ess.
MDR . the sole purpose of human existence is to b d l e a iight in the darbiess of mere being. It may even be assumed that just as the unconscious affects us. n He may thus subjugate the whole Uaiverse ofwhich be is cooscious to his individuai Wd- As far as we can discern. and usin& anythùig which he perceives. for everything that he perceives is i a cmnin sense a part ofbis being.-1 11- Chapttr Four Cmwky and Jung: A Cornpuison Man is capable ofM g . so the increase in our consciousness afEects the unconscious- -Car1 Jung.
1991 . Many n sensationalistautbors â q Crowley's mme in the boges that bis distortsd (though not entireiy inammie) repuîation will seil boolrs.and John P. On a biographid level we can see many intereshg similarities between Crowley and Jung. For both h M d & this symbol system w s a major a inthence on their thought and i their own way each attempted to bring a new mterpretation n to Chnstianity.Doiuiey's Tbe IlInes Thaî W e iy Are. Toronto: Inner C t . Tbé most aaabie arricles cîaïm Crowley is tbe n u m t and. As cbiidren both Crowley and Jung had difficuity socializing. S~iritû Solinde: An c nfcssi Al 161 - (continued. ''Widdest Man i tbe World" This title was to foUow him bey& tôe grave to thîs day. Both of their fiathers were Uitimatefy involved with the propagation of the Christian message. Jung attempted to give the cenîrai mytbs a psychological interpretati~u. dandemm articies. felt that Christianity neded to be replaced not revwd. rCity.. and Jung to some degree. Crowley always felt himself to be an outcast and would later embrace tfiis attniute of his Me? Much of Crowley's We was spent in some form ofisolation both seIf-hduced and sociallyor politically enforced. =Lïhe Sm two volumes dCc0wIey's autobiography (1929) were origiualiy publishducdcr tbe titie: . Crowley..Arcbetw~: Jmeian s A Commentarv on tbe Life of Cbnst. The English paper John Bull publisbai many i & n am by and large. Whether mountain c h b i g or trekking acrou Asia Crowly was comfortablewith this sense of s ~ l i t u d e .~~~ questionably in accordance with C r s i n orthodoxy. Crowley was notonous for encouraging s a b l Ostracization. As a result Crowley and Jung had a hbackground in Christianity and thpt tradition's endemic symbol system. while Crowley aîtempted to hita demonstrate that there was a social and spirihial shift in which the Christian pafadigm (as a representative of the Aeon of Osiris) was outdated and violentiy oppressive. ~ 'MThis i prbaps moa evidrm in Jung's Answer to Job. 1984..The m i ia.nd tbe Akbemist ge. Edinger's The ChriaLi.) . Toronto: 1 .
he began to fiequent for n greater and greater periods of time. neariy knocking hïm unconscious. then.. This reaiization was highly tramformative to the younger Jung. some doctoa assumed it was epilepsy Jung's self-induced withdrawai fkom the "real world" was cut short w e Jung hn overheard his m e r stating to a visitor that he. Crowley. Jung Sr." and r With that Jung conf?onted and deféated the fainting speUs. Despite their soiitary natures oeither of the m m could be considerd antisocial.-1 13- Jung also had dif2icuity &g in during âis early school years? When Jung was twelve (1887) he was shoved by aaother boy and stnrck his head on a curb. for example. We can also see Jung's tendencies towards solitude with his building of his Tower (Bollingen) wbich. thrived on attention. His parents and docton did not know what malaise was c d g the fainting spelis. was concernai h a î he may not be able to support his son should the condition continue indefinitely. He would do or say anything which would fly . In aU seriousness Jung declared "Why. i 1947. I must ~ o r k ! " ~ ~ d s from that &y on he became a "serious child.'2w For approximately six moaths followhg the iaitial tnumaJung would have f a i n ~ g spells whenever he had to go to schwl and as a result he became more and more withdrawn. At the moment of the blow Jung recds thinking 'Wow you won't have to go to school any more.
a c a . a d a ffew mùtutes btcr the origïml parties to tbe disaune to me and begged nie to decide between tbem.Tbe story revolves around the etmn foilowing questïo11: "Siace Uioughts are a c c o u p m h e m of IllOdificationsof the cerebral tissus. p688f. Jung fought to mluntainan ego identity throughout his Me? 266 Jung was also concerned that aspects of "Eastern" religion One incident which reflects uiis GUI be fouad in Confessions. p. Whai Crowleytravded to India.) ." Bradrers are m k - '69Tais is notable even in e d y childbood with Jung's Qevelopmentof the two 'pasoaaiities-" See M X . a 267. wbat thoughts must be concomitants of its putAhaïon?" Crawley ~800~s "1managed to mke the story sound fàiriy plauaile and let m p l f go magnGœntïy in the matter of b m r ." C m l W Confessions. I f rwselfexmmeiy disLiLed!" d 1 admit my visions can never mean to other men as much as tbey do to me. Jung too demonstrated active sociai i t r c i n neato through his various lectures and travels throughout Europe. 1do aot regret this. in regards to their travels.Crowley d e S c n i a story he wrote M e d The T s a e t ofMalgdalen B k (fiQuinoxVOL L no. India. Asia. in tbe morning tbey ail lodred as i tbqr had m recweted from a long and f t dangernus üïness. Jung while appreciating other cultures. k). seemed to be wary. he wouid attempt. Tbe hiss stopped i m a d y . . or the United States.directiy in the fhce ofsonally acceptable b e h a v i ~ rWhile he denounceci b h d f o U o w d 7 . However. to be the fetish of 1do fools ami fanatics.625626) wbae CrowIey entm &O an Arab c f baipe oa f where a fight is in progricss.. Crowley.. custorns end ifpossible the languaBeem In many ways Crawley's persooPlity was highly malleable. to "go native" by adopting the locai attire. or the foundef d a ikith wbose followers are content to ecbo m .1read it aloud to a bwse party on Christmas Eve. dresstd in airban and roba racalls " walked into tbe scrimmage I and drew sigils in tbe air wiîh the [star sapphire] ring while inîonbg a chapter ofthe Koran. AU 1 ask i that my d t s shouid convince Icppirerir:after tnith that tbere is ôeyond Qubt somelhing worth while s Seekiflg. was their attitudetoward foreign CUIfures.~ he aiso t w k great satisniction at testing and üying the fonihde of msny of bis students. at ieast in his own case.opinions I waot cach m n to cut his own way thraigh thejungie. that over identification with aaother d t u r e ' s symbol system (take hdia for example) could pose a potential danger to bis seifidentity.6 18. (continueci. and Afîica. at some point throughout the trip. %ere is a famais stoy (Confessions. One major diffefencebetweenCrowley aod Jung. sornetimes with a touch of malevolent giee. p. attainabie by mSbds more or less lîke minemiae nat want to father a flock.for t k y saw that 1was a saint.
Periiaps one ofthe most astounding examples of his fama~y are the fantasies leaciing up to the writhg of the life 269(. Aside from these interesting personai anecdotes. Early in his life Crowley recounts various premonitions UiCIuding premonïtïoasofthe death of his father and mother. Theses techniques and his own experimentation l a as mention4 before. i..While i the Golden Dawn Crowley began to lem rituai n techniques of invocation and evocation. to the reception of Liber AI Legis. a direct experience of divinity (unconsciow). Jung also had his share of strange occurrences. continueci) Cbapters 1 and II. For Crowley u n u d appearances or synchronicities were simply a normal part of the Western Esoteric Tradition as he knew it..e. and the directioa to write L i b w A h t name ody a s o d portion of parauormal occurrences he had experienced. . the encorner of the Enochian Aethers70. Recorded in M I R are rderences to a mysteriously shattered M e and split tablen' as well as a report ushered nom a bodrcase when he and Freud were discussing the vaiidity of p a r a p ~ ~ c h o l o g y . . the most striking biographical commonality between Crowley and Jung was their individual expience with what could be temed "pa~anofmal"occurrence^. ~ ~ fkom these Aside "externalizations"Jung also had a very rich dream and fantasy We.-1 15- could not easily be imported h o the "Wesf" though m many ways the "Easternn traditions contained the very thiag the "Westernwtraditions were missing.
Jung referred to this new figure as Philemon who %as a pagan and brought with hun an Egypto-HeUenistic atmosphme with a Gnostic coloration. an eariy piece of Gnostic poetq. "%id *'%e "Ka" i an Egyptian concep d a n embodied sail. Phiternon represented superior insight. things which may even be directeci against me . He was a mysterious figure to me. H co&onted me in an objective monwr. p. as if he were a Living persooality. PPhüemon represented Jung's spiritual self while Ka was the concretkationor grounding of the abstract notions symboiized -%id. another figure developed out oftbe Elijah character."m Phüemon. . Salome and ELijab. o Prior to the writing of the Septem Semorsies Jung had a series of fantarries which Uivolved three figures. and e 1understood thu there i something in me which can say t h g s that s 1 do not know and do not intend. winged. 27bid. s . p. Psychologidy.Septem Sennonesa d M w (Seven Sermons t the Dead).182. For Jung he "represented a force which was not myseKWn4 It was Philemon who showed Jung psychic objectivity or the reality of the psyche: Through him the distinction was c l d e d between myseif and the object ofmy thought.. 183. . and lame footed ma9 would prove to be an invaluable figure in Jung's He. Two o the figures. and to me he was what the Indians cal1 a E v e n d y Philemon developed into another figure. Ai tiws he seemed quite real. a bearded. 1went walking up and down the garda with him. w a e BiMical but the third f figure was a large biack snake. Soon aAa the initial fhntasy was completed.
""' One similarity between Jung and Crowley w s their interest i "Eastern7'spirituai a n traditions. Aiwaz. Wbrt is inîeresting in comparison with Crowky is that both the writing ofLiberAlLegis a d the Sepem &marteswere acwmpaniedbe experieaeesofa "preseacen i the room. The primary dïBhnce Iay in the f~ that Crowley would understand Liber AL vel Leps came from a pcæter-human intelligence whüe Jimg viewed his expenence as "an unwnscious consteiiation whose peniliar atmosphere 1 recognhed as the numen of an archetype. crammed fùii ofspirits. In Crowley's case the presence w s one figure.by Philemon." Eventwlly Jung was "cornpeiled fkom withm. as i w r ." He States T h e whok house was filied as ifthere was a crowd present.to f o d a t e and t ee express wbat might have ken said by Phiiemon This w s how the Sepem Semones ad a Momos with its peailiar langusge came hto being?" The strange occurrences wbich preceàedthe actuai writing ofthe Seven Sermons are recorded in M D P . Much of Crowley's method invoives Buddhist or Hindu concepts and aspects of . In Jung's experience n a there were multiple "beings. They were packed deep ri@ up to the door. and the air w s a s thick it was scarcely possible to breaWm Both Jung and Crowky wrote theV respective o works over a period of three days.
-1 1%- their cosmoIogy. considering thaf nt the time of his writings there was fittle authoritaîivework done on someofthese subjects (ïïkeyoga)he still damnstrated some interesthg insights.Jung felt that it would be more germane for "Western" traditions to recover meanhg from their own negiected resources thaa look towards "Eastern" traditions.274-284. For example. m. Jung dismisted the validity of so-calied secret societies. 11) as well as his forewords to Suzuki's Introduction To Zen f Buddhism (C.W.W.~%gain.Auinox Vol. 1992- 282 =!5ee for example 'Science iiid Buddhismn in C m k y . I See: Crowiey.W.W. Jung dso exhiiits a f h c h t i o n with "Easternn philosophy.on BlavatsLy's Tbe Voicc o S m . 1 1) reveal a person who sees a great ded of meaning in "Easternn tradition but who also is cautious in regards to the impact of"Eastern" philosophy on "Western" psyche~. Cdldcted W o h VOL 4 pp. %MDR. W.Crowley was also deeply interested in Helena Blavatsky's (183 1-1891) synthesis of"Eastern"and ''Western" modes ofesotericism in h a Theosophy Movernentm He also rendered his interpretaîion of the Shih I and the Tao T Ching as weli as essays on e various aspects of Buddhism and ~ i n d u i s m ~ today's standards Crawley's scholarship By is in some rspect lacking. IL+: f Qucst.12)' and The TibetanBook o lhe D e d % f f TibetanBmk o tlte Great Liberation (C. Commentab on the Holv Boolrs (The E. ï.244-260. .224-336 for his o cornmen.n . His commentary on Tire Secret o the GoiciénFiinver (C. 11) and the I-Chinq (C.Jung reveals nime oftbge c o ~ a r nas be gives bis impressions of his trip to s Iadia in 1938.pp. However. Along with theû similarities Jung and Crowley also demonstrate some major n merences.
Modern men have absolutely nothing to compare with this [Le. W. It is enough that they exist and ~ o r k . C.s e that modem Western Society hss üttle to offa in way of initiation. On average this may be a correct assumption in that most people wili be lookmg towards these societies for some form of £katemaümateroal compaaionship. There seems to be iittie evidence to show categoridy that these symbols carmot be becorne active or begin to fimction in a new Cycle of Meaning. theosophy. legebdary Rosicrucians.Freemasonry? i '~~11' -que de la Fr-. However.O.the O. . 28s Jung.. %id TbeSc sentiments are comparable D those expom&û by Lama Govinda i Chaptec One..~ ~ Jung is essentidy s t a ~ g he felt that the Western initiatory traditions me that Masonry d e d no potential for psychological traosformation..T."5 The basis for thïs chah is that Jung felt t a thae approaches to initiation do not Iead to ht psychologid transfomation Yet Jung did feel tbat symbols had initiatory poss1'biiities: The point i not-I canwt &e too emphrnic about this-whether the s initiation symbols are objectivetniths.but whether these unconscious contents are or are not the equivaients of initiation practices? and whether they do or do not influence the human psyche. Bra&ts are mine.23 1. or any simüar Order can be highly tramformative if the symbols are active for that individuai. Nor is it a question of whetha they are desirable or not. initiatory p&ces of so-cailed"primitivendtures]. to assume that thîs is the case en musse seems to be excessive. Tbe symbols of Masomy .discussing the process of initiation Jung . and so forth are al feeble substitutes for somethuigbetter marked up i in r d leâters on the historical casualty List. n . 7 p.
T.. a bt f d in me Equinox. II no.241-46) and me EipimxTVoLiïI. EspeciaUy Liber CXCIV(pp.O." Crowley felt tha most Occult ûrders depended too heavily on superstition and unprovable assurnptions.T. which chimeci al sorts offimaaical abilities. in part. to address the very issws which conceraed Jung.Western Esoteric and r e W d Ordcrs flourished during this period). He may have qpcstioued the cocumitmeniof typcs of initiarions and what d d be the aftermath on tbe indMdual's psyche- =A example of=me of the changes Crawley h g h î t the O. VOL 'n o .to Crowley's notoriety. through r e o r g a n h g the O.x I. However. Crowley understood that the processes of the Western Esoteric Tradition were higbiy e f f d v e approaches toward psychological transformation and he attempted to bring the "mysteties'' under the aegis of "Science" .O.~ will use Jung's thcones but many times they will be taken out of conteid in order to fit an "ontologicai" aid which the author/Orda hold. M~ungmayaloobavebeenmnœrnedwiththe~tbubawseiitbe a ~ m a n y i d h i d d s m ~ jumping M m one religioiis Ead to anotber (ma. ao. Howevert since Jung was not invotved in these ûrders it seems mikely that he would be in a position to comment on the validity of their initiatory potential- Crowley attempted... i. in some ways Crowley lacked the very objectivity which he expected 289 others to demonstrate. Jung would have wanted to distance hünselfand his theones fkom the claims of such Ordas as much as p ~ s o i b l e Even in today's Occuit literaaire some authors .One reason Jung may have insisted that these traditions had little potential f r o psychological transformationcould be due to the fsctthat at the time of writing (1928) m ~ n y Occult Orders were surking. and founding the A-. . due.A.
%id Emphasis i Jung's s gz~mwley a grrat deai of respect for Nicrpcbt as am bc pen h m C t ~ ~ f e ymie of N i d as had 's one of the Saints in L* XV-Ecclesiae Gnosticae Catholicae Conon Missae (Gnostic Mass). Jung was concenieci that any person who lives i the grip of unconscious energies hes with the constant danger ofone n day succumbing to those energies thus loshg al contact with the ' ' r d world. He weo uprooted aad hovered above the earth. n i d . p. 189. Jung uses the example o~ietzsche someone d o had no such point of reference: as Nietzsche had lost the ground under his feet beçause he possessed nothing more than the inner worid ofhis thoughts.In MLIR Jung remarks that the ody thuig which helped him maintain a co~ection with the ' ' r d woriâ" was bis work and bis family? The demands of M y . MDR. after aU. for 1 aimed. and thedore he succumbed to exagj~eration irreality. p. at this wodd and this Me.26 10i . Le. Arguabiy. what kept Crowley grounded at d was wbat his deaactoa condemned him for. and For me." Of course i Crowley would argue that it is a mistake to assume t a the " r d world" is anything but a ht 290 Jung. Wrthout these fmors in his He Crowley d d weU have ended his Me as Nezce t~sh had. such irreality was the quintessence of horror. his peculiar. and bawdy sense of humour and his emphasis on the sanctïty ofSexuality (and by extensionthe M y aspect of spirituality).which incidently possessed him more than he 5. iIï. and profession gave Juag a focus which acted as a balance to his other world of archetypal images.w' One could argue that Crowley paralleled Nietrsche in this lack of gro~nding?~ Crowley iived very deeply in bis hterionty and had M e comection to the concrete world around him. See: Tire I Equinox Vol. n ..
Bucidhisn: An oulliae d i t s Teachines and Schools. However. Maine: Weiser. 1993. pp. for tbenby tbae cometh hmtw fuUy gracp the extent ofCmw1~'s dedidon t bic spUiniel ideak the rcda i direct4 toward thc o s . (See: SchruaaM. The V i i and tbe * ~ w i t h i & p p . 142-148)..Vd. The 0ntoIogK.-Tem~ie Salotmm tbt of (TtiBabth in The Eauiaox. Absolute Tmth @oramarho safya) shows us that a "tablewi cmiy an orgaDiPng afvariaus iaocpaidtnt aggregatcs.Jung. Mkgièk and Anrilytiul Psychdogy: A Compatison.We can see it and f d it so obviousiy it exis!s. e .hhnSymbnds&Keanetb. with no i t n i nofpublic c I Q 1 1 3i nand thus neto o1 1 1 1 to tend to reflect Crawley in a m m honcst light. ïil: Quesi. Crawley addriesses tbis themti many dhis worlrS and it can be n found in Chapter I verse 22 ofLiber Al Legis: "Let thme be m diflrerence made among you between any one thiog & any otkr thing. 1997. on the whole. while maintaimng an "objective"fmt in reality.Gianseds)LArndon:DPdrworth. the motion towarâs psychological and spiritual maarrity is r ~ t u m 293 We see a simiiar approach in Neeuna 's T w o Tnrtbs. for example." R e W e TNth ( s m w f i mfya)dictates. (Stcpben Skinner. In maay ways these two rnen. 4 1 1 4 2 Thediariesare 2 . pp. wMe hailing f o d im two very Merent philosophicai backgrounds(Crowley fkom the poeâic and mydcal and J n ug 6om the ernpincal and scientific) f o d similar notions of the development o f the human potential. was drawn to the m y s t i d and esoteric aspect of spiritualiîy which Crowley lived i on a daily b a ~ i s . Thus. 7-47. a .La0.vui. scientific and "empiricai" training.creation of an imprecir undefSt811CfiLIg of its true nature? In mmy ways Crowley waated what Jung had.l Assumption of Whdcness One major oritologicai assumption made by both Jung and Crowley is that the human was at one point a wLf-contaiaed whole ami became 6agmented due to the procas of becoming conscious. . interesting because t k y where wriftcn. 1989. ~ n Aside nom th curious simiiarïties (and digerences) between Crowley and Jung as individualsthere are also e q d y interesting c o m d o n s betweentheutwo proposed mcthods of psychologid m spirituai development. d) foiiowing diaries: -. thaî a table exisis.So in s actuality îhere is no tbing d e d table.
1991 (pp. However. Mariïya w inthe Yo& SUNY. if taken as a psychological process K e f k r n' can be seen as a -on ofa unity ofopposites (the Lefl and Füght pillars) i much the n m 2% 297 298 an werview ofthis igue andh g ' s philosaphical idluences in general see: Nagy. 406.to a state of uMty but now at the mIISCious. Tbe Soul and r>tath. In the Western Esoteric Tracütion the retum can foliow the 'Tath of the Serpentnm (Path of Initiation) which winds its way up the Tree integrating the amibutes of the sefiaas one negotiates their way or one can foliow the "Path of the Arrow" (Path of Mysticd U i n which gives one a giimpse of the unity? no ) The two approaches are not maitually exciusive but one paîh would generaily have p r d e n c e over the other in practice. through bis own emences and observations and those of bis patients. See Figure Six (c).C. level. n t the prc-conscious. SE also: Jung. 209-2 19). T h e are many o philosophical arguments which cpn be r a i d in regards to this a p n M assumptioaa Jung's defense of his theories wouid be that he noted. and thus the separatïon of an original unit$%. . but also the key to the retum to wholeness." '+or See Figure Siu (a)See Figure Six (b). and the living organism is a system of dllected rimc which seek to fickmselves."Lite i teic01ogypor excellence.that there is a denmte teleology to Lf with the sdf ie (as an archetype of wholeness) realized in w n s c i ~ ~ ~ ~its goaLm These experiences lead as ~ e s s to a mode1wbkh suppoRed the assumptioathat the human psyche i fhgmented a s d that one mua atternpt to bring those fhgmeats togetherthroughthe life long process ofindividuatioa In Crowley's case he would be foiiowing the Qabalistic assumption that the Tree of Lie not only represents the creation of îhe universe. 8. Iftaken üterally the retum to Ketkr would be equated to the reacquiution of o e s divine essence.p. it i tbe uitnasic strBring s s towards a goai.W.
Theyoga ofMagiMiberA& and the uni0 nwraalis of "The Conjunction". a temporary control or denial of the bodily and unconscious drives.in tbt iaüer case tbe p&ce and iinintru. both impîy a fonn ofasceîicism. See: Laughlin et aL: Brain. f is passive " ' ~ amid a h use tbe term "retunewifwe asidcr the neurologicai e Q of tbge practiccs on the e & automatic nervous sysicm (ANS). .same way as Jmg wodd see the sdf ~ o n i n gFor~both Crowley and Jung the .Five whereas the former requitcs a delibtrate conml o mtmtaï pmesses. The S a o f the Great Work w The processes oftransformatiou f o d i MagrcHiber A h md 'The Conjunctionn n o both begin with an investigation of the individual's mentai processes. F r Crowley this exploration was accompiished through standardyogrc practices such as m. and on gohg work is essential ifany true and lasting progress is to be made. See: Crawley: The Law i for AU. s MOTbeyogic forms of medîtation impüed bae are considmbîy ditbcrcm f b m rom meditation practices found in Budâhist practices such as sutip~thlia 1( . p. Sp%5fic&ly Chapter 5. undertaking of the "Great Work" was an attempt. The primary purpose of the initiai foais on the mhd is to CLredirect"w' the body and previody unconsciousmaterid toward spirit (orthe"higher"fkctions) as opposed 299This miQing of qipositg or Dtber tbc "solutionof compiexs" i oae of Cmwlqr's definitions of îhe s Great Work. tbrough various techniques. pr*@aM: etc.32. Both o Jung and Crowley insist that this preliminsry. SvmboL ErSbefiea~e. to expand one's gnosis or state of consciou~11ess beyond the limited boundafies ofego-consciousness and into a more inclusive rapport with the unconscious or trans-personal. In & ithe individual who engages i tbespfactices regulates the bodily processes in n order t look more deeply into the nature of bis or her mental compositionYaFor Jung this o mental investigation also corresponds to the first stage ofthe aichernical conjunction (unlu menrolis) and prelùmapry practice ofintrospection s crucial to the d y t i c a l process.
figure of W o n (Crawley's q e U g ) i nmüu in many rrrps~r the H i d u dci<y KàE Oa the s t o Tree of Life (see Figure Two) sbe conrspoads to the sepru BinaCI. 14. The m d asceticisrn i ody the first stage of the Great Work Neither Jung nor Crowley suggests a s permanent segregation fkorn the body. the Trinity's Mïssing Foouth:The Psychbspiritiial Jinplications ofJung's Quaterniîarhn -chen in Pastoral Sciences." The rnissing fourth refers to the qualities which Jung fdt w a e absent Born the mythology of the Christian Trinity and tbus Plso absent from "Western" ailture in general? The qualities symboLU:ed by the M i s h g Fourth are the body/Naîwe. She is tbe Dark Mother portrayed in Crawley's The V n eqe&lly the 12& ' Æthyr @p. 4 aba al on^^. s . Both Jung and Crowley understood that these elements of the humancondition had to be addressed shouid there be any potential for spintual growth.3444. The ILLiiar that We Are. C. The figure ofHadit is crowky's s t n Sm (equds "Beirig" in sanskrit). the ferninine is represented through the Star n goddess Nuit as well as her couterpart the dark mother c0~eCted t h "Sad.11. p-24. set. the aa . For Crowley the s "Devil" '"Sec Jung.5169 & " H d t y .Dourley. pars243-295. pp. 148-153)304 Crowley. 1995. each ofthese missing factors is present i oome fonn For example. In nd both men put an Unportant cmphssis on the need to be i touch with the M y .W. In Crowley7s cosmology. The Law i for AU. as revded in MogikYLiber A h . the feminioe and the demonic. The importance of the bodily is reflected i what J q n n calls the "missing fourth. definition of the '%vil" i Merent firom the common use of the term. pp.-125to allowingthe body and unconsciousfàctors to have domioance over the "soui".
Cmwiey gives huo ritual practiœs. h . only then!" Jung MDR. in the process of the initial separationthe mind and body are now directeci towards the "spirit7' as opposed to wntïnuing to dweil in the original state of the unio naturalis. f r d htents and purposes. and.we possess also the capacity for becoming conscious of the infinite wt]. a god on earth? o i Though Jung does not literally argue that human beings must become gods he does 3 %e nord of Sin i R s r c i n Liber Al Legis." of N i . ~ The only true evil for Crowley is that which prevents the individual fiom discoverhg and actuating one's True Wd? The figure ofHem-Ra-Harepresents the merging of not only Nuit (infinite) and Hadit (finite) but also the F&e and the MarculBie. and Ra-Hoor-Khuit (who is also one with his twin t)iaar-paar-ktaat]) can be ut seen as an attempt to reconciie the missing quaiïties ofthe Christian TrinityM The second stage of the Great Work involves a reintegration of the body and the rnind. L 4 1. Set. imagining t h e d v e s to be evil . ï no. in Liber Os: un>erei no god but man" (Cmwley. Adonis. the Nanaal and the Demonic.and elhination of ail opposites whatsoever in this way Crawley's "Trinit). Bcackeîs ate mine. vii. Adad. Satan is Satum.689. ultimateiy Mted. In Magick/Ziber A h the pranitioner is ïntroduced to the philosophy of the Western Esotenc Tradition which has as its prirnary goal the reestablishment of the individual's divine nature to eventuaiiy becorne. p-325. s etitow M ~ The Equinox Vol. accuse Nature herseifoftheu own phantasmal d e . etc. But U>g~mwley -tes Crowley's). Italics are s . Adam. Hadit. MugiMiber Abq p. However. Adonai. and is regarded with honor by people who r are ignorant of his formuia. Liber . Attis. Jung has a similar understanding ofthe Nuit/&& c o d o a r "In knowing ourselves to be unique in our personal combination [HaditJ-thatis. The most serious cbarge against him is only thaî he is the Sun in the ~ 0 u t .is called Satan o Shaitan.Vu & Liber Had which the n . practitioner can use to realize or actdize the quaiities of Nuit and Hadit thrwgh various techniques. Abrasax.
C. in fàct. From Jung's psychologid o perspective when the seifdirects the ego or the ego cornes unda ïts sursion the selfis. -The Anthmpos [which Christ ir an example] is a symbol tbaî ygug in îàvuur of the personal nature of the "totabty. the aichemical tradition. For acample.Path of the Ammv (Fig. n Gd. For Crowley t was not only possible to trsascend the Abyss while iiving. the Knowledge and Conversation of the Holy Guardian Angel (Tijieret)). 11. n Ofcourse this could never be completed entirely as the unconscious can never be fÙlly exhausted but the goal of bringing the wnscïous and unconscious under the aegis of the self is essential for psychologicai maturation. and eventuaiiy the complete transceodence of subject/object donality wbich is symbolized by the crossing of the Abyss to enter Kerher?1° As mentioned above some individuais i the Golden Dawa and similar Orders with Christian influence felt n that ody through death muid the individuai transcend the Abyss. I this case the individuai is no longer under the d e ofthe UIICO&OUS. m i s t say tbe-arienot o transient." i.185. i fact. but a permanent restnicturingof the Initiate's c0smoIogyogy "%ch .W. p. every rituai. it was essential shodd one wish to attain tme Adepthood. it is the union of the human and the divine whïch is &c process ofindividuation t the o Similady. the sedf? Jung. as would ôe tbe case with the mysîicai qmience of. For Crowley.. point t the perfécting or deifjing of oneseif. if we look t Jung's interpretation of C r s i n o hita theology Jung wül state thpt the Christ fi- is wt the exclusive way to unite the hmiuiand the divine and that. meditation.&). resultsare bmnghtabot&-*Pathdthe Serpent(Fig 6b). and Jung's imerpretatjon of the tradition.-127- argue a very s i m k point. BracLets are mine ofchanges offiin a h g tbe Midâie Pillar of tbe Tree of Lifé mg 6 (as)). H w v rthe ~ee. or practice must be dedicated to the discovery and fbifihuent of the True Wili (Yesod).e.
J g also felt that it was *iseniial to undertake the proces of individuation in order m wholeness wherein one's unconscious material i brwght to consciousness to be integrated s and not repressed. living in post-Victorian England. On this issue Crowley most o h sided with Freud's theories of libich3l2However. For Crowley the secrets of the univase could be revealed thmugh the sexuai . Wlth tàeories such as synchronicity"' Jung dso demonstrateci that the unwnscious can take an innuential role in an individuai's Me to the point that it can force a particuir interpretationof reality which may have no external causai mxmection Should the unconscious be ignoredthe individual risks fbrher intrusion on wnsciousness which can Vary in magnitude until the issue. was sexual reptession. The Role of Sexudity in tbe Great Work Crowley felt that one of the most powcrfirl obstacles to the fidfihent of one's Tnie Wi was unconscious material. whatever Ït may be. Sultùr (male)and Salt (fernale) would conjoin to give W e to M e r w who was a product of but unique to the origuial dyad. Perhaps the most important of these fhcton for Crowley. it was also the c m to his spiritual theones. The alchernical hzerosgmos was not to be taken figuratively. is resolved. for Crowley sexuality was not ody a powertùi unconscious or conscious rnotivating factor.
. ' the dark side of the God-images d' Tbe question of the chthonic spirit has ocaipied me ever since I began to delve into the world of alchemy?" 3 1 3 ~ ~ 1 e yThe Law i for AM. . . coI1SeCTation. Saniality is of the greatest importance as the expression of the chthonic spirit. every act is an impdsively projected image ofthe W of the idhiduai who. The folIowing passage summPrires Crawley's view on the importauce of seniatity: Thae ù wthing uoclean or degradhg in any manifiestation soever of the sexuai instinct. without exception.act i much the same way as v z W S A h tm@ic n pmdtionem would derstand sexuality. then perûaps we shall have better luck by approaching the problem nom the dark. the phase of duahy which constîtutes the consciousoess of imperfection is perceived as the absolute negative whose apprehension i identical with that duality-is s the accomplishment of the Great work3* Jung also understood the importance of d t y but did not put the same emphasis on it as did CrowIey. 168. bad c o I 1 S C i q guilt. because.p e r f i mons of purification. and snctification-independentof the physid and morai accidents circumsfantial of the particular incident.is the mdktion oflove as a samamat The use ofp h y s i d means as a Magical Opemîion-whose formula îs thet by uniting two opposites. biological side mentioned by Jung is equated with the notion of sexuality: [Sexuaüty] plays a large part in my psychology as an asentia-though not the sole. . ICIDR.63. p. u~~conscïousness. i d d s t i c side. s 3 14 J u g . . anninilatiag both (to mate a third thing which traascends thaî opposition). The one thhg the d l . biological side. e are mine. whether f f l man or woman. inshnctualityctuality and Ifwe cannot do this nom the bright. ' s b d p. by dissdwig both. p 152. That spirit i the "other face ofG . .expression of psychologid wholeness . compulsion. is a star . B l1i. ..In- Jung States: The problem still remains: how to overcome or escape our anxïety."' The dark.
654.. What Jung was attempting to demonstrate through the alchernical tradition (as an exampIe of a path toward individuation) was that maturation must take place in consciousness. For Jung the third stage of the Great Work is synonymous with the whole process of individuationwhich is a process that never t d y ends. He was not attempting to transform the earth into the Divine Kingdom He looked instead to the symbolism ofalchemy as representing the psychic process of every individuai. of " '. 316 . disagreewÏth this assumption The ego is not somethingwhich is to be eliminated. Jung's concern was not for establishg a literal and permanent interpretation of the u m s mmûùs. The elllninationof the ego would mean the elunination of the individual's n the connection with the "real wor1d"and one's identity i that world. integrates all the opposing factions (in the Christian worid-view this wodd equate to Jesus and Satan shaking hands) and functions as the new and complete personality of an individual. By transforming an individual's Crowley e ~ u a t the Ipsissimus Grade (Symbolized by the sefira Kether) with the Buddhist notion of e~ nirodha-sami@mtti which is tbe attaimmt of tbe state of extioaion in which every mental activity i s temporarily eliminated. MagicUiber Aba. The self. W~thout ego one would be lost in his or her interiority. In Crowley's method the pinoacle of attaùunent was a complete I' destruction of the illusion of ego. Chohah.as a symbol of wholeness. Kether)316could one c l a h to be spiritually and Jung wodd. The ego does not have uitimate reign any more than the unconscious does.however. p. Oniy by crossing the Abyss and anaining the grades of the Supemal Tnad (Bi& psychoIogically whole. See: Crowley. in the ernbodied ego with no one factor being dominant.130The third and final stage of the Great Work is where we nnd the greatest dinereace between Crowley and Jung. possibly in some form of psychosis.
n Psychologically Crowley couid be viewed 9s a Mure in tbat with al that he @enceci and preached it did not maice him a better person317Crowley demonstrates that the Western Esoteric Tradition can be a very effective tool in spiriaial and psychologid progression but he also stands as an example of an indMdual who. impoverisbcd mm While this may be the case Crawley did nothing in an ordinary mamer. i The Qucst for GIlosiS .ad the P d TowIVds Whokaess: Conclusion This work has atternpted to compare two figures. in the words of Lama Govinda.T assume that k W bave foiiowed sbaally o accepted noms wben be was to demanstrate thas those very mrms were. the nature of reaiity. E u h atternpted to incorporate the reaiization of the necessity and vaîidity of an expaaded sense ofgnosis into a model of reality &ch could be d e à ." The success of these two figures i elucidating th& mode1 is completely subjective.psychological nature he or she achially changes their universe fiom one of controlluig unconscious fàctors to one of unity (One Worid) between d opposing fàctors. bad fad f e w e relations with . and.Aleister Crowley and C d Jung. who can be seen as individuils who aîtempted to break down the socialiy accepted views of the psyche. in h s opinion. the i cause of much repression and atrocity i efiomxms . spirihiality. perhaps most importaady.e l . and died a lowly.aZis~ " ln biographies ofCrowIey John Symoirds inœsan@ poînîs out that Crowky badan abusive ' l n pefsonality. religion. Neither Crowley nor Jung were satisfied with a mOYIOPnC3Sjc d e l of rrality. through the ever present danger of intlatioq had difzicuity fünctioaing in the "real world." The greatest danger in workiag through the rnethods iaid out in MugÏck/Ziber A& is that they are steeped in archetypal symbols and as a r e d t can pose a threat to any individual who has not completed the preliminary work of the un20 men~. "muitidimemional.
. In the Cycle ofMeaning we see that the sisaman orgurcc plays an important role not only in propagating and remfioràngthe world-Mew but also acting as a support for the initiate or chela.Jung soonbganto realïze that the reduaionisticnature of Freud's theories did not codorm to his own hdings. Authois iïke Richard NoU CIlW Jiuin Co14 NJ: Princeton.) . q d i y h p o r t m î i s thatthatiarsmdefstandthat whatCm1eyandJimg~raesbouMnotbeQgniatizad. if Jung's tbeories. 1994) focus on Jung's biography in ordct to erdrapdatc informalionwhich mPuld disnedit the use of his theories by contemporary scbdars. However. This i the m i reason for having an Order as a guide (assurning the Order is not s an compt). i many ways the Order acts as the giou to help guide and tend to the -dent.As a result Jung began to appreciate world ""Th same couid aiso be said for Jung. n Crowley did not want ody initiates to ben& fkom h s teachings. However. years ago is i n e h m ~ one would ask tbe scicntist who m @ aod r No i a cure for AIDS ifbehasaqucstiouablcpast. are encouraging investigaîionsinto M C . 1998 for a soIid case agaïnst Nd's claims about Jung.Dcpb Psycboiogy.T. and tbey arejust ihat.Howevtt..A-. he watnted all people to "Do i what thou wi1t"and as a result nearly 1 of Crowley's major works are pubüshed or in preparation and are heavily amotated to aicüitate deeper wmprehension The O. mt o y o g aad symbdisn tben what Jong niay y l t l y hmho or may not have said o doiie MS. New York Roraiedge.O. ( O a e s b o u l d a l s o c o n s u i t S o a u S ~ ' ~ Cult Fictions. The vaiidity of Crowley's system should be judged not by his biography but by looking at those who foiiow bis teachings psychoanalysis. other Thelemic Orciers are attemptingto take Crowley's and teachings and make them more accessiible to people who may bave been unaware of Crowley and his mode1 of spiritual and psychological wholeness. the A-.~ l h i s p o i n t i s i g n a r e d w h i c h m a k e s the work of people iike NoU anâ Symonds hpmnt t give a more balaooad and funan picture ofmo o peoplewhotendtobebeinebinthtllmpcciivecircks. theones.the individual maimsinsome fom ofobjectivityultimatelythe solitnry practitionerf h a s mpny difiiculties.
more gmmis not only about ourselves as individuais. to transcend the l m t t o s imposed by coilective iiain consciousnessaud its constrictiveepistemologiestoward a union with inner powers universal in their embrace. F d y Jung h lets began to devdop a rnodei which includedf-om which were not iimited to the individual and his or her interpretationofrrrlity. Each man also insisteci that the tme goal of human development was to bemme M y human. Many of Crawley's theories have worked theu way into most divisions of the WesternEsoteric Traditionincluding CeremonialMagic. Neo-Paganism. Both men encouraged every person to delve deeply into theu depths and examine. at length and with courage. Jung's theones such as the wilective uncollsciousopemi new interpretations of not only the human psyche but of an. and religion J n ' ugs interest in afchemy rnoves bis models from the domain of clinicai psychology to that of the Great Work for which t h a e is no higha purpose. but our relaîion to othen a d the universe at large. Chaos Magick and many others. what rose fiom those depths. Taken individiially bot. culture.Crowley aod Jung made sigmficant wnoi'butioasto theu own areas of expertise. Nenher Crowley . Wicca.-133- rnythdogy and religion as t e symbok appesrrd in his and his c i n ' mataial. For Jung we see many of the Adytical Psychology Institutes (primarily in the United States) focus more on Jung's cliaical and medical writings while in other M t u t e s (such as in Ziirich) there is more of an emphasis on Jung's understanding of the importance of myth and symbol for psychologid hbeahPerhaps the most enduring legacy ofCrowiey and Jung is that they demoo~aated that the human condition is fiu more complicatedand deeper thanwe g e n d y suspect. By attempting to -me more humanin t i sense we begin to break dom hs the boundaries which prevent us &om grining more Uisight.
reaiizeà in g r personal iutcgration and wider.-134- nor Jung represents the only way ( r perhaps even the best way) t i o on - o u r ~ but s they do represent two vexy s b i h and effective methods for the completion of the Great Work and the eventual discovery of the path toward wholeness wherein each person can strive for their fùiiest potentiai. universai sympathy. . indeed.
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A A A. Las Vegas: New h FalcodO. -- . ( Israei Regardie-ed. Maine: Weiser. 1996. The Heart ofthe Master & Other Paiers. . 777 and Other Oabatistic Writinps of Alejster Crowlev.ed. n . d Otber P e e n Clàe Eauinox (et a . [V.). (Stephen Skinner- f Aleister Crowley:1914. S. .The Law is for All: The Authorizêd P * o Cornmentarv to the Book of the Law.) Maine: Weiser. T e Revival of Mastick and Other Essaw.. .-ad. -. (John Symonds & K e ~ e t h Grant-eds.The -____- &M rcia : k Weiser.). --- . 1990. 1994. 1997.i). 1997. . 1998. Maine: Weiser. ANwa:New Falcon. I.no. Maine: Weiser.Maine: Weiser. x. 1997. ) The Vision and the Voice with Commentam ( The E q i n o x Vol. no.1920.U). Arizona: New Falcon.).) Maine: Weiser. Arizona: New Falcon. . The Goetia: The Lesser Kev ofSolomon the King. ixlMaine: Weiser.T. - . Arizona: New Falcon Publications. 1997. Second Revised Edition.The Eauinox Vol. N. 1995. 19%. Little Essavs Toward Truth.(Hymenaeus Beta.Moonchiid. Commentaries on the Holv Books a Vol.Konx Om Pax: Essavs i Lintic Chicago: Teitan.L. Maine: Weiser.ed. 1998.). --------(et al.) London: DuckWorth. ( L w j s W m n and Hymenaeus Beta-eds. 1986. - .0. . 1988.. II no.Thelema: The Holv Books ofThelemi (The Eauinox Vol. 1993. Maine: BB) Magick Without Tears.Mathers trans. 1992. 1996. IIL no.
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DRAMA. Sjmboi. p. ETC) INTERSECTION BY SHAMAN DIRECT EXPERIENCE .ART. Erperience.229) COsMOLoGY (WORLD VIEW) "'\ MYTHOPOE (RITUAL* NEWECTTON BY SHAMAN H.Figum ObC= TiœCyckûfMedng (Adapted From Laughh (et alia):Bram.
Limitle~sness 3.Ain Soph.Limitless Light Kether-Crown Chokhmah-Wisdom Binah-Understandhg Daat-Knowledge Chesed-Metcy Geburah-Severity Tifecet-Beauty Netzach-Victory Hai-Splendor Yesod-Foundation Maikuth-Kingdom .Ain Soph Aur.Figure Two: QabilirtK Tree of LXe I* 2.
s .Fipm Thme: The Grade of tk Goldem Dawa Nok:The Neophytc Grab (()=O) i 'outsidcmthe Tm.
g i m and Commoa Correspondences.Fi Heat/dryness Red South Wands WW volatile emotion 3 4. Tarot suit. Spi& otber t e m for this amibute are &a9a and Ether. lmns Direction.It represents the c o m b i i o n of aH four elements below it. What foilows are some common interpretations ofthe E e e t : Quality. one of the Four Beasts ofthe Apocalypse and the Elmental Weapon of Ceremouial Magic (as found in MagicMiber Aba). 1.Euth Cold/dryness Black North Pentacles Body Fl 5Air Hdmoisture YeiIow East Swords Intellect John Undine Eagle Chalice Mark Salamander Lion Fue Wand Luke Gnome OK Pantacle . human f d t y . Water Cold/moist Blue West Cups The unconsciousl deep emotion Ïl 3.Figure Fou: Tk P c i t . Tetragrammaton letter. The apex of the Pentegram represents the fifh element. Gospel Legendary Creature. 2. Colour.
Akhh S1* (c) \ Diifaction teading a the Drive Toward Who1eaes .
Fig. This paîh is the d experience of Kether while in Malkut .Figures 6adc:The Ligûtniag Bdt. The Pi& of the Serpemt and The Path of the Arrow.T moves fiom Kether to t Malkut. KRHER n "The Lightning Bolt" follows the path of Creation. "The Path of the Arrow" or Mysticd Path dong the "Middle Pillar".6b "The Path of the Serpent" The Path of Initiation which passes through each sejra (or rather die paîh leading to it) as it winds from Malkut to Kether. .
(CW 1) which was hncrvlaa îhe researçbes of C o ~ b o m i ewith Auguste Rodm & produEes s Rodrn i Rime (See: Cdlected W d volJl9. Sicimer (ed. MacGregor Mathem initiates Crowley as an Adeptus Minor (5=6). Apnl28* comniences climb on Chogo Ri (K2)- Publication ofJung's thesis C the PsychoIogy h ami Pathoiqy OfSo-CaiIed O c d Phenamena. I AceIdcu~.and Young-Eisendrath et al.. WhiteS&nk~ publisbed Nov. Jung: MDR. 18"' Initiated into the Hennetic Order of the Golden Dawn taking the motto Perdvmbo- Crowky rapidly moves through the grades of the Thùd Order (i-e. w r does it present the totelity of the work produced by either man In fàct. Attains Dhyaia. ) Crowley has a mystical experïaice and begins serious study of mysticism and OÇCUItism. prioci ofmiiitary service. Cmwley creates a bomb ripinntwo pormds of gunpowder and blows himselfup and is in and out of consciousuess for % hours.Cbronoîogy What foiiows is a briefchronology of some of the key points in both Crowley and Jung's iives. Warwichshire.a cl Dianes of Aleister Crowlev. . - 1895 Em meüicai d o 0 1 ( B a d Uzlversity) n 1 Father Dies Participates in a group i ' n& in the mediumisticcqmbdities of his fifteaiyear old cousin. Leaves Cambridge.Golden Dawn proper).): . Crowley's first book of poetry published. n . Crowley laves for W c o . 1-5 Father (Edward Cmwley) dies. Four main sources were . many of Crowley's works were published posthumously and wiil mt appear in the present cchrowlogy.condted for this ctnonology: Crowfq: Confesim. Helene Preiswerle.(ed. . This chrooology is not exhaustive.- 18% (Oct Ebters Cambridge. - Traveis t lndia Whiie there he intensdy o studies and pracîices various fonns ofyoga. BecanesAssistant Staff Physician to Eugene Bleuler at the Burghdlzli (Psychiatrie Hospitai).): The Cambridge CARL JUNG 1-1961 1875 1886 1891 1 BonzOctI2"' Ipaminnt6nSpa. 1 Completes medical d e s decides to become a .
Jan. E p i n s niwikafp-samé-dhi. oi me Si'~Qhnce O/& Fahier in the W n y of rire I d i v i ' l (CW4) pubiished. CrowIey claims Adeptns Exemptus grade ( 7 4 ) Nov. s no. Both Jung and Freud receive hcmourary ûa3maks hmCiark University (USA). Dec.fiendship. 7 7 an extensive collectioa of Cabalistic 7. Completes Snawdmps Frrrm a Cumte 's Garden. 8& E?cpeditimto Kanchenjunga Promded to Senior s p y i i n m h sca (BurghClwAppointeci Lecturer in Psychiatry a U i e s t t nvriy of Zwkk Cmwley b e g b his w a k across Sonthern C i a hn which culminatesi h s completion (through n i intutse visualaatim) of the Operation of Abramelin (Jdui Sr John -Equinox Vol-1. .. Franz of First numbers of The Eqicinox published Rose divarces C o l y rwe. k h 3* Sung visits Freud in Viama and begins a cl.ii).L Ekgh saious resesrch into w rd mythology. 2%'"Birü~ Jung's d y son. 3"' Cmwley claims Msster Tempii grde. A&r with Sabina Spielrein most active at this t h e ? ie. i ) . published (see: TheEquinax . Begins comqmmhce with Freud K m Om Pax-E&ys in Ltghr published Crowley farms his Order (A A. Publishes The CoUected W o k r (3 Vols.)- Aug. s P Publishes: The Psychdoay o Dementia f Pmecax (CW 3). - Jung's seumd dauphter?Anna. uaru Daughter?Nuit dies. x. (8=3) Jung resigns hm BurghCIlzli to pursue private pactice. Jung's fïrstrecotdedexperiment with Active lmrrpinati0I. 23* -Dec. n0. 19"' Crowley and Victor Neuburg the "EnochianCalls" of John Dee m the Sahara (see: 7 h ~ ~ C dJdre W Voice md Other P a ~ (TheEquinox VOLIV. 1909-10.).i). 16"' Lecture "Ihe Content of Psychosis" (CW3)7 % eFreudian Theory of Hysterian GW4) Jung buys land d n Lake Zurich and has a og large house built Nov.Purchases Boleskiae House in Scotlaod E3egins the operation ofAbranielin Mames Rose Kelly. i bonion Feb. nie Ho& B& VOLi no. correspondences ispubiished.
f Visits Moscow with his entataimnent troupe 'The W e d Rag-time GirismWrites The Gnostic hfass (Liber XV).T. Jung Pubüshes the f h tpmt ofSymbdr d TlllPUfhuatians o the Libido. IV. f August Lectures on "Psycholanaiysisofa C i d i Bnissels hl" a Niw P a t h in P~ychoiogv ( 0 publisbed. 21' The entity b o u m as Abd& appears t Maxy S u g s (now Soror V î )and o tre wmmands Crowiey to go t Naples t write o o Liber AW a g l c k (Book Four)Theodore Reuss. Vol. o$ Oct 24&Crowley laves for U S A Resigns the Presidency of the Internatiad C n r s of P!sycboanalysis.qhomoaotic and vaaihiZn ("Lefi Handn mmk) techniques.vi). Jaa-Feb. - - Sept 2Th Rose entas an asylrnn saffering hm alcoholic dementia. no. P~ychamalyn'cd Endeavors Concemirtg Psyc&&'yyJis (CW4) Sept Inctmes at Fordbam U i e s t “The nvriy Theory of PsychoenaIysis" which departs from Freud'sorthodoxinterpetation.Iuug finiski the hnal section.) visÎts Crowiey a d appoints C o l y head ofthe rwe English Section of the O. the cornpanion of fsnrhrDuncanNov. oges Oct 12mC o l y ciaims the Grade ofMagus rwe (%2) t a h q îbe motb ToMiyo &Ipa'ov C o l y hired t work as edita of The rwe o Fatherlond a d The Inteniatiio~fCrowiey mites r15hoiogyogy Magicai Retirement in New HampsbUe where a Rituai signiSing the endof c w q . Oct 1 1" C o l y meets Mary d E t S u g s rwe 'se t r e . C o l y and Victor Neuburg coomilct rwe The Paris Workiag" which was a s t ofrituais e emp1oyb. uih Ine Smcntrie o rlie Ubnc~ciow C m f ( The TlplucendentFwnction(CW8) Deoelops an interest in Gnostic writiugsWrites SeprrariSrnones ad M o as a result ofa pasonal aperience in active imaghdon_ .Autumn. 7k Sacnncen ofSymboIs cmd T)rpufi?matianr. TheGreat pp202-206) he pref- J u n g Founâs the PSyciioIogiwf C M m Z r c . (See: ï%eE q u i . Jung i appointeci Resicient ofthe internaticmai s C n r s of Psychwhalysis i Nuremberg. Jung's third daugbter barn. S and Trr~~~formotioru ofthe tibido(CW5) pubiished Jung's devastating break with F r e d nie Theory of Psyrhœmdystr (CW4) published Genemf Aspects o/PsychaaMijsis (CW4) . Freud i unhappy with Jung's nadings. head of the Geman d t order the Ordo Tempfi Onentis (O.P e r f m of Tne Rites o/lclewis (a &es of w e n ciramaac planetary invocatioos) perfamedat C a Hall. Sept.as a s mLïittheir«Irrespomlaicesbecoaiemorecrrrtc Jung fouuds The S c e y qf oit Feb.O. (See:symad!3. (the M U ) .O.T. Westmhter (see:Tke EqYintu VOLi. Feb.n . oges n The hwaizficm M e M (Cm) u b h h d p Sept 20Q Mariamie.- Book o Lies (FaLseiySo CaiIed)pubiïsùed.
C o l y s mdber*Emily, dies rwe' C o l y s f k t novel,M0011~:hiU publisbed rwe' is
fiber N hished (pub. 1961)C o l y put in contactwith an entity d e d rwe AmalantraIL Wntes bis versicm of Tao Teh Khg (Tiie
h g üknîüks the Seif. as the goal of psychic
df=vdopmeit ïhe Rule O/& Uhcdau (CWIO) Another p u i d ofmilitary service-
March 2lm The Eqoùnex V.i oi, ii
In~n*nct the UIICOIUC~~~YS d (CW8) (of the tam "AdwypS"'
Visits Algias and Tunis-
Remm to England- becornes eddictedto baam
~ p r iZd Cmwley anives i C t I and l n eàu esbbiishes the " A ofThelenmm O c t 1 & C o k ' daughter by Abstraef, 4 rwys Anne Leah (PoUpee)dies. Cmwley is physically, mentally and spiritualiydenstated
May Crowiey clauns the graQ Ipsissmius (10;i).
C o l y s seamci wvel Diaty o a Dnrg Fiend rwe' f i pubLished s
Publication of P&dqicaf
Jung buys some isolated l n on the shore of ad
On the Relotim o Analpuilcal f Psycholo~y IO
Death ofRaoul Loveday at Cefalu. May '1 C o i y expelleci f b m Ctaiy by rwe Mussolini and leaves the Abbey for the lasî
Death of Jung's motherBe* COIlStlUCtim ofBollingea.
May 1 lm Arrives i Tunis. n
invited by H a r Traenker to be Intemationai Head of îhe O.T.O.
Vst the United States and visits Taos Pueblo iis
Lecanes and îraveis to Kenya for a s a h i w k r e he spends tmie wiîh the Elgonyi on
Mawiiage as a PsychdogicafRelationrhip
Traveis to France, Gamany, and North f i c a
Retipns fimn m via Egypt c a
TheSbwctnm cfhe Psyche (CW8) Wumm in Europe (CW O) t
Oct Isael Regardie J i s C o l y i Paris and on rwe n
TheRelon'au & m e n the Ego a d the
U n c o n s c i ( C ~m ~~ On P y l i Energy (CWS) sc,c
The Spinml P d l e m qfMadem Mm (CW 1O) The Sigm~fhnce cfihe U I K : ~ I S C ~ O Y S in IndiWual Eciirconconm 1 7) (CW
Marich PCrawley, his mimes and Regardie are issueci a "Refiis de SejoiP" and ecvpe11d
ûwm France Apd 12'"Magick in Theory and Pmctice p u b w
Aug. l Crowley marries Maria Teresa de e
"Commentaty"on the n Secm qfthe W e n e FIower (CW13) Intaest in Aichemy intensif?es. POrncOLsvr (CW15 )
Miramar, in Germany.
Stages o f
(CW8) Psychoiogy and Lifemnirp (CW 15)
Wanderings i Germany and Portugain
PsyJu>hmpW~ the C I O ~ ~1) or (CW 1 S i g d F d in HU Hhtononcal Semng
b _ t J s A Mmoiogrre riJe: Picasso Awarded the Literary Prize by the Ct of iy Zurich Jung gives various semimm on Kundaiini
Delivers s e v d papers on various subjects (includiag dchemy) for "Eranos" meetings-
Formds International Gaiaal Medical Society
for P s y c h o t h q
Crowley is haukmpt
F<Hmds s i s Society for RaEtical Psycholagy. ws Psycitologrcal C0111111entorycnr the Tibeton Bmk o die Deod (CW 1 1). f Individual Driemn Synd0oli.m in Relation to Richemy (CW 1 2 )
The C m e p t o the Collective Uncatucious f (CW9i) Fwa and the W s (CW1 1) et Relrg-OUS Ideas in Alchmy (CW 12)
The CG3icms ofW m o s (CW 13) Terry Lectures"at Yale University (CW11) Traveled to lndia for the î i î h anniv~sary of University of Cdctr#a
Vits Germany. Reportedly meets Aidous
Ihe Equinar o the G d (Equinox Vol. III, no. f üi)pubiishd
The Neart o the Marrer and Liîtie Eisays f T m n i Tmrh p u b M Eight LRnvrw an Yoga (The Equinox VOL il& no. iv) wbiished.
~warQdH0110raryDoctoratesbytbe Universitiesofcalçutta, Benares, Allahaand M d
n Spi& of Memnnns W13) e (C PamceLnu as a SpLnunniwI Phmomenar (CW 1 ) 3
The Book o/Thoth (The Eqwinax Vol i I w.v), l,
Crawley's major treaty oa the Tar* i s
publistid Crowley retires to "N-oodm
Health probletru (brdrai f o o ~ heart attack) Juug has a series of visions. P ~ h o l o g and Alchemy (CW 12), based c a y m collection of Idmes i gublished s
REceives H v Doctorate hm University of Gsreva The PhuunnenoIogy o the Spirit in Faitydes f
fie PhilaSOphical Ttve (CW13) On the Namm o the Psyche (CW8) f
Completes O l h his 3d mthology of Dec. Ia C o i y dies at Hastings. rwe Dec. IOLh The Last Ritual" and d o Brighton.
ûpening of the C.G. Jung I s i u eof Z r c . nttt uih On the Self(& 4 o nion (CW9üv f
CmcemfngMandoa Symbdism (CW9i)
Aion: Rueamks into the PhenounenoIogv o f tr S4I/(CW9Ü). ie
Mjrstenivnr Cmimctimis:An Inquiry inio the Sèpmtiœa and SynthesisofPsychic 0ppaPie.s in Alckmy (CW14). Nov. 2 Emma Jung dies. F
iheam. Reflections (German 1958 Editim) 1961 June 6* After a kief illness Jung dia. . Mmones.19% WroteHowdWhyIWioreMy'~To Job ' (CWI 1) as introduction to Annoer Io Job.
1: Had! The miinifés?ationof N i ut 12 The u ~ ~ v e i l i a g t e compaay of heavea . I. thcre is no s merence. muîtipiy. Buî to bim is tbe winged secret fiame. & take your l3l of lwe! 1 1 :IamaboveywandinycmMyecstasyis . 1 am known to ye by my name Nuit.e-priest s the Beast. aki. O warrior lord of Thebes. and the infinite Stars thereot do ye also thus. sign? So s answered hm. She ben& in ecstasy t kiss o The secret ardours of Hadit The winged @&?the starry blue. I.ateasuponthe~1 am Heave9 and there is no otber God than me. /26: Then saith tbe prophet and sfave of the beau&msone: Who am I and what shall be the . and in his wonian d e d the Scarfet Womanisailpowergiv~Theysballgatkr~ children into theh fol& they shali brïng tbe glory of the stars inta tbe bearis of men. my kart & my tongue! 1. in my uciveiling before the Chiidren of men! 1.) Chapter 1 1.. and my lord Hadit 122: Now.Publication in Class k Used with PenMssion. m ut i 2 5 : Divide.lS: Now ye shall k m v that tbe chosen priest & apostie of infinite space i the priw. L8: TheKhabs i in thes mtheKhninthe Khabs. minister of Hoor-paar-kraaî.: of h 1.Tbq. L12: Cornefora ochildtea. Gods & their men rn fools. all-touching. a k Iambent flame of Mue.&'.4: Be thou Hadit. aii ~berlovelybandsupontheblack carth.16: For be is ever a sun. 11 1 : These are fook tbat men adore. & her Litk body arcbsd for love. let hun be the chief of ail! /24: 1a Ni. mi behold my light shed over you! L10: Let myservantsbefew&secret:lheyshaii d e the many & the Lmrwn. O Ankh-af-na-kJmasu! 1.7: Behold! it is rwealeb by Aiwass the .14: Above.M o r e . no 121: With t God & tbe Adorer I am nothing: k theydanotseeme. M y joy i to see your joy. 19: O azure-üdded woman. and to her the sîooping starlight 417:But yeare not so chosen. O spleodrws J: serpent! I. both k i r . my secret centre.3 :Every man and wery woman is a star- L4: Every number i infinite. and understand. and to bim by a secret name which 1 wiiigivehimwhenatiasttaelarowethme~Since I am Innnite Space. and the Qw of her light bathhg his whole body i a n Sweet-smelling pertiune of m t : O Nuit.3 in yours. tbe c o a m of~ continnity of existenceTthe the 0 m n i ~ O f ~ ~ - &27:Then the p r i a answered & said unto the Quaen of S m kissing ber lady brows. uaderthestars. .Biad nothing! Let there be no Merence made among you between any one tbing & any otber thing for ttiereby there almeth hurt /î3 :But whoso d e t h in this. I 8 Burn upon theirbrows. Are mine.Apptadu Two Liber AL vel Legis sub figura CCXX as delivered by XCIïI=418 to DCLXVi A'. bend upon k m ! L20: Tbe key of the rituais is i the secret word n which 1 bave gïven u t him. and sbe a mon. 55: Help me. s I. and my word is six and W .bendimg clown. aad her soft fm aot hurting tbe Ltl flowers: Thou ite Lnowest! And the sign shali be my ecsiasy. the gemmed azure i s The nakeû splendeur of Nuit.9: Worship then tbe K&bs.
7 the wanga. Iet it be ever th=. and the joy of s dissolution ali. I. whoalsoareone. thatmenspeaknotofTheeasOne~asNooe.39: The word ofthe Law i û w s d . are none! L46: Noîhing i a secret key of Ibis law.For ibere are therein Three G m k . jasmine & r s . and the embléms of neath_ Let oe him entet in tum or at once tbe four gates. boad tbat can unite the t s divided but love: all else i a ause. but ye are my chosen ones.6 the princes. 1 3 : ALso the mantras a d spedls. Accursed! s Accursed be it to tbe a n s ! HelL L42:L t it be that state of m h o o d bound and e arenottheytheOKandnonebytbeBook? 1 9 Abrogate are ail rihials.38: He must t e d q but he may make severe the ordealS. me. and it may be given i three n ways.5 1: There are four gates to one palace. s 1-35: This that thou writest i tbe threefold book s of Law.S:My prophet is a fml with his one. letaotouekaowwelithe other! i.o~~fliand . I. al1 ordeals. of the stars. HOM in his secret name and splendeur i the Lord initiating. eat rich foods and n drink mcet wines and wiDes that foam! Also. Ra-Hoor-Kbuit bath taken his seaîintbeEastattheEquinoxofthe~. but lest the= be folly. 1 3 :My mi Ankb4na-khonsu. & said uaio the Queen of Heaven. the Little woridmysisler. he shall cornnient thereupon & the wisdom of Ra-Hoor-Khu-it. BehoId! the= are three ordeals inone. unassuagai of p q m e .Also.iseveryway perfL15: The P e n 'a d the Perfèct are one Petfect a d not two. do no wrong. khe shaü learn and teach 1. 1. for the chance of union L30: This is the &on ofthe wotld.depart! There i w. and the h Lover. ifthou M . the fioor of that palace i of süver and gold. one. hint & f k y .JO: Who caUs us Thelemites w i i .continuom one of Heaven. w a 4is ht balanced by weak joys. write unto us the law! L31: But she said: the ordeals 1w d e not: the rituais shail be halfknowaaodhalfconcealed: the Law i for dl.Q 1: The word of Sin is Restrictioa O man! refuse not thy d . shali not in one leüer change this book. t e Hennit. the work of tbe w a d and the wok of the sword.myheiut&mytongue. takeyourdandfiüofloveasyewiil. lapis s iazuü &jasper are theq and all rare EFents. L32: Obey my prophet! foUm out the ordeals of my knowledge! & me O*! Then tbejoys of my love will re&em ye h m all pain.29: For 1am divided for love's sake. if ye c o n f d the spaœ-marlrs. Ho! warrior. Isatbe suSem.Thusyebavestar&star. Write unto us the ordeais. and the lofiy cbosen n oriesinthehighest. ifthy m i? t s& i? Baî thme are means and means. if he look but chse iato the word. system& system. that the pain of division i as nothing. saying: They are one. w e e and with whom ye wili! But always unto br. D w a tbou wilt o ht shaIi be the whole of the Law. or saying. aii 1: words and signs. LetAsarktbeadorant. when. SO with thy al tbou hast no ri@ but lT todotbywiu L43:Dotbat.let~ îïnc be tried i intellect. and the man of Earth. I. 1. write mto us the riîuais. the priest of . laatbhg. L52: If this be not aright.Tbegrossmustpassthroughfitt.atui let AsarbewithIsa. nay.3 1r For tbese fook of men and rbeir w œ s care not thou at ail! Tbey f d little. s L5O: There is a w d tosayaboutthe HierophaLlticiask. Buîthey arenotofme. the obeah and . and two. let him stand on the floor of tbe palace Will he not s& Ama. by al 1can g i m by ali 1 i deSue of ye dl1-33: T'enthe priest feu büo a deep trarice or swoon.uoto whomI~ndthiskiss. Be goodiy therefore: dress ye ail i t h e apparel. 1d it eight. eifshe will! O lover. ThqaremanyT iftheriwbe noteveruntome: tben expect tbe direfiiljudgmentsof Ra Hoor Khait! 553 :This &ail regenerate the world. one. &LiveredfrolntbelustofFeSult. andletthexnspeaknotoftbbtat~~rhai art contimious! 1-28: None.andao~sballsay~~ LU: For pure wiii. eightyt l four hundted & eighteen L 7 But tbey have îbe haE unite by thine art so 4: tbataIt-i. s Sixty+methe Jews call it. breathed the light. This is ço: 1 swear it by the vanlt of my bor& by by sacmi heart and ton-.
and the cube in the circle. u and Khabs i tbe name of my Houseouse s ïï.riest~. Nor let île fools mküake love. ye shall Wear richjewels. as ail their numbers who .upon peaceunutterable. veiled or o vdirptpons. for behold! thou. Alsa I have a secret glory for tbem that love me. and the @verof Lifê. is n o w k fonnd KJ: Yet she shall be known & 1neverïï. andsoshaliyecometomyjay.Ichargeyou earnestiy to corne Wc me in a single mûe. iU. but3 i not the Star. it sball not assuage thee nor absolve t h e . and amuse tbe ailed splendonr within yon: come rmto me! 562: At al1 my m x h g s with you sball the priestesssay~bereyessballburnwithde!süe v him not h m the FIrq. but always in the love of me. yet therefore is the kmiwledge o me the Imowledge of deaibf &7: 1am tae Magician and the Exotcisi. 1am not extended.For m y onekisswilt thouthenbewillingto giveall. for there are love anâ love. s and there is the serpent Choose ye weU! H . K 1 I see theehate tbe haadatbepen. Put on the wings.6 t : But to love me i better than al1 things: if s under the nigbt-stars in tbe desert thou presentiy bmest mine hanse before me.3 : In the sphere 1 am everywhere the centre. s and there is no b l d t e e n because of my hair bri: the trees of Eternity. them 556:E as sbe standsbareandtejoicing in mysecret temple-To me! To me! ailing forth tbe flame of the h e m of ail in Eiier lovechant1 3 Sing the raptaroPs lovesong unto me! 6: Bum t~ me pdkmes! Wear to m e e s Drink j w f! to nie. Tbere i the Qve. ye shall e x 4 the nations of the Earth in splendeur & pn&. with a Circle in atour is the Middle. h y love under will. t E 2 Comc! ail ye.lO:Oprogbet! tbouhastiliwill to learntbis WriÉiag. but tbere is thai which remains. buî I 1: am saongerc K 2 Because of me i Thee wbich tbou 1: n . for I am tbe worshippetrshippet &9: R e m e m k all ye that existence i pures that al1 the socrows are but as sbaQws.krmwiag the law of the fortress and the great mystery of the House of God Ail these old letters of my Book are atight.my bride. lI.: not yet been revealed. shah mL behold these mysteries h i e therein. tbey pass & are done.1:Nu! the hiding of W . hath chosen. 1am the axie &the wheel. 1-57: o k e me under m stars! Love is the law. 1who am al1 pleasure and pirple.0 are of us. ThisatsOissecret: my s prophet shall reveal it to the wise. and SOIE. while in Me. & tbe circle i Red s black to the blbut the blue & gold are seen of the seeing. "Corneunto me" i a foolish worâ: for it is 1that s goK8: Wb0 worshipped Efenijm-laaatb have worshipped me. though not ail.5: Behold! the ntuals of t old îime are k bïack Let the evil oaes be cast away. let the good ones be purged by the propheî! Then sball this KnowIedge go arigh~ 46: I am tbe fiame that bunis i every kart of n thou shalt m e a liüie to lie in m basom. invoking me with a pure hearî.but whoso gives one parride of dust sbiûi lose all in thathour. for 1love you! 1love you! b64: I am the blue-lid&d daughter of S m1 am tbe mked brilliaace of the voiuph#las night-sky&65: To me! To me! t 6 The Manifestation of Nuit is at an end6: Chrptcr II iï.aty e prophet.desire y-. not fith. mr nOm the West. O prPlphet. 1-58: give iinimaginablejoys on eatth: 1 certainty.L Hadit. for fian no expected baise wmeih that chilci A m ! AUwotdsaresacxedandaU prophets save O@ that they mvbrrtanda Littic sohre the nrst haif of the equation leave the second unattadred Buî tbou hast ail in the clear light. and lcarntbe secret îbat hath . though thou be of the pinces. i the n dark. the circumfetence. 1. as she. The Five K i Star.~r&Idemand aught in sacrince. I 6 :My number is 11. Yeshallgathergoodsaadstoreof women and spices. am the complement of N . i.pmphet.55: The child of thy bowek. and the Serpent nanie tberein. anddninkennessofthe-~. 1. be W behold a n â a n m e d w i t h a r i c h Ilweyou! I ~ yeam t you! Pale or pirple. But ecsiasy be thine and joy of earth: ever To me! To me! L54: Change not as much as the style of a letter.59: My incense i of resimwis woods & gums. r magandiathecoreofeverystar-IamLife.
k iI. King agaha King! Love onean0lherWithbutMagbearts..If1 droop Qwn y mine kad. and a feast for tbe Equinox of tbe GodsQ41: A feast for fireand a feast for water. tben is raprueof the earth. 18: These are dead.23: 1am alone: tbere i no God whae 1am. & be dnink M . II.atailthejoy. for there i a futtber secret s &l6: I a m t k E m p C ! s s & i k ~ I a u s eleven. and~aodiightintheù. For they feel not. sbaü not Tbey harm ye at a L It i a Lie. ï433: Emnigh of Because! Be he damned for a hg! &34: B t y q O my people. ye m i e of sighing! The sorrows of painand regret Arelefttotheckadandthedying. he sbali remain in pure ecstasy for mer. O Propbet! &4û: A feast for the Supreme Ritual. O s man! lusi. and one in eight: Which i vitai.39: A teast for Tahuti and the child of tbe nophet-secret.tbenWfflstops&dOes~~ght. O king. and my number i nine by the fools. O my chosen! e iI. evns tr R22:I am the Snake that giveth Kmwiedge & Delight and bright glory. U. and shoot forth vemm. Bewarie lest any force anotber. s II. s II. upon tbat Lie: That Thou Must Die: verdy thou shah not die. as my bribe i eleven. Compassion is the vice oflungs: stamp dowuthe~~retched&thewealr. for there i a factor s innnite & iuihiawn: & al1 theu WO& are skew-Wise.24: Behold! these be grme mysteries.14: Now let there be a veiling of ttiis shrine: now Iet the light dv men a d eat them up em with biindness! II.î6:1amtk~acrdSerpcntcoilodabadto spring: in my coiling there i h KI lift up my s hed.andaadtberebeinthem a joy a million times greater than this. invdung r l l Because. He shaii fall down inio the pit mlled Because.15: For 1 am perfect. ow chosex who somweth i not of us.knmest w t II. but with the just I s am eight. 13: for why? Because thw wast tbe kmrwerand me. at victorious e armies. Nuit! Hadit! Ra-Hoor-Khuit! The Sun.~andmasesof naming hairaboatthemr theriesballyennd them. for who doth s mt~thesc~ncsstiliiimakeagreat miss.20: Beauty and strengtb. W e are aot for the poor and Sad: tbe lords of the earth are our Ionsfok IL 19: i a God to h e in a dog? No! but the s highest are of u s Tbey shali rejoice. fm 1 s am noue indeed-The Empress and îhe King are not of me.and 1and the eanh are oneïI. this foi&against seE s The exposure of innocence i a lie. are of us.Ifthe bUby of the e King dissolve. thece are for the S r a t of the S a & the Snake. a 3 1 : IfPawerasks why. CaresSad by magninœnt beasts of -men with large Limbs. and stir the karts of men with dndumws. Thefoikthat not knaw n i e a s y a II. hcy féel not. Be strong.27: Tbere i great danger in me. but in beds of prrple. s II. Y shaii see them at nile. ilme feUaws. a feast for lifc a d a gealer f&ast death! for Q42: A feast every day in your hearîs in tbe joy of my raphire! 443: A feast every ni@ uni0 Nu. tben i Power s weaLness 432: Also reason is a Lie. ami tbere be shatl perish w t the Qgs ih of Reaço~l &28: Now a carse upon Because and his kin! 4 2 9 : May Because b âccursed for ever! e 430: IfW stop ami cries Why. enjoy aü things of sease and rapture: fear not that any God shaU deny thee for this. K 7 A feast for the firsî nighî of the Prophet 3: and his Bride! a 3 8 : A feast for the thriee Qys of t writing of k t Book of tbe Law. 1and m Nuit are one. and the pleasure ofuttermost dclight! . Strength & Si* Light. for there are also of my &ends wbo be bermiîs.21: We have oothing with the outcastand the un6t: let them die in their m k y . 17: Hear me. To worship me cake wïne and strange dmgs wbereofI will te11 my prophet. Now let it b tinrlemnui. leaping taughter and delicious languor. rise up & a&! u 435: Let tbe rituals be nghtly performed wiîh joy & beauty! a36: are rinials ofthe elements and feasts ofthe times.-thisisthelawof the strong: this i out law and theja4' of tbe s world Think not. king Not.onthlow men Érample in the fierœ hist ofyour pridq in the âay ofy a o wrath 425: Y are against tbe pople. force a d î h . II. but Live. Naw rhink not to hnd tbem in the forest or on the mountain.
II-58: Yea! deem not of change: ye dadl be as ye are. O man.Thete i the dkoluti04 and e t e r d s ecstasyin the kissesofNu.s5: I. tobeli 6: ami withrhxKLmaster! %6I: There i a tight before thiw -es. is b t h for the dogs. 4 0 Tberef~~iestrikebatd&low. more rapidand iaughtedirl than a caress of HeU's own worm.: I& lifted up: all is ever as it was. a light u d e s i d .66: Write. Death i forbidden. he tbat is 61thy sbail be 6 i t . m o r e tbe h g s of tbe carthshaiibeKingsfbrever:theslavesshall serve. D m thov W?Art tbai sorry? Is fear in hine heart? K47:Where I am tbe!ie are netW8: Pityootthefdlen! Ineverkxmvtbem. m i s o f t b e 4 : thereisafitthwhois invisible. and the k&xs of t stars min hard upon thy bodyk E63: Thai art exhaust in the volupnious fimles ofthe inspiration: the eqkation is sweetm than death. & the pal1 of deak thiS is none of m e Tear down that lying spectre of tbe centuries: veil not your vices in virtwnis words: these vices are m . Vt O e e our delight i al1 over tbee: bail! hail: prophet of s Nu!propbet ofM! pm9bet of Ra-Hoor-Khu! Now rejoice! miw corne in our splendout & capture! Corne in our passiouate peâoe. and blessed are the y eyes that thou shah look upon with ghdness. 4 5 3 : Fear no& O prophet. Yet tbere are maskedoacsmy~etvants: maybeîhatyoader it beggar i a King. m ~desirable~ t a62: 1am up1iAeb in thine kart. let tbere be subtiety therein! II. & not other. drink by the eight and n h t y l l s of ue att:Xtbou lwe. an if art ever joyous!&ath i tbe w w n of all. & aughtjoyous. y stiii. tbou sbalt find new symbok to attnbute them unto. a67: Hold! Hold! Bear up in thy rapture.we are noue. ye Q we4 & I wiU reward you here and hereafter. There is none that shall be cast cbwn or II-56: Begone! ye - . II. & therein am 1as a babe in an -1 E50: Blue am 1and gold in the Light of my bride: but the red gleam i in my eycx dé my s spangles a= purpie g K5 1: Purple beyoncl pupie: it is the Light higher than eyesight a 5 2 : There i a veil: that veil is blaclt It i tbe s s veil of the modest woman. s a73: Ah! Ah! Death! Death! tbou shait long for &ah. I am not ofthe slavesthatpetish Be* damxed&riirdl Amen.7l: B t exœed! e x c d ! u &72: SttiVeevertomore! anâifthouarttruly miaeaod douûî it not.49: 1am unique & conqwror. & find ecstasy in w r i t . Wisdomsays:bestrong!Thencanstthou~ more joy. 1 am aot for W 1consde aot-I hate tbe consoled & the consoler. Corne! lift up thhe h a r t & rejoiœ! We are one. service. thou shah not be sorry. & Mite sweet words for tbe Kings! a65: I am the Master: tbw art the Hoiy Chosen One. it i the veil of s sorrow. %64: Oh! thou art O eO m : w are upon We. wben thece words are said. Be nat animai. Thou art emphaticaüy m chosen. & be our bed in worling! ThriU with tbejoy of life gtâeaîh! Ah! thykathshaiibelow&c w b seeth it shirll be glad Thy deafh shaii be the seal ofthe pmmise ofour agelong lave. s even though ye laugh i my homm ye sbali laugh uot long: n then when ye are sad Lnow tbat 1bave forsaken Yom E57: He that is rigbteous shall be rightems still. e x œ d b y d e l ï ~andifthcm . renOe thy rapturt! I f thoa drink.4 4 Aye! feast! rm 4: e ! is no dread there hereafter. Tbe stogs as thou wiit. fidi not in swoon of the excellent kjsses! a68: Harder! Hold up thyçeifl Lift thine head! breatbe not s cîeepdîe! o E69: Ah! Ah! What do t feei? I the word s exhausteci? E70: There is belp & hope in other spek. II.arcaMo&hi&hispclvertyerty %59: Beware therefm! Love ail. A King may choose his s ~ashewin~tbtreisnoœrtaintest: buta begg. téau shaii reveal it: thou availest they are the slaves of because: They are not of me. O s propbet. IL%: Nor shaU they who cry a l d th& foüy that thou meanest nought avaii. Lest percbance i a King cc#ioealed! Say you so? Fool! I he be a s f Kin&thoo~nothurthim. the ietters? change tbem not in style or value! E55: Thou shalt obtain tbe order & value of tbe English Alphabet. ! Work. But 1 wili hide thee in a mask of sorrow: they that see thee sball fear thau art fidien: but I lift thee up. unto tbee. n.
feat mitber men nor I.z: Tbe oîher images group a& me t o support me: let aii be worshipged. aotunlilre tbeonetboukaowest~ d A itsûailbeddenlyeasyfortlweto&this. This hath alSO anoîher use. to follow the love of Nu in tbe star-lit heaven. and kept thick with perfiimes ofyour Star! Chapttr III m. let it bt laid Wore me.i m y worship be about my seaict h o w ~ set it in III. to be me.25: This burn: ofthis make cakes & eat unto mt. m r shalt thou kmwv mer. 1 shiill deaI hardly with them. m.78: Lift up t h for tbere i none Mce unto s thee among men or among Gods! L a up thyself. 10: Get the stele of nevealiag thy secret templeand tbat temple i a k ï d y s aright disposeda it sball be your I(r-blah for ever. Y e even ye.Hetbat~lomg&desires death much i ever the King anxmg the Kings s iI. countwell its name. to look forth upon men. tben of the p r i a or ofthe worshippers: last ofsome beast. for tbey shall cluster to exait me.5: Fortify it! m.7: I wiil give you a warenginelII. W d p me with lire & Mood. Let the woniaa be girt with a sword befbre me: let Mood flow to m name. 0mypropheSthystaturrshalIsurpasstbestars. . It shall not tàtkT mïracul00~ but colour shall corne back to it day Mer day. the others are his Bride are and for tbe winners of tbe ordealxWbatisthis?Tboushalt~. the number ofthe maw and the name of thy hause 418. Clase it in locked giass for a proof to the woridIII. a d 1am the sîrengîh. 17: Fates aor gods. There corneth one to follow thee: he shall e. Thou sbalt rhvçeif n convey it with worship. I414:Yeshaliseethat~~oblasedBeast andtharîkScattetCoacubineofhisAeFiie! IILl5:Yesballbesadtbemd EI. tbere s is a word not knowm SpeUiag is defiuict.owarriorTI will give you of their aesh t eat! o ïïI. spare not.79: T e end of tbe hiding of Hadit.75: Aye! Men t the mmbexs & the wotds: o D. know not tbis meaning alî. fearoottoimAerpnthe~* . O propber.andaAerwardmAen&snoothdown with rich nesb blood m 2 : T e best blood i of the m .o prophet? Thou knowest nor. II Feiu not at all.aii is not aught Beware! Hold! Raise the spell af Ra-Hmr-Khuit ! i K 3 : Now let it be first understood tbat 1 am a god of War and of Vengeanœ. IIL4: Choose ye an islaad! ïiï. They shall worship thy name. to tell them this glad w o d II-77: O üe thou pnwd aad mighty among men! iI.8: With it ye mite the peaples. that heisnottbereagah.12: Sacrifice catile. womhp me w t swords & with ih spcars. or dropping h m tbe bost ofheaven: then of d e s . nor laughter ofthe foik foüy.ll: This shallbeyo3uonlypd 1f a d - argument. O cbosen one. no matter what IJI. & it shall be to you as 7 18.1: Abrahadabra! the reward of Ra Hmr Khut I42: There i division hiîber homeward. and none shall stand More you i K 9 : Lurk! Withdraw! Upon them! this is the Law ofthe M e of Conqwst:thus sbai.î. 1am the visi'ble objea of for the Beast & worstiip.upouod i t But mrmkr. and h blessing & worship to the propbet of the love likest it not Thou shalt bave d a q y & troubleRa-Hoor-Khu is with tbee. thoagh thou .4 h s amonMy: then tbe fiesh blood of a chilci. ~I8:Mercyletbeoff:damn~whopity! Kill anâ torture. fowsquare. W O : FHby? Because of tbe faU of Because. woradediil.fear aot. force.Conqiier!TbatisemwgbIwill~ easy to you the abstnictioa ftom the i I l d r e d house i the VIctonouS City.be~t&m. mr anythiag.Wbat-this. Trample y QwnrbeHeatben.23: For peniime mix meal & ho. II. vigour. oor any other power in heaven or upon the earth or under t k earth. üI.& thick leavings of red wiae: tbea oil of Abramelin and oliveoil. mystic. be upoa them! iQ19:Thatsteletheysbalicalittre Abomination of Desolation.Mo. Little and big: aftera chüd ULl3: But not now.6: Dung it about w t enginery ofwar! ih III.76:4638ABK21ALGMOR3YX24 89RPSTOVAL.1:Deem not too eageriy to atch the 6 pmmises. of your anus. ml: up m image in tbe East: tbou shait Set y buy thee an image which 1wiU show thee.474: T e len* of thy longiag shaïi be the h strengîhofiîsglosy. Nu is yair r a g e as Hadit your light.
36: Then said the prophet untb t e Gud: h W 3 7 : 1 adore thee i tbe Songn 1 am the Lord of -and 1 The inspîred forth-spealer of Men@ For me u~lveils veiled sky. 1 invoke.amWTbeban. ifshe Ieave m workto toywithold y ~Ttbensballmym~belaiown I will siay me her child: 1wiU dienate her beart- . couvert s not. tooverthtowtke. Dothisquickfy! IIL40: But the work of the comment? Tbat i s w. as tbouhastwritten). it i baier. it i the Law to give-Tben tfiev shall chance to abiâe in this bliss or no.when Hnimacbis shaii arise and the double-wandeb one assume my thnwie and piaœ. and shall sîand until the fàii of the Great Equinox. yet an invisible house thérit sîam&h. IIIJ9: MoreuverT tbey long kep. tbemattack without pity or q~arrer. as it i s said: The Lightis mine. oe e m.30: My aïtar is of open brass w s burn d: thereoll i sihm or gold! n IIL3 1:There amah a rich manfrom the West w!mhaIlpourhisgold~~ a32: From gold forge steel! iIi. Ra-Hm-Khuit! IIL39: Aü this a d a tmk to say how thou Cdst corne hitber a d a reproduction of this inL aod paper for ever for in it i the word secret & s m ody in the English a d thy CO-t t uponthistheBodrofîheLaw~beprinted beamSUy in red ink a d Madr upan beautifiil paper~byhan~dtoeachmanaod wonian that thou were it h to dine or i s to drink at tbem.OMentu. Rehiseoo~buttbou shait know & Qsaoy tbe traitors 1am Ra-Hoot-KhuiC and 1am pow& to protect my Jeruant. Anotber prophet sball arise. Hadit! Abide with me. UIJ6: These & . O Nuit! Bid me within thine H ~ u s t eo 4 O winged snake of light. I greet Thy presence. and bring fresh fever from the skies: amiber w o l ~ l ishail awake the lust & i~~ worship of the Snake. M e d Hoor-pa-kraat and Ra-Hoor-Khut m. namingyour eocmies. Success i thy proof: atgiie not. tbe The self-siaia AnLh-af-na-kho~w Whose words are buth.orison: it shaii becosne full ofbeaes as it were and creeping thhgs Sacred unto me. be s for they sweii with xuy force. and bl&g no longer be powied To the Hawk-heac&d mysticai Lord! IIL35: The half of the word of Hem-ra-ùa. it is no odds.34: But your hoty place S be untoucbed U I throughout tbe œnturks: though with and sword it be bumî dom & h ü e d . Supreme and temile Gad. taEknotovenmich! T h e m î h a t d t o emrapthx. Hadit burning in t .î7:Alsothesesàaiibru~dIiist&powerof lust in you at the eating IIIJ8: Also ye shali be strong in war.33: Be ready to£lyortosmiie! ïIï. W42: The ordeals thou dmk ~ v e t ~t ye htsz e saveonlytheMindows. The piophet Ankh-af-na-kbo~~~! ByBes-aa-Mautmyînw~tL~ BywkTa-Nech 1weave myqeilShow thy Star-SpI-. (tbeseare tbeadorations.hsll nainthe lomb. I. & tky y shall fi before y o u ai III. kart shaii make ami swiftandçecrirethypea :Establis&at thy Kaaba a derk-house: ail must be Qne weU and with bnsiness way.r fear spit upon - - them! IE43:Let tbe Scarlet Woman beware! If pity and compBSsi01i aad ttideniessvisit ber kart. O Ra-Hoor-Khuit! Unity uttermost showed! 1 adore the mighî of Thy breath. s o Tberieisasaxetdaxtbat IsbUmaketo estaùlish thyway inaU tbequarrefs. & its red flanx! sn i as a sword in my hancl t push thy order. another king shaii reign. Who &est the gods aad deah To tremble More Thee:5 1adore thee! Appear on the tbroae of Ra! Open the ways of the Khu! Lighten the ways ofthe K ! a The ways of tbe Khabs run thraugh To stir me or still me! A m ! let it i me! U - W8: So that thy iight i i nie. AU M r m . itsraysccmsume Me:Lbavemrirtasecretdmr h o tbe House of Ra anâ T m OfKhepbraaadofAbatboor.another sou1 of G d and beast shali mingie i the globed p r i a anaber n sacrince c. destroy them uaerfy. & Swift as a trodch serpent turn and strike! Be thou yet deadüer than be! Drag down tbeu seuls to awfiil tonnent: laughat tbei.
for thereby hs alone can he fl Fiom it.IwiUcastheroutEromnrenr asas. aaditscommeat&be~itmt III@: Le him corne thnnigh îhe fhst ordeai. courage i your atm~u~.62: To Me Q ye merence! t me come ye o through m i o f o r d e a i . Let him not seek to ay: bat one corneth after him. & nought remains. ïü.t it WU to him as siiver. Then this üne drawn is a key: then this circle squared in its fidure i a key also. the blasphemy against al1 gods of men IItSO: Curse them! Cu= them! Curse them! III3 1: With my Hawk's bead 1 peck at the eyes of Jesus as he hangs upon t cmss.whQstiall~erthe Key of it all.ay not so. 4 Bahlasti! OmpeMa!1 spit on your crapulous creeds.45: Then wiü I Lift k r to p ~ i eofspower then will I breed h m her a chiId mightiet than sddiers who dam not fi* but play.58: But îhe keen and the prad the royal and tbe lem. & ye sbaii turn not back for q! ïIï. and die cold and an-hmgeredIL :But let her raise berseif i pside! L t ber l u n e foilm me in my way! Let ber work the work of wickedness! Let her kiU ber kart! Let ber be loud and adultennis. hs h and 1 want to go on to the hotier p h UI. u III.59: As bruthm fi* ye! There i no law beyond Do wbat thou s mû 6: WilL 1461: There is an end of the word of the God enthromsi in Ra's seat.whenceIcay~l~t.69: There is sucass &70: 1am the Hawk-HeatW Lord of Silence & of Strength. UI.57: Despise also all cowards.68: Yet to ail it shall seem beautifiil Its enemies who '.75: The endhg of the words i the Word s Ablahadabra i452:Iflapmywingsintbefaceof Mohammed & b W him. & .19: 1am in a secret f d o l d word. of allthekingsoftbeearth Iwüifillherwithwith~f~rcesballsbesee&strilreat~ worship of N : site sbaii adieve Hadit. 4 5 3 : With my claws I tear out tbe flesh of the Indian and the Buddh&. stoaes of precious watef- &67: Through the fourth. ïE.47: This bodr shaU be traasiated into ali tongues: but always with the original i the n for in the chance d q x of mriîing of the the letters and tbeir position t one aLlOthef: in o these are mystenes that no Beast shall divine.iubk@aad despisedharlot~sbecrawltbrough~wet streets. Lighîening the g i . for Ihavecnisbedan u i es . a go s go o on. my nemyss shrouds tbe nigiü-ùlue skyUI. let her be covered wîtb jewels. Q 5 5 : Let Mary iwiolafe be tom upon wheek for her sake let aU chaste women be um î t The Book of tbe Law is Written and Concealed Aum Ha despised among you! m5: . ultimate sparks of theintbatefüe. in my strengtb. which i biiss. ye are brothers! lIf. s m63:The fool readeth this Bo& af tbe Law. d III-38: Now t i mystery of t e letters is Qne. be &65: T n i h the second. 1will bring you to victory &jay: I wiU be at your anns in battle & ye shaii delight to day. @Idhng &&: Through the thid. are mere Liars. 6 Also for beaafs sake and love's! III. professional . as the SUU of midnight i ever tbe s son. the wand of tbe Force of Coph Nïii-but myl& band isempty.7l: Hail! ye twin waniors about the pillars of the worid! for yom t i n i a at bancl ~@ s a 7 2 : 1am the Lord of the Double Waad of P m . and let her be shameless before ail men! iII.46: I am the warrior Lord of the Forties: the Eighties amer before me. k the seul. Let him aot seelc afkr t i . and nch gariihents. It &Il be his chiid anâ that strangely.Success i s your proof. & are abaseü. III. n re v m 7 3 :Paste the sheets from cight to left and h m tap to bottom: then -Id! a 7 1 : Tbere i a splemkm i m y mane hiAAen s n and glorious. Mongol and Dia m5: . al1 fook &!spise! ïü. s And Abrabadabria.
ANKH -F-N -KHONSU .THE COMMENT Do what thou wilt shdl be the whole of the Law. The shdyofthisBoolrisforb'uLlen. These are mast dire Those who discass the contents ofthis Book are to be shunned by a& as centres of pesîiieoçeAU questions of the Law are to be âedded only by appeal to my wriîings. each for hîmeK The= is no law b e y d Da wbat thou wilt Love is thq l m love u & willn The West of the pinces. Itiswise to destroythisccpyaftr=rtbenrstreadIng+ Wh~~~e~erdisregardsthisQcssoathisown risk and peril.
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