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It emphasizes their important role in the country’s development. Thus it is imperative that both the public and private, and the foreign and domestic sectors implement policies that will promote and overall stability. WHAT IS AGRICULTURE? Agriculture is defined as the science and art of crop and livestock of activities associated with the production of useful plants and animals, including soil cultivation, crop, and livestock management, and processing, marketing activities. The agricultural sector is a critical sector in the economy which deserves a moral serious attention from the government. Of the various sectors propelling the economy, it is the least-import dependent. It also provides the necessary human and natural resources which give potentials to development. Actually, I have read that statistics show that agricultural sector contributes greatly to the country’s development. From 1984 to 1987, the agricultural sector’s contribution to the country’s gross national product (GNP) at current prices ranged from 17.56% to 20.80%. In 1989, its contribution amounted to 16.95% of the total GNP value of P 823 767 million.
There are factors that influence the kind of agriculture practiced in particular areas. These are climate, soil, topography, nearness to market, transportation facilities, land costs, and other economic variables. Examples are the Ifugaos and the Bontocs in the Mountain Provinces developed their famous rice terraces in harmony with the terrain. The farmers in Central Luzon and the Bicol region have made these areas ideal for planting coconut and abaca. The farmers in the uplands cultivate their lands for subsistence because of their distance from markets and the lack of transportation facilities. There are three major patters of agricultural development: traditional agriculture, modernizing agriculture, and modern agriculture. The traditional agriculture is also known as subsistence farming. In this pattern, farmers cultivate land and plant crops primarily to feed the members of their households. They also use traditional methods of cultivation, planting, and processing. Included in traditional agriculture are hunting, animal husbandry, kaingin or slash-and-burn farming, and fixed cultivation. The second stage of agricultural development is the modernizing stage. Its main feature is the increased importance of commercial production in farming. In this stage, farmers produce not only to feed their households but to produce enough surplus to be traded in the market for cash or in exchange for other commodities.
tobacco. The agricultural sector provides the basic needs such as food.1 lists down other products of the agricultural sectors such as coconut. and abaca. PART II – PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURE The major crops being produced in the country are palay. sugarcane.1 thousand hectares were used as sugar plantation. eggplant. mango. The agricultural sector is an important economic sector in a developing country because of its size and contributions to the economy. tomato. The labor productivity at this level is very high and production techniques involve the use of modern implements and improved technology. 3. 387. corn. There are other crops which helps diversify agricultural activities. The agricultural sector provides additional resources to other sectors of the economy Export earnings from agriculture may be used in the importation of raw materials needed by the industrial sector - 2. The agricultural sector is important for the following reasons: 1. banana. rubber. onion. agricultural processes are specialized and are characterized by a large portion of the product being produced for commercial purposes. This stage is also characterized by the use of fertilizers. It is also the source of raw materials needed by industries. intensive cultivation. Rice is till the staple food in the country as well as rootcrops such as camote. coffee. abaca. cassava. and other fiber crops PART III – IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE It would be the advantage of the country if both agriculture and manufacturing sectors are given the proper attention. producing close . industries. cabbage. rubber. cassava. and other necessities of life.2 million metric tons. In 2001. coconut. mongo. Agriculture is important because it is the source of food for the economy. The agricultural sector is also the source of cash crops used by households. pineapple. and high-yielding varieties of seeds to make farming maximally productive. garlic. 3. Table 14.The third level of agricultural development is the modern agricultural stage. These are peanuts. cotton. calamansi. and foreign buyers. In this stage.1 million hectares were planted with coconuts yielding 13. and other commercial crops. sugarcane. camote. tobacco.
individuals worked in fields which they did not own and they were subjected to various forms of exploitation. Share of produce tenants are tenants who give the owner of the land a share of their harvest as agreed upon beforehand. Seven of the ten principal exports of the Philippines are products of the agricultural sectors. It is. pineapple. Part owners. banana. CONCLUSION: It is therefore important to develop the agricultural sector and improve its productivity in order to increase its purchasing power of farmers.to 25 million metric tons. There are five classifications of land tenure in this country: full owners. Agriculture is also an important source of foreign exchange. therefore. Full owners are those who own all the land which they work on. Table 14. tenants. sugar.6 million metric tons. and those engaged in other forms of land tenure. Large numbers of these . farm managers. desiccated coconut. The rent is usually computed per hectare of land.2 shows the distribution of various kinds of land tenure and the land area covered in the Philippines in 1971 and 1980. and 107. 4. PART IV – LAND TENURE IN THE PHILIPPINES One of the key factors that have slowed down the progress of the agricultural land is the land tenure system. and abaca.1 hectares were planted to abaca resulting to a production of 74. These are copra. Another important contribution of agriculture to the economy is the number of laborers it is able to absorb Around 10. Cash tenants are farmers who pay cash as rent for their uses of the land. on the other hand are farm operators who own part of the land they work on while they hold the remaining portion as tenants Tenants are farm operators who rent or lease from others the land they cultivate. agriculture is the main source of livelihood especially for developing countries. necessary to be familiar with the tenure system in the Philippines in order to understand the agrarian problems of the country and to get a proper perspective of agrarian reform undertaken by the government to promote agricultural development.4 million workers are estimated to work for the agricultural sector or agricultural related industries Besides. They fall under six kinds according to their tenancy agreement with the owners of the land. coconut oil. These tenants include those who raise livestock or poultry for the landowner on condition - 5.
Cast and fixed amount of produce tenants are tenants who pay rent for using the land in a mix of cash payment and a fixed position of the harvest agreed upon. the government introduced programs to alleviate the conditions of tenant farmers. mechanisms. Wide-ranging agrarian reform programs were introduced to remedy the deficiencies of the landholding system in the country and to create conditions for agricultural progress. Land reform refers to the “full range of measures that may or should be taken to improve or remedy the defects in the relations among men with respect to their rights in land and involves the transformation of agrarian structure. a salary. Fixed amounts of produce tenants are farmers who pay rent in the form of a fixed quantity of the harvest agreed upon by the owner and the tenant. They operate farms under the conditions other than those previously mentioned. therefore. Marginally productive lands are generally involved here. involve a body of programs. Farm operators under the conditions fall under fifth classification.that the latter will get a share of the product. particularly in land resources. on the other hand. rural educational and social welfare institutions. LAND REFORM IN THE PHILIPPINES Because of the unequal distribution of wealth. Fixed amount-of-produce tenants are particularly vulnerable because of the nature of their agreement with landowners. or part of the harvest for their services. Land reform and agrarian reform. they have to borrow from the landowner to pay their rent and for their daily subsistence and that of their family. and . local governments. In view of this situation. and voluntary associations. thousands of farmers till land which they do not own. These tenants are trapped in debt and are subject to the whims of unscrupulous landowners. When harvest is poor. Rent-free tenants are tenants who till land with the consent of the owner without having to pay rent in cash or in kind. Agrarian reform. Cash and share-of-produce tenants are tenants who pay the owner of the land a combination of cash and a portion of the harvest agreed on beforehand by both parties. particularly farmer’s organizations. comprises not only land reform but also the reform and development of complementary institutional frameworks such as the administrative agencies of the national government created to undertake land reform. Farm managers comprise the fourth classification of land operators these individuals supervise the day-today operators of large farms and receive wages. policies.
involve a body of programs. 27 emancipated the tenants “from the bondage of the soil. To achieve dignified existence for small farmers and free them from harmful institutional restraints and practices 3. This emancipation decree provides that each tenant farmer of a private agricultural land devoted to rice and corn under a system of sharecrop or lease tenancy should be the owner of a portion of the land . The law laid down the foundation of an ideal tenure system in the Philippines with the abolition of tenancy and replaced it with long-term leasehold. Land reform and agrarian reform. The goals of the land reform program of the government are sixfold: 1. mechanisms. the slow implementation of the provisions of the law allowed owners of tenanted farms enough time to eject their tenants in order to be exempted from shifting to leasehold tenancy. To provide a more systematic resettlement and land distribution program 6. and a source of genuine strength in our society The first comprehensive land reform program was initiated under the administration of President Diosdado Macapagal with the passage of the Agricultural Land Reform Code on August 8. 2. the government will buy the lands tilled by the farmers from the owners and sell it back to the farmers through a long-term repayment scheme. To apply all labor laws without discrimination to both industrial and agricultural wage earners 5. Under the law. Moreover. To make the small farmer a more independent. Presidential Decree No. When President Marcos declared martial law in 1972. he also declared the entire country a land reform area under Presidential Decree No. The program was not successful in eliminating tenancy because land coverage was very limited. therefore. Moreover.laws sponsored by the government to improve the status of land ownership and the economic life of farmers in the Philippines. policies. 1963. transferring to them the ownership of the land they till. selfreliant and responsible citizen. and laws sponsored by the government to improve the status of land ownership and the economic life of farmers in the Philippines. To establish a social and economic structure in agriculture conducive to greater productivity and improved farm incomes 4. To establish owner-cultivator ship and make family sized farms the basis of Philippine agriculture 2.
all lands acquired by the Presidential Commission on Good Government (PCGG). also known as the Comprehensive Reform Law. 6657. all arable public agricultural lands under agroforest. and agricultural leases. all private lands voluntarily offered by the owners for agrarian reform. Actual tillers or occupants of public lands 6. President Aquino signed into law republic Act No. Other farm workers 5.consisting of a family-sized farm of five hectares. landless residents of the same municipality in the following order of priority: 1. to landless farmers and regular farm workers. Lands covered by the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program shall be distributed as much as possible to landless residents of the same barangay or in the absence thereof. This phase has a projected . Others directly working on the land The planning and programming of the acquisition and distribution of all agricultural lands will be undertaken by the Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR) in coordination with the Presidential Agrarian Reform Council. all lands foreclosed by the government financial institutions. In June 10. Agricultural lessees and share tenants 2. (2) all lands of the public domain in excess of the specific limits. and (4) all private lands devoted to or suitable for agriculture regardless of the agricultural products raised or that can be raised thereon. and all other arrangements which will provide the beneficiaries a just share of the fruits of the land they work. Collectives or cooperatives of the above beneficiaries 7. The coverage includes: (1) all alienable and disposable lands of the public domain devoted to or suitable for agriculture. regardless of crop or tenurial arrangement. all public agricultural lands which are to be opened for new development and resettlement. idle or abandoned lands. The law conceived agrarian reform as redistribution of all public and private agricultural lands. Regular farm workers 3. and all private agricultural lands in excess of 50 hectares. Seasonal farm workers 4. to include all the necessary support services designed to improve the economic status of beneficiaries and increase land productivity. 1988. Phase one covers rice and corn lands under Presidential Decree No. 27. pasture. and all other lands owned by the government devoted to or suitable for agriculture Phase two covers all alienable and disposable public agricultural lands. (3) all other lands owned by the government devoted to or suitable for agriculture.
ejection. Leasehold is an intermediate stage of land tenure whereby tenant-farmers are given protection by the law from harassment. and (5) issuance of emancipation patents to farmers who have completed payment for the land. loading.6 million beneficiaries. landowners. <SHOW TABLE 14.4> MAJOR PROGRAMS OF AGRARIAN REFORM Operation Land Transfer (OLT). The entire program will cover some 9. AGRARIAN REFORM AND COOPERATIVES . Land Consolidation. and other farm activities. A leasehold arrangement requires the lessee (the tenantfarmer) to pay a fixed rent of not more than 25% in cash or kind of the average normal harvest for the three crop years preceding the date in which the leasehold was established. Phase three has 1. and lands covered. including marketing.area distribution of almost 7 million hectares and 2.35 million hectares of land to be distributed and 451 thousands beneficiaries. and scattered farm lots are concentrated and restricted for better management and more efficient farm operations and production. Table 14.3 AND TABLE 14.8 million hectares of land and some 3. Leasehold Operations. after deducting the amount used for seeds. which serves as a marketing arm of at least 250 persons engaged in farming or related agricultural activities.4 shows the area of land distributed from 1987 to 2001. are supervised and directed in accordance to a carefully prepared farm plan and budget. This is the process by which comparatively irregular. and other processing costs.3 shows the land area and he number of beneficiaries of the three phases of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program while 14. fragmented. threshing. (3) printing and issuance of certificates of land transfer. Phase three covers all other private agricultural lands commencing with large land holdings and proceedings to medium and small landholdings.7 million beneficiaries. Cultivation. This major component of the land reform program involves the orderly and systematic transfer of lands planted to rice and corn to the tenant tillers. (2) mapping the actual area cultivated by the tenants. cost of harvesting. small. Compact Farms. The purpose of this voluntary association is to assist the members in marketing their produce as well as in the supply of their production inputs. An example of this is the Kilusang Bayan. and other practices which characterize sharecrop tenancy. This involves the voluntary grouping of famers to enable them to properly combine and utilize their resources for greater productivity and efficiency. harvesting. The operation involves a five stage process: (1) identification of tenants. (4) valuation of the land transferred.
and patronage refund. especially agricultural.One of the institutions which has been identified as crucial in the development of agriculture and agrarian reform in particular is the cooperative movement. Members can avail of all the services rendered by the cooperative and must be willing to accept the responsibilities of membership. water. democratic control. Benefits of agrarian reform can be fully realized by farmers through cooperatives. Part of the requirement to ownership of land by the tenantfarmer under the agrarian reform program is membership in a cooperatives. Forests are fast denuded due to illegal and indiscriminate kaingin system and forest fires which destroy even young trees. racial. POLLUTION. chemical or biological characteristics of air. The affairs of the cooperative are administered by persons elected or appointed in a manner agreed upon by the members and accountable to the general membership. This is a problem caused by deforestation and destruction of watershed. The cooperative is also in a position to acquaint members with the responsibilities that come with owning lands. Among the most serious are the following: 1. The cooperative movement is guided by four basic principles: open membership. Also alarming is the destruction of forests in mineralize areas as well as the high rate of conversion of forest lands into residential areas and parks. and other environmental resources that adversely affect . or religious restriction or discrimination. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS IN AGRICULTURE While we always say with pride that our country is rich in natural resources. Membership in a cooperative is voluntary and available to everyone without any social. SOIL EROSION. It is the process that results in the change of the physical. political. 2. A cooperative is a group of persons who combine their resources under the principle of equality in order to attain objectives to their mutual benefits. will our claim still hold true? Today. the country is plagued with a number of problems related to natural resources. land. limited interest to capital. The cooperative can make a stronger position for the farmers in securing certain ends. DEFORESTATION. Each member is eligible to have one vote even if she/he has a huge share in the capital of the cooperative. 3. The cooperative can assist the farmers with regards to the production and marketing of their production and marketing of their products as well as the provision for credit. Democratic control is manifested by the equality of members in making decisions for the cooperative.
Between 1960 to 1970. The government regulates the price of fertilizers and grants direct subsidies to fertilizer production.” This warning which was released as early as 1896 was ignored that today it has become a global concern especially to farmers. The results of this price policy have been to discourage the production of food crops. fertilizers. coal and oil every year will alter the transparency of the atmosphere and heat up the earth over time. For one thing. FORESTRY AND FISHERIES 1. The government has been promoting low food prices for political as well as social reasons. there is a constraint in increasing the land available for cultivation.5% per year. “The increasing emission of carbon dioxide in the air from burning more wood. Government policies have been biased against agriculture over the years. the cultivated area increased by only 1. 5. 2. 7. among others. The impact of government policies on the agricultural sector is another factor that has led to the slower growth of this sector. programs. the major source of growth has been the increase in area under irrigation and the increasing use of high yielding varieties of seeds. Pollution is caused by the indiscriminate use of chemicals which form domestic. . AN AGRICULTURE-FIRST ECONOMIC POLICY. effective peso devaluation. the need for export competitiveness. for its part. agricultural and industrial wastes. coconut. and other farm inputs. FISCAL PROGRAMS. continuation and expansion of rice. 6. In rice production. The government. it needs to address. GLOBAL WARMING. and the average annual growth went down to 1% during the 1970 to 1975.human beings and other forms of life. PROSPECTS OF PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURE. research. Needs to provide the necessary agricultural support services such as increased investment in rural infrastructure. and easing of foreign exchange control. corn. 4. and development. effective management and development of cooperatives and farmer/fisherman self-reliance. but the tariff and sales tax imposed on this agricultural input make it costly to use. and fisheries programs. Another disincentive in agricultural production has been the high cost of fertilizers and other agricultural inputs. For agriculture to become an active participant in the economic recovery program.
there is a need for it to grow faster than is indicated by its previous growth performance. and implement the agrarian reform program. A dynamic agricultural sector will mean a higher income for the farmers. an increased demand for the products of the other sectors. adopt modern technologies. higher export earnings. and self-sufficiency in food production. This will become possible if government policies are revised to promote agricultural development.If agriculture is to be a vibrant sector of the economy. greater employment opportunities for the labor force. .
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