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Oct 02, 2019

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- Steve Jobs
- Wheel of Time
- NIV, Holy Bible, eBook
- NIV, Holy Bible, eBook, Red Letter Edition
- Cryptonomicon
- The Woman Who Smashed Codes: A True Story of Love, Spies, and the Unlikely Heroine who Outwitted America's Enemies
- Contagious: Why Things Catch On
- Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling Technology Project
- Everybody Lies: Big Data, New Data, and What the Internet Can Tell Us About Who We Really Are
- Zero to One: Notes on Start-ups, or How to Build the Future
- Console Wars: Sega, Nintendo, and the Battle that Defined a Generation
- Dust: Scarpetta (Book 21)
- Hit Refresh: The Quest to Rediscover Microsoft's Soul and Imagine a Better Future for Everyone
- The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution
- Crushing It!: How Great Entrepreneurs Build Their Business and Influence—and How You Can, Too
- Make Time: How to Focus on What Matters Every Day
- Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions
- Wild Cards

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Suppose Alice wants her friends to encrypt email messages before sending them to her. Computers

represent text as long numbers (01 for “A”, 02 for “B” and so on), so an email message is just a

very big number. The RSA Encryption Scheme is often used to encrypt and then decrypt electronic

communications.

General Example

Alice’s Setup: Alice’s Setup:

• Calculates the product n = pq. • n = pq = 11 × 3 = 33.

• Calculates m = (p − 1)(q − 1). • m = (p − 1)(q − 1) = 10 × 2 = 20.

m

• Chooses numbers e and d so that ed has a • If e = 3 and d = 7, then ed = 21 has a

er as

remainder of 1 when divided by m. remainder of 1 when divided by m = 20.

co

• Publishes her public key (n, e). • Publish (n, e) = (33, 3).

eH w

Bob encrypts a message M for Alice: Bob encrypts message M = 14 :

o.

rs e

• Finds Alice’s public key (n, e). • (n, e) = (33, 3).

ou urc

e

• Finds the remainder C when M is divided • When 143 = 2744 is divided by 33, the re-

by n. mainder is C = 5.

• Sends ciphertext C to Alice. • Sends ciphertext C = 5 to Alice.

o

aC s

vi y re

• Finds remainder R when C d is divided by n. • When 57 = 78125 is divided by 33, the re-

• R matches the message M that Bob wanted mainder is R = 14.

ed d

ar stu

Questions

sh is

1. Callie wants to send the message M = 13 to Alice. Using Alice’s public and private keys,

calculate the ciphertext C, and the value for R when Alice recovers the message.

Th

2. Dexter wants to set up his own public and private keys. He chooses p = 23 and q = 19 with

e = 283. Find d so that ed has a remainder of 1 when divided by (p − 1)(q − 1).

When your internet browser shows a URL beginning with https, the RSA Encryption Scheme is being used to protect your privacy. For

example, if you log in to Facebook, your computer plays the role of Alice and the Facebook server plays the role of Bob, encrypting and

decrypting the information passed back and forth. In practice, the primes p and q are chosen to be very big numbers.

https://www.coursehero.com/file/16033777/RSA/

Solution:

• When M e = 133 = 2197 is divided by 33, the remainder is C = 19.

• Callie sends to Alice ciphertext C = 19.

• When 197 = 893, 871, 739 is divided by 33, the remainder is R = 13.

• R = 13 = M , the original message from Callie!

We want to find d so that ed = 283d has a remainder of 1 when divided by m = 396. One way

m

er as

to do this is by simple trial and error, increasing the value of d until 283d divided by 396 leaves

co

a remainder of 1.

eH w

o.

Remainder when

rs e

d 283d 283d is divided by 396

ou urc

1 283 283

2 566 170

3 849 57

o

4 1132 340

aC s

5 1415 227

vi y re

6 1698 114

7 1981 1

We see that d = 7 works; that is ed = 283 × 7 = 1981 leaves a remainder of 1 when divided by

ed d

396.

ar stu

In general, trial and error could take a very long time, as the value of d could be a big number.

Instead, an ancient technique called Euclid’s Algorithm can be used to find d in the linear

sh is

Th

https://www.coursehero.com/file/16033777/RSA/

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