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CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

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CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

Wireless Communication is the fastest growing and most vibrant

technological areas in the communication field without using any

connection like wires, cables or any physical medium. It is a broad term

incorporates all procedures and forms of connecting and communicating

between two or more devices using a wireless signal through wireless

communication technologies and devices. Generally, in a communication

system, information is transmitted from transmitter to receiver that are

placed over a limited distance. With the help of Wireless Communication,

the transmitter and receiver can be placed anywhere between meters to

thousands of kilometers. Recently, wireless networks have been used for

positioning as well, in order to enable the provision of location-oriented

services to the end-user. Different types of measurements available during

standard network and terminal operation, mainly for resource

management and synchronization purposes, can be employed to derive

the user’s location.

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Within the broader spectrum of radio frequency (RF)

communications, point-to-point communications are usually carried out

using microwave frequencies between 1 GHz and 100 GHz along line-of-

sight (LOS) paths called links. These frequencies and their propagation

characteristics allow the transmission of vast amounts of data between

remote communication sites without the need to lay cables between them.

The characteristics of the antennas used in point-to point communication

allow the same frequencies to be used throughout a system—that is, the

system can employ high frequency reuse. Careful link planning and

management make this possible without interference becoming a problem.

These advantages give microwaves a special place in the world of RF

engineering, where they are used in point-to-point wireless

communications networks, satellite communications, radar systems and

even radio astronomy.

The purpose of this study is to design a Microwave Communication

System to between two locations, which can be from just a few feet or

meters to several miles or kilometers apart. Microwave links are

commonly used by television broadcasters to transmit programs across a

country, for instance, or from an outside broadcast back to a studio.

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Statement of the Problem

The agricultural industry in Malolos, San Jose del Monte, and San

Ildefonso, Bulacan seeks ways to modernize its farming and local

businesses also look into promoting and improving its businesses,

embroidery in particular and also improving its services. All of these can

be achieved by providing internet services. Wireless technology has

enabled people who live in rural areas and to improve their lives in several

social and economic areas. They have a better chance to gain capital for a

new small business and can overcome geographic limitations as well as

expand their market access.

However, the town needs an internet access and communication

towers in attaining these goals. In order to make it work, a microwave

communication tower at Calumpit, San Jose Del Monte, and San Miguel,

Bulacan, is needed. Thus, the aim of this project is to design a

microwave antenna to provide internet services to the municipality of

Bulacan.

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Research Questions

The proponents sought to answer the central question: Is it

feasible to provide a 99.999% reliable microwave link given the

design parameters and site considerations, environmental factors

and terrain conditions?

Sub-questions:

1. What are the considerations in designing the microwave

antenna and how these factors will affect the reliability of

the design?

2. Are the terrain conditions of the path for LOS ideal for the

microwave link?

3. How the specifications of equipment will affect the

efficiency and reliability of the microwave link?

4. What are the parameters in considering equipment?

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5. Are the obstructions can be solved? What are the ways

and methods to do such?

6. Is there really a need for the municipality of Lumban for

wireless internet through the use of microwave link?

7. What are the viewpoints of residents of Bulacan in

implementing microwave communication within the area?

Objectives of the Study

A. General Objective

The main purpose of this study is to provide a 99.999% reliable

microwave communication link between, Calumpit, San Jose Del

Monte, and San Miguel, Bulacan. The LOS communication system

will provide wireless internet services that will serve the town of

Lumban particularly its agricultural industry and local business for

modernizing farming techniques, increase productivity and

businesses profits.

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B. Specific Objectives

 To design a reliable and efficient microwave link system with

minimum losses and acceptable system margin.

 To provide a feasible microwave link that can withstand harsh

environmental conditions.

 To provide relevant data that will provide the need of

microwave communication link in the Municipality of Lumban.

 To gather vast amount of data and interpret such with the aim

to support the process of designing the link.

 To identify the general standards in designing the microwave

point-to-point communications system.

 To establish a systematic procedure in microwave

communication link design.

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 To cater information of different equipment used in designing a

microwave communication link including their specifications and

costing.

 To be knowledgeable of the general principles and

considerations in designing microwave communications system.

Significance of the Study

The design of the microwave link will serve a benefit for different

individual in the society regardless of degree and profession.

To future engineers, it will serve as guide in planning and

designing a microwave link and will provide reliable data for

references.

To students, the research-based study will also help the

Electronics Engineering students who are interested in the concepts

of designing Microwave Communications Systems and will improve

logical and

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analytical thinking in solving design parameters while considering

wide range of factors.

To professors and instructors, the research will serve as a

reference for calculations and design procedures to be used in the

academe.

To stakeholders, the research will provide data as a basis of how

there is a need for microwave link communication in a certain area

and how these data can be used to project future growth.

To the industry, the research will help in recognizing the benefits

and advantages of microwave communications over other

transmission medium.

To the researchers, the research will provide accessible

information for references and data acquisition.

Furthermore, this design is suitable for the province of Laguna,

where Los Baños and Lumban are located. This design will serve

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as a basis for ISP in establishing a backhaul for providing wireless

technology in Lumban. This internet technology will help

municipality of Lumban particularly the farmers in farming

technology. It can also be used in planning on how to uplift and

improve farming techniques by aligning it to latest technology,

providing them a reliable and efficient point-to-point

communications. It will also help local businesses modernize their

services to the tourists and the community. The microwave link will

also serve the Municipality of Lumban as a whole for faster and

reliable communication.

Scope and Delimitations

In order to identify the parameters that proponents have to

consider in designing the microwave link, the following are the

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scopes and delimitations. These aim to trim down and to provide

boundary of the research.

a. Scope

The following are the scope of the design:

 The proposed design is a point to point microwave link between

Calumpit, San Jose Del Monte, and San Miguel, Bulacan.

 The proposal tackles the design of the microwave link only.

 Physical map used are from NAMRIA and not the most updated

edition.

 The system design is set to operate in the frequency band

7.725Ghz – 8.275Ghz.

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 The application of design is for backhaul for WiMax internet

intended for use of ISPs.

 The frequency used was based on the frequencies assigned by

the National Telecommunications Commission (NTC).

 The computations of coordinates, great circle distance, antenna

height, panning, losses, point of reflection, reliability,

unavailability and link budget are included in the design.

 The terrain elevation, coordinates plotting and obstruction along

the path was based by using “Path Profile Analysis” and

confirmed using Google Earth.

 The equipment and their specifications are included.

 The site layouts for both sites are presented.

 The grounding and lightning considerations were also presented.

 The different considerations such as site, frequency, equipment,

tower and lighting are presented.

 The distance between the sites is limited to 30.9 kilometers.

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 The data for the relevance of the microwave link design in the

proposed site are also presented and interpreted.

 The recommended standards used were based on the existing

international standards.

 Information and data gathered about the site was obtained based

on internet.

 The constants and formula for calculations are based on

Fundamentals of Microwave design by Manny Rule.

 Majority of the equipment are obtained through the use of

internet.

 Data for path profile were confirmed through Google Earth for it

was more updated.

 Environmental considerations only include average temperature,

cloud and humidity, rainfall rate and wind velocity.

 Permits and estimated costs for Construction and Registering

Property were based on internet

 The bill of materials only includes the equipment.

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b. Delimitations

 The microwave design is not implemented on actual field and on-

site field survey was not done.

 The bill of materials only includes the equipment.

 It was assumed that there is no existing microwave

communication system in the chosen area and that there are no

other microwave links in the vicinity in order to prevent CCI (Co-

Channel Interference).

 It was assumed that the establishment used for central office is

owned by the proponents.

 Maps are not updated and all necessary permits were acquired.

 Derivation of formula is not included.

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 Electrical, civil works, soil stability, equipment configuration and

architectural layouts were not included in the design.

 The return of investment and future growth projection were not

included.

 Equipment installation is not included.

 NTC assigned the frequency used throughout the design.

Definition of Terms

Antenna – is a device that radiates or receives EM waves of certain

frequencies.

Attenuation - the gradual loss of intensity in propagating waves due

to disruption or loss in its medium

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Atmospheric absorption - both oxygen and water vapor in the air

attenuate microwave signals—and the effect is more pronounced as

the link length increases.

Amplitude – is the strength or power level of the wave.

Antenna Gain - is the ratio of how much an antenna boosts the RF

signal over a specified low-gain radiator. Antennas achieve gain

simply by focusing RF energy.

Atmospheric Losses - are attenuations due to the absorption of

radio frequency energy by oxygen molecules in the atmosphere.

These losses can also be defined as attenuations due to the

absorption of radio frequency energy by water vapor in the

atmosphere.

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Azimuth - The horizontal angular distance from a reference direction,

usually the northern point of the horizon, to the point where a vertical

circle through a celestial body intersects the horizon, usually

measured clockwise.

Bandwidth - is the numerical difference between the upper and

lower frequencies of a band of electromagnetic radiation, especially

an assigned range of radio frequencies.

Beamwidth - is the aperture angle from where most of the power is

radiated.

Bit Error Rate (BER) - is the percentage of bits that have errors

relative to the total number of bits received in a transmission, usually

expressed as ten to a negative power.

Center Frequency (Fc) - is a measure of a central frequency

between the upper and lower cutoff frequencies.

Coaxial cable - is a type of electrical cable that has an inner

conductor surrounded by a tubular insulating layer, surrounded by a

tubular conducting shield. It is used as a transmission line for radio

frequency signals.

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Directivity - a term generally associated with antennas, refers to the

ratio of the measured power density at its peak point, versus the ideal

power density.

dB – (Decibel) The logarithmic unit measuring the ratio of input to

output. It is generally used as the unit for gain and loss.

dBm - Decibels that are related to 1 mW. The microwave industry

uses 1 mW as the standard unit to measure power level.

Earth Bulge - refers to the number of feet or meters an obstacle is

raised higher in elevation owing to earth’s curvature.

Effective Isotropic Radiated Power - is the actual RF power as

measured in the main lobe (or focal point) of an antenna. It is equal to

the sum of the transmit power into the antenna (in dBm) added to the

dBi gain of the antenna.

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Elevation - is the height above a fixed reference point, often the

mean sea level.

Fade Margin - is the difference between the unfaded receive signal

level and the receiver sensitivity threshold. Each link must have

sufficient Fade Margin to protect against unexpected system outages.

Fading - refers to the intermittent variation of the transmitted signal

or the reduction in signal strength below its nominal level.

First Fresnel Zone – is one of a (theoretically infinite) number of

concentric ellipsoids of revolution which define volumes in the

radiation pattern of a (usually) circular aperture. Fresnel zones result

from diffraction by the circular aperture.

Free space path loss (FSPL) - this is the effect of a signal spreading

out as it propagates from the transmitting antenna. This is typically

the greatest portion of path loss, accounting for 130 dB or more of

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losses. Its effects are directly proportional to the link’s distance and

the signal’s frequency—as either increase, so does path loss.

Full Duplex - both parties can communicate with each other

simultaneously.

Half-Power Beam width - it is the nominal total width of the main

beam at the -3 dB points, expressing the focus of the strongest part

of the beam.

Hertz (Hz) - a measurement of a signal’s electromagnetic frequency,

expressed as the number of cycles per second.

Half duplex - a half-duplex (HDX) system provides communication in

both directions, but only one direction at a time (not simultaneously).

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Indoor Unit (IDU) - is mounted in a rack, cabinet, communications

room, or even roof-mount shelter as possible locations.

International Telecommunication Union (ITU) - is an agency of the

United Nations (UN) whose purpose is to coordinate

telecommunication operations and services throughout the world.

Originally founded in 1865, as the International Telegraph Union, the

ITU is the oldest existing international organization.

Intermediate Frequency (IF) – A frequency to which a carrier

frequency is shifted as an intermediate step in transmission or

reception.

Lightning Arrester – is a device used on electric power systems and

telecommunication systems to protect the insulation and conductors

of the system from the damaging effects of lightning.

Line-of-sight – A clear path or free of any obstruction between

points of microwave signal transmission and reception..

Link Budget - is the accounting of all the gains and losses from the

transmitter, through a medium (free space, cable, waveguide, fiber

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optic, etc.) to the receiver in a telecommunication system. It takes

into account the

attenuation of transmitted signal due to propagation, as well as the

loss, or gain due to the antenna.

Microwave - refers to electromagnetic energy having a frequency

higher than 1 gigahertz (billions of cycles per second), corresponding

to wavelength shorter than 30 centimeters.

Microwave Link - is a high frequency link specifically designed to

provide signal connection between two specific points.

Modulation - is the process of varying one or more properties of a

periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal

that typically contains information to be transmitted.

Obstruction Light – a light indicating the presence of an object

which is dangerous to an aircraft in flight.

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Outdoor Unit (ODU) - is typically mounted directly to the Microwave

Antenna on a rooftop or tower location.

Path Profile - is a graphical representation of the path travelled by

the ratio waves between the two ends of a link. The path profile

determines the location and height of the Antenna at each end of the

link, and it insures that

the link is free of obstructions, such as hills, and subject to

propagation losses from radio phenomena, such as multipath

reflection.

Polarization – is the orientation of the electric field driving the wave.

QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation) - A modulation technique

that employs both phase modulation (PM) and amplitude modulation

(AM). QAM doubles the effective bandwidth by combining two

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amplitude-modulated signals into a single channel. This allows

multiple analog signals to be placed on a single carrier.

Radiation pattern envelope (RPE) – The guaranteed electrical

characteristics of the antenna. It is a line drawn over the peaks of the

main lobe, side lobes and back lobes in horizontal and vertical

polarization. It covers both co-and cross polarization performance.

Radome - a protective plastic or fabric cover fitted to the front of a

microwave antenna. Some feature hydrophobic designs that repel

water, snow and ice, and can reduce the antenna’s wind load.

Redundancy – a system design in which a component is duplicated

so if it fails there will be a backup. This increases reliability.

Receive Signal Level - is the expected strength of a signal when it

researches the receiving radio

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Rainfall (mm) - The amount of precipitation (rain, hail, etc.)

expressed in millimeters depth, of the layer of the layer of the water

has fallen.

Rainfall Attenuation - is a phenomenon relative to the rainfall rate

and frequency which results in increasing path loss, limiting the

coverage area, and consequently degrading the system performance.

Reliability - refers to the amount of time that a communication

system is accessible to the general public

Split Mount – radio configuration which electronics are split into an

outdoor unit (ODU) and indoor unit (IDU), eliminating transmission

line losses with easy maintenance of the IDU.

Signal-to-noise Ratio - is the ratio (usually measured in dB)

between the signal level received and the noise floor level for that

particular signal.

System Gain - is the difference between the nominal output power of

a transmitter and the minimum input power required by receiver.

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Unavailability - is an expression of the degree to which a system,

subsystem, or equipment is not operable and not in a committable

state at the start of a mission, when the mission is called for at an

unknown random time.

Wind load - refers to any pressures or forces that the wind exerts on

a building or structure.

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