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EARTH SCIENCE

CRIS ANTHONY Q. EMPEYNADO


REQUIREMENTS
• Reporting by pairs;
• Reporters have a chance to formulate
your own pre test, post test will be given
by the instructor; and
• Organize a seminar on Disaster
Preparedness, Prevention and
Resiliency;
TOPICS FOR REPORTING
1) Origin of the Universe (Theories); 11) Igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic
rocks;
2) Origin of the Solar System (Theories);
12) Physical and chemical weathering;
3) Planets, Satellites and Stars;
13) Rocks and Minerals;
4) Earth;
14) Soil;
5) Earth Subsystems; 15) Plutonism, vulcanism and metamorphism;
6) Water, carbon and nitrogen cycles; 16) Continental drift;
7) Biochemical cycles; 17) Plate tectonics;
8) Contributions of people on the understanding 18) Climate and Weather;
of Earth systems; 19) Climate Change;
9) Identify and differentiate layers of the Earth; 20) Natural Hazards
10) Physical and chemical properties of Minerals;
EARTH SCIENCE
• Science of the planet Earth;
• Why Earth is the only planet that could support life?;
• Study of Earth and other planets in space;
• Locate and develop energy and mineral resources;
• What types of crops to plant and when to plant them;
and
• Impact of human activity on Earth’s environment;
BRANCHES OF EARTH SCIENCE
• GEOLOGY- is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed,
and the processes by which they change over time.
• METEOROLOGY- is the scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and
forecasting. Meteorological phenomena are observable weather events which illuminate and are
explained by the science of meteorology. Those events are bound by the variables that exist in
Earth's atmosphere.
• OCEANOGRAPHY- covers a wide range of topics, including marine life and ecosystems, ocean
circulation, plate tectonics and the geology of the seafloor, and the chemical and physical
properties of the ocean.
• ASTRONOMY- is the scientific study of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and
galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earth's atmosphere (such as the cosmic
background radiation).
ORIGIN OF THE UNIVERSE
UNIVERSE
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THEORIES ON THE ORIGIN OF THE
UNIVERSE
•Big bang Theory
•Steady State Theory
•Divine/ Creationist Theory
•Cosmic Inflation Theory
•Intelligent Design Theory
BIGBANG
Click on title for link

THEORY
TIMELINE OF THE BIGBANG THEORY
2 era’s happened during after the bigbang.
- Radiation Era
- Matter Era
Radiation Era includes:
Click on title for link

Plank Epoch, Grand Unification Epoch,


Inflationary Epoch, Electroweak Epoch, Quark
Epoch, Hadron Epoch, Lepton and Nuclear
Epochs
TIMELINE OF THE BIGBANG THEORY

Plank Epoch
- No matter existed, only energy and the four
forces of nature, namely: gravity, strong
Click on title for link

nuclear, weak and electromagnetic


- Happened immediately after the bigbang
- Ended when gravity broke away
TIMELINE OF THE BIGBANG THEORY

Grand Unification Epoch


- Name after the 3 remaining forces of nature,
namely: strong nuclear, weak and
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electromagnetic
-43
- 10 seconds
- Ended when strong nuclear broke away
TIMELINE OF THE BIGBANG THEORY
Inflationary Epoch
- Rapid expansion of the universe; very hot
- 10-36 seconds
Click on title for link

Electroweak Epoch
- When the last two forces electromagnetic and
weak split off.
- 10-32 seconds
TIMELINE OF THE BIGBANG THEORY
Quark Epoch
- All of the ingredients were already present
- Too hot and dense for sub atomic particles to
form Click on title for link

- 10-12 seconds
Hadron Epoch
- Universe began to cool down to form protons
and neutrons.
TIMELINE OF THE BIGBANG THEORY

Hadron Epoch
- Universe began to cool down to form protons
and neutrons.
Click on title for link

-6
- 10 seconds
TIMELINE OF THE BIGBANG THEORY

Lepton and nuclear epochs


- Fusion of subatomic particles to create a
nuclei
Click on title for link

- Creation of the first chemical element He


TIMELINE OF THE BIGBANG THEORY

Matter Era
- Predominance of matter
- Atomic, Galactic and Stellar Epoch
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- Creation of the first chemical element He


TIMELINE OF THE BIGBANG THEORY

Atomic Epoch
- Cooling down of the Universe
- Electrons attach to the nuclei
Click on title for link

- Recombination forming the 2nd element H.


TIMELINE OF THE BIGBANG THEORY
Galactic Epoch
- 200 million years after the big bang
- Creation of galaxies
Click on title for link

Stellar Epoch
- 3 billion years after the big bang
- Current stage and development of the
Universe
TIMELINE OF THE BIGBANG THEORY
Universe started as hot and infinitely dense
point.
Space expanded faster than the speed of light.
Click on title for link

Universe continued to expand but at slower rate.


Universe was filled with neutrons, protons and
electrons.
TIMELINE OF THE BIGBANG THEORY
During the first 3 mins. of the Universe, light
elements were formed through the process of
Bigbang nucleosynthesis. H, He and Li
Temperatures cooled from 1 nonillion kelvin to 1
Click on title for link

billion kelvin
380,000 years, universe was essentially hot for
light to shine. (France National Center for Space
Research)
TIMELINE OF THE BIGBANG THEORY
400 million years after, emergence from cosmic
dark ages, clumps of gas collapsed to form first
star and galaxies.
Click on title for link

9 billion years after, the solar system was born.


Matter, space, energy and time were created.
According to NASA, it is better to think
of Big Bang as the simultaneous
appearance of space everywhere in
Click on title for link

the universe, space itself has been


stretching and carrying matter with it.
CONTRADICTION TO THE BIG BANG
Most of the universe is empty space: a
vacuum which is defined as a volume
containing no particles, force fields, nor
Click on title for link

waves. By definition a vacuum has no energy.


However, the Big Bang theory requires both in
its early phases and in its later phases that the
vacuum must have some energy.
CONTRADICTION TO THE BIG BANG
The law of conservation of energy demands
that energy cannot be created nor destroyed.
The universe has too many large structures, to
be created in 10-20 billion years. We know the
Click on title for link

rate of expansion, thus we can get a rough


estimate on how long it would take for them to
form. In order for these to form, it would take
about 100 billion years.
FACTS ABOUT THE UNIVERSE
There is no structure to it, matter and energy
distributed uniformly throughout.
According to NASA, gravitational pull of small
Click on title for link

fluctuations gave rise to the vast web like


structure of stars and emptiness seen today.
According to Albert Einstein, the
universe is a space-time
continuum. It could take one of
Click on title for link

three forms .
OPEN UNIVERSE
The size of the universe is infinite. Such a
universe will never end, but will eventually
become very cold and dark because stars
Click on title for link

gradually lose all of their energy.

Galaxies will continue racing outward and


therefore the universe will continue to expand
until all stars die off.
Click on title for link
CLOSED UNIVERSE

Gravity eventually stops the expansion of


the universe, after which it starts to contract until
all matter in the universe collapses to a point, a
Click on title for link

final singularity termed the "Big Crunch", the


opposite of the Big Bang.
Click on title for link
FLAT UNIVERSE

When traveling in a straight line you will never


return to your starting point. This is the shape of
our universe according to the latest
Click on title for link

observations.
Click on title for link
The universe will expand forever,
but more slowly all the time.
Click on title for link
So? How will the Universe will
end?
Click on title for link
BIG FREEZE
Force (Dark Energy) pulling the object
(Galaxies) apart is enough to stretch the rubber
band (Gravity) until it losses its elasticity.
Click on title for link

No more expansion; Universe would keep on


getting bigger.
Clusters of galaxies would separate.
BIG FREEZE
Solar system would move away from one
another.
Gas emanating would be too thin to create new
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stars.
Universe would be colder and darker.
BIG RIP
Stretches the rubber band past its elasticity limit;
tearing the rubber band.
Accelerated expansion of Universe might lead
Click on title for link

overcoming gravitational force tearing apart


galaxies and solar systems including the forces
of nature.
BIG RIP
Once the forces of nature tears apart it would
also lead to the breaming of matter and atoms.
Click on title for link
BIG CRUNCH
Gravity brings the Universe’s expansion to a halt
and reverses it.
Galaxies would start rushing towards each other
Click on title for link

clumped each other.


Increased temperature; Universe size would
plummet
SOLAR SYSTEM
Age: 4.6 billion years old

99.86% of the system’s mass is found in the


Sun and the majority of the remaining 0.14%
is contained within the solar system’s eight
planets.
SOLAR SYSTEM
The four smaller inner planets, also known as
the “terrestrial planets” (Mercury, Venus, Earth
and Mars), are primarily composed of rock and
metal.
The four outer planets, also known as the “gas
giants” (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune),
are substantially larger and more massive than
the inner planets.
SOLAR SYSTEM
The two innermost gas giants, Jupiter and
Saturn, are the larger of the four and are
composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.
The two outermost gas giants, Uranus and
Neptune, are composed largely of ices, (water,
ammonia and methane) and are sometimes also
referred to as the “ice giants“.
SOLAR SYSTEM

Other objects of note in the Solar System are


the dwarf planets (Ceres, Pluto, Haumea,
Makemake & Eris), moons, asteroids, the
asteroid belt, comets and the Kuiper belt.

Located within the Milky Way Galaxy.


SOLAR SYSTEM

Orbits of the planets are on the same plane and


elliptical.
All planets revolve around the sun.

Periods of revolution of the planets increase


with increasing distance.
SOLAR SYSTEM
All planets are located at regular intervals from
the Sun.
Prograde rotation is the counterclockwise
spin of a planet.
Earth has a prograde rotation while Venus
has retrograde rotation.
THEORIES ON THE ORIGIN OF THE
UNIVERSE
1. Solar Nebular Theory
2. Protoplanet Hypothesis
3. Planetesimal Hypothesis
4. Tidal Hypothesis
5. Catastrophic Hypothesis
6. Capture Hypothesis
7. Evolutionary Hypothesis
SOLAR NEBULAR THEORY
Proposed by Emmanuel Swedenborg,
Immanuel Kant and Pierre Simon Laplace in
1700s
A rotating cloud of dust and gas that cools and
contracts in the middle to form the Sun and the
rest into a disc that becomes the planets.
SOLAR NEBULAR THEORY
PROTOPLANET HYPOTHESIS
4.6 Billion years ago, a slowly- rotating gas and
dust dominated by hydrogen and helium starts
to contract due to gravity.
Mass move to the center to eventually become
a proto- Sun.
PROTOPLANET HYPOTHESIS
Remaining materials form a disc that will
eventually become the planets and the
momentum is transferred outwards.
Fragments of dust and solid matter begin
sticking to each other to form larger bodies.
PROTOPLANET HYPOTHESIS
Proto- planets are accretions of frozen water,
ammonia, methane, silicon, aluminum, iron and
other metals in rock and mineral grains
enveloped in hydrogen and helium.
High speed collisions with large objects destroys
much of the mantle of Mercury, puts Venus in
retrograde rotation.
PROTOPLANET HYPOTHESIS
Collision of the Earth with large object produced
the moon.
High speed collisions with large objects destroys
much of the mantle of Mercury, puts Venus in
retrograde rotation.
PLANETESIMAL HYPOTHESIS
T. C. Chamberlain and F. R. Moulton (1904)
Involving a star much bigger than the Sun
passing by the Sun and draw gaseous filaments
from both out which planetesimals were formed.
Planetesimal a rock type object formed in the
early solar system from collisions with other
objects.
PLANETESIMAL HYPOTHESIS
Matter was produced when a passing star
almost collided with the sun.
During the near-collision, hot gases were pulled
out of both stars and the gases then condensed
The planetesimal hypothesis is no longer
considered a likely explanation of the origin of
the solar system.
PLANETESIMAL HYPOTHESIS
Matter was produced when a passing star
almost collided with the sun.
During the near-collision, hot gases were pulled
out of both stars and the gases then condensed
The planetesimal hypothesis is no longer
considered a likely explanation of the origin of
the solar system.
TIDAL HYPOTHESIS
James Jeans and Harold Jeffreys
Earth was formed from materials pulled out from
the Sun.
Movement created big tides that tore away
some of the gas in the Sun’s outer layer.
Eventually, gas massed together and formed
bodies that became planets.
CATASTROPHIC HYPOTHESIS
The planets and smaller bodies of the solar
system originated in a violent event involving a
collision or near-collision between the Sun and
another object.
However, it is now a defunct idea.
CAPTURE HYPOTHESIS
Michael Mark Woolfson (1964)

This theory proposes that the Moon was formed


somewhere else in the solar system, and was
later captured by the gravitational field of the
Earth
SOLAR SYSTEM
Aristotle- Spherical Earth is stationary and is
sorrounded by 55 concentric transparent
spheres each one carrying the Sun, a planet or
some stars.
Aristarchus of Samos- Theories of
heliocentrism. Earth was not the center of the
Universe
SOLAR SYSTEM
Aristotle- Spherical Earth is stationary and is
sorrounded by 55 concentric transparent
spheres each one carrying the Sun, a planet or
some stars.
Aristarchus of Samos- Theories of
heliocentrism. Earth was not the center of the
Universe
SOLAR SYSTEM
Ptolemy- Earth was at the center of Universe

Copernicus- Sun was at the center of Universe

Tycho Brahe- devising the most precise


instruments available before the invention of the
telescope for observing the heavens.
SOLAR SYSTEM
Proved that comets were not just components of
Earth's atmosphere, but actual objects traveling
through space.
SOLAR SYSTEM
Galileo Galilie- Father of Modern Astronomy.
Made the first telescope, there is little doubt that
his was a huge improvement, magnifying
objects 20 times.
Observed moons of Jupiter, phases of Venus
and a supernova.
SOLAR SYSTEM
Proved that Copernican System was correct.
Johannes Kepler- Assistant of Brahe.
Responsible for planetary law of motion.
WHAT MAKES A
PLANET A PLANET?
In order for a planet to be a planet, it should:
1. Orbit the Sun;
2. sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome
rigid body forces so that it assumes a
hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round shape);
and
3. has cleared the neighbourhood around its
orbit
ARE THERE OTHER PLANETS IN
OUR GALAXY?
EXTREME PLANETS
1. Sweeps- 10
- 10 hours Orbit Time
PSR J1719- 14386
- 2 hours orbit time
2. Super Saturn J14076
- 20 x mass of Saturn
- 200 x larger than Saturn
EXTREME PLANETS
3. Tres 2B
- Darkest planet
- Reflect less than 1% light
4. HD 189733 B
- Glass rains
- Hot Jupiter with blue atmosphere
EXTREME PLANETS
5. Death by X- rays

6. WASP 12- b
- Carbon rich gas giant
- Discovered by Hubble Telescope
- Being eaten by its parent star about
189 quadrillion tons/ year
EXTREME PLANETS
7. V8 30 TAURI
- 2 million years old
- 1 x mass of the Sun
- 2x radius than the Sun
8. PSR B1620- 26B
- 2.5 x mass of Jupiter
- 12. 7 billion years old
EXTREME PLANETS
7. V8 30 TAURI
- 2 million years old
- 1 x mass of the Sun
- 2x radius than the Sun
8. PSR B1620- 26B
- 2.5 x mass of Jupiter
- 12. 7 billion years old
EXTREME PLANETS
9. KEPLER 37- B
- Smallest planet
- Rocky planet
- Hot for water to be formed
10. DENIS- P J0823031- 491201B
- Largest planet
- 28.5 x mass of Jupiter
EXTREME PLANETS
11. OGLE- 2005- BLG- 390 LB
o
- Coldest planet -223 C
- Frozen gasses
12. KELT 9B
o
- Hottest planet 4,300 C
- Gas Giant
STARS
STARS
Hipparchus is known for the discovery of the
first recorded nova (new star).
Stars are used for navigation and religious
ceremony.
Group by astronomers to create constellation
and asterisms.
STARS
A star is a massive ball of plasma that emits
light throughout the universe.
Stars are huge celestial bodies made mostly
hydrogen and helium that produce light and heat
from the churning nuclear forges inside their
cores.
STARS
Self luminous gaseous spherical body of great
mass which produces energy by means of
nuclear fusion reactions.

In the stars, because of high pressure the


elements started bonding and forming heavier
elements.
STARS
If the star is blue, it means it is very hot.

Stars are classified by temperature, color, size,


brightness.
STARS
Cold stars are RED.
The bigger or hotter the star is, the brighter it is.
Apparent brightness- brightness seen from the
Earth.
Absolute brightness- the real brightness of a
star.
STARS
Stars are mostly made of hydrogen.
Helium is about ¼ of the stars composition
Enjar Hertzprung and Henry Norris Russell
made a diagram that classifies the stars.
STARS
Stars do not live forever.
The larger the star is, the shorter its life is.
As the star becomes older, it becomes a red
giant.
STARS
FORMATION OF STARS
1) Giant Molecular Cloud: Clouds condenses
forming a huge globule of gas and dust
contracts under its own gravity
STARS
2) Protostar: Globule of gas and dust started to
heat up and glow forming a protostar.
3) T Tauri Stage: Protostar produce stellar
winds.
4) Nuclear Fusion: Hydrogen atoms fuses to
form helium.
STARS
2) Protostar: Globule of gas and dust started to
heat up and glow forming a protostar.
3) T Tauri Stage: Protostar produce stellar
winds.
4) Nuclear Fusion: Hydrogen atoms fuses to
form helium.
STARS
5) The young star reaches hydrostatic
equilibrium. The star release energy, stopping it
from contracting and causing it to shine.
STARS
When the red giant star uses up its energy and
becomes cooler, it expands.
Layers of the red giant fall off, releasing dust
and gas into space. This is called as planetary
nebula.
The remaining star is very dense and bright
called a white dwarf.
STARS
When a white dwarf stops glowing, it is called a
black dwarf/ brown dwarf.
However, stars that are massive are different.
When they die, they make a supernova- giant
explosion.
STARS
After the supernova, the star becomes either a
neutron star or a black hole.
YELLOW DWARF STAR
Lifetime: 4 - 17 billion years
Evolution: early, middle
Temperature: 5,000 - 7,300 °C
Spectral Types: G, F
Luminosity: 0.6 - 5.0
Radius: 0.96 - 1.4
Mass: 0.8 - 1.4
Prevalence: 10%
ORANGE DWARF STAR
Lifetime: 17 - 73 billion years
Evolution: early, middle
Temperature: 3,500 - 5,000 °C
Spectral Types: K
Luminosity: 0.08 - 0.6
Radius: 0.7 - 0.96
Mass: 0.45 - 0.8
Prevalence: 11%
RED DWARF STAR
Lifetime: 73 - 5500 billion years
Evolution: early, middle
Temperature: 1,800 - 3,500 °C
Spectral Types: M
Luminosity: 0.0001 - 0.08
Radius: 0.12 - 0.7
Mass: 0.08 - 0.45
Prevalence: 73%
BROWN DWARF STAR
Lifetime: unknown (long)
Evolution: not evolving
Temperature: 0 - 1,800 °C
Spectral Types: L, T, Y (after M)
Luminosity: ~0.00001
Radius: 0.06 - 0.12
Mass: 0.01 - 0.08
Prevalence: unknown (many)
BLUE GIANT STAR
Lifetime: 3 - 4,000 million years
Evolution: early, middle
Temperature: 7,300 - 200,000 °C
Spectral Types: O, B, A
Luminosity: 5.0 - 9,000,000
Radius: 1.4 - 250
Mass: 1.4 - 265
Prevalence: 0.7%
RED GIANT STAR
Lifetime: 0.1 - 2 billion years
Evolution: late
Temperature: 3,000 - 5,000 °C
Spectral Types: M, K
Luminosity: 100 - 1000
Radius: 20 - 100
Mass: 0.3 - 10
Prevalence: 0.4%
RED SUPER GIANT STAR
Lifetime: 3 - 100 million years
Evolution: late
Temperature: 3,000 - 5,000 ºC
Spectral Types: K, M
Luminosity: 1,000 - 800,000
Radius: 100 - 1650
Mass: 10 - 40
Prevalence: 0.0001%
WHITE DWARF
Lifetime: 1015- 1025 years
Evolution: dead, cooling
Temperature: 4,000 - 150,000 ºC
Spectral Types: D (degenerate)
Luminosity: 0.0001 - 100
Radius: 0.008 - 0.2
Mass: 0.1 - 1.4
Prevalence: 4%
BLACK DWARF
Lifetime: unknown (long)
Evolution: dead
Temperature: < -270 °C
Spectral Types: none
Luminosity: infinitesimal
Radius: 0.008 - 0.2
Mass: 0.1 - 1.4
Prevalence: ~0%
NEUTRON STAR
Lifetime: unknown (long)
Evolution: dead, cooling
Temperature: < 2,000,000 ºC
Spectral Types: D (degenerate)
Luminosity: ~0.000001
Radius: 5 - 15 km
Mass: 1.4 - 3.2
Prevalence: 0.7%
CONSTELLATIONS
CONSTELLATIONS
Observers in the ancient times imagined group
of stars that form pictures of animals, objects,
and people.
It could be traced back to the early Babylonians
and Greek civilizations.
CONSTELLATIONS
Regions of the sky in which stars appear to be
grouped together in a particular pattern or
shape, and have been given a name.
There are 88 official constellations some are
visible, some are not.
Astronomers can use constellation to help them
find objects in the night sky.
CONSTELLATIONS
Greeks named Orion which means hunter and is
prominent in the night sky all over the world in
winter.
Early Filipinos visualized the same group of
stars as Balatik
CONSTELLATIONS
Circumpolar constellation
Constellations that never disappear below the
horizon and can be seen all year around.
Circle around the pole star which is also named
as Polaris.
CONSTELLATIONS
Types of Circumpolar Constellations
Northern Constellations
CASSIOPEIA CEPHEUS DRACO
URSA MAJOR URSA MINOR
CONSTELLATIONS
Types of Circumpolar Constellations
Southern Constellations
CARINA CENTAURUS
CRUX
CONSTELLATIONS
Ursa Major
Also known as Big Dipper
Largest of all northern constellations
CONSTELLATIONS
Ursa Minor
Also known as Little Dipper
It is where Polaris is located
CONSTELLATIONS
Cassiopeia
Easily recognized for its prominent W shape
CONSTELLATIONS
Draco and Cepheus
Not widely known in spite of their sizes.
CONSTELLATIONS
Carina, centaurus and crux
Found circling the South Celestial Pole.
Crux is the smallest constellation yet the easiest
of the three to be identified.
CONSTELLATIONS
CONSTELLATIONS
CONSTELLATIONS
CONSTELLATIONS
CONSTELLATIONS
Polaris, commonly known as North star, is the
brightest star in the constellation Ursa Minor.
Very close to the North Celestial Pole.
CONSTELLATIONS
Revolution is responsible for the fact that we
can see different parts of the sky at different
parts of the year.
During summer in the Philippines, constellations
Orion and Taurus are not visible at night.
As the Earth revolves around its orbit, stars that
were concealed by the bright light of the Sun in
CONSTELLATIONS
As the Earth revolves around its orbit, stars that
were concealed by the bright light of the Sun in
the previous months will appear in the night sky.
LET’S PLAY!
CONSTELLATIONS
Religion

Agriculture
Navigation

Location and name of the stars


CONSTELLATIONS
Capricorn, Aquarius, Aries, Taurus, Gemini,
Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Ophiuchus,
Sagittarius.
Zodiacal constellations are a convenient way of
marking ecliptic and the path of the moon and
planet along ecliptic.
PLANETS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM
In order for a planet to be a planet, it should:
1. Orbit the Sun;
2. sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome
rigid body forces so that it assumes a
hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round shape);
and
3. has cleared the neighbourhood around its
orbit
MERCURY
Smallest planet in the solar system.
Closest planet to the sun, but it is not the
hottest.
Spins slowly compared to Earth it takes 59
Earth days to make 1 full rotation.
Mercury completes its revolution for 88 Earth
days.
MERCURY
Doesn’t have any moon.
It has been visited by two spacecraft: Mariner 10
and Messenger.
Spins slowly compared to Earth it takes 59
Earth days to make 1 full rotation.
Mercury completes its revolution for 88 Earth
days.
VENUS
Hottest planet in the solar system.
Has an active surface including volcanoes.
Venus spins the opposite director of Earth and
most other planets.
A day on Venus lasts for 243 Earth days.
A year on Venus lasts for 225 Earth days.
VENUS
It does not have any moon.
It has been visited by Mariner 2, Mariner 5,
Mariner 10, Pioneer Venus 1, Pioneer Venus 2,
and an orbiter called Magellan.
EARTH
The only livable planet in the solar system.
24 hours complete one rotation.
365.25 days to complete one revolution.
Only has 1 moon.
EARTH
Water covers 70% of Earth’s surface.
Atmosphere mostly made of N and has plenty of
O for us to breathe. It protects us from incoming
meteoroids before it can strike as a meteorite.
MARS
Sometimes called a red planet.
It has seasons, polar ice caps, volcanoes,
canyons, and weather.
Signs of an ancient flood had been observed.
There is evidence of liquid salty water in the
ground.
MARS
One rotation 24.6 hours.
One revolution 687 Earth days.
Phobos and Deimos
Rovers have been sent to drive around Mars
taking pictures and measurements.
JUPITER
Biggest planet in the solar system.
It has the biggest storm in the solar system
called the Great Red Spot.
Gas giant and doesn’t have a solid surface.
Jupiter has rings but too faint to be seen very
well.
JUPITER
One day on Jupiter is just 10 hours.
One year is 11.8 Earth years.
79 confirmed moons including the 4 Galilean
satellites Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto
Visited or passed by Pioneer 10 & 11, Voyager
1& 2, Cassini, New horizons and Juno.
JUPITER
One day on Jupiter is just 10 hours.
One year is 11.8 Earth years.
79 confirmed moons including the 4 Galilean
satellites Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto
Visited or passed by Pioneer 10 & 11, Voyager
1& 2, Cassini, New horizons and Juno.
SATURN
Rings are made of chunks of ice and rock.
Mostly made of H and He.
One day in Saturn is 10.7 hours
One year 29 Earth years.
53 moons and Titan is the largest of Saturn's
moons and the first to be discovered.
SATURN
Four robotic spacecraft have visited Saturn,
including Pioneer 11, Cassini, and Voyager 1
and 2.
URANUS
Made of water, methane, and ammonia fluids
above a small rocky center.
Its atmosphere is made of hydrogen and helium
like Jupiter and Saturn, but it also has methane.
Also has faint rings. Rotates into a retrograde
motion.
URANUS
One day on Uranus lasts a little over 17 hours
One year on Uranus is the same as 84 years on
Earth.
Uranus has 27 known moons.
Discovered in 1781 by William Herschel in Great
Britain.
URANUS
Uranus has only been visited by Voyager 2.
NEPTUNE
A dark, cold, and very windy planet.
Last of the planets in our solar system.
Atmosphere is made of hydrogen, helium, and
methane.
Neptune has six rings, but they're very hard to
see.
NEPTUNE
One day on Neptune goes by in 16 hours.
165 Earth years to go around once.
Neptune has 13 moons.
Discovered in 1846 by Urbain Le Verrier, John
Couch Adams, and Johann Galle.
EARTH

HOW WILL
WAS EARTH MILLIONS
BE MILLION
OF
YEARS
OF YEARS
AGO?
LATER?
EARTH
Third planet from the Sun. (149.6 million km)
Age- 4.5 billion years old
Only has 1 satellite.
23.934 hours to complete 1 rotation on its axis.
365.26 days to complete an orbit around the
Sun.
EARTH
Core is responsible for the planet's magnetic
field, which helps to deflect harmful charged
particles shot from the sun.
EARTH
Earth’s axis of rotation is tilted.
Not a perfect circle but an oval shaped eclipse
Located in the ‘Goldilocks zone”.
Core is responsible for the planet's magnetic
field, which helps to deflect harmful charged
particles shot from the sun.
EARTH
The word “Earth” is an English word for “Land”.
Belongs to the Milky Way Galaxy.
Only planet that could SUSTAIN life.
Before 500 B.C., people thought that the Earth
was Flat.
EARTH
Sir Isaac Newton showed that the Earth was not
a perfect sphere but a compressed spheroid.
At the early times, Earth was considered to be
waterless mass of rock.
Earth’s crust and oceans may have formed
within about 200 million years after the planet
had taken shape.
EARTH
Geologic time scale- is a record of all life forms
and the geological events in Earth’s history.
Scientist developed the time scale by studying
rock layers and fossils world wide.
The largest sections are called eons and divided
to eras, periods and epochs.
EARTH
Types of Eon
- Hadean - Archean
- Proterozoic - Phanerozoic
Largest interval units into which Geologic time is
divided and represented on the chart.
Hadean, Archean and Proterozoic referred as
Precambrian.
EARTH
Hadean Eon
- Oldest interval of Time (3, 900- 4, 600 M)
No rocks recorded.
Archean Eon
- Oldest rock were deposited during this eon.
(2,500- 3, 900 M)
EARTH
Also known as Archaeozoic Eon.
Sedimentary rock deposited in the oceans
during the Archean eon contain microscopic life
form that have bacterial characteristics.
Stromatolites formed by colonies of
photosynthesizing bacteria and lived in shallow
waters.
EARTH
Atmosphere was composed of methane,
ammonia, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide.
Climate and weather in the Archean Eon was
very hot and wet. Oceans also were warm.
Extensive worldwide volcanic eruptions ejected
volcanic ash and dust into the atmosphere causing
violent lightening storms and continual rain.
EARTH
Proterozoic Eon- 540 Million – 2, 500 Million
years ago
By the end of the proterozoic eon Eukaryotes,
cells that have nucleus appeared.
Oxygen accumulated in the atmosphere, caused
those bacteria that required the atmospheric
conditions of the Archean Eon to die
EARTH
Experienced two ice ages, when polar ice
became at least a kilometer deep and covered a
area extending to the equator.
EARTH
Phanerozoic Eon- 540 Million years ago and
continues in the present.
Rocks deposited during the Phanerozoic Eon
contain evidences of fossilized hard body parts
of modern living things.
EARTH
Divided into three eras: Paleozoic, Mesozoic,
and Cenozoic
EARTH
Derived from the Greek word phineros meaning
visible and zoo means life.
Era of visible life.
Paleozoic Era- many life forms appeared during
the cambrians.
EARTH
Paleozoic era: Cambrian period
Age of invertebrates
Drastic drop of temperature and oxygen that
leads almost all species die in a mass
extinction.
EARTH
Paleozoic era: Ordovisian period
Age of vertebrates
First known marine transgression occured
during this period.
EARTH
EARTH
Paleozoic era: Silurian period.
Age of arachnids.
Rise of fishes and reef building coral.
Mid climate, stable and warm temperature.
First period to see microfossils of extension
terrestrial biota
EARTH
Near the end of this period the earliest land
plants as well as animals evolved on land.
Paleozoic Era: Divonian Period
First amphibians appear.
Sea covered most of the land.
EARTH
Violent vulcanic eruptions and crustal
movement.
Climate became drier.
Paleozoic Era: Carboniferous Period
Age of amphibians
Age of coal forest.
EARTH
Abundant life on land and water.
Dead body of plants got burried in the period
forming the coal that we use today.
Paleozoic Era: Permian Period
Gymnosperms plants.
Mass extinction happened million years ago.
EARTH
90% of ocean life and 78% land life dead.
Reptiles and amphibians survived.
Mesozoic Era
Age of reptile
Break up of pangea and formation of rocky
mountains.
EARTH
Surviving reptiles and amphibians evovled into
many other species.
Triassic, Jurrasic and Cretaceous.
Mesozoic Era: Triassic Period
Reptiles are successful in this period
Appearance of primitive mammals.
EARTH
Continent emergent.
Pangea still exists.
EARTH
EARTH
Mesozoic Era: Jurassic Period
Great plant eating dinasaur were in existence.
Oceans were full of fish, squid and couled
ammonities.
Atmospheric CO2 level to 4-5 times more than
the present day.
EARTH
Mesozoic Era: Cretaceus Period.
Age of flowers.
First primated and angiosperm appeared.
Atmosphere is close as the present day.
EARTH
Cenozoic Era
Age of mammals and humans.
Ice age.
Land and climate change a lot.
Fossils are in top of rock layers and easier to
find.
EARTH
Cenozoic Era: Tertiary Period
Age of mammals.
All dinasaurs and half of other animals and plant
were extinct.
Population of plants increases
EARTH
Cenozoic Era: Quntary Period
Age of humans and giant mammals.
Continent are in the present positions.
EARTH
Paleocene Epoch
Tropical climate.
Modern plants appear.
Extinction of the dinasaurs.
EARTH
Eocene Epoch.
Extensive terrestrial sedimentation.
First grasses appeared.
Dawn of mammalian dominance.
EARTH
Oligocene Epoch.
Warm but cooling climate.
Rapid evolution and diversification of fauna
especially mammals and modern flowering
plants.
Dawn of mammalian dominance.
EARTH
Miocene Epoch.
Moderate ice house climate.
Whales, apes and grazing mammals dominated.
Pliocene Epoch.
Ice age begun.
Cool and dry climate.
EARTH
Pleistocene Epoch.
Ice age.
Glacial climates.
Evolution of modern humans.
EARTH SUBSYSTEMS
EARTH
Geosphere
Includes all the rock on the rock surface and the
interior.
Lithosphere and asthenosphere are subunit of
geosphere.
EARTH
Lithosphere
Outermost layer of the Earth, which constitutes
the crust and everything that’s in the crust.
Asthenosphere
Represent below the crust, which composes of
solid and molten rocks called magma.
EARTH
Hydrosphere
70% of the Earth
Made up of salt water in the oceans and seas
and fresh water in the lakes, rivers and streams
and the frozen water on Earth.
EARTH
Hydrosphere
70% of the Earth
Made up of salt water in the oceans and seas
and fresh water in the lakes, rivers and streams
and the frozen water on Earth.
EARTH
Surface water (water found in the surface of the
Earth)

Fresh water
- Glaciers
- Rivers
- Lakers
EARTH
Salt water- Oceans and seas (Atlantic, Pacific,
Indian, Antartic, Arctic)

Ground Water
- Fresh water- River bed (solid)
- Underground- “Confined and unconfined
Aquifer (liquid)”
The
The big water drop
intermediate-sized
represents
water drop the total
represents
The total
amount
the tinyof water
amount of drop
water on
fresh
represents
earth,
water includingthe oceans,
in lakes, total
rivers,
amount
lakes,
and of freshwater
rivers, ice caps,
groundwater. in
The
lakes and
glaciers, rivers only
sphere has a diameter and
groundwater.
of about 273 The kmsphereor
is10.6
about 1,385
million cubic km
km ofin
diameter or about 1.386
fresh water.
billion cubic km of water.
EARTH
Cryosphere- Sum of all frozen water around the
globe.

Water vapor- Water in gaseous state.


Moisture content- is the amount of moisture in
the sample given as a percentage of the
sample's original (wet) weight.
EARTH
Relative humidity- the amount of water vapor
present in air expressed as a percentage of the
amount needed for saturation at the same
temperature.
EARTH
Biosphere
Is the sphere of all living things on Earth.
This includes all plants, animals, bacteria and
protists.
Biodiversity- Variety of all forms of life, from
genes to species, through to the broad scale of
ecosystems.
EARTH
Flora- refers to all plants.
Fauna- refers to all animals.
This includes all plants, animals, bacteria and
protists.
Biodiversity- Variety of all forms of life, from
genes to species, through to the broad scale of
ecosystems.
EARTH
Atmosphere
Extends from less than 1 m below the planets
surface to more than 10,000 km above the
planet.
21% O, 78% N and 1% Ar and other trace
elements
EARTH
The upper portion of the atmosphere protects
the organisms of the biosphere from the sun;
ultraviolet radiation. It also absorbs and emits
heat.
Amount of Water vapor in the atmosphere is an
important factor that influence weather and
climate.
EARTH
Greenhouse gases are certain molecules in the
air that have the ability to trap heat in the Earth's
atmosphere.
The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of
Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the
Sun's ultraviolet radiation.
EARTH
Layers of the Atmosphere
Troposphere- contains 80% of the air in the
planet.
Region occur the clouds, wind, and all
phenomena that make up our weather.
EARTH
Stratosphere- The gases in this layer help
absorb harmful rays from the sun.
It is where a form of oxygen called ozone
(O3) exist.
Mesosphere- Coldest layer of the atmosphere.
Temperature drops about -100 ⁰C.
EARTH
Thermosphere- characterized by steadily
increasing temperature with height
The hottest layer of the atmosphere, with a
temperature of 2,000⁰C.
Exosphere- the outer fringe region of the
atmosphere of the earth or a celestial body such
as a planet.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Water cycle also called as Hydrologic cycle.
Cycle that involves continuous circulation of
water in the Earth- atmosphere system.
Water can be in the atmosphere, on the land, in
ocean and even underground.
In the cycle, water changes state between
liquid, solid (ice) and gas (water vapor).
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Stage 1: Evaporation
Evaporation is the process where liquid changes
to vapor form.
Evaporation turns water on the surface of
oceans, rivers & lakes into water vapor using
energy from the sun.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Stage 1: Transpiration
Process when water evaporates from plants
Plants lose water through their stems, leaves
and roots.
A fully grown tree may lose several hundred
gallons of water through its leaves on a hot, dry
day.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Stage 2: Condensation
Process by which water vapor is changed into
liquid water.
Water vapor rises in the atmosphere and cools,
forming tiny water droplets.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Stage 3: Precipitation
If tiny water droplets combine with each other
they grow larger and eventually become heavy
to stay in the air. They fall to the ground as rain,
snow and other types of precipitation
It is the primary way water is delivered from the
Atmosphere to the Earth.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Stage 4: Runoff
Variety of ways by which water moves across
the land.
Water may seep the ground, evaporate into the
air become stored in lakes reservoir or extracted
for agricultural or other human uses.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Stage 4: Infiltration
Water seeps into the ground and becomes a
part of ground water.
Runoff soaks into the ground.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Stage 5: Accumulation
Process in which water pools in large bodies
(like oceans, seas and lakes) Most of the water
on Earth is on the ocean,
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Earth’s water is always in movement on, above
and below the surface of the Earth,
There is no beginning and end.
Water can change states among liquid, vapor
and ice at various places in the water cycle.
These processes are happening in the blink of
an eye and over millions of years.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Groundwater
Below a certain depth, ground that is permeable
enough to hold water , it is saturated with water.
The upper surface of this zone of saturation is
called the water table
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Precipitation that seeps down through soil until it
reaches rock material that is saturated with
water.
Water in the ground is stored in the spaces
between rock particles.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Aquifers are underground reservoirs.
ALMOST no bacteria live in aquifers. Many
pollutants are filtered out as the water passes
through the soil on its way to the aquifer.
To tap the ground water in an aquifer, wells are
dug until they reach the top layer of the aquifer,
the water table.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Wells are drilled into the aquifers and water can
be pumped out.
Precipitation eventually adds water into the
porous rock of the aquifer.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Carbon Cycle
An element.
The basis of life on Earth.
Found on rocks, oceans, atmosphere.
Carbon atoms are used repeatedly on Earth.
They cycle between Earth and atmosphere.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Plants pull CO2 from the atmosphere and use it
to make food.
Carbon becomes part of the plant (stored food).
When organisms eat plants, they take in the
carbon and some becomes part of their own
bodies.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
When plants and animals die, most of their
bodies are decomposed and C atoms are return
to the atmosphere.
Some are not decomposed fully and end up in
deposits underground.
C in rocks and underground deposits is released
very slowly into the atmosphere.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Fossil fuels release C stores very slowly.
Burning anything releases more C into the
atmosphere- especially fossil fuels.
Increased CO2 in the atmosphere increases
global warming.
Fewer plants mean less CO2 removed from the
atmosphere.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Burn less, especially fossil fuels.
Promote plant life, especially trees.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Nitrogen makes up 78% of our atmosphere.
Nitrogen in the atmosphere it is mostly in form of
N2 which is a compound that plants and animals
cannot use.
Converting N into compounds that can be used
by plants and animals is called the Nitrogen
Cycle.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Nitrogen is an essential component of DNA,
RNA, and Proteins.
Nitrogen fixation, Ammonification, Nitrification
and Denitrification.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Process 1: Nitrogen Fixation
Process in which the N2 compound in the
atmosphere breaks and combine with other
compounds.
NH3 and N2O
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Bacteria Rhizobium converts N2 to NH3.
Lightning strike converts N2 to N2O or NO3.
Industrial production. Chemical manipulation
turn N2 into NH3.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Process 2: Ammonification
After all the living organisms have used organic
N decomposer bacteria convert N to NH3.
Bacillus, Clostridium, Proteus, Pseudomonas,
and Streptomyces
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Process 3: Nitrification
Converts NH3 into NO2 and NO3 which most
plants can use.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Process 3: Nitrification
Converts NH3 into NO2 and NO3 which most
plants can use.
Nitrate and nitrite salts completely dissolve in
water.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Process 4: Denitrification
Converts N compounds into atmospheric N
The main process is performed by bacteria in
the soil. It can also happen by burning fossil
fuels.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Thiobacillus denitrificans, Micrococcus
denitrificans, and some species of Serratia,
Pseudomonas, and Achromobacter are
implicated as denitrifiers.
Combustion releases toxic N compounds into
the atmosphere.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Commercial fertilizers release nitrous oxide into
the atmosphere and introduce excess N into the
environment.
Number 1 contributor of new N in the Nitrogen
cycle.
Limiting factor for plant growth.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Phosphorus Cycle
Discovered by Henning Brand 1669
Greek word phosphorous meaning bringer of
light
White Phosphorus is used in some explosives
including rockets.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Red phosphorus used in match heads.
Known for being essential to DNA and to lesser
extent fertilizer.
Essential nutrients for plants and animals.
Part of DNA- molecules and RNA- molecules,
molecules that store energy (ATP and ADP).
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Building blocks of certain parts of the human
and animal body, such as bones and teeth.
Atmosphere does not play a significant role in
the movement of P.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Sulfur Cycle
10th most abundant element in the environment.
Bright yellow crystalline solid in normal state,
most stored underground in rocks and minerals
and ocean floor deposits.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Present in proteins, amino acids, vitamins and
enzymes necessary for plant and animals.
Important elements of industrial processes.
Sulfur dioxide is a bleaching agent used to
bleach wood pulp.
Sulfur dioxide kills molds and bacteria
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Used as medicine; used to treat infectious
diseases.
Medications for dandruff and warts have this
ingredients.
Combining alcohol and sulfur can be used to
treat acne and other skin disorders.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Use to make cements, matches, fireworks,
dyes, fungicides.
Powdered sulfur is found in lotions and skin
cream ingredients.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is released into the
atmosphere (vulcanic eruptions, fossil fuel
burning and the anaerobic decay of sulfur
containing biological material in swamps, bogs)
Marine algae produces dimethyl sulfide, a
volatile compound that enter the atmosphere as
tiny droplets.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Sulfur dioxide gas is released into the
atmosphere by volcanoes and also forms when
dimethyl sulfide reacts with oxygen gas.
Sulfur dioxide reacts with atmospheric oxygen to
produce sulfur trioxide (SO3).
Sulfur dioxide reacts with tiny water droplets to
form sulfuric acid (H2SO4).
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Sulfur oxides reacts with ammonia to produce
tiny particles of ammonium salts.
Winds carry droplets of sulfuric acid and
particles of sulfate salts which then fall to the
Earth as acid deposition.
Adding sulfur compounds into the air, use of
fossil fuels increases the rate of acid deposition
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Plants take up ions of sulfate salts (SO42) from
the soil.
Decomposition releases sulfate salts which can
be taken up by plants as well as gaseous
hydrogen sulfide.
Hydrogen sulfide enters the atmosphere
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
But when decay occurs in an oxygen free
environment, anaerobic bacteria break down
hydrogen sulfide and releases sulfur gas.
Oxygen requiring bacteria can incorporate sulfur
into sulfate salts, which can be taken up by
plants and enter food chain once again.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
But when decay occurs in an oxygen free
environment, anaerobic bacteria break down
hydrogen sulfide and releases sulfur gas.
Oxygen requiring bacteria can incorporate sulfur
into sulfate salts, which can be taken up by
plants and enter food chain once again.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Oxygen Cycle
Colorless, odorless and tasteless gas.
Denser than air
Poor conductor of heat and electricity.
One of the main components of Earth’s
atmosphere, can always be found with other
elements.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Two oxygen atoms make up one oxygen
molecule, and three oxygen atoms together can
make up the molecule called ozone.
Humans need it to breathe.
Decomposition of organic matter.
Water can dissolve oxygen, this dissolved
oxygen supports marine life.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
W/o O, anaerobic bacteria produces acids.
Anaerobic bacteria put toxic gases in the water
including Hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, CO2 and
methane. These gases are all toxic to fish.
No fish enables disease hosting mosquitoes to
thrive, as mosquitoes are natural food for fish.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
O atoms in the Earth circulate through a series
of intricate processes.
Plants releases O into the atmosphere as a by-
product of photosynthesis.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Animals take in O through process of
respiration.
Animals breakdown sugars and food.
Oxygen is balanced between the atmosphere
and the ocean.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Humans and animals breathe in O and breathe
out CO2 through their processes of metabolism,
sparkling the process of photosynthesis, once
again linking back to the plants contribution to
the O cycle.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
Humans and animals breathe in O and breathe
out CO2 through their processes of metabolism,
sparkling the process of photosynthesis, once
again linking back to the plants contribution to
the O cycle.
LAYERS OF THE EARTH
LAYERS OF THE EARTH
Crust
Outermost shell of the terrestrial planet and is
the thinnest layer of the planet and is made of
solid rocks and minerals.
Earth’s crust is composed of igneous,
metamorphic and sedimentary rocks
LAYERS OF THE EARTH
Continental crust
Crust under the continents and other large land
masses. It is thicker and an older part of the
Earth’s crust.
Granite is a mineral that is a major component
of continental crust. Silicate Aluminun (SiAl)
most abundant minerals in the continental crust.
LAYERS OF THE EARTH
Ocean crust
Crust located under the world’s ocean. It is
denser and heavier than continental crust and is
mostly made of basaltic rock.
Silicon and magnesium, the most abundant
minerals in the oceanic crust.
LAYERS OF THE EARTH
Conrad Discontinuity
Transition zone between the continental and
oceanic crust.
Corresponds to the sub-horizontal boundary in
continental crust at which the seismic wave
velocity increases in a discontinuous way.
LAYERS OF THE EARTH
Isostasy
Refers to the gravitational equilibrium between
the Earth’s lithosphere and asthenosphere such
that the tectonic plates float at an elevation
which depends on their thickness and density.
LAYERS OF THE EARTH
Isostasy
Refers to the gravitational equilibrium between
the Earth’s lithosphere and asthenosphere such
that the tectonic plates float at an elevation
which depends on their thickness and density.
LAYERS OF THE EARTH
Mohorovičić Discontinuity
Andrija Mohorovičić a Croatian seismologist.
Moho separates both the oceanic crust and
continental crust from the underlying mantle.
It lies entirely within the lithosphere; only
beneath mid ocean ridges.
LAYERS OF THE EARTH
Mantle
Mostly solid bulk of Earth’s interior.
It cooled down. Water trapped inside minerals
erupted with lava- outgassing.
As more water outgassed, the mantle solidified.
O (44.8%), Si (21.5%) and Mg (22.8%) and
other trace elements like Fe, Al, Ca, Na, K.
LAYERS OF THE EARTH
Plate tectonics, volcanoes, seafloor spreading
and earthquakes.
Largest layer of the Earth.
LAYERS OF THE EARTH
Upper mantle
Extends from the crust to a depth of about 410
km
Mostly solid.
Lower mantle
Hotter and denser than the upper mantle and
the transition zone.
LAYERS OF THE EARTH
Gutenberg Discontinuity
Separates and divides the lower mantle from the
outer core. The lower mantle above
the Gutenberg line is solid, but the outer core
below the line is liquid molten.
LAYERS OF THE EARTH
Core
Center of the Earth.
Responsible for the generation of Earth’s
magnetic field
Very hot and dense ball- shaped that lies
beneath the Earth.
LAYERS OF THE EARTH
Outer Core
Mostly made of liquid iron and nickel.
Churning metal of the outer core creates and
sustains Earth’s magnetic field.
Inner Core
It rotates eastward, like the surface, but it’s a little faster,
making an extra rotation about every 1,000 years.
LAYERS OF THE EARTH
Earth’s magnetic field
Defined by a North and South pole that align
generally with the axis of rotation.
The rotation of the earth plays a part in
generating the currents (electric current) which
re presumed to be the source of the magnetic
field.
LAYERS OF THE EARTH
Earth’s magnetic field is generated by a
geodynamo.
Coriolis force -result from the earth’s spinning
motion- causes swirling whirlpools.