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# Lab #2

by
[Name]
[Partner Name]

Course
Professor
[Name of Institution]

Date

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Contents
Objectives ....................................................................................................................................... 3

## Experiment 2A :( Homemade Capacitor) ....................................................................................... 3

Procedure .................................................................................................................................... 3

Analysis....................................................................................................................................... 4

## Experiment 2B :( Change in Voltage with Variable Capacitor) ..................................................... 5

Procedure .................................................................................................................................... 5

Analysis....................................................................................................................................... 5

Table 1 .................................................................................................................................... 5

## Experiment 2B-1 :( Measuring Electrometer’s Capacitance) ......................................................... 7

Procedure .................................................................................................................................... 7

Analysis....................................................................................................................................... 7

## Experiment 2C :( Measuring Parallel & Series Capacitance) ......................................................... 8

Procedure .................................................................................................................................... 8

Analysis....................................................................................................................................... 8

Conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 10

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Objectives
 The first objective of this lab is to observe the capacitance of capacitor by change in the
area of metallic plates and by change in separation between two plates.
 The second objective of this lab is to investigate the relationship between charge, voltage
and capacitance for a parallel plate capacitor.
 The third objective of this lab is to measure precise value of capacitance provided by
electrometer and qualitatively study relationship between charge, voltage and capacitance
for a parallel plate capacitor.
 The third objective of this lab is to observe parallel and series capacitance behavior.

## Equipment used in Lab

 Aluminum foil
 Cardboard
 Wires
 Multi-meter
 Electrometer [ES-9078]
 Electrostatic voltage source [ES-9057B]
 Capacitor [30pf]
 Variable capacitor [ES-9042A]
 Sheet of dielectric material

## Experiment 2A :( Homemade Capacitor)

Procedure
 Initially in this experiment we will observe the capacitance of capacitor by change in the
area of metallic plates and by change in separation between two plates by the help of
equation given below.
𝑘𝜀𝑜 𝐴
C=
𝑑

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 After observation of capacitance behaviors than prepare twin aluminum foil in rectangular,
circular or triangular shape and its surface area should be known.
 Prepare cardboard with same surface area of aluminum foils.
 Put aluminum foils both sides of cardboard and tape them on it.
 Tape the wires on each sides of capacitor.
 Measure capacitance of capacitor with Multi-meter.

Analysis
 Predict the capacitor capacitance that you plan to build and assume different surface
areas and separations. What happens when you increase and decrease their values?

## The capacitance behavior can be observed by the equation below.

𝑘𝜀𝑜 𝐴
C=
𝑑
As the area of surface is directly proportional to capacitance so when area increases the
capacitance of capacitor increases and separation of the plates is inversely proportional to
capacitance so when separation of the plates increases the capacitance of capacitor
decreases.

## Yes it matches to my prediction and it was increasing on each other.

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Experiment 2B :( Change in Voltage with Variable Capacitor)
Procedure
 The parallel plate capacitor is connected to the electrometer and the electrometer is
grounded to the earth.
 With the plate separation at 2mm, charge the plates by momentarily connecting them across
the voltage source set at 30 V.
 Adjust the scale sensitivity of the electrometer so that the initially charged plates represent
 Increase the plate separation and note the electrometer’s readings at various separations
and put data in data sheet.

Analysis
Data sheet for 2B-2 Change in Voltage with Variable Capacitor

Table 1
Plate Separation (m) Voltage (V)
0.002 45
0.005 50
0.01 55
0.02 60
0.03 60

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 Draw graph of voltage v/s plate separation.

## Voltage (V) v/s Plate seperation (m)

70

60

50
Voltage

40

30

20

10

0
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035
Plate seperation

Figure 1.

##  How does the potential vary with capacitance?

As capacitance increase the voltage increases because the capacitor is still connected to the
power supply the potential difference can't change

 What happened to the capacitance when the space between two plates of the capacitor
is filled with dielectric?
Dielectric medium decreases the strength of electric field and due to which the capacitance
of capacitor increases.

##  Explain what is the dielectric Constant?

The ratio of the permittivity of a substance to the permittivity of free space is known as
dielectric constant. It shows that material concentrates electric flux and is the electrical
equivalent of relative magnetic permeability.

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Experiment 2B-1 :( Measuring Electrometer’s Capacitance)
Procedure
 Obtain a low leakage of capacitor of known value, C around 30pf.
 Charge the capacitor with known voltage V, not higher than 100 V because that’s the limit
of electrometer.
 Remove the charged capacitor from the supply used to charged it and be careful not to
ground it any way to remove the charge.
 Connect the charged capacitor across electrometer input leads and note the voltage VE
indicated by electrometer.
 Calculate the internal capacitance of electrometer.

Analysis
The internal capacitance of electrometer is given by the formula below.

𝑉− 𝑉𝐸
CE = ∗𝐶
𝑉

V = 30 V

VE = 6 V

CE = 24 pf

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Experiment 2C :( Measuring Parallel & Series Capacitance)
Procedure
 Locate the multi-meter and switch it to measure capacitance.
 Insert one of the three capacitors in the slots and measure capacitance in table below.

## C1 (F) C2 (F) C3 (F)

4 4 1

 Wire the capacitances in the circuit board in series and do analysis as mentioned below.
 Wire the capacitances in the circuit board in parallel and do analysis as mentioned below.
 Wire the capacitances in the circuit board in series and parallel combination and do analysis
as mentioned below.

Analysis
 Calculate the total capacitance of series capacitor combination with the help of multi-
meter and show the work below.

Figure 2.

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Series Capacitance (Calculated) = 0.67 pf
Series Capacitance (Measured) = 0.683 pf
Percent Difference = 1.9%
1 1 1
CP = + +
𝐶1 𝐶2 𝐶3

 Calculate the total capacitance of parallel combination of capacitors with the help of
multi-meter and show the work below.

Figure 3.

## Parallel Capacitance (Calculated) = 9 pf

Parallel Capacitance (Measured) = 8.77 pf
Percent Difference = 0.33%
CP = C1 + C2 + C3

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 Calculate the total capacitance of series and parallel combination of capacitors with
the help of multi-meter and show the work below.

Figure 4.

## Parallel / Series Capacitance (Calculated) = 4.8 pf

Parallel / Series Capacitance (Measured) = 4.65 pf
Percent Difference = 3.1%

Conclusion
To conclude this lab, we basically did three different activities in first activity we observe
the capacitance of capacitor by change in the area of metallic plates and by change in
separation between two plates and conclude that the area has a direct relation with
capacitance and separation has inverse relation. In second activity we o investigate the
relationship between charge, voltage and capacitance for a parallel plate capacitor and
conclude that As capacitance increase the voltage increases because the capacitor is still
connected to the power supply the potential difference can't change and dielectric medium

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decreases the strength of electric field and due to which the capacitance of capacitor
increases. In third activity we built the circuit of series combination, parallel combination
and series and parallel combinations and find capacitance with the help of multi-meter.

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