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Oct 02, 2019

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Electronics lab

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Electronics lab

© All Rights Reserved

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by

[Name]

[Partner Name]

Course

Professor

[Name of Institution]

Date

1

Contents

Objectives ....................................................................................................................................... 3

Procedure .................................................................................................................................... 3

Analysis....................................................................................................................................... 4

Procedure .................................................................................................................................... 5

Analysis....................................................................................................................................... 5

Table 1 .................................................................................................................................... 5

Procedure .................................................................................................................................... 7

Analysis....................................................................................................................................... 7

Procedure .................................................................................................................................... 8

Analysis....................................................................................................................................... 8

Conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 10

2

Objectives

The first objective of this lab is to observe the capacitance of capacitor by change in the

area of metallic plates and by change in separation between two plates.

The second objective of this lab is to investigate the relationship between charge, voltage

and capacitance for a parallel plate capacitor.

The third objective of this lab is to measure precise value of capacitance provided by

electrometer and qualitatively study relationship between charge, voltage and capacitance

for a parallel plate capacitor.

The third objective of this lab is to observe parallel and series capacitance behavior.

Aluminum foil

Cardboard

Wires

Multi-meter

Electrometer [ES-9078]

Electrostatic voltage source [ES-9057B]

Capacitor [30pf]

Test leads

Variable capacitor [ES-9042A]

Sheet of dielectric material

Procedure

Initially in this experiment we will observe the capacitance of capacitor by change in the

area of metallic plates and by change in separation between two plates by the help of

equation given below.

𝑘𝜀𝑜 𝐴

C=

𝑑

3

After observation of capacitance behaviors than prepare twin aluminum foil in rectangular,

circular or triangular shape and its surface area should be known.

Prepare cardboard with same surface area of aluminum foils.

Put aluminum foils both sides of cardboard and tape them on it.

Tape the wires on each sides of capacitor.

Measure capacitance of capacitor with Multi-meter.

Analysis

Predict the capacitor capacitance that you plan to build and assume different surface

areas and separations. What happens when you increase and decrease their values?

𝑘𝜀𝑜 𝐴

C=

𝑑

As the area of surface is directly proportional to capacitance so when area increases the

capacitance of capacitor increases and separation of the plates is inversely proportional to

capacitance so when separation of the plates increases the capacitance of capacitor

decreases.

4

Experiment 2B :( Change in Voltage with Variable Capacitor)

Procedure

The parallel plate capacitor is connected to the electrometer and the electrometer is

grounded to the earth.

With the plate separation at 2mm, charge the plates by momentarily connecting them across

the voltage source set at 30 V.

Adjust the scale sensitivity of the electrometer so that the initially charged plates represent

a meter reading of about 1/5 scale.

Increase the plate separation and note the electrometer’s readings at various separations

and put data in data sheet.

Analysis

Data sheet for 2B-2 Change in Voltage with Variable Capacitor

Table 1

Plate Separation (m) Voltage (V)

0.002 45

0.005 50

0.01 55

0.02 60

0.03 60

5

Draw graph of voltage v/s plate separation.

70

60

50

Voltage

40

30

20

10

0

0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035

Plate seperation

Figure 1.

As capacitance increase the voltage increases because the capacitor is still connected to the

power supply the potential difference can't change

What happened to the capacitance when the space between two plates of the capacitor

is filled with dielectric?

Dielectric medium decreases the strength of electric field and due to which the capacitance

of capacitor increases.

The ratio of the permittivity of a substance to the permittivity of free space is known as

dielectric constant. It shows that material concentrates electric flux and is the electrical

equivalent of relative magnetic permeability.

6

Experiment 2B-1 :( Measuring Electrometer’s Capacitance)

Procedure

Obtain a low leakage of capacitor of known value, C around 30pf.

Charge the capacitor with known voltage V, not higher than 100 V because that’s the limit

of electrometer.

Remove the charged capacitor from the supply used to charged it and be careful not to

ground it any way to remove the charge.

Connect the charged capacitor across electrometer input leads and note the voltage VE

indicated by electrometer.

Calculate the internal capacitance of electrometer.

Analysis

The internal capacitance of electrometer is given by the formula below.

𝑉− 𝑉𝐸

CE = ∗𝐶

𝑉

V = 30 V

VE = 6 V

CE = 24 pf

7

Experiment 2C :( Measuring Parallel & Series Capacitance)

Procedure

Locate the multi-meter and switch it to measure capacitance.

Insert one of the three capacitors in the slots and measure capacitance in table below.

4 4 1

Wire the capacitances in the circuit board in series and do analysis as mentioned below.

Wire the capacitances in the circuit board in parallel and do analysis as mentioned below.

Wire the capacitances in the circuit board in series and parallel combination and do analysis

as mentioned below.

Analysis

Calculate the total capacitance of series capacitor combination with the help of multi-

meter and show the work below.

Figure 2.

8

Series Capacitance (Calculated) = 0.67 pf

Series Capacitance (Measured) = 0.683 pf

Percent Difference = 1.9%

1 1 1

CP = + +

𝐶1 𝐶2 𝐶3

Calculate the total capacitance of parallel combination of capacitors with the help of

multi-meter and show the work below.

Figure 3.

Parallel Capacitance (Measured) = 8.77 pf

Percent Difference = 0.33%

CP = C1 + C2 + C3

9

Calculate the total capacitance of series and parallel combination of capacitors with

the help of multi-meter and show the work below.

Figure 4.

Parallel / Series Capacitance (Measured) = 4.65 pf

Percent Difference = 3.1%

Conclusion

To conclude this lab, we basically did three different activities in first activity we observe

the capacitance of capacitor by change in the area of metallic plates and by change in

separation between two plates and conclude that the area has a direct relation with

capacitance and separation has inverse relation. In second activity we o investigate the

relationship between charge, voltage and capacitance for a parallel plate capacitor and

conclude that As capacitance increase the voltage increases because the capacitor is still

connected to the power supply the potential difference can't change and dielectric medium

10

decreases the strength of electric field and due to which the capacitance of capacitor

increases. In third activity we built the circuit of series combination, parallel combination

and series and parallel combinations and find capacitance with the help of multi-meter.

11

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