1 Chapter 15 AP Euro IDs Janisha Sanford 10.24.

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1) (Prince) Henry the Navigator  Called the Navigator because of the school he established for the study of geography and navigation and for the annual expeditions he sent down the western coast of Africa  Gold traveled consistently with Muslim caravans to Mediterranean ports from the African cities of Niani and Timbuktu  Henry established trading posts and forts on the Guinea coast and penetrated into the continent all the way to Timbuktu  Portuguese ships transported gold to Lisbon and by 1500, Portugal controlled the flow of gold to Europe  The golden century if Portuguese prosperity has begun  But Portugal still pushed farther south down the west coast of Africa (connection with Diaz + da Gama) 2) Diaz  1487  Bartholomew Daiz rounded the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa  But storms and threatened mutiny forced him to turn back 3) da Gama  Portuguese mariner  reached India and returned to Lisbon loaded with spices and sample of Indian cloth 4) Cannon (connect with Henry)  Because the Muslims had controlled the rich spice trade of the Indian Ocean for so long, they were reluctant to allow Lisbon to become the entrance port for Asian goods into Europe  Alfonso de Albuquerque (Portuguese crown appointed governor of India) decided that these bases (Muslims costal forts) should control the Indian Ocean  Albuquerque cannon blasted the ports of Calicut, Ormuz, Goa, and Malacca.  The vital centers of Arab domination of South Asian trade  This bombardment laid the foundation for Portuguese imperialism in the 16th + 17th centuries  Technological developments were the key to Europe s remarkable outreach  Cannon  Iron or bronze guns  Fired iron or stone balls  These pieces of artillery emitted frightening noises and great flashes of fire and could batter down fortresses and even city walls.

 The desire to Christianize Muslims and pagan peoples played a central role in European expansion For example Queen Isabella of Span showed a fanatical zeal for converting the Muslims to Christianity. They 6) Compass gave information  Developments in navigation help make possible the conquest of the about distance and Atlantic general geography. the Caravel was created  Small.2  Very Heavy. and were highly inaccurate  They prove to be inefficient for land warfare but could be used at sea 5) Caravel  Because of the need of a larger ship to fit the cannons on as well as a sturdier ship to with stand rough winds of the Atlantic. required a lot of time to reload. light sailing ship  Though somewhat slower than pervious ships. crusading fervor remained a basic part of the Portuguese and Spanish national ideal. took several hundred oxen to move it  Only could be loaded and fired with a hundred men working together  Iron cannons were cheaper then bronze but were difficult to cast effectively and were liable to crack and injure artillerymen  Bronze cannons were less subject to deteriorate but were very expensive  All cannons were difficult to move. rulers realized full well that they lacked the material resources to mount the full-scale assault on Islam necessary for victory .  The magic compass enable sailors to determine their direction and position at sea 7) Astrolabe  An instrument developed by Muslim navigators in the 12th century and used to determine the altitude of the sun and other celestial bodies  This permitted mariner to plot their latitude 8) Crusading impulses  People of the 16th century were still basically medieval in the sense that their attitude and vales were shaped by religion and expressed in religious terms  In the late 15th century. and she concentrated her efforts on the Muslims in Granda  After the abortive crusading attempts of the 13th century. it was highly maneuverable and held more cargo  The caravel signaled a great advance and gave Europeans Both the compass navigational and fighting influence over the rest of the world (connect advances and astrolabe with compass and astrolabe) improved maps and sea charts.

and although the Netherlands was a small country it dominated the European economy  Henry Vii s lack of interest in exploration delayed English expansion for a century  Spices were an important incentive for voyages of discovery (connect with Marco Polo)  Spices were introduced into western Europe by the Crusaders in the 12th century  Nutmeg  Mace  Ginger  Cinnamon  Pepper  All spices added flavor and variety to the diet of Europeans  Spices were also used in preparation of medical drugs and incense for religious ceremonies 11) Marco Polo (basic reason for European exploration)  Venetian  Polo visited the court of the Chinese emperor  His experience was widely publicized in the book Travelers  He stimulated the trade in spices between Asia and Italy  The venetians came to hold a monopoly of that trade in western Europe .  As a study of the Castilian city of Ciudad Real shows. (Connect with Henry!) 10) Spices  Even the modest assistance of Ferdinand and Isabella eventually brought untold riches and complicated problems to Spain  The Dutch in 17th century.3  Crusading impulses then shifted from Muslims to the pagan peoples of Africa and the Americas 9) Reconquista  After the reconquista. trading enormous wealth. the ancient aristocracy controlled the best agricultural land and monopolized urban administrative posts  Because Spanish law forbad participation by noble in commercial ventures. few nobles as well as great merchants dominated the textile and leather-glove manufacturing industries  consequently many ambitious men immigrated to the Americas to seek their fortunes  Government sponsor ship and encouragement of exploration also accounted for the results of the various voyages Mariners and explorers could not as privet individuals afford the massive sums needed to explore mysterious oceans and control remote continents  The strong financial support of Prince Henry the Navigator led to Portugal s phenomenal success in the spice trade.sponsored trading companies as the Dutch East India Company. through such government. enterprising young man of the Spanish upper classes found their economic and political opportunities severely limited.

-But his principal object was to find a direct route to Asia. -Thus he paved the way for Spanish imperial administration. others claim that he destroyed an earthly paradise. to give light to those who were in darkness and to grow rich as all men desire to do  When Vasco de Gama reached the port of Calicut.  In reality. Ogier Gheselin de Busbecq. enslaved the Indians. -When it was clear that he had not found great new spice markets.4 12) Religion supplies the pretext  The basic reason for European exploration and expansion was the quest for material profit  As Bartholomew Diaz said to serve God and His Majesty. he said. religion supplies the pretext and gold he motive.  Now historians note that he enslaved and killed Indians and that he did not discover a new continent. he turned to setting up a government in the islands. wealth was the driving motivation 13) Columbus criticism  Until recently most historians agreed with Morison that Columbus was a great hero who carried Christian civilization to the new world. 14) Most Catholic Kings  Restored Granda to Christian hands was Ferdinands and Isabella s greatest achievement  Pope Alexander VI rewarded the with the name Most Catholic Kings 15) Columbus goals  He understood that Christianity was a missionary religion and that it should be carried to places where it did not exist  He also had secular goals  He wanted to find a direct ocean rout to Asia that would provided the opportunity for a greatly expanded trade in which European economy would participate. Columbus was a deeply religious man.  Spanish and Portuguese explorers carried the fervent Catholicism and missionary zeal of the Iberian Peninsula to the New World . a native asked what the Portuguese wanted. Da Gama replied Christians and Spices  In the 16th century. summed up this paradoxical attitude well in expeditions to the Indies and the Antipodes. 16) Hispaniola  In1496 he forcibly subjugated the island of Hispaniola. he saw a link between the expulsion of the Moors and his task as Christian missionary. and ounce in Americas they urged home government to send clerics  At the bottom however. and laid the basis for a system of land grants tied to the Indians labor service  Columbus laid the foundations for Spanish imperial administration . India. in 1498.

19) Dutch East India Company  The Dutch East India Company became the major organ of Dutch imperialism  The Dutch West India Company gained control of much of the African and American trade.  European inflation hurt the poor the most. 22) Prince Revolution causes. Lawrence region of Canada 21) Golden Century of Spain  Enormous amounts of American gold and silver poured into Spain in the sixteenth century. and financial authority within their intendency  The intendants were royal officials responsible not to the viceroy but to the directly to the monarch . King Henry VII lost interest in exploration.5 17) Magellan  In 1519 Magellan sailed southwest across the Atlantic for Charles V of Spain.  Frenchmen Jacques Cartier made several voyages and explorations and explored the St. administrative. and proved the earth was round and larger than Columbus had estimated 18) Cortes  Cortez conquered the Aztec Empire and founded Mexico City as the capital of New Spain. he claimed the "Western Isles" for Spain.  It is probable that population growth and not the flood of American bullion caused inflation in Spain. each with a viceroy (person that ruled) and board of judges. that served as an advisory council and judicial body 24) Intendants  King Charles III introduced  Royal officials possessed broad military. 20) Cabot/Cartier  John Cabot sailed for Brazil but discovered New found land  The next year he returned and explored the New England coast and perhaps as far south as Delaware  Since these expeditions found no spices or gold. results  Causes population increase no farmers/business people possibly gold + silver influxes  Results Strained government budgets Philip II didn t pay debt 23) Viceroy (imperial governor)  The Spanish monarch divided his new world into four viceroyalties(administrative divisions).

 Witch hunting reflects widespread misogyny and a misunderstanding of women.  Subordinate status did not change. . firm ruling. and a protective. clothing. which by and large depicted blacks as primitive and inferior. who wished to protect Indians. andMacbeth--explore human problems such as ambition. 27) Witch Hunt causes (scapegoat)  Religious reformers extreme notions of the devil s powers and the insecurity created by the religious wars contributed to the belief in witches  Extreme religious thought and inability to explain everyday misfortunes led to a rise in the belief in the evil power of witches. and humanism. individualism. whose household was her first priority. the first slaves were brought to Brazil.  His tragedies--Hamlet. 30) Racial Attitudes  Literature depicted Africans as savages because of their eating habits. and he inaugurated an era of doubt. sin.  The thousands of people executed as witches represent society's drift toward social and intellectual conformity. particularly in the new sugar producing settlements  Beginning in 1518 Africans were brought to America to replace Indian slavery 29) Bartolome de las Casas  Beginning in 1518 Africans were brought to America to replace Indian slavery. and social customs  Barbarians because of their language and methods of war  And as hethans because they were not Christian  African women were considered sexually aggressive  Settlers brought to the Americas the racial attitudes they had absorbed in Europe from Christianity and Islam. 28) Slaves and sugar  Black slavery originated with the end of white slavery (1453) and the widespread need for labor. morals.6 25) Elizabeth Hardwick  Elizabeth Hardwick's success in real estate illustrates that some women became rich and powerful  Orphan 26) Status of Women  Literature on women and marriage called for a subservient wife.  This was promoted by the missionary las Casas.Othello. 32) Skepticism  Skeptics doubt whether definitive knowledge is ever attainable 33) Shakespeare  Shakespeare's understanding of human psychology was rooted in his appreciation of classical culture.  He rejected the claim that one culture may be superior to another. and revenge.  African kings and dealers sold black slaves to European merchants. and loyal husband. 31) Michel de Montaigne  Frenchmen  Montaigne is the best representative of early modern skepticism and a forerunner of modern attitudes.

soaring lines of one of the greatest composers the Western world has ever produced. tension.7 34) King James Bible  The Authorized Bible of King James I (King James Bible) is a masterpiece of English vernacular writing. and emotion in an unforgettable way 38) P. the baroque style reached it accumulation almost a century later in the dynamic. colorful style of painting characterized by animated figures and monumental size. the papacy and the Jesuits encouraged the growth of an emotional. 35) Baroque  In the late sixteenth century. exuberant art intended to appeal to the senses and kindle the faith of ordinary churchgoers. who published their efforts in 1611  Divided into chapters and verses.526-527  A letter writed about columbus s first voyage  Wrote about his travels and about the people he encountered .  A group of puritans urged King James I to support a new translation of the Bible  The king in turn assigned the task to a committee of scholars. 37) Johan Sebastian Bach  In music.  Organist and choirmaster of several Lutheran churches across Germany  Bach s organ music combined the baroque spirit of invention. imperfect pearl  Baroque was commonly used in the late 18th century as an expression of scorn for what they considered an over blown.  The term Baroque itself may have come from the Portuguese word for an oddshaped. unbalanced style 36) Peter Paul Rubens  Baroque painter  Rubens developed a sensuous. the Authorized Version is actually a revision of the earlier Bibles more than an original work.