THE CHANGING FACE OF URBAN BIHAR

1. General Background 1.1 The degree of urbanisation in India is amongst the lowest in the world. As per the UN estimates for the year 2000, 47% of total population of the world live in urban areas. The percentage of urban population in Asia is 36.7% while that of Europe, South America and north America are 74.8%, 79.8% and 77.2% respectively. 1.2 The Census of 2001 has demonstrated that urban centers in India are continuing to grow at a pace faster than rural areas. Comparing with other states and union territories, Bihar occupies a place second from the bottom with respect to the level of urbanisation which is only 10.5% compared to the national average of 27.8%. The pace of urbanisation has also been slower in India as compared to other countries in the world. As per the UN estimates, the degree of urbansation in the world in 1950 was around 30 percent which increased to 47 percent in the year 2000. In India, it has increased from 17.3 in 1951 to 27.8 is 2001. China, which had lower levels of urbanisation in 1950 have now overtaken India with percentage of urban population of 32.1 percent.

Table 1: Indicators on Urbanization Slum Literacy Sex population Urban rate in ratio in as % of poverty urban urban urban (%) (Rs. Crore) areas areas population Per capita income 9660.3 19091 15805 4397 23.62 9.42 26.81 32.91 900 821 874 869 14.12 15.8 25.95 5.85 70.1 70.74 75.19 64.53

Name of States

Level of Urbanisation

Growth Rate

All India Delhi Maharashtra Bihar

27.78 93.01 42.4 10.5

2.7 4.1 2.9 2.6

2. An Overview of Urban Sector in Bihar
2.1 The growth of population and influx into urban areas has put urban infrastructure and services under a severe stress. The increasing pressure on urban environment

They need to be sustained and augmented through the high urban productivity for better economic growth. the approach to the process of urbanisation has been largely "reactive" in the sense that problems have sought to the addressed in a knee-jerk manner.5%) than the national average of about 28%.31 lakh reported in 1991 census. However. 2. 3.1 Cities hold tremendous potential as engines of economic and social development. The urban population grew to 84. financial autonomy has to be imparted. The strategy adopted was many folded.62 3. 3. The Changing face of Urban Bihar 3. the mere incorporation of the provisions of the 12th schedule could not literally make a shift over. therefore.2 The level of urbanization in Bihar is clearly much lower (10. The State legislature shall assign specific taxes.91% against the national average of 23.is taking its toll on the quality of life of the urban population. especially in the housing and .3 The prevailing Urban Land Ceiling and Regulation Act was a stumbling block in the large scale investment in the urban sector. The urban population growth is much higher than the rate of population growth.59 lakh in 1991-2001 period as against the decadal growth of 63. duties.2 The real spirit of the 74 CAA was to make the urban local bodies into vibrant self-governing institutions. the 3rd largest state in terms of total population size. Infrastructure inadequacies in urban areas are a major factor constraining Bihar’s growth. Effective implementation of decentralisation as envisaged in 74th CAA. and lastly to ensure growth of the urban areas in a systematic and sustainable manner. The task before the new government was. Bihar. tolls and levies and authorise the local bodies to impose. collect and appropriate the same. urban poverty is as high as 32. Repeal of Urban Land (Ceiling and Regulation) Act. This in turn depends on attaining efficiency and equity in the delivery and financing of urban infrastructure. In order that the urban local bodies can perform the function assigned to them. As against this. However. creating jobs and generating wealth through economies of scale. For cities to become growth oriented and productive it is essential to achieve a world class urban system. Urban planning needs to be anticipating and based upon an integrated approach to address the various dimensions of urban development. Following is some statistics. which reveal the urban scenario in Bihar. secondly to garner the additional resources to augment civic amenities. first sensitisation of all stakeholders to the enormity of the problem. and stress was given on Urban Reforms. occupies the 11th position in terms of urban population.

the owner can apply before the competent person for the same. sub rule(1) of rule 27 of Bihar Cinema (enactment) Rules has been amended and now the proprietor is free to change the entry fee. as well as to change the sitting capacity under intimation to the authorities Building bye laws were amended to facilitated construction of malls multiplexe.8 Amendment ha been made in the Bihar Regional Development Rule 1982. The state has taken a bold step to repeal the same. If the builder fails to register the property. item as enlisted under sec. 3282 dt. 24-08-06. paving the way for attracting large scale private investment in the sector.9 E-governance. The builders of the multi storied building can be booked under the act for not complying with the provisions for which there are stringent penal provisions. Under the exiting provisions.commercial enterprises sector. it has been brought down from the exiting 18% to 10%. 3. GIS and MIS for various urban services has been initiated. registration of property has been made compulsory. amendments have been incorporated in the exiting rules. Such bye-laws did not exit earlier. proprietor was not authorised to change the sitting capacity of the hall nor he could have increase the entry fee. Rationalisation of stamp duty 3.7 Amendment in multiplexes and cinema rules: With the intention to improve private investment opportunity in the areas of multiplexes and entertainment sector. thus facilitating an easy and hassle free administration.16 of Registration Act (1908). The vice chairman of the Regional Development Authority Act in the area of operation of the Regional Development Authority Act 1981 and the District Magistrate in other areas has been declared as the competent persons for this. 3. By notification no. so as to institutionalise citizens participation in local decision making. Other Initiatives 3. . Each and every case of apartment ownership and transfer will be considered ' to be compulsorily registered'.6 Enactment of Bihar Apartment Ownership Act 2006: Under this. 3.5 Enactment of a community participation law. Listed Registered Architects are now empowered to sanction the building plan up to 500 sq meter area. Association of elected municipalities with the city planning functions. At present.4 Corrective steps has been taken to down scale the stamp duty towards the prescribed 5%.Introduction of a system of e-governance using IT application. 3.

two towns Patna agglomeration and Bodh-Gaya have been taken up. The State Government has earmarked Rs. As per the guide lines the State level Steering Committees.10 Levy of reasonable user charges! The CDP prepared for PUAA and Bodhgaya clearly spells out the user charges in different services and thus makes a sustainable outlook. 4. Many ULBs have taken up street lighting. corridor connecting to the entrance/provision for disabled persons have been incorporated.13 Encouraging public private partnership. 3. roads and bridges. The CDP for Patna suggests an investments proposal to the tune of roughly Rs. Emphasis has been given in creating and augmenting basic infrastructure facilities in water supply sewerage. for a period of 7 Years. access path /walk way. tourism and heritage sectors. DPRs SLSC Sanctioned Amount .budgeting. 3.14 Modern and transparents.11 Revision of bye-laws: By the notification no. 2006 and sanctioned some DPRs under JNNURM for Patna agglomeration. 3. and property title certification has been introduced. 40 crores are ready. which will be ready in a period of 4 months. 3. headed by the Chief Minister has been constituted. rainwater harvesting and adoption of water conservation measures and land scaping measures. storm water. 7-04-06 provisions for structural safety norms. solid waste management activities involving the private sector. street lighting. the DPRs for Patna city other projects are under preparation by consultants. parking. 129 crore. No.3. The sanctioned DPRs as listed below have been submitted to the Government of India:Sl.12 Computerised registration of land and property. The DPR for the road projects worth Rs. and for the underground cabling for water pumps worth Rs. Many Local Bodies have already adopted the double entry System. drainage solid waste management.19 Under JNNURM. The meeting of the steering Committee has been held in the month of September. 3580 crore. The City Development Plans for both has been submitted to Government of India. Moreover. The Patna Regional Development Authority has recently finalised an agreement with IDFC for the development of various infrastructure development including beautification schemes in Patna on the PPP rule. Development Activities under taken. 4. 308 dt. 500 crore in the annual budget of 2006-07 for JNNURM. accounting and financial management system being designed to be adopted for all urban services and governance functions.

3 In addition to this. in lacs. Item Estimated cost (Rs. No.65 crore schemes was sanctioned by the new Government.) 1 2 3 4 Road Development 12930-80 Under Ground Cabling to strengthen the 4020-42 Water supply Sewerage Project Strom Water Drainage 14150-00 73153-50 Total 104254-72 4. in lacs) 1 Patna Municipal Corporation Water Supply & Sanitation 5752-12 127-72 2 3 4 Muzaffarpur Dharbanga Chapra Water Supply Water Supply Water Supply & Sanitation 2000-00 2112-67 800-83 214-22 5 6 Munger Purnia Water Supply Water Supply & Sanitation 1380-48 625-25 498-93 7 Bhagalpur Strom Drainage 6900-236 2072-28 127-72 400-00 400-00 800-83 214-22 1280-48 205-54 498-93 Under process Sanctioned Amount 4. 101. 60 crore released for the year 2006-07:Sl. in the financial year 2005-06 a total sum of Rs. and funds were released to Patna . 203 crore has been cleared and Rs. in lacs) (Rs.2 Under the 12th Finance Commission schemes worth Rs.(Rs.

52 00. The following table indicates the many fold increase in the plan fund for the year 2006-07 as compare to the annual plan of 2005-06. Kathihar. Rafiganj. Ara. in lakhs) Plan Plan outlay for 2006-2007 Sl.37 919. Dehri & Islampur. Bhagalpur Municipal Corporation. Dharbanga.00 b Grant to Urban Local Bodies under Finance Commission Civic Amenities c 571. Serghati.Municipal Corporation. Sasaram. (establishment) Total (1):- d 2 a i ii Urban Development Centrally Sponsored Schemes (State Share) National Urban Renewal Mission Integrated Housing Programme & slum Development 00 00 50000.00 230.00 iv v 156. Siwan. Begusarai.28 .00 1200.30 7142.00 24.02 286. (Rs.63 00. Muzaffarpur. J. Khalgaiou. No. R. Shivhar.02 64. Lalganj.52 1000. Purnia. Dehri Dalmianagar.72 54834.00 389. Jhajha.00 1 a.00 300. Bihar Shari.34 880.00 3230. P. Haweli Khadhakpur.00 7142. Dalsingsarai. Sector 2005-2006 Water supply & sanitation Water Supply (on going schemes) Water Supply (new schemes) 3284.00 00 547.99 17919.00 280.00 iii Urban Infrastructure scheme of small medium towns/UIDSSMT Swarn Jayanti Sahari Rojgar Yojana Establishment of Urban Information System /NUIS Total (2):- 391. b c Sanitation and Clearness Drainage/Sewerage/ Solid west Management and other sanitation scheme (on going & new) Grant to B. Areraj.72 6000. Mhanar.

00 500. The seminar was a success for .00 5. Bhagalpur. 2280 lakhs and nominated the NBCC to go ahead in a turnkey basis.86 2000. 5. Muzaffarpur. 5.3 For the first time in the history of Urban Development of Bihar. Bodhgaya and Muzaffarpur. & Bhagalpur.01 22337.00 63824. 5. Project Reports preparation and Capacity building Urban Roads & Bridges Grant Total 0. The consultant Ms/ Ramkey Infrastructure Consulting Pvt. has been given the task for Patna.2 Appointment of Consultants for DPR preparation consultants have been appointed in the five Municipal corporations along with Bihar and Ara for the preparation of detailed project Reports. amounting to even evacuation and demolition of building was taken up in certain extreme eases. Ltd. 5. Biharsharif.d Grant to Urban Local Bodies for construction/renovation of distractive & technical buildings Master Plan. Darbhanga. 5.00 100.7 A workshop was organised on 'Healthy city concept' with the joint effort of the Department of Health and world Health Organisation.1 The Most challenging task before the department was to find out a solution for the perennial problem of the kankarbagh drainage. Other Important Steps Taken 5.00 3. 1200 lakh for purchase of improved equipments to facilitate sanitation operation. has been given the task in Darbanga. Ara.00 e 300. the ULBs were given Rs. Ltd.6 The list of Unauthorised buildings without a sanction plan was prepared and severe action. Gaya. Rajgir. Ms/ Shah Technology Pvt. Biharsharif and Ara. The Government has taken a bold step and sanctioned a comprehensive project of Rs. Gaya. 3000.5 The Master Plan of Patna has been prepared and published for inviting objection.4 The HUDCO has been nominated for the preparation of Master Plan of the important towns of Chapra. The consultants are given an ultimatum to prepare the projects in a time span of 4-5 months. 5.

awareness creation in the public. .8 The Department has bestowed with a professional touch by hiring the service of a competent consultant Ms/ ICRA management consultant for a contract period of one year. The terms and condition and MOA reached with the consultant can be described as a model one in this direction. sanitation and environmental pollution. stressed the relevance of co-ordinate and committed efforts from government and Non-governmental organsation to face the serious challenges of public health. 5.

Bihar.8%. As per the UN estimates for the year 2000.6 An Overview of Urban Sector in Bihar The growth of population and influx into urban areas has put urban infrastructure and services under a severe stress.91 869 5. The pace of urbanisation has also been slower in India as compared to other countries in the world.62 . The urban population grew to 84.91% against the national average of 23.4 10.95 75.5% compared to the national average of 27.7 4.A brief note for two-days conference scheduled to be held on 17-18.8 is 2001. The level of urbanization in Bihar is clearly much lower (10.81 874 25.42 821 15.8%. Bihar occupies a place second from the bottom with respect to the level of urbanisation which is only 10. urban poverty is as high as 32. 2006 at Hyderabad The degree of urbanisation in India is amongst the lowest in the world. The Census of 2001 has demonstrated that urban centers in India are continuing to grow at a pace faster than rural areas. Crore) areas areas population 9660. The increasing pressure on urban environment is taking its toll on the quality of life of the urban population.31 lakh reported in 1991 census. occupies the 11th position in terms of urban population.1 percent.85 64.19 4397 32.59 lakh in 1991-2001 period as against the decadal growth of 63.2% respectively.74 15805 26.53 Name of States All India Delhi Maharashtra Bihar 2. Level of Urbanisation 27. November.5%) than the national average of about 28%. China.01 42. 47% of total population of the world live in urban areas.9 2.8 70.8% and 77.1 19091 9. Table 2: Indicators on Urbanization Slum Literacy Sex population Per capita Urban rate in ratio in as % of poverty income urban urban urban (%) (Rs. which reveal the urban scenario in Bihar. 79. which had lower levels of urbanisation in 1950 have now overtaken India with percentage of urban population of 32. South America and north America are 74. As per the UN estimates. Following is some statistics. The urban population growth is much higher than the rate of population growth. The percentage of urban population in Asia is 36.3 23. the 3rd largest state in terms of total population size. it has increased from 17. Comparing with other states and union territories.5 Growth Rate 2.3 in 1951 to 27.1 2. the degree of urbansation in the world in 1950 was around 30 percent which increased to 47 percent in the year 2000. In India.78 93.12 70.7% while that of Europe.62 900 14. As against this.

. The real spirit of the 74 CAA was to make the urban local bodies into vibrant selfgoverning institutions. the approach to the process of urbanisation has been largely "reactive" in the sense that problems have sought to the addressed in a knee-jerk manner. duties. paving the way for attracting large scale private investment in the sector. and lastly to ensure growth of the urban areas in a systematic and sustainable manner. especially in the housing and commercial enterprises sector. first sensitisation of all stakeholders to the enormity of the problem. Repeal of Urban Land (Ceiling and Regulation) Act. Association of elected municipalities with the city planning functions. The state has taken a bold step to repeal the same. In order that the urban local bodies can perform the function assigned to them. The task before the new government was. They need to be sustained and augmented through the high urban productivity for better economic growth. The strategy adopted was many folded. and stress was given on Urban Reforms. Rationalisation of stamp duty Corrective steps has been taken to down scale the stamp duty towards the prescribed 5%. The State legislature shall assign specific taxes. Effective implementation of decentralisation as envisaged in 74th CAA. Enactment of a community participation law. Urban planning needs to be anticipating and based upon an integrated approach to address the various dimensions of urban development. The prevailing Urban Land Ceiling and Regulation Act was a stumbling block in the large scale investment in the urban sector. For cities to become growth oriented and productive it is essential to achieve a world class urban system.3. creating jobs and generating wealth through economies of scale. so as to institutionalise citizens participation in local decision making. therefore. the mere incorporation of the provisions of the 12th schedule could not literally make a shift over. tolls and levies and authorise the local bodies to impose. The Changing face of Urban Bihar Cities hold tremendous potential as engines of economic and social development. However. However. financial autonomy has to be imparted. Infrastructure inadequacies in urban areas are a major factor constraining Bihar’s growth. secondly to garner the additional resources to augment civic amenities. it has been brought down from the exiting 18% to 10%. This in turn depends on attaining efficiency and equity in the delivery and financing of urban infrastructure. At present. collect and appropriate the same.

Listed Registered Architects are now empowered to sanction the building plan up to 500 sq meter area. Levy of reasonable user charges! The CDP prepared for PUAA and Bodhgaya clearly spells out the user charges in different services and thus makes a sustainable outlook. 24-08-06. parking. The vice chairman of the Regional Development Authority Act in the area of operation of the Regional Development Authority Act 1981 and the District Magistrate in other areas has been declared as the competent persons for this. 308 dt.Other Initiatives Enactment of Bihar Apartment Ownership Act 2006: Under this. solid waste management activities involving the private sector. By notification no. The builders of the multi storied building can be booked under the act for not complying with the provisions for which there are stringent penal provisions. and property title certification has been introduced. the owner can apply before the competent person for the same. 7-04-06 provisions for structural safety norms. item as enlisted under sec. amendments have been incorporated in the exiting rules. E-governance. rainwater harvesting and adoption of water conservation measures and land scaping measures.Many ULBs have taken up street lighting. The Patna Regional Development Authority has recently finalised an agreement with IDFC for the development of various infrastructure development including beautification schemes in Patna on the PPP rule. Amendment in multiplexes and cinema rules: With the intention to improve private investment opportunity in the areas of multiplexes and entertainment sector.Introduction of a system of e-governance using IT application. Each and every case of apartment ownership and transfer will be considered ' to be compulsorily registered'. 3282 dt. Amendment ha been made in the Bihar Regional Development Rule 1982. access path /walk way. Revision of bye-laws: By the notification no. thus facilitating an easy and hassle free administration. Such bye-laws did not exit earlier.16 of Registration Act (1908). GIS and MIS for various urban services has been initiated. Encouraging public private partnership: . corridor connecting to the entrance/provision for disabled persons have been incorporated. . as well as to change the sitting capacity under intimation to the authorities Building bye laws were amended to facilitated construction of malls multiplexe. sub rule-(1) of rule 27 of Bihar Cinema (enactment) Rules has been amended and now the proprietor is free to change the entry fee. If the builder fails to register the property. Computerised registration of land and property. proprietor was not authorised to change the sitting capacity of the hall nor he could have increase the entry fee. registration of property has been made compulsory. Under the exiting provisions.

) 1 2 3 4 Road Development 12930-80 Under Ground Cabling to strengthen the Water 4020-42 supply Sewerage Project 14150-00 Strom Water Drainage 73153-50 Total 104254-72 Under the 12th Finance Commission schemes worth Rs. street lighting. 60 crore released for the year 2006-07:Sl. tourism and heritage sectors. Moreover. accounting and financial management system being designed to be adopted for all urban services and governance functions. 500 crore in the annual budget of 2006-07 for JNNURM. 4. 40 crores are ready. for a period of 7 Years. in lacs) 2072-28 127-72 400-00 400-00 800-83 214-22 1280-48 205-54 498-93 Under process Patna Municipal Corporation Muzaffarpur Dharbanga Chapra Munger Purnia Bhagalpur . and for the underground cabling for water pumps worth Rs. The sanctioned DPRs as listed below have been submitted to the Government of India:Sl. The City Development Plans for both has been submitted to Government of India. The CDP for Patna suggests an investments proposal to the tune of roughly Rs. As per the guide lines the State level Steering Committees.Modern and transparent:. Many Local Bodies have already adopted the double entry System. the DPRs for Patna city other projects are under preparation by consultants. in lacs. Emphasis has been given in creating and augmenting basic infrastructure facilities in water supply sewerage. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Item Estimated cost (Rs.budgeting. in lacs) Water Supply & Sanitation Water Supply Water Supply Water Supply & Sanitation Water Supply Water Supply & Sanitation Strom Drainage 5752-12 127-72 2000-00 2112-67 800-83 214-22 1380-48 625-25 498-93 6900-236 Sanctioned Amount (Rs. drainage solid waste management. The meeting of the steering Committee has been held in the month of September. The State Government has earmarked Rs. Development Activities under taken. roads and bridges. storm water. No. The DPR for the road projects worth Rs. Under JNNURM. No. 129 crore. 3580 crore. DPRs SLSC Sanctioned Amount (Rs. two towns Patna agglomeration and Bodh-Gaya have been taken up. which will be ready in a period of 4 months. 2006 and sanctioned some DPRs under JNNURM for Patna agglomeration. headed by the Chief Minister has been constituted. 203 crore has been cleared and Rs.

86 100.00 880. Ltd.30 7142. P.02 286. (establishment) Total (1):Urban Development Centrally Sponsored Schemes (State Share) National Urban Renewal Mission Integrated Housing & slum Development Programme Urban Infrastructure scheme of small medium towns/UIDSSMT Swarn Jayanti Sahari Rojgar Yojana Establishment of Urban Information System /NUIS Total (2):Grant to Urban Local Bodies under Finance Commission Civic Amenities Grant to Urban Local Bodies for construction/renovation of distractive & technical buildings Master Plan. (Rs.00 00 547.02 64. Bodhgaya and Muzaffarpur. Gaya.37 919.34 00 00 391. Project Reports preparation and Capacity building Urban Roads & Bridges Grant Total Plan 2005-2006 Plan outlay for 2006-2007 1 a.00 1000.00 280.00 3230. Sector Water supply & sanitation Water Supply (on going schemes) Water Supply (new schemes) Sanitation and Clearness Drainage/Sewerage/ Solid west Management and other sanitation scheme (on going & new) Grant to B.00 24.52 00.28 500.00 50000. b c 3284.00 300. No. The Government has taken a bold step and sanctioned a comprehensive project of Rs.00 Other Important Steps Taken The Most challenging task before the department was to find out a solution for the perennial problem of the kankarbagh drainage.00 571.00 2000. .52 156. The consultants are given an ultimatum to prepare the projects in a time span of 4-5 months.00 7142. R. The consultant Ms/ Ramkey Infrastructure Consulting Pvt. Ltd. 5. in lakhs) Sl.72 54834. Appointment of Consultants for DPR preparation consultants have been appointed in the five Municipal corporations along with Bihar and Ara for the preparation of detailed project Reports. Bhagalpur. 2280 lakhs and nominated the NBCC to go ahead in a turnkey basis. J. Biharsharif and Ara. has been given the task for Patna.99 17919.The following table indicates the many fold increase in the plan fund for the year 2006-07 as compare to the annual plan of 2005-06. 300. has been given the task in Darbanga.00 d 2 a i ii iii iv v b c d e 3.00 0.00 1200.63 00.00 230. Ms/ Shah Technology Pvt.00 389.00 3000.01 22337.00 63824.72 6000.

The list of unauthorised buildings without a sanction plan was prepared and severe action.For the first time in the history of Urban Development of Bihar. The seminar was a success for awareness creation in the public. the ULBs were given Rs. A workshop was organised on 'Healthy city concept' with the joint effort of the Department of Health and world Health Organisation. . Darbhanga. The Master Plan of Patna has been prepared and published for inviting objection. Gaya. & Bhagalpur. Muzaffarpur. The HUDCO has been nominated for the preparation of Master Plan of the important towns of Chapra. The Department has bestowed with a professional touch by hiring the service of a competent consultant Ms/ ICRA management consultant for a contract period of one year. 1200 lakh for purchase of improved equipments to facilitate sanitation operation. Biharsharif. Rajgir. stressed the relevance of co-ordinate and committed efforts from government and Non-governmental organisation to face the serious challenges of public health. The terms and condition and MOA reached with the consultant can be described as a model one in this direction. amounting to even evacuation and demolition of building was taken up in certain extreme eases. sanitation and environmental pollution. Ara.