NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE ORCHID JOURNAL

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Volume 3 September Number 3 1997 a quarterly devoted to the orchids of North America published by the

NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE ORCHID ALLIANCE
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* * * * * IN THS ISSUE: The Genus Piperia Illustrated 16 Orchid Species in One day Mexipedium xerophyticum Wild Orchids of California …………………………………………..and more

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NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE ORCHID JOURNAL
(ISSN 1084-7332) published quarterly in March June September December by the

NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE ORCHID ALLIANCE, Inc.
a group dedicated to the conservation and promotion of our native orchids Editor: Paul Martin Brown Assistant Editor: Nathaniel E. Conard Editorial Consultants: Philip E. Keenan Stan Folsom Production Assistant: Nancy A. Webb The Journal welcomes articles, of any length, of both a scientific and general interest nature relating to the orchids of North America. Scientific articles should conform to guidelines such as those in Lindleyana or Rhodora. General interest articles and notes may be more informal. Authors may include line drawings, and/or black and white photographs. Color inserts may be arranged. Please send all inquiries or material for publication to the Editor at PO Box 772121, Ocala, FL 34477-2121 (mid June August: PO Box 759, Acton, ME 04001-0759). 1999 Membership in the North American Native Orchid Alliance, which includes a subscription to the Journal, is $26 per year for United States addresses, $29US in Canada and $32US other foreign countries. Payment should be sent to Nancy A. Webb, 84 Etna St. Brighton, MA 02135-2830 USA. Claims for lost issues or cancelled memberships should be made within 30 days.

NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE ORCHID JOURNAL
Volume 3 Number 3 CONTENTS
NOTES FROM THE EDITOR 251 THE NATIVE ORCHIDS OF CALIFORNIA R. A. Coleman 253 THE GENUS PIPERIA ILLUSTRATED S. N. Folsom 265 NEWS FROM THE SECRETARIAT FOR THE CONSERVATION OF EUROPEAN ORCHIDS (SCEO) 277 LEADERS The Slow Empiricist 285 APOMIXIS IN ORCHIDS? M. Ospina H. 293 ADAM & EVE GO WILD or THE FIRST NATIVE AMERICAN CRAZY GLUE B. Glick 299

September 1997

BOOK REVIEW: THE GENUS CYPRIPEDIUM by Phillip Cribb

P.M. Brown 303 SIXTEEN ORCHID SPECIES IN ONE DAY in the Fakahatchee Strand C. Pelchat 306 NOTES ON THE GARDEN CULTIVATION OF CYPRIPEDIUM ACAULE IN EASTERN LONG ISLAND E. Muehlbauer 328 NAMING A SOUTHWESTERN MALAXIS (ORCHIDACEAE) T. Todsen 335 THE PETITE MEXICAN SLIPPER-ORCHID I. PHRAGMIPEDIUM XEROPHYTICUM M. A. Soto, G. A. Salazar & E. Hagsater II. MEXIPEDIUM: A NEW GENUS OF SLIPPER ORCHID V. A. Albert & M. W. Chase 341 LOST & FOUND 362 LOOKING FORWARD December 1997 365 All drawings in this issue are by Stan Folsom Color Plates: 1. p. 326: Vanilla phaeantha; Harrisella porrecta 2. p. 327: Cypripedium acaule 3. p. 339: Malaxis ehrenbergii; M. porphyrea; M. wendtii 4. p. 340: Mexipedium xerophyticum The opinions expressed in the Journal are those of the authors. Scientific articles may be subject to peer review and popular articles will be examined for both accuracy and scientific content. Volume 3, number 3, pages 251-366; issued September 22, 1997. Copyright 1997 North American Native Orchid Alliance, Inc. COVER: Malaxis tenuis by Stan Folsom

NOTES FROM THE EDITOR
As Autumn comes upon us, for many NANOA members in North America it becomes the time of all too many confusing Spiranthes, a few lingering Platantheras and eventually a time to search for the emerging leaves of Tipularia, Aplectrum and, in the colder, northern and mountain areas, Calypso. This past Spring and Summer brought many exciting days in the field from Newfoundland to Alaska and southward to Florida and, in mid-August, the 2nd Annual North American Native Orchid Conference in southeastern Arizona. Those who attended the meeting had an opportunity to see up to eight species in flower including all four southwestern species of Malaxis, Platanthera limosa, a few emerging flowers of Hexalectris warnockii and, for a few who traveled to New Mexico, Platanthera brevifolia. It was a very rewarding meeting with a wide variety of speakers culminating in Chuck Sheviak‘s excellent talk on the yellowflowered Cypripedium complex. More about the meeting in the next issue. Many people deserve special thanks for all of their help with the conference, but I especially want to thank Mark Larocque for all of his research and leading for the field trips. For Stan Folsom and myself this is a time of new beginnings and great adventures as we have sold our home in Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts and have moved to Ocala, Florida. Winters will certainly yield more orchids in that area than Boston did! We will still be in Maine from May - October. Plans are underway for next years Journal issues and there is still space for a number of articles. Please continue to

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send material on to me. I especially would like some more ‗Favorite Place‘ type of articles as well as the prairie and plains states and western Canada. Renewal notices are being sent out in September so please remember that your early and prompt renewal helps us plan the journals for next year. There was very little interest in producing a calendar for 1998 so it will depend on how much time I have to put it together. As of late August only three members had submitted pictures (which means I have to either use several of my photos or start asking people). If you are interested in purchasing calendars pleased drop me a note at the Florida address or e-mail me and if there is enough demand I will arrange to produce them. Please note the full mailing address for the Journal below: Paul Martin Brown, editor North American Native Orchid Journal PO Box 772121 Ocala, Florida 34477-2121 USA telephone and FAX 352/861-2565 (late September - May) e-mail: naorchid@aol.com

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THE NATIVE ORCHIDS OF CALIFORNIA
Ronald A. Coleman

Native orchids make up a small, but interesting and beautiful, segment of the enormously varied flora of California. Within the Golden State we have 32 species of wild orchids in 11 genera. Several of our species were only recently described. Our orchids range in size from only a few centimeters to over a meter tall. Many are either white or green, but a few are shades of purple, red, and yellow. They are widely distributed, occurring in 54 of our 58 counties, growing in the deserts, in the mountains, and on the seashore, from sea level to 3350 meters in elevation. My interest in orchids started with a single moth orchid, Phalaenopsis, from an orchid show. It bloomed faithfully at a window sill, and was shortly joined by dozens of others. The ever expanding collection was eventually moved to a newly constructed greenhouse in the back yard. Soon after starting to raise the horticulturally available orchids, I learned there were native orchids in the United States, and a natural interest in wildflowers turned into a

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special interest in wild orchids. I still find the greenhouse orchids fascinating, but spend at least as much time chasing after the wild ones. Over 20 years of field work is summarized in The Wild Orchids of California, and this presentation in The North American Native Orchid Journal is a summary of the book as presented at the First North American Native Orchid Conference in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in July of 1996. The western fairy slipper, Calypso bulbosa var. occidentalis, is one of our first orchids to bloom and one of the most colorful. It occurs in the redwood belt from Santa Cruz County northward. Calypso bulbosa var. occidentalis differs from its eastern cousin the eastern fairy slipper, C. bulbosa var. americana, primarily by the color of the hairs at the entrance to the pouch. Ours have white hairs, and the eastern ones have yellow. Cephalanthera austiniae, a mycotrophic plant, is known as the phantom orchid because of its color. Totally lacking chlorophyll, it is pure white except for yellow markings on the lip. It blooms from early March to early August. Though most easily found in the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the central and northern coast ranges, it also occurs in San Diego County. It is known from San Bernardino County, but has not been seen there in decades.

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We have four members of the mycotrophic genus Corallorhiza in California. The most widely scattered are the spotted coralroot, C. maculata, and the striped coralroot, C. striata. The western coralroot, C. mertensiana, grows in the northern counties, and the early coralroot, C. trifida, is only in Plumas County. They have a combined blooming season from late February to early August. Both C. maculata and C. striata have multiple distinct color forms, several of which have been given variety or forma status. Our most showy orchids are members of the genus Cypripedium. The California lady’s-slipper, C. californicum, grows only in northern California and southern Oregon. It blooms from mid-April through July. The mountain lady’s-slipper, C. montanum, is the most widely distributed of the lady's-slippers in California. It grows as far south as Madera County, and blooms from April through early July. The clustered lady’s-slipper, C. fasciculatum, has the longest blooming season, from early March to late July. Both C. montanum and C. fasciculatum are historically known from the Santa Cruz Mountains south of San Francisco, but I have not been able to locate them there. The genus Epipactis is represented by two species, the native stream orchis, E. gigantea, and the alien broad-leaved helleborine, E. helleborine.

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Epipactis gigantea is the most widely distributed orchid in California, and the most adaptable to growing conditions. It grows at desert springs and on ocean cliffs, stream-sides in the foothills, and high in the mountains. It often populates wet road-cuts. Epipactis helleborine is the only non-native orchid established in California. It was first reported in 1951, and now occurs in 10 counties and is still spreading. The giant rattlesnake orchis (plantain), Goodyera oblongifolia, is our only orchid with leaves that persist more than one season. The often reticulated rosettes are easy to spot in our forests, and allow identification of G. oblongifolia even out of bloom. It blooms from May to October. We have three Listera, all with the common name of twayblade. The western twayblade, L. caurina, blooms from late April to early July; the broad-lipped twayblade, L. convallarioides, blooms from late May to late August; and the heart-leaved twayblade, L. cordata, blooms from late March to late June. Listera convallarioides is widely distributed, occurring even in Southern California. The other two are much harder to find, and occur only in the northern coastal counties. All are difficult to locate because of their small size. The white adder’s-mouth, Malaxis brachypoda (syn.. M. monophyllos var. brachypoda),

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is one of the rarest orchids in California. It had not been seen since 1947 and was listed as extirpated from the state when rediscovered in 1989. About 60 plants were found in one of its two historical locations. The entire plant and flower spike are shorter than the grasses it grows among, which makes it very difficult to find. The genus Piperia was created by Rydberg in 1901 to differentiate from Platanthera plants with rounded tubers, basal leaves that fade at flowering, and lateral sepals united with the base of the lip. Rydberg placed nine species in the genus, but his approach was not immediately accepted by all authors. Ames, in An Enumeration of the Orchids of the United States and Canada recognized only the Alaska orchis, Piperia unalascensis, and the elegant piperia, P. elegans. Correll, in Native Orchids of North America, recognized only P. unalascensis. Both included all of the species within Habenaria. In The Native Orchids of the United States and Canada, Luer followed Rydberg and separated Piperia from Habenaria and recognized four species. About the time Luer's book was published, James Ackerman was working on his master's thesis at Humboldt State in northern California. He studied the biosystematics of the genus Piperia, and published his results in 1977. Ackerman recognized four species and one subspecies. In 1990 Morgan and Ackerman

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divided P. unalascensis into 4 species, two of which they described for the first time. In 1993 Morgan and Glicenstein added a species and a subspecies. Currently there are 10 species and one named subspecies in the genus, all of which occur in California; several are endemic. The slender white piperia, Piperia candida, was described in 1990. Morgan and Ackerman differentiated it from P. unalascensis by its white color, one-sided inflorescence, shorter, thicker spur, and more triangular lip. It grows from Santa Cruz County to Del Norte County, in coniferous and mixed evergreen forest below 1200 meters elevation, and blooms from May to September. Coleman’s piperia, Piperia colemanii, was described in 1993. Morgan and Glicenstein separated it from P. unalascensis based on its grass like leaves, the short stubby spur, and lack of noticeable scent. It is endemic to California, and relatively rare, but widely scattered from Kern County to Siskiyou County, mainly in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Blooming stretches from late June to early August. Several major colonies are in Yosemite National Park. The chaparral orchid, P. cooperi, was originally described by S. Watson in 1877 as Habenaria cooperi. It grows in Baja California and in Southern California from San Diego County north to Ventura County. It is

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the first of the Piperia to open, blooming from March to early June. The favorite habitat of P. cooperi is the chaparral covered low mountains and foothills near the coast. It also grows on coastal bluffs. Typically colonies consist of only a few scattered plants. However, one colony on a bluff in San Diego County has many hundreds of blooming plants. The best time to look for P. cooperi is in early winter after the on-set of the rainy season. Its low flat leaves are among the first things to sprout, and are easy to locate. With the arrival of spring and the first blooms, its leaves start to fade, and its green stem and flowers are difficult to locate in the midst of other growth in the chaparral. The coast or elegant piperia, Piperia elegans ssp. elegans, was originally described by Lindley in 1835 as Platanthera elegans. It has gone by several other names including Habenaria greenii, but is perhaps best known as Piperia maritima. It grows in mostly coastal habitats from Santa Barbara to Del Norte County, and as far north as British Columbia, blooming from May to September. The densely packed racemes carry over 100 white flowers, and stand out above other members of the coastal scrub plant community. The Point Reyes piperia, P. elegans ssp. decurtata, was described in 1993 by Morgan and Glicenstein. This subspecies of P. elegans is endemic to California, and occurs in just one county. It grows on ocean sides, hills and at the tops of cliffs. It is distinguished from P. elegans ssp.

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elegans by its shorter stature and a spur that is shorter than the lip. The long-spurred (chaparral) piperia, P. elongata, was described by Rydberg in 1901. In Southern California it shares the common name chaparral orchid with P. cooperi because they bloom in the same habitat. However, P. elongata has a much wider range, growing in much of California, northward to Canada, and eastward to Montana. Where their ranges overlap, P. elongata starts to bloom as P. cooperi finishes. Elsewhere, depending on elevation, P. elongata may bloom as late as September. It grows at elevations as high as 2100 meters, and inhabits pine forest in the north and in the mountains, and grows in chaparral in the south. Plants reach over one meter tall and often have over 100 green flowers, each with a spur much longer than the lip. The lace orchid, Piperia leptopetala, was described in 1901. The pale green sepals, petals and lip are all narrower than in the other members of the genus. Spur length is variable, from about as long as the lip to about twice as long. Because of this variable spur length, P. leptopetala is often confused with P. elongata, but spur length can be used to identify the two. The spur of P. leptopetala is under 7 mm, and that of P. elongata is over 7 mm. The aroma of P. leptopetala is reminiscent of lemon. It is endemic to

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California and widely distributed in the state, but is rare is most of the 16 counties is which it occurs. Blooms lasts from May to July. Michael’s rein-orchid, Piperia michaelii Rydberg, was originally described by Greene in 1885 as Habenaria michaelii. It has also been treated as a variety of P. elongata, but the plants of the two species are distinctly different, and the structure of the flowers is sufficiently different to maintain them as separate species. The stem of P. michaelii is much thicker than that of P. elongata, and its lip is much more widely triangular. Piperia michaelii is endemic to California, and grows primarily in coastal plant communities between Los Angeles and Humboldt Counties. It blooms from May to August. The flat-spurred piperia, Piperia transversa Suksdorf, was described in 1906 from plants found in Washington. The flowers are usually white, but sometimes have a slightly yellowish tint, and usually have green mid-veins on the sepals and petals. Piperia transversa is most easily identified by the long spur that is transverse to the inflorescence axis. It is widely distributed within California, and also grows in Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. It blooms from May to August in mixed coniferous forest from sea level to over 2000 meters elevation.

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The Alaska piperia, Piperia unalascensis, was originally described by Sprengel as Spiranthes unalascensis in 1826. Often as many as 100 tiny green flowers appear on a single stem. The flowers give off a faint musty aroma. The lip is a long triangle, and the sepals curve back around the spur. Spur length varies slightly, but is usually about the same length as the lip. Piperia unalascensis is the most widely distributed of the Piperia, growing as far east as the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River region, and is also the most numerous of the genus in California. It blooms between May and August in mixed coniferous forest from near sea level to over 2600 meters elevation. Yadon’s rein-orchid, Piperia yadonii, was described in 1990 by Morgan and Ackerman. It is narrowly endemic, occurring in just one central coastal county. It can be easily identified by its dense inflorescence and green and white flowers. The dorsal sepal is green with white margins, and the petals are green on their inner half Piperia yadonii blooms from June to August in coastal forest and shrub communities. It is very rare and is a candidate for federal listing as an endangered species. The genus Platanthera is represented by four species. The Sierra rein-orchid, Platanthera dilatata var. leucostachys, is the most widely distributed and the most common. The green bog orchid,

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Platanthera hyperborea, grows on the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, in the White Mountains, and a few northern counties. The sparse-flowered bog orchid, Platanthera sparsiflora, is almost as widespread as P. dilatata, but is more difficult to find because its green color blends in well with surrounding vegetation. The slender bog orchid, Platanthera stricta, is relatively rare, occurring in just the northern counties. The ranges of the four species of Platanthera overlap, and they bloom at the same time. It is therefore not surprising that several natural Platanthera hybrids are in California. The most common of the hybrids is the Lassen hybrid rein orchid, P. xlassenii (P. dilatata x P. sparsiflora). Platanthera xlassenii should be expected any place both species grow together, which happens over much of their range. The Estes hybrid rein orchid, Platanthera xestesii (P. dilatata x P. stricta) grows in the Warner Mountains in Modoc County. It is not common because P. stricta is not common. The third natural hybrid, between P. dilatata and P. hyperborea, is known from only one location on the eastern side of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Its name is the intermediate rein orchid, P. xmedia. Two members of the genus Spiranthes grow in California: the western ladies’-tresses, S. porrifolia, and the hooded ladies’-tresses, S. romanzoffiana. Spiranthes porrifolia is widely scattered in the state, but rarely seen. It is most easily found in the Sierra

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Nevada Mountains. It has been documented in Southern California, but has not been seen there for many years. Spiranthes romanzoffiana is more common than S. porrifolia. It grows from sea level to over 3300 m in the mountains. Its typical habitat is wet meadows or along streams, but along the coast it grows on seasonally dry hillsides. The blooming season for orchids in California stretches from February to October, but the peak months are April through July. However, the native orchid season lasts all year because Calypso leaves start appearing in October; Piperia leaves start appearing in Southern California in December; and the leaves of Goodyera oblongifolia can be searched for in any month. Ronald A. Coleman, 11520 E. Calle del Valle, Tucson, AZ 85749. Ron is the author of Wild Orchids of California and writes frequently for Orchids, and this Journal.

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Folsom: THE GENUS PIPERIA ILLUSTRATED

THE GENUS PIPERIA ILLUSTRATED
Stan Folsom

To complement Ron Coleman's preceding article, the Journal is pleased to present a complete set of Stan Folsom's drawings of the genus Pipe ria . Considering that several of the species have been described in the past 10 years, this is the first time that such. a complete set of these illustrations has been available in a single publication. In the March 1997 issue we presented a full set of drawings of the genus Cypripedium; as future articles deal with all, or nearly all, of the species in a given genus in North America we will continue to present such sets of drawings. These drawings have been prepared for a series of field guides that will cover all of the native orchids of North America north of Mexico. Ed.

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NEWS FROM THE SECRETARIAT FOR THE CONSERVATION OF EUROPEAN ORCHIDS (SCEO)
The following notices were received by the Journal and are reprinted here for the information of our members. It was the last, and most current notice, that aroused my interest and, subsequently, the first two notices were forwarded to me. The information is both very disturbing - that the thefts are taking place; and very gratifying - that an organization and its members, the SCEO, is so involved in trying to track these thefts. I regret to say that I, too, received a copy of the ‗Tilburg‘ list. If any NANOA members receive such lists please forward them to me and I will be sure that the proper persons in Europe are aware that such are circulating. Ed.
FROM: Secretariat for the Conservation of European Orchids (SCEO) Secretary and treasurer: Heinrich Blatt, Zur Hainerde 26, D-61169 Friedberg (Germany) Tel.: +49 6031 14014; Fax: +49 6031 64469; e-mail: aho.germ.bt-hch@t-online.de ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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NATURE CRIMINAL ARRESTED by Johan de Vries (Police Department Tilburg) On May 18th, 1996, a Dutch family traveled to the south of France by car. They rented a holiday home and for a week, they enjoyed the French countryside. They spent several days walking in the area called "Vercors". After this week of relaxation, they returned home on May 26th. At their return, the car was checked by the police, much to the passengers' surprise. A short inspection of the boot of the car revealed all sorts and kinds of European orchids. The suspect was arrested, - his car confiscated. After a short press-release the news media appeared to be most interested. The case even made television and the national papers. The suspect a very annoying end of a holiday which, until then, had passed pleasantly. Now the actual story, for this check and arrest had been prepared carefully. The story begins in early 1995. The General Inspection Services of the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Fisheries (G.I.S.) informed the police that some inhabitants of the town of Tilburg were said to trade in protected European orchids. They requested the police to be attentive and to pass on possible information. At the same time the Criminal lnquiries Office received the same sort of information. After that, nothing was undertaken for some time. In the Autumn of 1995 the police received an order form from Traffic Europe, which they had found in a reptile market in Germany. This simple form stated that one could order winter-hardy and not-hardy orchids. On the form a telephone number was printed, which referred to an address in Tilburg. This turned out to be the suspect's address. An investigative team was brought together, in which the Tilburg local police, Customs and the G.I.S. took part. The paper CITES-covenant turned out to lead to a practical form of co- operation. Traffic Europe, provided the team, whenever it could, with inside information. In a next step the investigation

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concentrated on information already gained from several services. From this information it turned out that the suspect had been to France in May 1995 to dig out terrestrial orchids. He was said to have used a folding trailer, the fold-out tent section of which had been removed. Then the vacant space had been provided with soil, in which the tuberous orchids were transported. Possibly, this way had been thought of as it would not likely arouse suspicion at possible checks. For, who checks the tent section of a folding trailer? With all preceding knowledge and information the preliminary investigation was closed. The investigative teams decided to keep the deployment of the various agencies to a minimum; at least, to restrict the amount of time expended. Mentioned as subjects to investigate were: to gather proofs that the suspect possessed and traded in protected European plants; and to gather information that could lead to possible further investigation. On May 18, 1996, the investigative team was given confirmation that the suspect had left by car. According to the information, he would go to France. During the week the suspect was away, an examining judge was asked for permission to conduct a house search. This search was to take place shortly after the suspect's return to the Netherlands, and was necessary to provide proof with regard to the trade. To be looked for were lists of customers, blank order forms, a fax machine, possible bookkeeping with regard to the trade, etc. On the basis of the earlier investigation, the Court of Law granted permission for this search. All that remained was the waiting for the return of the suspect, which happened on Saturday, May 26, 1996. Thanks to the observation the suspect could be awaited. In front of his house, his car was checked by the police. They requested him to open the boot of the car. The plants in the boot were immediately visible The G.I.S.-criminal investigator determined that these plants were orchids, after which the suspect was arrested and his car confiscated. That very evening,

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the car was searched as well as the house. Only two plastic bags and a cardboard box with plants were found in the car. Disappointment struck! So much work had been spent during the past months on the trade, in such a small number of plants! Some documents were found in the car that seemed interesting for the further investigation. The house search, however, provided the desired result. Names of customers, blank order forms, a fax machine, correspondence about possible trade etc., were found and confiscated. Meanwhile, the orchids, found in the car, were being photographed at the police station. It turned out that probably about 450 plants had been found. So the work had not been in vain. The suspect was confined and in the small hours, the investigation team went home, - feeling good. On Sunday May 27th an expert – Dr. Ruud VAN DER MEIJDEN of the State Herbarium – came to Tilburg to determine the plants. All the plastic bags were emptied, the orchids counted and roughly determined. To the biologist's great anger 445 orchid plants were counted, along with 40 bulbs. What struck the investigators was that the soil had almost completely been removed from all plants. Only a few wild plants and grasses, which, nevertheless, proved that these plants were taken from nature, were found. Several hybrid orchids were found. It was settled that the definite determination would take place at the Hortus Botanicus on Tuesday May 29th, after which the plants were to be potted up there for preservation. Meanwhile, the interrogation of the suspect had started. At first he was unaware of any guilt and didn't think of himself a criminal. His statements made that much clear. About eight years ago, he started keeping frogs. He ended up in the plant world as a matter of course and started trading in Bromeliads, Tillandsias and tropical orchids. This was about 1993. By chance, he went to someone who had a rock garden with European orchids. Charmed by them, he put all his time in this specific area of the plant world. Books were ordered and read, and knowledge exchanged with other orchid lovers. He started

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selling these plants at reptile exchanges for another illegal orchid trader. The orchids, collected from nature, were sold there at 20 German Marks a piece. Probably it occurred to the suspect then that he could also set up such a business for himself and he copied the order forms and printed his own telephone number on them. According to his statements he does not trade anymore. The plants he had taken with him were meant to be exchanged for other plants. Contradictory to this statement, however, the suspect declared that the ball of earth containing 19 Cypripedium calceolus were meant for a Belgian trader, who would also buy the rest of the plants. The suspect also declared that he had been to France in 1995 as well, to dig out orchids. lt. had struck him that in those areas fewer orchids grew than the year before – though, to his opinion, there were still enough orchids to dig some out. He frankly admitted that he had been so decent as not to dig out the biggest rootball of Cypripediums he could find. He also found it odd that so much fuss was made whereas, an area where orchids used to grow in 1995 had now turned into a camp site. Probably the vigorous approach of the investigation has brought in enough information for new investigations of other suspects. The nature criminal's equipment consisted of a pair of boots to keep his feet dry in the wet grass, a small trowel to dig out the plants and a special backpack to transport the plants on mountain walks. To use these attributes efficiently, it is convenient to know where orchids still grow in reasonable numbers. lt. is even more convenient when the results of inventory research are put into writing. Especially the members of the Dutch and the European Orchid Associations document this excellently. As a member of such an organisation one can obtain this information easily. Next, one numbers the spots where the orchids can be found and mark them on a map. Thus it is very easy to determine to which place you have to go to dig out the wanted species.

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Finally some conclusions and recommendations could be made with reference to this investigation: Invest in or make use of all technical possibilities available. Investigation into smuggling and trading shows many similarities with investigation into dealing in drugs. Stimulate police investigation departments to bring in informants who are in this trade environment. Familiarise clubs and associations that make inventories with the fact that this carefully obtained information may be terribly misused by others. If the trade is international, it is necessary that the different investigation departments co-operate. WHAT DOES THE "TILBURG CASE" MEAN FOR THE SCEO? by Dirk Kapteyn den Boumeester First, it is necessary to consider how exact the information on find-spots should be and how this information is spread. The suspect of the Tilburg case possessed very detailed travel records of other (innocent) people as well as the precise descriptions of the locations of find-spots from European orchid journals and other literature. We hope that there will be a discussion on this item in all member groups. Secondly, it is one of the first tasks of the SCEOmembers to pay attention to illegal trade and the digging up of European orchids (SCEO-protocol Friedberg III, page 6, 1 Supplements, 1.4). The Dutch Working Group on European Orchids (WEO) sent the information on the Tilburg case to the SCEO. The WEO contacted with the police officer who lead the investigation team and offered co-operation. For the Netherlands it is clear, now, how to pass information on to a police department that is competent on offenses against nature

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and environmental laws. Most local police authorities, however, are not well informed about such specialized cases. Although the local police usually cannot hide the identity of informants, which becomes a problem when large criminal organizations are involved, the Central Criminal Inquiries Office (CRI) will treat all information as strictly confidential. The Tilburg police team gained international recognition with the case. Because of the international contacts of this team it is also possible for inhabitants of countries other than the Netherlands to pass information on; the Tilburg team will send it to the appropriate police services in the other countries. The Executive Committee of the SCEO is willing to pass on the information from a member group to the Tilburg team or to bring the member group in contact with them. OBSERVATION ACCORDING COMMERCIAL DIGGING OUT OF DACTYLORHIZA SPHAGNICOLA SCEO Notice from AHO Nordrhein-Westfalen Dortmund, June 10th 1997

Location: Wollerscheider Venn (Natural Reserve) Region: Eifel in the north of Monschau very close to the Belgian border (Eupen). Species: Dactylorhiza sphagnicola Number of plants removed: Between 50 and 60 Date of removal: Between 4th and 8th of June We expect that the plants shall be sold in Germany, Belgium or the Netherlands.

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The member of our AHO, who noticed the removal knows the location very well and visited it each year. Therefore, he was able to see that it was the work of specialists. In the reserve, Dactylorhiza sphagnicola was growing only in two small areas, - one of them together with Dactylorhiza maculata and hybrids between both. In the second, Dactylorhiza sphagnicola grew alone. In the second area all 40 plants have been dug out; in the first area, around 10 plants of Dactylorhiza sphagnicola remained and it seems that no hybrid and no Dactylorhiza maculata have been removed. With this information given by our member it is clear that the persons were very careful to dig out exclusively Dactylorhiza sphagnicola and not to take doubtful plants. We expect that a trader with a very good knowledge of Dactylorhiza has taken the plants. Because the location is very near to the Belgian border and not far from the Netherlands he may try to sell the plants in any of the three countries. The EifelGroup of our AHO has informed the responsible local authorities. We ask all other groups to inform us, if they hear about trading with Dactylorhiza sphagnicola in the near future.

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STANDARDS FOR LEADERS
The Slow Empiricist Since I wrote about what makes a good field trip participant, I thought that turn about might be fair play, and so I am aiming this column at the various styles of leadership that I have found beneficial to me as I made my way through the ins and outs of orchid experiences from classroom instruction and slide lecture presentations to actual field trips. This article, then, is designed to acquaint existing and potential leaders with some idea of what their styles of presentation look like to the novice and newlyconverted wildflower enthusiast. I also hope this article will help the student to evaluate the experiences he or she has had, and provide some criteria to enable them to get more from their learning situations. If all leaders could view their work as learning situations then a lot of what they do might become more meaningful for their struggling students. I have taught for over forty years, and I learned long ago that everyone brings a hodgepodge of learning experiences to any given classroom. What this should indicate to the gifted educator is that you cannot insert your pupils into a neat set of round holes that you deem

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necessary since some of them may have very definite square shapes of previous experience that will make your course painfully inappropriate, or just not a good fit for their level of experience. This goes for slide presentations and field exercises as well. This does not mean that you, as an educator, should not have a framework to base your instruction on, but it does mean that you should be able to tailor it to each and every pupil‘s level of understanding. The gifted instructor has to plot a course that encompasses his students' range of knowledge so that he does not leave anyone falling behind the others in understanding, while at the same time he keeps his more advanced pupils from becoming bored with the exercises. This can sometimes be very difficult if there is a great range of experience within the group. One ploy might be to pair a gifted or knowledgeable student with a less experienced pupil to insure that the novices have some kind of mentoring to help them keep pace with the more experienced. There are several bad ways to run a class. One class I heard of, held by a wildflower society to acquaint area people with the flora in their vicinity, was run by an instructor who could not keep to his course outline. He was always digressing into long and often poorly thought out examples that he seemed to come up with on the spur of the moment. His approach bewildered his students and they became disgruntled with what they saw as a waste of their

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valuable classroom time. They rebelled and went to the society to demand satisfaction. Unfortunately, the gentleman was so steeped in his traditional way of teaching that he could not change his teaching style. The sad thing is that he had a good deal of information to impart to his students. He just couldn‘t keep all the asides and short anecdotes from disrupting his message. Perhaps the worst-case scenario of a poorly run class had an instructor who tended to be an elitist. She felt that only the gifted should have access to her class and I suspect that she also felt that orchid study should be limited to those with the highest academic credentials. Students who were perceived to be ordinary often were made fun of for their lack of knowledge or ignored by the more advanced content of the class presentations. This left many in the class feeling stupid when they were merely novices or frustrated because they couldn't get the kind of help they were entitled to have. If the instructor could have remembered her initial forays into orchidology she might have had more sympathy. She also tended to blame everyone but herself when her classes failed to fill as word got around about her approach to education. Needless to say, instructors like this usually do not last long—but they can damage some poor initiate‘s self-esteem and possibly turn him or her away from an enjoyable hobby or career with orchids or other floral subjects.

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I found this same situation occurring in slide lectures which are aimed at a very narrow segment of people. Slide lectures can be very illuminating (no pun intended) if the lecturer can reach many viewers in his audience with his message. Having good slides that show what he is trying to get across, presented in a logical order and with time for audience questions is my idea of a first-rate learning experience. I recently attended such a show where the gentleman had two main objectives to his lecture. One was to show the growth cycle of native orchids, photographed in the wild at each stage of development. The other was to introduce the photographers in his group to the effect of controlled flash techniques on the color and quality of the slides. He did this very simply by having comparison slides of the flash technique and natural lighting occurring sequentially from time to time in his presentation. The effect was quite convincing. I also want to add that seeing the various orchids progress from rosette or initial leaf through fruiting added immeasurably to my knowledge of these plants. When one considers the field as the ultimate learning experience, I would suggest that the leaders of expeditions attempt to provide some of the following procedures and items for the field trip. Before the trip takes place a list of plants that might be seen, a description of the territory to be explored, and suggestions for gear would be very helpful. On the

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actual trip, maps of the area would be handy. I tend to wander off since I am not a serious photographer and have had a couple of very long hikes when I became separated from the group. The trails looked amazingly alike. I have since learned to turn around from time to time and check what the trail looks like going back where I had just come. It has helped me avoid getting too lost more than once, but a map showing where we are might be even more helpful. Many parks and preserves have trail maps available so all the leader has to do is make sure everyone has one and knows how to use it. In difficult territory, having someone tag behind the group will help keep everyone together and prevent losing members of the expedition. On some field trips I have been involved with a caravan of cars has been employed to get all the students from one site to another. Those that are most effective have a sweep driver following the caravan to make sure that all the vehicles reach their destination. I have been in some caravans where this was not thought of and with red lights and drivers with different driving speeds, etc., part of the group has gotten lost. This delay until the lost group finds the destination cuts into the field time. Some participants never found the destination at all and lost a valuable learning experience altogether. Another condition that might not get met is provision for rest room facilities. When a group is out

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in the field all day, a good leader sees to it that his pupils have a chance to use bathroom facilities before and at some point mid-way and at the end of the trip. It may sound hyper-critical but when you are out in a mid-western United States prairie which has very little cover in the way of trees or other obscuring flora and nature calls, your field trip experience may be less than wonderful until you have found some way to get relief. If your instructor had been alert or experienced such problems he would have seen to it that you were able to have access to facilities in a timely way. I also suspect that those of you who have small bladders have found your own solutions to this problem so I won't belabor the point further. Lastly, a good instructor takes into consideration the physical abilities of his students. When I was in Canada with a group who hoped to climb Mount Albert in the Gaspé, the instructor made provisions for those who felt the climb would be too strenuous for them to enjoy the day doing other things. One couple who had heart problems climbed about half way up and explored the area from that level and left markers so the descending group could enjoy the flora that they had discovered. Another, who had a very severe fear of heights, went as far as she felt comfortable and spent time with her beloved alpine grasses and sedges which were abundant in that area. One other stayed at the base and discovered a large

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stand of twayblades which the entire group were able to enjoy the next day. What this basically means is that a good instructor in the field knows his territory and his pupils. By having a flexible approach to his program he can meet the individual needs of his students and give them an enjoyable outing that fulfills both the pupil‘s need and the instructor‘s aims. Probably, flexibility is the key to presenting a good experience for students. I always approached my yearly programs with the attitude that we would cover as much territory as we could but if we found an interesting area to explore more fully we would be flexible enough to do so. If we didn‘t cover the entire curriculum so be it. There‘s always next year. To sum up then, good instructors are familiar with the needs of their students. They make provisions so that everyone can get the most out of their exposure to the class. They value everyone in their class or audience and work hard to ensure that all come away from the experience enriched. If you are in the student population you have a responsibility to speak up when you don't understand, cooperate when the going gets rough and be considerate of your fellows and as helpful and mindful of others as you are able. It seems to me these are the ingredients that make for happy and memorable orchid experiences. I hope my message has been helpful and has given you new

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insights into what makes learning experiences pleasurable. The Slow Empiricist

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APOMIXIS IN ORCHIDS?
Mariano Ospina H.

In the September, 1995 issue of the North American Native Orchid Journal, Paul Martin Brown reports the rediscovery of Dactylorhiza aristata (Fisch.) Catling forma perbracteata Lepage, in a brief passage: "Mariano Ospina spotted the flowerless individual at the edge of a small bog as we were leaving an area near the Fossil Cliffs on Kodiak Island" - of course in Alaska (Brown 1995). This strange plant had been reported only once, by its discoverer, Ernest Lepage, in the American Midland Naturalist 46:757, 1952, and the next thing to do would be to find the type specimen which had been deposited in the Langlois Herbarium, Catholic University of America (LCU). Unfortunately, said herbarium had been dispersed ca. 1986, as reported by Arthur 0. Tucker et al. in Taxon, and most of the collections were "sold by families..." in which the Orchidaceae appeared as sent to WIS, the herbarium of University of Wisconsin, at Madison (Tucker 1986).

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On the basis of said information, the search was directed to WIS, but the brief reply received from the

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Collections Manager said simply: "Orchis aristata forma perbracteata Lepage 25014, not in WIS ... try the National Arboretum (NA) which got the separate type collections from LCU." After an interesting exchange of notes with NA, I finally obtained the type specimen Lepage No. 25,014, June 16, 1949, with the note: Floribus nullis; bracteis numerosis (40-50) valde elongates. Kodiak Island, Isthmus Point, grassland on low sea-cliff." The next step was to check the map of Kodiak Island in order to pinpoint the two locations on which this strange orchid had been found so far. A look at said map (2) shows that the two locations, Isthmus Point and Fossil Cliffs (near Pyramid Mt.) are some 50 km apart and, consequently, the next question was, how can a "Floribus nullis" orchid species or form survive for nearly 50 years with a range of some 50 km? The textbook answer to this riddle seems easy. According to H. Winkler, all plants and animals can be ranged within three groups so far as their mode of reproduction is concerned (Richards 1986). These organisms in which sexual differentiation and fertilization have not yet arisen are called amictic. The sexually differentiated organisms are called mictic, and among these we find some of them can reproduce without fertilization and are named apomictic. Thus, apomixis is "a derived stage in

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which the fertilizing mechanism once acquired has been lost again. Furthermore, the specialists describe two forms of apomixis: agamospermy, in which reproduction takes place by seeds formed "without fertilization" - or vegetative apogamy in which reproduction is by cells of the mother plant other than the egg cells. These phenomena are well known in certain families such as Amaryllidaceae, Cactaceae, Poaceae, etc. It has also been reported in some orchid genera such as Rabenana, Orchis, Malaxis, Spiranthes, and Zygopetalum, to which I like to add some scandent species in Oncidium and a unique case in Laelia urata, in my own collection. Finally, we may ask, is there any "practical" implications for this line of research? Probably, yes. At least if we pay attention to the conclusions presented by Ellen T. Bauder in a paper entitled "Genetic Diversity: Esoteric or Essential", where she says: "Diversity protection on the local or micro scale may be essential to the longevity of a species, but this effort could leave some unprotected species. These unprotected species fall primarily into two groups: habitat specialists, such as in disturbance regimes, edaphic conditions, ephemeral wetlands, and plants with reproductive systems that are asexual ... Plants that fit into either or both of these categories warrant a close examination of their genetic diversity." (Bauder 1993). I believe that Dactylorhiza aristata forma perbracteata deserves such further examination.

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References: Bauder, E.T. 1993. "Genetic Diversity- Esoteric or Essential" Proceedings Symposium on Interface Between Ecology and Development, Southern California Academy of Sciences, Los Angeles. p. 39 Brown, P.M.1995. Some interesting nomenclatural and distribution notes on Alaska. North American Native Orchid Journal 1(3): 242. Richards, A. J. 1986. Plant Breeding Systems, Unwin Hyinan, London. p.7 Tucker, A.0., Poston, M.E., Ilitis, H.R. 1986. History of the LCU Herbarium, 1895-1986. Taxon, 38(2): 196-203. Mariano Ospina H., 42 Fernald Dr., #11, Cambridge, MA 02138. Mariano is a Harvard Research Associate with The Orchid Herbarium of Oakes Ames at the Harvard University Herbaria. His most current publication is a new book - To The Rescue of Paradise - Orchids in Columbia. Some new vocabulary agamospermy - The asexual formation of embryos and seeds without the occurrence of fertilization. amictic - Organisms in which sexual differentiation and fertilization have not yet arisen. apogamy - The development of an embryo without the occurrence of fertilization apomictic - A plant that reproduces by or is reproduced by apomixis. apomixis - Reproduction without meiosis or formation of gametes. mictic - Sexually differentiated organisms.

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ADAM & EVE GO WILD or THE FIRST NATIVE AMERICAN CRAZY GLUE
Barry Glick

Now that I have your attention, what am I talking about??? I'm talking about one of the many species of native orchids that grow wild in these West Virginia mountains. Adam and Eve and putty root are two of the common names for Aplectrum hymale. If you've read any of my previous columns1, you know how I feel about common names. Not that I'm a snob trying to impress folks with my pseudo-intellectual grasp of the "dead" language of Latin, that's beside the point. It‘s just that the scientific names of plants usually insure that two people involved in a conversation about a particular plant can be reasonably sure (barring any meddling by some taxonomist who has probably never even seen a live specimen of that or any other plant, yet decides to rename it) that they are talking about the same plant. Anyway... getting back to the plant, which is really what this story started out to be about, the scientific name tells you something about it. The generic name Aplectrum comes from the Latin, A (without) and plectron (spur), meaning that the
1

see biography on page 301

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flowers have no spurs. The specific epithet or second word, hymale, means winter and refers to the fact that this orchid has a solitary leaf that persists all winter. This leaf can be up to 10" long and 3" wide with beautiful parallel silver veining. In the spring, as the leaf vanishes, a 12–18" pencil-thick stem of greenishyellow-purplish orchid flowers appears. In this instance, the common names are quite accurate, as they refer to two interesting characteristics of this unusual plant. First of all, putty root informs you of the fact that Native Americans used the glutinous matter derived from crushing the bulb to mend broken pottery and to fasten objects together. Adam & Eve is a reference to the growth habit of the bulbs as the leaf and flower arise from the current season‘s growth (Eve) while last years bulb (Adam), from which sprang forth Eve, is still present. One way of propagating the plant is to cut Adam away from Eve with a sharp knife and replant him. Aplectrum hymale usually sets copious amounts of dust-like seeds in attractive looking, pendulous pods. This is one of the easier orchids to grow from seed. Pour boiling water over a pot of soil to sterilize it, let cool and sprinkle the seeds over the soil, cover with a dusting of fine granite grit to discourage the growth of lichens, mosses and algae and to prevent slugs from eating your seedlings, and set it outside and let nature take its course. The seeds will usually

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germinate the following spring and in a few years you will have flowering size plants. I can't really recommend companion plants for Aplectrum hymale because for my tastes, I have found that it looks best on its own in a natural looking colony. I'm sure that if space is a problem in your garden, you can use your imagination and find a pleasing neighbor for your plantings of it. Unlike some terrestrial orchids, there seems to be no apparent mycorrhizal fungus requirement for these plants to grow happily and healthily in a normal garden environment. Aplectrum hymale is a woodland plant that, in the wild, can be found in the shade of rich moist woods. If these conditions exist in your garden, they will be very happy there and before long you will have a nice little colony of these eye-catching plants that‘s bound to strike up a conversation among visitors to your garden. You can then impress them with your command of Latin and some interesting trivia about the plant. Happy Gardening!
Barry Glick is a regular contributor to several gardening magazines. When he's not out in the woods exploring native flora, you can find him out in cyberspace where he edits THE CYBER-PLANTSMAN, a free Internet on-line magazine for the serious gardener at http://www.gardenweb.com/sunshine. He welcomes visitors to his Sunshine Farm & Gardens Nursery with advance notice. Barry can be reached at 304-497-3163 or by e-mail at barryg@slip.net.

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NEW SEASONAL ADDRESS
October - May Paul Martin Brown, editor

NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE ORCHID JOURNAL P.O. Box 772121 Ocala, Florida 34477-2121 USA telephone & fax (352) 861-2565

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Review: CYPRIPEDIUM

BOOK REVIEW THE GENUS CYPRIPEDIUM by Phillip Cribb
Timber Press, Portland, Oregon 359 pp., 26 full-page color plates, 98 color photos, 51 b/w illustrations, 22 maps, hardcover 6x9‖ ISBN 0-88192-403-2 $39.95

This long-awaited volume by such a distinguished orchidist as Phillip Cribb brings together many years of accumulated information on the entire genus Cypripedium. The lady-slippers are certainly one of the most popular orchid genera in the world, and those species found in North America are among the showiest to be found on the continent. Dr. Cribb goes into great detail concerning the morphology, life history, cytology and relationships of the various species. The chapter on ecology is especially interesting as it treats not only the habitats but individual substrates and pH as well as the effect of succession. The section on cultivation by Holger Perner treats each species and/or closely related species group with information gathered from many sources and gives formulae for various mixes as well as innumerable growing tips. Nearly all of the North American species are treated in detail in this section. The main body of the work concerns itself with detailed taxonomic treatments of each species in the

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genus as well as defining the numerous sections. Hybrids are also treated. Distribution maps are included, but unfortunately the ranges are so broad that they are not as useful as one might have hoped. They do, however, give an excellent overview of the distribution of some of the wider-ranging species. Each species is expertly rendered with a line drawing that shows not only the whole plant but usually all the plant parts and several views of the flowers. The two color sections treat the genus with a collection of color paintings from a wide variety of sources from some of the earliest to contemporary artists. All are exquisitely reproduced! The color photographs that are included illustrate nearly all of the species and several very interesting hybrids. They, too, come from a variety of sources and often include those of Luer which were originally published in his earlier works on North America. From the standpoint of North American species I can only take issue with Cribb‘s treatment of the Cypripedium parviflorum complex in that he does not recognize C. parviflorum var. makasin, the northern small yellow lady‘s-slipper. For those of us who have seen both the northern and southern varieties in situ, they are strikingly different. That aside, his treatment of the North American material is very complete and in great detail.

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This book will certainly be of the greatest use to all native orchid enthusiasts and, as an added bonus, to all of those who are growing, or wish to grow, many of these species as they are increasingly becoming available through several legitimate propagated sources. PMB

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Pelchat: 16 SPECIES IN ONE DAY

SIXTEEN ORCHID SPECIES IN ONE DAY IN THE FAKAHATCHEE STRAND
Cliff Pelchat

Florida is a truly valuable resource of tropical species orchids growing within the United States. The climate in the southern ¼ section of the state is subtropical and in small micro-habitats the water and forest combine to create tropical climates where these orchids flourish. The Fakahatchee Strand Preserve located along the south- western edge of the Big Cypress Swamp is one such place. A micro-habitat itself of hardwood, tropical trees and palms it is host to numerous mini-micro-habitats within it‘s boundaries. It is difficult country to explore, because most of the exploring must be done on foot through tangled undergrowth, swampy muck and mud and, at times, water up to one‘s waist. The following notes are a chronology of exploration by Mike Owen, (the park biologist), and myself on a beautiful December day. They are extracted from Mike‘s notebook, my notebook and memory.

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Friday, 12/13/96, 4:00am The alarm has me up and out of bed preparing for the 264 mile drive to the Fakahatchee Strand from my home in Melbourne, Florida. The night before was spent checking and packing my gear to make sure I could get an early start. Camera, back pack, compass, walking stick, jungle boots, snake bite kit, long sleeve shirt and water make up some of the essentials for a day in the swamp. I make a pot of coffee to take with me for the drive and hit the road by 4:45am. 8:30am I pull up to the welcome sign by the Fakahatchee Strand headquarters just as Mike Owen is arriving perfect timing. The drive south is quite familiar; Sandee , my wife, and I have spent the better part of all of our free time for the past 2 years exploring the Fakahatchee Strand and we have the drive down pat. The only interstate part of the route is I-95 from Melbourne to Fort Pierce. From that exit on it‘s county and country roads all the way. At one point I travel a dirt road paralleling the border between Collier and Hendry counties. The back roads are preferred because there is less traffic, the speed limits are slower and, of course, I can keep an ever watchful eye out for orchids on the sides of the road. 8:30am - 9:45am Mike catches up on his day and park business while I change clothes and shoes. I‘ve brought some slides to

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donate to the park so we go over them as well as maps and locations we plan to explore. We plan to visit a lake located in the slough where Mike has previously found dwarf epidendrum, Encyclia pygmaea. The day is sunny and the temperature is in the mid to high 70‘s. 10:00am Driving down Janes Scenic Memorial Drive, (JSD), we come upon some road kill - a banded water snake between gates 1 and 2. Mike records it in his notes as he does for all of the wildlife he finds - victims of the small amount of traffic that travels this road. We discuss the possibility that local people run over the snakes on purpose thinking that they are all the dreaded water moccasin. Usually they are banded water snakes which closely resemble water moccasins in color, shape and behavior. This is an unfortunate waste of wildlife. Even the water moccasins don‘t deserve this fate because though a venomous and deadly creature they can be avoided and only pose a threat to people when molested. As if on cue we spot a live banded water snake crossing the road and get out to investigate it. The snake resembles a moccasin in color and shape, the only give- away are rounded rather then silted pupils in it‘s eyes. Mike holds his hand in front of the snake and it immediately goes into its water moccasin act. Repeatedly striking at his hand and even flattening it‘s head making it seem like it has poisonous glands. The snake never once

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connects with Mike‘s hand because it knows that once it has then the jig will be up and the masquerade exposed for it has no venom or fangs. By the way, ―don‘t try this at home . . .‖ it‘s best to leave all of the snakes you encounter alone unless you are absolutely sure you know what you are doing. I‘ve met people who have been bitten by water moccasins and almost invariably they tell me a tale of how they didn‘t know it was poisonous when they picked it up. 10:15am We are at our first stop2 which by coincidence is a spot where I had noted an oblong-leaved vanilla, Vanilla phaeantha, plant growing on November 28, 1996. The water depth here is recorded as 3 1/4 inches. Mike has discovered leafless harrisella, Harrisella porrecta (Reich. f.) Fawcett & Rendle, (Syn: Campylocentrum porrectum Reich. f.) , growing on a bald cypress tree, Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.. The tree is small and has about 40 plants on it with many seed pods, most of them dehisced, and some still ripening. I have been searching for this orchid in vain and now know that all along I have had the wrong search pattern in my mind. These plants are no more then a small mass of very thin roots a few inches long radiating from a barely discernible central stem. They seem to prefer small branches of twig-like dimensions, but we did observe some plants growing
2

Due to the environmentally sensitive nature of this area, I have omitted exact locations of our explorations and sightings.

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flat on the trunks of trees. The fruit is no more than a couple of millimeters long. Mike comments on how this one small bald cypress is the only tree on which he has seen them growing, which seems unusual. We decide to fan out and look for more following a path dictated by what we guessed the prevailing wind to be when the capsules would be spreading their seeds. 10:35am I find several more plants with ripening fruit and Mike spots a plant with 2 flowers on the same tree on a branch 5 feet from the ground [water]! It is 25 yards south-south west of the original find near a cabbage palm, Sabal palmetto. What a great find, because normally the blooming season for this species ends in September. This plant is also growing on a baldcypress along with more then 40 more plants, some quite robust. While I begin taking pictures Mike continues to explore the area. 11:00am Mike finds a Vanilla phaeantha 30 feet south of JSD and 30 feet east of our original location growing up the side of a baldcypress tree. It turns out to be the same plant I had spotted from JSD with my binoculars in November. It grows straight up the trunk in a zigzag pattern to a height of 12 to 14 feet before circling the tree to the south side and continuing up for another 2 to 4 feet. The section of plant on the south side of the tree is brown and has no leaves.

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Another Vanilla phaeantha is discovered growing on a cabbage palm 4 feet east of the one on the Baldcypress. It grows up the tree an estimated 5 feet. On his way back to the Harrisella porrecta site Mike discovers 5 more plants of Harrisella growing on a southern wax myrtle tree, Myrica cerifera L., 9 yards south of the plant with flowers. We also note that the cabbage palm tree has 4 Florida butterfly orchids, Encyclia tampensis, growing on it. 11:27am Vanilla phaeantha 50 feet east of our original location and 30 feet south of JSD growing on a red maple tree, (Acer rubrum L.). Another Vanilla phaeantha 65 feet east of our original location and 30 feet south of JSD. Growing on the remnants of a cypress stump slightly south of the red maple tree is an unidentified Vanilla sp.. This plant differed from the V. phaeantha in the size and shape of the leaves as well as the internodal distance between the leaves. This was a healthy plant and I will be watching for it to bloom to try and make a clear identification. The leaves were 3 5/8 inches long by 1 3/16 inches wide with an internodal distance of 5 ¼ , 5 ½ and 6 inches. The V. phaeantha had internodal lengths of 4 ¼, 4 ½ and 4 ½ inches, leaf lengths of 5 inches and 4 ¾ inches and leaf widths of 1 3/16 inches to 1 1/8 inches. We believed the new vanilla to be commerical vanilla, V. planifolia.

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12:00pm We got back in the truck, headed north on JSD and parked at the clearing near Gate 12 for a bite of lunch. 12:30pm On foot, following a tram west to a predetermined point 1/4 of a mile into the swamp. It‘s like being in Jurassic Park. All along the tram are royal palm trees, Roystonea elata, reaching up 50ft to 75ft into the clear blue sky. Some of the trees are in full bloom and flower petals drift down through rays of sunlight having been dislodged by the bees busily gathering pollen. Royal palm trees number about 5,000 in the preserve, the same number as recorded at the turn of the century before the logging took place. The trams that were created to remove cypress trees have actually provided artificial hammocks of dry land where the stately royal palm seems to thrive. 12:47pm Turned north off of the tram across a ditch into the swamp with Mike leading the way. 12:52pmI point out 4 water spider ordids, Habenaria repens growing on a log floating in the ditch about 12 feet from the tram. The plants are in bloom and in various stages of fruit development.

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12:59pm We find a Florida adder’s-mouth, Malaxis spicata, growing on a log and it still has one bloom on it, but no fruit. We continue to head north. 1:03pm Three toothed habenarias, Habenaria odontopetala, in bloom growing on a stump. This species seems to be just making it‘s appearance in the Fakahatchee Strand even though in the central part of Florida it has been blooming since October. These terrestrial orchids can be found as much by their scent as by seeing them, especially in the late afternoon. They have a sweet smell that is easily recognized, but hard to describe. 1:04pm Rigid epidendrum, Epidendrum rigidum, with 4 flowers growing on a pop ash tree, Fraxinus caroliniana. This is by far the most common epiphytic orchid we see in the Fakahatchee. No matter what time of year I have been there it always seems to be in bloom. Mike pointed out that there seems to be some variation in the flower color of the plants that we were seeing today and others he has observed previously. Some of the plants have distinctly green flowers and some have distinctly yellow flowers. We are not sure if the color difference is a result of the amount of sunlight the plant receives or a true variation. Sometimes plants located in the shade tend

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to be more green then plants located in full sun. There is also a crooked spur orchid, Campylocentrum pachyrrhizum, on the same tree. It is the first of several we see this day. 1:06pm Proceeding north, north-west we spot the first nightfragrant epidendrum, Epidendrum nocturnum. It has no blooms and no fruit which is a bit unusual in this area. At this point the water depth is approximately 8‖. 1:09pm We come upon a dahoon holly tree, Ilex cassine. It has 2 orchids growing on it approximately 6 feet from the ground and they are so entwined we don‘t see one of them at first. The most obvious orchid is one that neither Mike nor myself has seen before. It has leaves that alternate up the stem which is slightly compressed and grows from a small central rhizome. The leaves are 42, 55, and 50mm in length alternating in length up the stem with the longest leaf at the apex. The leaf width‘s are 20, 16 and 19mm. There is no pseudobulb present. We later are able to identify this orchid from Luer‘s pictures and description as Florida umbelled epidendrum, Epidendrum floridense (Syn.: E. difforme). I have recorded the plant on film as pictures #2005 and #2006. The second plant is a Campylocentrum pachyrrhizum growing under and around the Epidendrum floridense.

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1:16pm We now are just south of the lake that has been our goal. We begin to see many more orchids and other epiphytes that are rarely seen elsewhere within the Fakahatchee Strand: 1:20pm Another a Campylocentrum pachyrrhizum. 1:25pm Another Epidendrum nocturnum with one new flower bud and one old fruit. Nearby are four colonies of Epidendrum rigidum with flowers. 1:41pm Epidendrum nocturnum with 10 fruit capsules ripening, and on the same tree, an Epidendrum anceps. 1:42pm Seven tall twayblades, Liparis elata amongst ferns on a log. 1:44pm Florida peperomia, Peperomia obtusifolia, with 5 flowers. 1:45pm Four Catopsis berteroniana, the powdery catopsis, a rare bromelliad. This catopsis is listed as endangered within the state of Florida.

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1:46pm We have reached the south end of the slough and are moving slowly around the area looking at the diversity of orchids and other epiphytes. 1:48pm Six Liparis elata, one plant with 5 ripening capsules and one with 3. 1:50pm Eighteen pine-pink orchids, (Bletia purpurea), growing on a log, (large abandoned baldcypress trunk left from the logging days). Nearby on the same log 5 Liparis elata one plant with 8 ripening fruits and one with 7. 1:56pm Three more pine-pinks and 5 more Liparis elata with 9 fruits between them. 2:00pm Our first Florida clam-shell orchid, Encyclia cochleata var. triandra. It has 2 flowers 2 buds and 9 pods. This orchid puts out flowers in succession on the stem and I have seen some plants with 12 fruits on one stem. 2:02pm Mike finds Encyclia pygmaea - a clump about 14 inches long growing on a pop ash tree. This is the

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species we came looking for and Mike had noted a very large colony of it growing near the lake on a previous walk. 2:09pm At the very south end of the lake Mike shows me the colony of Encyclia pygmaea he had found previously. It is 10 to 12 feet long growing up the side of a pond apple tree, Annona glabra. There are still flowers on some of the plants and I set about taking pictures while Mike continues to explore the area. He finds another clamshell orchid on a pond apple tree with 1 flower 3 pods and 2 buds. It is growing about 9 feet above the water. The water in this area is knee deep. 2:20pm Moving closer to the lake the water is at mid-thigh level and we find more clamshell orchids one with 2 flowers and 3 pods another with 4 pods. These plants are about 5 feet above the water. 2:29pm We encounter an exotic brazilian pepper tree, Schinus terebinthifolius, approximately 12 feet high and about 2 ½ inches in diameter growing on a log. We do our best to break it up and submerge it knowing that this will only temporarily halt it‘s growth. 2:35pm Two colonies of narrow strap fern, Campyloneurum angustifolium, with spores, growing on the side of a

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pond apple tree. Here is another rare find because this plant is also listed as endangered. The leaves are about 3 feet long and hang about 3 inches above the knee deep water. It is clear that in the wet season the tips will touch the water. We are circumnavigating the lake in a north- westerly direction . 2:52pm We find another narrow strap fern on the south west side of the lake. It has 14 leaves and is growing about 3 feet above the water. 2:57pm We find ourselves 30 yards north, north-west of the large colony of Encyclia pygmaea . The water around the lake is on average about knee deep. 2:59pm We are on the northeast side of the lake and a major land mark is an old giant cypress stump that is at least 6 or 7 feet in diameter. It‘s hard to imagine what this tree once looked like because it was cut down more then fifty years ago. The lower half of the trunk, about 16 feet long, lays pointing northeast as if it is a long forgotten signpost, broken and wedged against a pond apple tree. It was probably hollow at the base and therefore left to rot after the top portion was removed. We find another Epidendrum nocturnum with 1 flower and 3 pods.

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3:02pm We find a nodding catopsis, Catopsis nutans, another endangered Florida bromeliad. These are beautiful blue- green pineapple shaped plants with racemes that droop pendulently from the center of the plant with oval shaped fruits attached. 3:09pm Ten more nodding catopsis and a colony of Encyclia pygmaea 12 feet nw of the giant cypress stump. 3:12pm One Malaxis spicata. 3:16pm A colony of juvenile narrow strap ferns. 3:18pm Another colony of 9 narrow strap ferns located on the northeastern end of the lake 30 feet east of the giant cypress stump. One large dingy-flowered epidendrum, Epidendrum anceps pointed at by the fallen log. Another Epidendrum nocturnum on the same tree. 3:27pm Four clumps of narrow strap fern 60 feet east of the giant cypress stump.

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3:33pm One colony of Encyclia pygmaea 60 feet east north east of giant cypress stump. 3:37pm We find a Habenaria sp. This plant looks like Habenaria odontopetala but is a lighter green and the leaves look narrower then what we normally are accustomed to seeing. The major difference is the length of the spur on the flower3. It seems to be much longer then on others we have seen and warranted taking some measurements. The plant was 55cm tall and there were thirteen leaves sheathing the stem and turning to bracts at the base of the raceme. The leaves were about 13.5cm long and 25mm wide . The raceme had a total of 19 flowers with 4 lower ones pollinated. 3:51pm More Epidendrum nocturnum 1 flower 2 pods. 3:53pm Two Harrisella porrecta on cypress sapling branches. 3:57pm Ten clumps of narrow strap fern on a pond apple tree 2 ½ to 6 feet from the water.
3

Later the following week, I had a discussion with John Beckner, at the Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, and he mentioned that there could be some variations in Habenaria odontopetala. Therefore, closer examination of these plants is warranted.

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4:00pm Epidendrum floridense 3 feet from the water with fruit. The fruit is round like a basketball and about 1.2cm by 1.5 cm and a circumference of 4.5cm. Nearby another clump of narrow strap fern. 4:15pm We find a cone-bearing epidendrum, Epidendrum strobiliferum, in a laurel oak tree, Quercus laurifolia, 6 feet from the water near the south east side of the lake 10 feet north of a royal palm tree. Mike and another biologist had located this plant on a previous swamp walk when it was in bloom. 4:24pm Four pine-pink orchids on a floating log. The pseudobulbs are 1 ½ inches in diameter. In amongst the pine pink is a healthy looking Malaxis spicata in full bloom. This plant has the largest leaves I have seen so far - about 2 inches broad. 4:35pm One Harrisella porrecta on a pop ash tree4 south east end of lake. It has one fruit not yet ripe.

4

John Beckner pointed out that the Harrisella porrecta gropwing in pop ash trees may be a different (undescribed) variety. We will need to look cloaser at these plants.

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4:43pm Epidendrum floridense - three plants on a pop ash tree at 4ft, 10ft and 15ft high. The top plant is large with a very large fruit that looks to be about 1 inch in diameter from the ground. The tree is located about 25 yards north east of another giant cypress stump. 4:47pm 3 more clumps of narrow strap fern north east of the stump on north east side of lake. 5:05pm The sun is low on the horizon and it‘s time to think about heading for high and dry ground. We are at the north end of the lake and over 1,000 feet north of the tram we had walked in on. We decide that the next tram north of us is the closest and we begin making our way to it in a north- northeasterly direction. As long as the way is easy going we head more east because that is where JSD is located. Making headway is slow because as the way gets dryer the foliage gets thicker. We try to follow a path in the water, but one must be careful because for the most part the slough runs north and south and it is easy to find yourself heading deeper into the swamp instead of out. At one point I take a compass bearing and discover we are heading south and a course correction is in order that brings us back to dryer, but harder to walk through ground. Trying to stay in the water we eventually find ourselves at another lake.

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5:32pm A lake 50 x 35 yards in size and on the far side we can see a line of royal palm trees that could be the tram which is our goal. 5:40pm We confirm that the trees mark an east west tram just north of the new lake. Seeing it is much easier then getting to it. We must first walk around the lake and when we reach the side of the tram I find that the ditch which parallels it swallows my walking stick and almost swallows me when I attempt to cross it. The water is waist deep and since the sun has set I am not comfortable with wading through it - thoughts of awakening a sleeping alligator flash through my mind. I back out and we head west away from the lake to a point where trees are growing south of the tram and provide a firmer footing of roots to walk on. We get on the tram and it is dry, well almost dry. Heading east we soon find that parts of the tram are impassable because of the thick undergrowth. There are large ferns, fallen royal palm leaves and hog plum trees with 2 inch long thorns forming a tangled mass of impenetrable vegetation. We detour constantly off of the tram onto wild hog trails using my compass to keep a general easterly bearing. Everything has lost color and there are just shadows, and shades of gray in the swamp, cats-claw vines pull at my hands and shirt as I force my way through the thick growth. My walking stick becomes a make shift scythe with which

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I beat down a path in front of me. We hold a course by picking out large trees against the horizon in the direction my compass points and heading for them. When I site on the last large tree I mentally note that if we can‘t see JSD when we reach it I will stop and break out my flashlight for it is getting difficult to see the marks on my compass. We reach the tree and there, about another 20 yards is the hard-packed, white, limestone, surface of JSD gleaming in the dusky light. 6:06pm We reach JSD and it is pitch black out. This was my first time in the swamp at night and I was relieved to be on a clear dry dirt road. It took us 26 minutes to travel what had to be less then ¼ of a mile to get out of the swamp. 6:23pm Road kill, banded water snake, it looks like it was just run over. 6:25pm Another dead snake between gates 1 and 2. An owl swoops silently onto the road and snatches something just within reach of our headlights. It could have been a crawfish or maybe another snake. And so ends a day in search of orchids in the Fakahatchee Strand. The drive home is long, but I

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have no trouble staying awake as the day‘s adventures re-run like a movie in my mind. 12:30am Home to a hot shower and some much needed sleep. SUMMARY OF ORCHID SPECIES FOUND ON 12/13/96 FAKAHATACHEE STRAND PRSERVE
SPECIES Harissella porrecta Vanilla phaeantha Camp. pachyrrhizum E. nocturnum E. rigidum E. floridense E. strobiliferum E. anceps Enc. cochleata Enc. pygmaea Enc. tampensis Liparis elata Bletia purpurea Habenaria repens Habenaria odontopetala Malaxis spicata QUANT. 100 4 3 6 5 5 1 2 4 5 4 23 29 4 4 3

Cliff Pelchat, 2077 Lionel Drive, Melbourne, FL 32940-6802 Cliff, with his wife Sandee, last wrote for the Journal concerning Encyclia tampensis in December of 1996.

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Muehlbauer: CULTIVATION OF CYPRIPEDIUM IN E. LONG ISLAND

Cypripedium acaule

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NOTES ON THE GARDEN CULTIVATION OF CYPRIPEDIUM ACAULE IN EASTERN LONG ISLAND
Eric Muehlbauer

In recent years, improved propagation techniques have made many species, and even some hybrids, of Cypripedium available to the home gardener. Formerly perceived as difficult, many species, most notably the large yellow lady's-slipper, C. parviflorum var. pubescens, and the Formosan lady's-slipper, C. formosanum, are proving to be relatively easy plants to grow and maintain. The exception to this new concept of easy cultivation is the pink lady's-slipper, Cypripedium acaule, whose strict environmental requirements have long led it to be considered one of the most challenging, if not impossible, of all garden plants to grow. It has been the experience of this author that C. acaule, if given the proper conditions is in fact, one of the easiest, if not the easiest, of the Cypripediums to grow and bloom.

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The most important sign that Cypripedium acaule is amenable to garden culture is its presence as a native plant in the vicinity. If C. acaule has been sighted in the area, and, most importantly, the gardening area is typical of the environment and has not been altered by construction or landscapers, then cultivation should not pose any difficulty. The author's garden is located in Cutchogue, on the North Fork of Eastern Long Island, in New York State, where Cypripedium acaule occurs naturally in the vicinity. Except for a small lawn area and a rock garden, the property has not been altered by developers, landscapers, or the author. Most of the 200 x 50 foot property is natural oak-hickory forest, to which has been added rhododendrons, azaleas, and other shrubs, as well as assorted wildflowers and cultivated perennials. The native plants, consisting of oaks, hickories, mapleleaf viburnum (Vibumum acerifolium), lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium),Solomon‘s-seal (Polygonatum biflorum) and others have been left in place. The soil is almost pure sand, with a top layer of oak leaf humus. The pH is extremely acidic, 3.9, and very low in nutrients (Table 1). Rainfall tends to be very scarce during the summer. While the summer of 1996 was unusually wet more typical summers bring only a few centimeters of rain

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during June, July, and August. The most extreme was the summer of 1995, in which no rain fell at all between late July and mid-September. The Cypripedium acaule planted in the garden were originally purchased as single growths, propagated by a company called The Wildflower Source. They were planted m mid-October, about ten and eleven years ago. One plant was purchased in the spring and placed in a pot, as it had already started growing. It remained in the pot for the summer, and was planted in October. The plants were sited under oak trees, where they remained in dappled shade for the entire day. However, the earliest stages of growth, between mid-April and early May, occured in much brighter light, before the trees leaf out. Other than a bloom on the pot-grown plant, the next season or two involved only vegetative growth. Since then, the plants have continued to bloom every season in late May. Each plant put up a minimum of five growths and four blooms. The flowers were very fragrant, especially in the afternoon, and large. At least three flowers in each clump were pollinated every year, using pollen from the native plants nearby. Several pods were sent out to Spangle Creek and other laboratories for propagation, and at least one pod each year is allowed to ripen and disperse seed naturally.

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Contrary to other observations, these plants do not appear to be set back in their blooming by pollination and pod development. Perhaps this is due to the early harvest of most pods, usually in late August. However, several native plants are also pollinated each year, also without loss of blooms in the following season. The plants require no special maintenance, They are not fertilized or treated with any chemicals. Except for occasional slug damage in early spring, they are free of any pests or diseases. This is in marked contrast to Cypripediums grown in New York City, where fungal diseases usually blast the buds of Cypripedium acaule and frequently kill both C. acaule and the showy lady’s-slipper, C. reginae. The lack of fungal disease may be due to the drier environment in Cutchogue. Orchids such as several species of Platanthera and C. reginae grown in artificial bogs frequently show fungal damage m Cutchogue as well. Finally, the plants received no supplemental water, even during dry summers. The plants themselves showed no stress at propagation, and at least one pod no viable seed was produced. Subsequent years with more water produced fertile pods with good quantities of seed. My well water in Cutchogue is normally soft and somewhat acidic. However, prolonged drought coupled with heavy agricultural water usage may result m a decline m water quality at the end of the summer. So far, the

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plants have been unaffected by any changes in the water. In fact, the plants of C. acaule survived a period of salt intrusion entirely unscathed, while other plants such as Rhododendron viscosum and its hybrids, and Acer palmatum were burnt and completely defoliated. The cultivated plants are more robust than the native plants in the vicinity. Most of the wild plants consist of only one to two growths, and the leaves are smaller than on the cultivated plants. The native plants generally bloom well, although only three plants flowered in 1996, the year following the severe drought. Like many wild populations of Cypripedium acaule, individual plants appear one year and disappear the next. However, the overall number of wild plants has remained fairly constant. They are on private land, and the owners are aware, and appreciative, of their presence. Overall, as can be seen, Cypripedium acaule can be a very easy species to grow when it is provided with the right conditions. The best indication of the proper conditions is the presence of native plants in the vicinity, or at least a history of their having occurred there. While the first few seasons require a little extra care, in protection from drought and rummaging squirrels, once established they are carefree, low maintenance plants that can be relied on to give a beautiful display every spring.

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Table 1: Nutrient Analysis of Soil in Cypripedium acaule Habitat Soil Test pH Phosphorus Potassium Magnesium Calcium Aluminum iron Manganese Zinc Organic Matter Nitrate Numerical Amount 3.9 1 75 60 290 104 67 7 2 4.4% 8 Relative Level very low very low low medium very low normal normal very low high medium very low Soil

* Numerical amounts are in pounds per acre (#/A). analysis performed by Cornell Cooperative Extension.

Eric Muehlbauer, 65-16 Cromwell Crescent, Rego Park, NY 11374 E-mail: EMuehlb567@aol.com

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Todsen: SOUTHWESTERN MALAXIS

NAMING A SOUTHWESTERN MALAXIS (ORCHIDACEAE)
Thomas K. Todsen

Recently, Coleman (1997) brought to my attention the fact that Watson (1883) had described a specimen collected in Arizona by the Lemmons, naming it Microstylis purpurea. Ridley (1888) revised Microstylis and Malaxis. Since Lindley (1849) had used the specific epithet purpurea to describe a Microstylis from Ceylon and Java, Ridley renamed the taxon Microstylis porphyrea. In this revision, he rejected the idea that the taxon was the same as M. ehrenbergii. Ridley‘s comment was "M. porphyrea has no distinct fovea; the lip is concave at the base but not saccate." This latter refers to Reichenbach‘s (1849) description of the lip of M. ehrenbergii as "gibbere acuto in medio parte basilari," i.e. acutely gibbous in the middle basal part. Kuntze (1891) placed all Microstylis species under Malaxis, so the taxon became Malaxis porphyrea (Ridl.) Kuntze. In their consideration of Malaxis nomenclature, Ames & Schweinfurth (1935) decided that M. porphyrea was synonymous with M. ehrenbergii, and subsequent

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authors have followed their lead (e.g., Correll 1950; Luer 1975 et al). I have examined the holotype of Malaxis porphyrea from the Gray Herbarium. It has minutely papillate floral segments and a narrowly sagittate lip which easily differentiate it from M. ehrenbergii with glabrous floral segments and a broadly triangularhastate lip. The species should be listed as follows:
Malaxis porphyrea (Ridley) Kuntze., Revis. Gen. Pl. 2:673. 1891. Microstylis porphyrea Ridl., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 24:320. 1888. Microstylis purpurea S. Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 18:195. 1883, non Microstylis purpurea Lindl. TYPE: U.S.A. ARIZONA. COCHISE CO.: Tanner‘s Canyon, Huachuca Mts., Jul 1882, J.G. & S.P. Lemmon 2881 (HOLOTYPE: GH).

There is a difference that appears in Ridley‘s and Reichenbach‘s descriptions that has not been considered in previous justifications for separation of the two species. Ridley states the stem to be "superne laxe racemosus," i.e., loosely racemose above. Reichenbach, in contrast, says, "racemus plurimiflorus," i.e., raceme very many flowered. This difference is readily seen in Figures 1 and 2, where each dorsal sepal is about 2 mm long. The ranges of the two do not overlap. The southernmost sites of Malaxis porphyrea are probably

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in northern Chihuahua and Sonora. The northernmost site of M. ehrenbergii is in southern Hidalgo. The gap between is about 1200 km.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am grateful to the Curator of the Gray Herbarium for the expeditious loan of a holotype specimen and thank all the friends and colleagues who have provided comments and suggestions.

Thomas K. Todsen, Department of Biology, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003, U.S.A. REFERENCES
Ames, O. And C. Schweinfurth. 1935. Nomenclatorial Studies In Malaxis And Spiranthes. Bot. Mus. Leafl. 3:116. Coleman, R. 1997. Personal Communication. Correll, D. 1950. Native Orchids Of North America. Chronica Botanica. Kuntze, O. 1891. Revis. Gen. Pl. 2:673. Lindley, J. 1849. Microstylis Purpurea Sp. Nov. Gen. Et Sp. Orch. 20. Luer, C. 1975. The Native Orchids Of The United States And Canada. New York Botanical Garden. Reichenbach, H. 1849. Microstylis Ehrenbergii Sp. No. Linnaea 22:835. Ridley, H. N. 1888. A Revision Of The Genera Microstylis And Malaxis. J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 24:320.

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Watson, S. 1883. Description Of Some New Western Species. Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 18:195. This article originally appeared in Sida 14:636-637, 1997. The subject was the focus of Tom‘s talk at the 2nd North American Native Orchid Conference on 15 August 1997 in Tucson. The Journal is especially grateful to both Tom and Barney L. Lipscomb, Editor of Sida, Contributions to Botany, Botanical Research Institute of Texas, for permission to publish this timely note, as well as E.W. Greenwood for permission to use his photograph.. Ed. The plants from western Texas, in the Chisos Mountains, appear to be Malaxis wendtii. The arrangement of the flowers within the inflorescence and the shape of the lip are apparent even in photographs. The Journal is grateful to Bill Jennings for the loan of his photos taken at the Texas site, which may represent the only site for this species in the United States. Additional information on this genus in the southwestern United States and adjacent Mexico will appear in the December issue of the Journal Ed.

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339

Albert & Chase: Mexipedium: A new genus

Mexipedium xerophyticum
E. Hagsater

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Albert & Chase: Mexipedium: A new genus

I. PHRAGMIPEDIUM XEROPHYTICUM: A New Species From Southeastern Mexico5
Miguel Angel Soto, Gerardo A. Salazar, Eric Hagsater

The staff of the Mexican Association of Orchidology (AMO) continuously receives herbarium material to study and make a determination. This material frequently contains very interesting specimens and it is very valuable for our work. Among the material collected by the collaborating group of Dr. Thomas Wendt from the College of Postgraduates of Chapingo was a very peculiar plant. It took us by surprise because at the beginning of our examination we could not determine what this plant was due to the lack of flowers. It was a puzzle of small fan-like growths, united by long rhizomes, which produced an apical inflorescence, which was very pubescent. These characters suggested that it should be treated as a cypripedioid, which increased our curiosity. Xerox copies of the specimens were sent to some specialists, among them Dr. Robert Dressler, with the hope that he would be able to give some clues to its identity. Shortly thereafter, Rolando

5

extracted from Orquidea (Mex.) 12:1-10. Reprinted by permission. Special thanks to Eric Hagsater, Mariano Ospina and Margaret Barton for translations.

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Jimenez, of AMO, observed a specimen from the same collection, but with

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Albert & Chase: Mexipedium: A new genus

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a flower, confirming the suspicion that it was a cypripedioid, probably a Phragmipedium. With a discovery of this nature, we decided to organize an excursion to the area at the first possible opportunity to obtain live material of this interesting plant. The biologist, Patricia Vera Caletti, indicated how to get in contact with Sr. Heriberto Hernandez, collector of the specimen. We were advised about the difficulties of access to the region during the rainy season, since there is no passage for vehicles because of the rising levels of the rivers. The cypripedioid species, principally of the genera Paphiopedilum and Phragmipedium, have very attractive flowers and are widely cultivated. The wild populations of many species have been so decimated by collectors that some are in imminent danger of extinction. This is the case with another Mexican species of this type, Phragmipedium exstaminodium, of which the few remaining wild individuals are a concern. To that end, to protect these new plants, we have not marked the exact locality. As soon as we located Sr. Hernandez, he amicably guided us to the site where, several years before, he had collected the plant that interested us. The region where it lives possesses a rich and varied vegetation. In addition to the jungle and tropical rainforest that borders the hot-humid region at 300 m

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altitude, there is also an extensive woodland of oaks, pines and liquidambar; a very impressive mosaic to attract any botanist. In certain areas close to the rivers there are very abrupt karst zones, forming an extensive rocky limestone terrain, with sparse vegetation and a rather dry landscape. In fissures where humus accumulates we found small trees of Bursera simaruba, Plumeria rubra, Pseudobombax ellipticum and also noted the occasional presence of Beaucarnea, Yucca, Agave and Acanthocereus which came from the full humid zone. This environmental niche is the habitat of the plant that interests us. The plant is not abundant and it took us some time to find the first individuals. Fortunately, they were in flower. Immediately we confirmed that it was a new species of Phragmipedium, which was very different from any previously described. They were very small plants, with sprawling growth patterns. The flowers are also very small, white to pink. The lip is the delicate texture of a swollen balloon, with incurved edges and somewhat curved towards the center, in that it resembles the lip of some species of Cypripedium, or of Paphiopedilum micranthum T. Tang & Wang and its allies. The only species of Phragmipedium that present a lip of this kind are P. schlimii (Linden & Rchb.) Rolfe and P. besseae Dodson & Kuhn; however, in contrast to our present specimen, these species possess very distinct widespreading petals.

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The plants grow in rocky areas, are relatively small, with colonial growth, well branched with distinct leaves (fans) and lengthened rhizomes, of some 15–20 cm in height and probably even to 1.0 m2 extension. Roots simple or slightly branched, slender, clear, brown-colored or whitish, smooth or with hairs on the contact surface at the substrate, frequently attached to a naked rock or penetrating the humus. The roots originate only from the base of the fans and the rhizome of 0.8 mm thickness and up to 11 cm long, extends away to the next fan. The rhizome is very conspicuous, straight, hard, and brittle, forming 5–12 internodes, covered by a similar number of sheaths 1–2 mm in diameter; 3–8 cm long between each fan. The rhizome sheaths are numerous, scaly, with conspicuous nerves, brown/chestnut-colored, tubular or somewhat funnel-shaped, obtuse or sharppointed, loosely spaced out or imbricate, deciduous, from 6–9 mm long. Fans formed from 5–8 distinct leaves, of 3–4 cm, occasionally even 12 cm high and a span 6.5–13 cm. Leaves hard, conduplicate, the unequal apex obtuse, mucronate, smooth on the abaxial surface, leathery and fleshy, very stiff, clear green. Dead fans of leaves usually persist, turning brown-colored. The small leaf-bases, located between rhizome sheaths and the upper leaves become progressively larger, the upper ones from 3.5–12 cm long and 1.2–1.8 cm wide; around 1 mm thick.

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The inflorescence is terminal, formed of a peduncle for 2 internodes, elliptical in cross section; the panicle with 2 racemes (rarely one raceme). The primary raceme unfolds first at the apex and only later below, probably when the apex is no longer able to form more flowers. The raceme is hirsute, with multicellular hairs of variable lengths, reddish-brown in color, hairs more abundant near the inflorescence sheath, gradually less abundant toward the apex and also more appressed, until the surface is practically smooth or lightly papillose. The total inflorescence is of length 6.5–13.5 cm, 1–1.3 mm thick; inflorescence bracts one, approximately in the middle of the peduncle, with a conduplicate base, amply round to caudate at the apex, not articulate, yellowish and densely pubescent or hirsute at the base, gradually with little appressed hairs, with short and long cilia in the middle, apically smooth, 8–15 mm long. The rachis is very abbreviated with 3–7 consecutive flowers, one flower opening at a time, around 12–15 mm long, floral bracts distinct, imbricate, strongly conduplicate, keeled, with the apex caudate, recurved and thickened, dark brown-colored, hirsute and the cilia with multicellular hairs, reddish, 4–5 nerved; when extended (it is not possible without some distortion and breaking) broadly triangular, 4–5 mm long, 5 mm wide, gradually tapered toward the apex. Pedicels short, almost completely hidden by the bracts, very stiff, oblique, hirsute, multicellular hairs, subtriogonus, 2.5–3 mm long, 0.8 mm thick in the

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middle, widening toward the abscission zone of the ovary. Ovary unilocular. The flowers are small and colorful but without fragrance, very similar to that of Cypripedium californicum; 1.3–2.5 cm high, 1.5–2.0 cm in diameter. Perianth deciduous, falling when the flower is apparently fresh; white to pale rose. Sepals valvate, the lateral completely merged into a synsepal; occasionally the joining is not complete. The abaxial surface smooth, the adaxial surface is notably pubescent with multicellular hairs, most dense and long toward the apex and near the zone of abscission with the ovary. Dorsal sepal directed forward, elliptic, with the apex acute to subacute, mucronate and slightly thickened; 7–8-nerved, the veins branching off and anastomosing towards the apex, concave, from 9–14 mm long and 5–6.5 mm wide. Synsepal descending, suborbicular, obtuse (or when the clasping is not complete with two subacute apexes), mucronate and thickened at the apex, 12-nerved, the veins branching off and anastomosing towards the apex, concave, from 8–9.5 mm long and 8.5–12 mm wide. Petals linear-ligulate, acute, curved, sometimes somewhat descending, twisted or only slightly, with a wavy margin, 5-nerved, smooth or ciliate near the base, 11–15 mm long 2.5–3 mm at the widest part. Lip calceolate, inflated, slightly furrowed along the veins of the orifice. The orifice is very delicately textured; the surface smooth and the interior conspicuously

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hirsute, surrounding the base with very attractive, brilliant purple, multicellular, glandular hairs. Toward the bottom of the lip the hairs are notably reduced, continuing to the mid-line and are white and apparently more scarce and aggregate; the basal edges (around the orifice) are somewhat reflexed and thickened; apical margin incurved. Orifice 2 x 3 mm; the lateral small lobes incurved, broadly triangular, subacute, without swelling at the margins, nor projections (horns), nor forming hollow hunchback regions, adherents to each other around 3 mm, well delimiting the orifices for entering and leaving the cavity; the surface of the lip without "windows" or transparent zones; lip length from 10–14 mm, 6–8 mm tall, 7–9 mm wide. Column short and androecium merged only 1–2 mm, almost completely hidden in the orifice. Stigma curved, pendent, fleshy, consisting of a body approximately triangular, with a horizontal surface in front of the staminode, and with a longitudinal border of a few conspicuous, multicellular tricomes, longer near middle; the apex of the body directed downward and longitudinally curved. Stigma lobes forming an apical structure more or less laminar, or in a small cushion form that separates them farther from the staminode, stout, concave, oval-triangular; densely pubescent at the abaxial surface, diminishing papillae on the adaxial surface, the lateral lobes consisting of two inconspicuous borders on the lower face; 4–5 mm long, trilobulate, 1.0–1.3 mm at the widest part.

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Androecium with two fertile stamens and a petaloid (sterile) staminode. The staminode is notably pedunculate (around l mm), convex, broadly triligulate, subacute, rounded, longitudinally furrowed and smooth on the external surface; violet or purple; with an axial rib on the internal surface, with two groups of long, brilliant purple multicellular hairs along the rib, the remainder of the surface smooth; lateral lobes extended and directed downward, with the border lightly wavy; 3 mm long, 4–5 mm wide. There are two anthers, each placed at the extreme of an oblong peduncle, widened, short, slightly recurved, fleshy and smooth (except for sparse papillae at the apex). The anthers are perpendicular to the column, united at the peduncle through a very small zone; oval-triangular, somewhat short, sharp or obtuse, fleshy, white, the apex directed downward and outward; with 2 ventral zones, brown-colored, in the manner of a cup where the pollinia are placed and separated by a trench that continues to form a depression at the apical part of the anther; around 1 mm long. Pollinia two at each anther, forming an oval structure, oblique, granulose, yellowish, 0.5 x 0.4 mm. Ripe capsules cylindrical, trigonous to about 40 mm x 3 mm, dehiscent along three longitudinal slits, the valves remaining attached at the apex. HOLOTYPE: MEXICO: OAXACA: woods on the slope of the Gulf of Mexico, elevation 320 m. The dry landscape vegetation of Agave, Beaucarnea, Bursera

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simaruba, Plumeria and Pseudobombax ellipticum, in the karst zone surrounded by tropical rain forest and tropical oak forests, September 6, 1988, G.A. Salazar 3740, M.A. Soto, E. Yanez and H. Hernandez, AMO! ISOTYPE: K! OTHER SPECIMENS: MEXICO: OAXACA: Same locality and date, G.A. Salazar 3742, M.A. Soto, E. Yanez and H. Hernandez, US! Same locality, September 24, 1985, Heriberto Hernandez 1602, AMO! CHAPA! DISTRIBUTION: Endemic to Mexico. At this time it is known solely from a district in the warm-humid region of Oaxaca. ECOLOGY: This is the most dry-growing of all the Phragmipediums. The spreading habit is very conspicuous and often results in independent plants. This facet is an advantage for the population, as the propagation of the plants from seed would be a rare chance event in this habitat. This phenomenon has been reported for other species of cypripedioids with conduplicate leaves, as Paphiopedilum druryi Bedd., Phragmipedium pearcei (Rchb.) Rauh and P. besseae. The habitat of Phragmipedium xerophyticum is in some aspects similar to that of Paphiopedilum druryi. The plants we saw in the high rocky terrain were without surrounding tree vegetation. They were never in the totally exposed sites, but at the vertical fissures

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with northern and eastern exposures and grew either in small cracks with accumulations of humus or directly on the naked rock. None of the plants we saw received direct sun during the midday. The plants that were growing in the humus with Selaginellas and Pitcairnias were very robust. The region receives approximately 250 cm of precipitation throughout the year, the annual temperature is around 25ºC. A season of drought is well marked during the spring. FLOWERING: The plant was seen with flowers in September, and probably commenced flowering during the rainy season. A couple of small wasps were seen around a flower during the observed collection; nevertheless, the wasp was not observed entering the flower. The flowers are not self-pollinating although they produce numerous capsules. The pollinator is believed to be of a small size, judging by the dimensions of the orifice. It is suggested that the flowers of cypripedioids with inflated lips (Cypripedium irapeanum Llave & Lex., Phragmipedium schlimii, Paphiopedilum micranthum, etc.) result from adaptation to similar pollinators, probably bees (Halictidea in C. irapeanum ) instead of flies, as in many Paphiopedilums (Cribb, 1987).

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RECOGNITION: The combination of very small flowers, from 1.5–2 cm in diameter, white with a rose suffusion, and plants with lengthened rhizomes are unmistakable. The other Mexican species of Phragmipedium, P. exstaminodium is so distinct that is impossible to confuse, since it is an epiphytic plant with yellowish flowers marked with white, green and chestnut and with petals from 25–45 cm long. The other species of this genus with white flowers is P. schlimii, from Colombia, but is easily distinguished because the petals are rounded. CONSERVATION: This species is in danger of extinction. If we utilize the rarity criteria proposed by Rabinowitz et al. (1996) we are able to affirm that this is a very rare plant: since its geographic distribution (as far as we know) is not very extensive (one locality), it is restricted to a very specialized habitat (it only grows in the exposed karst zones) and the populations are very small (there are known to be no more than 7 clones). Phragmipedium xerophyticum is so scarce in nature that in a couple of hours we would have been able to collect all the known plants. Removal of the wild plants would have a very catastrophic effect. We recommend avoiding the collection of wild plants, including those for scientific work. A few plants were given to propagators with the hope for them to distribute seed to specialized

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nurseries and botanical gardens, which may put an end to collection pressures on the natural populations.6

(Original acknowledgments): We want to thank Sr. Heriberto Hernandez, who guided us to the district and to the authorities of his town, and for the facilities that they gave us during our stay in the region; Patricia Vera Caletti and Thomas Wendt, who presented us with information about the area; Elvira Yanez, who enthusiastically participated during the excursion; Rolando Jimenez, who prepared the illustrations. Likewise we thank Lucile McCook, Ed Greenwood and Fernando Chiang, who made important suggestions concerning the manuscript.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Atwood, J.T. 1984. The relationships of the slipper orchids (subfamily Cypripedioidea, Orchidaceae). Selbyana 7: 129-247. Cribb, P.J. 1987. The Genus Paphiopedilum. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew & Colling Ridge 222 pp. Dodson, C.H. & J. Kuhn. 1981. Phragmipedium besseae - A new species from Peru. Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 50(11): 1308-1310. Garay, L.A. 1979. The Genus Phragmipedium. Orchid Digest 43(4): 133-148.

6

see list of commercial sources at end of article

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Hegedus, L.S. & F.R. Stermitz. 1986. Further facts on Phragmipedium besseae. Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 55(4): 367-369. Rabinowitz, D., S. Cairns & T. Dillon. 1986. Seven forms of rarity and their frequency in the flora of the British Isles. in: M.E. Soule (ed.). Conservation Biology. pp. 182204.

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II. MEXIPEDIUM: A NEW GENUS OF SLIPPER ORCHID (Cypripedioideae: Orchidaceae)7
Victor A. Albert & Mark W. Chase The recent description of Phragmipedium xerophyticum Soto, Salazar & Hagsater (Soto, Salazar, and Hagsater, 1990), a phenotypically and geographically isolated taxon from Oaxaca, Mexico, raised new problems in the taxonomic distinction between New World Phragmipedium Rolfe and Old World Paphiopedilum Pfitzer (Cypripedioideae: Orchidaceae). Paphiopedilum was erected to include all conduplicate-leaved slipper orchids (Pfitzer, 1886), only to have Phragmipedium segregated from it a decade later (Rolfe, 1896). Although distinction was maintained through two nomenclatural conservations (Paphiopedilum-1959, Taxon 8: 242; Phragmipedium1978, Taxon 27: 288) that have received global acceptance (CITES Plant Committee, 7th Meeting of the Conference Parties, Lausanne, Switzerland, October, 1989), the genera are similar anatomically
7

extracted from Lindleyana 7(3): 172-176. 1992. Reprinted by permission of the American Orchid Society.

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and morphologically (Rosso, 1966, Atwood, 1984) and show few consistent differences. Phragmipedium xerophyticum presents a combination of Paphiopedilum-specific and Phragmipedium-specific features. Its inclusion within Phragmipedium (Soto, Salazar, and Hagsater, 1990) was based upon the expression of four character states: (i) valvate vernation (aestivation) of the sepals, (ii) the absence of sinuous epidermal cells in the perianth, (iii) fusion of the lateral lobes of the labellum, and (iv) ventral synsepals larger than dorsal sepals (Atwood, 1984, p. 190). However, Phragmipedium xerophyticum and Paphiopedilum have unilocular ovaries, whereas all other Phragmipedium species have trilocular ovaries. The merit of these characters is discussed at length in the original Lindleyana article. As a result, the generic assignment of Phragmipedium xerophyticum makes the taxonomic distinction between Paphiopedilum and Phragmipedium problematic. Rather than combining Phragmipedium with Paphiopedilum (which has nomenclatural priority), we proposed a new, monotypic genus for Phragmipedium xerophyticum. Mexipedium V.A. Albert & M.W. Chase TYPE: Mexipedium xerophyticum (Soto, Salazar & Hagsater) V. A. Albert & M. W. Chase.

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The plants are similar to the genera Phragmipedium Rolfe and Paphiopedilum Pfitzer. The inflorescences usually bear two racemes, the apical one developing first, the basal one developing secondarily from the single, medial bract of the flowering scape; raceme internodes abbreviated, bearing imbricating bracts. The flowers come successively and the floral buds have valvate sepal aestivation. The lip (labellum) is calceolate and inflated. The ovaries are unilocular with parietal placentation. Etymology: It was our pleasure to name this genus after its country of endemicity, Mexico. Mexipedium xerophyticum (Soto, Salazar, & Hagsater) V. A. Albert & M. W. Chase Basionym: Phragmipedium xerophyticum Soto, Salazar, & Hagsater, Orquidea (Mex.) 12: 2. 1990. TYPE: MEXICO. Oaxaca: selvas de la vertiente del Golfo de Mexico, 320 m s.n.m., vegetacion xerofitica de Agave, Beaucarnea, Bursera simaruba, Plumeria y Pseudobombax ellipticum, en zona carstica rodeada de selva alta perennifolia y encinares tropicales; hierba rupicola, escasa, flores blancas esfumadas de rosa, 6 septiembre 1988, G. A. Salazar 3740, M. A. Soto, E. Yanez y H. Hernandez (Holotype: AMO #1 1587; Isotype: K; photocopy of holotype seen).

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Distribution: Endemic to Oaxaca, Mexico. Only seven clones are known, all from the type locality (intentionally unspecified for conservation purposes). The recognition of Mexipedium stabilizes both Paphiopedilum and Phragmipedium by segregating a taxon with a problematic combination of character states (unilocular ovaries, branched racemes, and valvate sepal aestivation). This decision is supported by phylogenetic analysis of molecular, anatomical, and morphological data from representatives of the five genera of slipper orchids accepted here (V.A. Albert, unpubl.). Cypripedium, Mexipedium, Paphiopedilum, Phragmipedium, and Selenipedium are all monophyletic taxa. The branch linking the conduplicate-leaved genera (Mexipedium, Paphiopedilum, and Phragmipedium) is well defined by twelve character-state changes. Similarly, the branch supporting Old World Paphiopedilum is marked by eleven changes. In contrast, the New World clade (Mexipedium plus Phragmipedium) is supported by only four changes, and Phragmipedium itself by four. The composite branch length since common ancestry with Paphiopedilum is thus eight, which is comparable to the eleven changes supporting that genus. Additionally, Mexipedium has three unique changes (autapomorphies) assigned to its terminal branch, which is comparable to the four defining the entire Phragmipedium lineage. These patterns of character support suggest that Mexipedium

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has undergone substantial morphological and molecular evolution in isolation from Phragmipedium, which is in keeping with its biogeographic distinction as the northernmost representative of the New World conduplicate-leaved slipper orchids.

LITERATURE CITED
Atwood, J.T. 1984. The relationships of the slipper orchids (subfamily Cypripedioideae, Orchidaceae). Selbyana 7: 129-247. Pfitzer, E. 1886. Morphologische Studienuber die Orchideenblutlhe. Carl Winter's Universitatsbuchhandlung, Heidelberg.

—. 1903. Orchidaceae - Pleonandrae. Pages 1-132 in A. Engler [ed.], Das Pflanzenreich, IV, 50. Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig. Reichenbach, H.G. 1854. Xenia Orchidaceae, Vol. 1, Heft 1. F. A. Brockhaus, Leipzig. Rolfe, R.A. 1896. The Cypripedium group. Orchid Rev. 4: 327-334, 363-367. Rosso, S.W. 1966. The vegetative anatomy of the Cypripedioideae (Orchidaceae). J. Linn. Soc. (Bot.) 59: 309-341. Soto, M.A., G.A. Salazar, and E. Hagsater. 1990. Phragmipedium xerophyticum, una nueva especie del sureste de Mexico. Orquidea (Mexico City) 12: 1-10.

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(Original acknowledgments) Our special thanks go to colleagues at AMO (E. Hagsater, M.A. Soto, and particularly G. Salazar) for providing information and leaf material of Mexipedium. L. Hegedus also donated leaf samples for DNA extraction. We are grateful for information, comments and advice received from G. Carnevali, E. Christenson, R. Dressler, K.N. Gandhi, K. Kron, L. McCook, R. McVaugh, and G. Romero. Support to VAA from the National Science Foundation (grant BSR-8914635) and the American Orchid Society, Inc. is gratefully acknowledged.

Definitions Abaxial = facing away from the axis Abscission = the zone of separation Adaxial = facing towards the axis Anastomosing = netted Androcenium = the male sexual organs Anthers = pollen-bearing male organs Apical inflorescence = flowering at the top Appressed = lying close to Axial rib = the midrib on the leaf Bracts = modified leaf-like structures Cilia = short, unicellular marginal hairs Colonial growth = vegetatively reproducing colonies Column = the joined stamens and pistil Conduplicate = folded along a central midvein Cypripedioid = collective term for all the slipper orchids Epiphytic = growing above the ground, typically on trees; the opposite of terrestrial

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Imbricate = overlapping in a shingle-like manner Internodes = the spaces between growth buds on a stem, rhizome, etc. Karst zones = limestone formations typified by dramatic fissures, cliffs and sinkholes Keeled = with a longitudinal projection Labellum calceolate = lip slipper shaped Laminar = on the surface of the leaf Linear-ligulate = long and narrow Mucronate = blunt with a short, sharp tip Not articulate = not breaking off Panicle = an elongated alternately branched flower cluster; a branched raceme Paphiopedilum = a genus of tropical old world slipper orchids Papillae = multiple papillose Papillose = bearing minute, nipple-like projections Parietal placentation = ? Pedicels = the individual flower stalks Peduncle = stalk of the flower Perianth = collective term for all of the floral parts Phragmipedium = a genus of tropical new world slipper orchids Pollinia = pollen-bearing male organs Pubescent = with fine, downy hairs Raceme = an elongated flower cluster in which short-stalked flowers bloom along a common stem Rachis = the flower stalk below the inflorescence Rhizomes = surface stems that terminate in new vegetative growth Staminode = the male sexual organ Stigma = the female sexual organ Subacute = not quite pointed Suborbicular = not quite round Synsepal = the two joined ventral sepals Trilocular ovaries = ovaries with three compartments Unilocular ovaries = ovaries with one compartment

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Valvate sepal aestivation = with the sepals clasping like praying hands in bud Valvate vernation (aestivation) = with the floral bracts clasping like praying hands

COMMERCIAL SOURCES FOR MEXIPEDIUM XEROPHYTICUM Orchids Limited 4630 North Fernbrook Lane Plymouth, MN 55446 Bloomfield Orchids 251 West Bloomfield Road Pittsford, NY 14534

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LOST AND FOUND
a readers‘ bulletin board for sharing discoveries, information, upcoming events, and posting notices

MEGA PURPLES IN NEWFOUNDLAND 1997
Cory & Shirley Curtis We had been here two weeks and decided it was time to go home, but had failed to make reservations on the ferry early enough, so we found we had six extra days to wander around. We had already seen all we expected to see, including the new Dactylorhiza site at St. John‘s. We decided to go out to Blow Me Down point as we‘d been there on a previous trip and the scenery is so beautiful we wanted to return. I‘d bought the new Titford‘s ―Wildflowers of Newfoundland‖ book and they mentioned finding fringeless purples, Platanthera peramonea on a wet hillside near Flat Bay on the West coast8. We were skeptical about finding this and didn‘t, however, we found acres of other purples. Sites for Purples: 1. Blow Me Down, July 29th. At Bottle Cove there were a few small purples (P. pyscodes) scattered around the parking lot, then up the hill to the fog horn heilipad there were several hundred dwarf purples ranging in size from 3-12‖. The closer to the edge and wind exposure the smaller they were. 2. Flat Bay. July 30th 1st stop small purple fringed orchid, P. psycodes, This was a steep bank to the ocean, 1,000‘s here but this also had a fair amount of trash dumped here at some time. 2nd stop top of a hill, amongst dwarf white birch (Betula minor), were 200 large purple fringed orchids, P. grandiflora early prime with many buds, very sweet!! 3 white ones.
8

More than one person has been mislead by finding a fringeless large purple fringed, Platanthera grandiflora forma mentotonsa. I had that experience in northern Michigan many years ago. PMB

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3rd stop old foundation with a fence around it, 500 P. pyscodes , few whites, ragged fringed orchis, P. lacera. 3. St. George / Barachois brook July 31st Off Rt. 490, turn left onto 461 go 3/10 mile to a field on both sides of the road, about 10 acres on both sides. Fantastic field, everything here! 10,000 + orchids, Platanthera grandiflora, P. psycodes, P. lacera, P. clavellata, P. x keenanii, P. x andrewsii. It was predominately pure white orchids, some were P. psycodes, P. lacera and a few green P. lacera. This field had the best selection of white orchids, we found anywhere. Most other P. psycodes fields had 5-10 albinos, and the P. grandiflora fields had 1-5 albinos. 4. Cordroy Valley, Aug. 1st - 3rd . In a 50 acre field 2 miles from Grand Cordroy campground, we found approximately 10,000 P. psycodes, and at least 10 albinos. Scattered among the purples were 100‘s of hooded ladies’-tresses, Spiranthes romanzoffiana, little club spur orchis, P. clavellata and tall white northern bog orchis, P. dilatata. 8 miles further up the road we found about a 3 acre field with about 200 P. grandiflora, these were very robust and had dense heads of very large flowers that were peak. Inflorescence was 5-7‖ tall, with 50+ flowers, plants 14-24‖ tall, spur 3 cm, lip 15 mm, flower 3 cm. Very very sweet scent. We found 5 albino plants, few P. lacera (ragged), green and pure white. In a field beside Grand Cordroy Beach, we found 150 P. lacera (ragged) mostly green, some white, and P. psycodes. We found a nice bed of wild strawberries here that were abnormally large, plentiful and delicious! Not far from here just across 1 way bridge, in a wet boggy area there were P. dilatata still in bloom, among Pitcher plants and Purples. We camped at Grand Cordroy campground formerly a provencial park for 3 days and we even found about 50 purples and few ragged fringed around the edge of the campground. We explored about every road in Cordroy and in almost every unmowed field there were 1,000‘s of purples, intermingled with P. lacera, S. romanzoffiana, P. clavellata, P. dilatata, P. hyperborea, pitcher plants and all the Platanthera hybrids. Cory & Shirley Curtis, 278 Baer Rd., Rollinsford, NH 03869.

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LOOKING FORWARD
December 1997

Exhalted Vegetables
Wild Orchids in New Jersey

Of Millers and Crippled Crane-flies Evidence for Two Species of Pseudorchis The L & M‘s Sleeping with Dragons

and more!

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