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NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE

ORCHID JOURNAL
Volume 5 December
Number 4 1999
a quarterly devoted to the orchids of North America
published by the
NORTH AMERICAN
NATIVE ORCHID ALLIANCE
* * * * * * * * * *

IN THIS ISSUE:
RARE WHITE CALYPSO ORCHID IN CLEARCUT COUNTRY
HEXALECTRIS REVOLUTA IN ARIZONA
PINK LADY'S-SLIPPER FACT SHEET
NATIVE ORCHIDS OF THE NEW JERSEY PINE BARRENS
BIG ROCK PARK ……………………………….and more!
NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE
ORCHID JOURNAL
Volume 5 December
Number 4 1999
CONTENTS
NOTES FROM THE EDITOR
301
RARE WHITE CALYPSO ORCHID IN CLEARCUT
COUNTRY:
A personal journey of discovery, spirituality and hope
Gregory E. Brandenburg
303
HEXALECTRIS REVOLUTA IN ARIZONA
Ronald A. Coleman
312
PINK LADY'S-SLIPPER FACT SHEET Cypripedium acaule
Anne B. Wagner
316
AN ODDS AND ENDS COLUMN
The Slow Empiricist
325
5th ANNUAL NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE ORCHID
CONFERENCE
330
LOOKING FORWARD:
March 2000
332
NATIVE ORCHIDS OF THE NEW JERSEY PINE BARRENS
Christine M. Schairer
333
BIG ROCK PARK
Stephen Johnson
346
IN LOVING REMEMBRANCE OF GEORGE ROBERT
"BOBBY" TOLER
Stan Bentley
355
RECENT TAXONOMIC AND DISTRIBUTIONAL NOTES
FROM FLORIDA 4.
Two New Spiranthes Nothospecies from Florida Paul Martin Brown
358
Book Reviews:
WILD ORCHIDS OF TEXAS J. & A. Liggio
368

Unless otherwise credited, all drawings in this issue are by Stan Folsom
Color Plates:
1. p. 371 Calypso bulbosa var. americana forma albiflora
2. p. 372 Hexalectris revoluta
3. p. 373 Cypripedium acaule; Corallorhiza odontorhiza;
4.p. 374 Spiranthes ovalis; S. odorata; S. xitchetuckneensis; S. vernalis; S. praecox; S.
xaustralis
The opinions expressed in the Journal are those of the authors. Scientific articles may be
subject to peer review and popular articles will be examined for both accuracy and scientific
content.
Volume 5, number 4, pages 301-374; issued December 10, 1999.
Copyright 1999 by the North American Native Orchid Alliance, Inc.
Cover: Eulophia alta by Stan Folsom
NOTES FROM THE EDITOR

As the century comes to a close we complete volume 5 of the


Journal. Many changes have taken place over the past five years as
well as four North American Native Orchid Conferences. We have
had our problems with printing, color and mailing but I trust those are
now behind everything and us is reasonably on track. The year 2000
promises to be an exciting and reward year in many fields and I am
sure the orchids will be one of them. New species are still being
discovered in North America and many old and familiar species re-
examined and, in some cases, re-addressed with new (or old) names.

November 1999 brought us the sad news of the sudden death


of Bobby Toler, one of the first members of the Alliance. His friend,
and often orchid-hunting companion, Stan Bentley has written a
tribute to Bobby in this issue. I would like to dedicate this issue to
Bobby's memory.

Plans are well underway for the 5th North American Native
Orchid Conference to be held from July 16-20, 2000 in the
spectacular Olympic Peninsula in the state of Washington. If you plan
on attending please do not delay in sending in your registration.

One of the major features of the Journal for 2000 will be the
4-part series assembled by Anne and Ken Wagner on the Rare,
Threatened and Endangered Orchids of North America (north of
Mexico). This will be the first time all of this information will have
been brought together for a single periodical.

The Journal is still looking for more articles on local orchid


'hot spots' and treatments of specific species or genera. Please
continue to submit your articles. Several new and exciting things are
happening with the orchids here in Florida with my research for the
Florida Native Orchid Project and those results will continue to be
published in the Journal.

Paul Martin Brown Editor


PO Box 772121
Ocala, FL 34477-2121 352/861-2565 - phone & fax Email:
naorchid@aol.com
Brandenburg: RARE WHITE CALYPSO ORCHID IN CLEARCUT
COUNTRY

RARE WHITE CALYPSO ORCHID IN


CLEARCUT COUNTRY:
a personal journey of discovery spirituality
and hope

Gregory E. Brandenburg

The boreal forest of north-central Alberta, that


collectively I call home, has been a gradual ecosystematic
discovery and appreciation. It's stately spruce, pine and
mixed hardwoods blend with marshes, fens, and
abundant springs creating a biodiversity that has been
unequaled in my travels. The endearment towards the
Orchid family in this northern boreal forest borders on
obsessive, on behalf of botanists I have guided through
these mossy pathways for the past twenty years. Here
flowering orchids span the seasons of the snow free
months. Eastern fairy-slipper, Calypso bulbosa var.
americana being the official notification of spring, with
hooded ladies'-tresses, Spiranthes romanzoffiana signaling
that frost is just around the corner and announces the
emergence of autumn.

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COUNTRY

Within this phenological framing I have


encountered within a twenty-km radius of area that I
regularly explore for medicinal plants, more than twenty
species of orchids. These include several species of
coralroots, Corallorhiza, lady's-slippers, Cypripedium, rein
orchids, Platanthera, twayblades, Listera, adder's-mouths,
Malaxis, and orchis, Amerorchis, throughout my
peregrination over these years.

One of the finest and most memorable sights I've


had the honour to meet was Calypso bulbosa var. americana
forma albiflora. This colony of white calypso orchids,
within a nation of its more typical pink counter-parts.
Distinct, and to a trained eye, outstanding!

The setting of this white calypso colony occurs


near a scenic boreal marl spring known as "Granny' s
Spring". (Granny Belcourt used to take her water from
this source, and lived to be 104.)

The special bog adder's-mouth, Malaxis paludosa


grows here, as the setting is right. Just the gentle sounds
of water flowing into the marl pools. To begin this story
I'll have to introduce you to Tash (Natasha), the
daughter of my friends from the closest village in the
area, Marlboro (Alberta). Tash was about eight years old
in 1991 when from time to time she would accompany
me on excursions or adventures into the forest. Her
receptive eyes and retentive memory added to an

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COUNTRY

abundance of curiosity made her a perfect wandering


companion.

During the early months of 1995 Tash had


developed a lump under her arm, and it kept growing. It
was now towards the end of May (May 21) - a most
memorable day - the worst day of my life. On this day
we received word that the lump was diagnosed
malignant. Cancer. A day of tears, anguish, hopelessness,
finally turned into hopefulness.

It was a fashioning of a stumbling block into a


building block. And so a promise was now made to
myself (God keeps his promise. God lives inside you.)
For everything there is a reason - awareness gave the
answer. This specific area has been termed by indigenous
people since antiquity as "Medicine Lodge" It was in
search for a botanical remedy of Tash’s clash with cancer
which brought me to roam this location.

I now followed a path once affirmed for me in


Findhorn, Scotland. I was viewing the landscape as an
Ethnobotanist, blending in my botanical excursions, the
combinations of knowledge, pharmicudical botany,
diagnosis and spirituality. The night before I discovered
the white calypso colony was spent in preparation. The
morning of May 22 began with a prayer for guidance for
her botanical remedy, and a gathering I did go.

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COUNTRY

The first ethnobotanical plant of the morning and


the furthest afield I had come to gather was a portion of
the large yellow lady's-slipper root, Cypripedium
parviflorum var. pubescens. The erect seed stalks had
withstood the winter snows and its capsules waved like a
flag.

Sweetgrass was lit, and a prayer of thanks given


with a gift of tobacco (You must always give before you
achieve.) For ethnobotany is both a spiritual and a
conservation endeavor. I carefully removed a portion of
the root, then liberating to the wind seeds from the
crushed portion of the pods. The formula also required
club-moss, Lycopodium clavatum, the last plant to be
gathered. From thence time will tell, my finish will now
be Tash's beginning.

This club-moss was growing around moss


covered rotted lodgepole pine and white spruce stumps
on the edge of an area that had been selectively logged in
the late 1950's. Through natural regeneration, spruce,
pine, and aspen poplar now blended the forest canopy.
The forest floor waved in a carpet of iridescence through
an incredible proliferation of Calypso bulbosa. The
beholder was truly a happy wanderer, backpack full of
botanical treasures, soaked, smiling and appreciative. I
recalled the phrase "what the stars are to the heavens,
flowers are to the earth."

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COUNTRY

Within a field of these pink fairy slippers a small


cluster in contrast waved with an illumination exhibiting
a purity, even a spiritualness that affirmed my mission
and exemplified hope, clarity, and faith in miracles. They
were white calypsos - eight of them in full bloom. A
colony unlike any I have ever witnessed then and now.

The great environmentalist and wilderness


advocate John Muir had met two white calypso orchids
in the Holland River Swamps of Ontario in 1866. His
description of these became his first published work
when it appeared in the Boston Record Dec.21, 1866.
Muir's description had very much paralleled my own
impressions.

As he wrote" I never before saw a plant so full of


life, so perfect, spiritual, it seemed pure enough for the
throne of its creator. I felt as if I was in the presence of
some superior being who loved me and beckoned me to
come. I sat down beside them and wept for joy. Could
angels in their better land show us a more beautiful
plant? How good is our Heavenly Father in granting us
such friends as these plant-creatures, filling us wherever
we go with pleasure so deep, so pure, so endless."

Later in life John Muir, queried by a news reporter


for the two most significant events in his life replied,

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Brandenburg: RARE WHITE CALYPSO ORCHID IN CLEARCUT
COUNTRY

"meeting Ralph Waldo Emerson, and meeting the white


calypso orchid in a swamp in Ontario".

For myself as I gazed transfixed, the words of


Wm. Blake sprang into mind "To see the world in a
grain of sand. Heaven in a wild flower. To touch infinity
in the palm of your hand. And eternity within the hour."

To care is to share, and in this instance, it also


reveals the "all to familiar" perils of trust. I shared the
uniqueness of these blooming white orchids with two
individuals I had guided with the hope of achieving the
needed site protection and the plants receiving the
necessary botanical validation.

Surprise! I revisited the colony four days later, to


check and say farewell. Where the white calypso once
grew, all that was left was a shallow scoop, a scar in the
continuity of the moss carpet. Gone!

As I recall that devastating moment some


compassionate thought did arise; a poem from my first
summer in the forest, I titled the poem Forest Wind:
There is a forest, it lies beneath my feet.
It has no path, but the one it seeks
Everywhere round is beauty and life
All in balance, with a touch of strife.

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COUNTRY

Three years have now transpired, and only


through the grace of God these little treasures are re-
appearing on the fringe of where the whole colony once
grew. The scar is healing and the memories remain.

The spirituality, romance, and literary aspects of


the white calypsos are further enhanced with the
inclusion of the encouraging response forwarded to me
in July 1999 by Paul Martin Brown, Editor of the North
American Native Orchid Journal. After my forwarding a
series of detailed photographs to him, he informed me
that his initial conclusion is that the colony appeared to
he the very rare white flowered form of the eastern
fairy slipper, Calypso bulbosa var. americana forma albiflora
- the result from a change of a single gene within a
specific seed capsule. Although the white flowered forms
are often referred to as albinos they are not as they do
contain chlorophyll in the leaves. Whenever seed is
produced from the white flowered forms, they typically
produce pink flowered plants. This seems to be the first
sizeable colony of this color form ever found. The
genetic anomaly normally applies to a sing1e individual
never a colony.

The vibrant green leaves of these plants seem to


contrast from the typically yellowish tinge of other white
flowered calypso anomaly, nitrogen deficient prospects.
Only time and analysis will answer these questions.

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COUNTRY

In closure I’d like to thank Dr. Jim Butler,


Professor, Dept. of Renewable Resources, University of
Alberta, for being a catalyst in this writing and taking the
time and effort in these most excellent documental
photographs.

Along with the above and equal appreciation; Paul


Martin Brown of the North American Native Orchid Journal,
whose expertise removed one self imposed stigma,
"Clueless in the orchid patch" Many Thanks. And to
Tash (Natasha R. Belcourt, Granny's great-
granddaughter) who is now fifteen and a half, a healthy
teenager, above average, athletic student going into grade
11, whose charm and beauty can only deciphered by her
moods. All is well that ends well.

Although these white calypsos grow in CLEAR


CUT COUNTRY, within a forest management area of
WEYERHAEUSER CANADA, sound selective cutting
on behalf of an earlier, small, local, conscientious
foresters had left the forest floor biologically intact,
facilitating these plants. Modern clear-cutting, followed
by scarification and planting of favoured monocultures
are less favorable to wild orchid colonies like this one.

Paul Martin Brown described this colony as "very


special", and encouraged careful monitoring over the
years to follow this unique colony. Brown also
encouraged in his communication "Immediate

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COUNTRY

protection of the site from development, logging and


poaching."

The author remains hopeful that Weyerhaeuser


will accept this location as an area of special
management regulations in the interest of environmental
protection maintaining the natural genetic and biological
diversity of the boreal forest ecosystem.

Many Thanks.
Gregory E. Brandenberg
c/o Stan Belcourt , Box 64445 (64451), Edson, Alberta, Canada
T7E 1T8

311
Coleman: Hexalectris revoluta

HEXALECTRIS REVOLUTA IN
ARIZONA

Ronald A. Coleman

Hexalectris revoluta was described by Correll in 1941. It


remains a little known and seldom seen species. Luer (1975)
showed it in only two locations: in the state of Nuevo Leon in
Mexico, and the Big Bend area of Texas. This species has now
been identified in southeastern Arizona, which is a significant
western and northern range extension.

Credit for the first discovery of the plant in Arizona goes


to Larry Toolin and Frank Reichenbacher, who discovered it in
south central Pima County in 1981. However, they identified the
plant as Hexalectris spicata, which is reasonable given the keys in
local floras. A second discovery, this time by Steve McLaughlin,

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Coleman: Hexalectris revoluta

was made in 1986 in the southern part of Pima County. Like

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Coleman: Hexalectris revoluta

Toolin and Reichenbacher, McLaughlin identified the


plants as H. spicata. Both of these discoveries are documented with
collections, housed at the herbarium of the University of Arizona.
My experience with these plants dates from 1996 when
McLaughlin took me to his site in southern Pima County. Only
one plant bloomed that year, and it was damaged by insects.
However, the next year over one dozen plants bloomed at that
location, fueling up my suspicion that this was not H. spicata, but
rather H. revoluta.

My tentative identity and slides of the plants taken in 1997


were sent to Paul Catling, who is studying the genus Hexalectris
and preparing the treatment for the Flora of North America
series. We discussed the plants several times, and in 1998 Catling
and Engel confirmed my identification of the plants as Hexalectris.
revoluta. The main characteristic that makes H. revoluta easy to
identify is the presentation of its sepals and petals. They are free
and spreading and rolled back along the outer third of their length
more than 360 degrees. Their background color is light tan to pale
rose. The lateral lobes of the lip have distinct purple veining over
a whitish tan to rose tan base. The central lobe of the lip had the
raised ridges characteristic of Hexalectris.

Hexalectris revoluta has been positively identified at three


locations in Arizona, and is probable at a fourth. The first two
sites are those discovered by Toolin and Reichenbacher, and by
McLaughlin. The author found a third site in Pima County, about

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Coleman: Hexalectris revoluta

ten miles distance from McLaughlin's site. A fourth location in


Cochise County is suspected to harbor the orchid. In 1998 flower
spikes appeared in late May that looked identical to those of H.
revoluta in size and color. However, the spikes all withered before
the buds were mature enough to make a positive identification.
No plants appeared at that site in 1999. Habitat is the same at
both locations. The plants grow in canyon bottoms and on the
sides of canyons at about 5000' elevation. They root in soil and
duff under oaks and mesquite, often in association with Arizona
walnut. Most of the plants are in moderate shade, but some grow
in bright light part of the day,

Ronald A. Coleman, University of Arizona, 11520 E. Calle


Del Valle, Tucson, AZ, 85749.

Ron is a frequent contributor to this Journal as well as several


other orchid-related publications and is the author of Wild Orchids
of California.

Literature cited:

Correll, D.S. 1941. Native Orchids of North America north of Mexico.


Chronica Botanica, Waltham.

Luer, C.A. 1975. Native Orchids of the United States and Canada, not
including Florida. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.

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Wagner: PINK LADY'S-SLIPPER: Cypripedium acaule

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Wagner: PINK LADY'S-SLIPPER: Cypripedium acaule

Fact Sheet:

PINK LADY'S-SLIPPER
Cypripedium acaule
Anne B. Wagner

Pink lady's-slipper, Cypripedium acaule, may be


the best-known native wildflower. Certainly, it is the
largest and most abundant of about thirty-three species
of native orchids growing in Rhode Island. Unlike other
orchids, the pink lady's-slipper prefers the dry, sandy,
acid soils and dappled shade of pine-oak or mixed
deciduous forests, although it can be found in wetter
areas, too, on hummocks in bogs and swamps.
Companion plants often include blueberries and
huckleberries.

The two oval, basal leaves lie almost flat upon the
ground, maximizing the surface area available to collect
sunlight filtering through the canopy for photosynthesis.
A leafless 6”-15” scape supports the flower whose lower

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Wagner: PINK LADY'S-SLIPPER: Cypripedium acaule

lip—a modified petal—forms the familiar pink pouch


that reminds people of a shoe or a slipper, leading to the
common names of “lady’s-slipper” or “moccasin
flower.” Indeed, the botanical name “Cypripedium”
derives from Greek meaning “Venus’ slipper.” Usually
the pouch is a shade of pink—pale to rose to
raspberry—with a tracery of red veins. White-flowered
forms (forma albiflora) occasionally occur.
Pink lady's-slippers are not rare in Rhode
Island. Hikers may encounter large colonies carpeting
forest floors during bloom time in May. Individual
plants can live as long as one hundred years, but the
plant may flower only 10-20 times during its lifetime.
Producing flowers takes energy and a plant may need
several years to accumulate enough resources to expend
on flower production. Making seed requires still greater
energy; a pink lady's-slipper may set seed only 2-5
times in its life.

Native bumblebees pollinate the flowers.


Bumblebees are strong enough to force open the fissure
in the pouch. As they search for nectar along a route that
brings their large, hairy bodies in contact with the
saddlebag-like globs of pollen (pollinia) which attach
themselves to the bee as it exits the flower and flies to

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the next bloom. Unfortunately, the next bloom may not


be a pink lady's-slipper! Bees quickly learn that these
orchids produce no nectar, so they choose other flowers
to visit. This is one reason why so few of these orchids
produce seed.
When a plant does produce seed, however, the
capsule may contain thousands the size and weight of
dust particles. Orchid seeds are so light because they
contain no endosperm, that nutrient portion of a seed
that nourishes the infant plant. Chance plays a role in
successful germination. Wind-borne pink lady's-
slipper seeds must alight on an appropriate surface and
must establish a symbiotic or parasitic connection with a
soil fungus (mycorrhiza.) The mycorrhiza provides the
nutrients that enable the seed to germinate and that
sustain the young plant’s growth. In the laboratory,
plants can be grown without mycorrhizae. In the wild,
newly-germinated Cypripedium acaule plants may require
several years to develop a root system before sending up
their first leaf.
Pink lady's-slipper roots do not grow deep.
They remain in the shallow layer of oxygen-rich,
biologically-active humus. Roots are brittle and delicate,
easily damaged. If a root tip, the active growing portion

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of the root, is damaged, it will not regenerate and


nutrient absorption ceases in that root. Digging up a
pink lady's-slipper plant damages so many roots that
transplants must live off stored energy. Depleted of
resources, the plant dies after a year or two. Never dig a
pink lady's-slipper from the wild. Dedicated amateur
and professional orchid growers continue to unravel the
intricate web of the Cypripedium acaule life cycle and the
day will come, perhaps within five years, when pink
lady's-slippers will become commercially available to
home gardeners eager to include this beautiful and
beloved native orchid in landscapes and gardens.

Frequently-asked Questions about Pink lady's-slippers


How can I grow pink lady's-slippers in my
garden? At this time (1999), pink lady's-slippers
are not commercially propagated in sufficient
quantities for general sales. Amateur and
professional orchid growers are making rapid
progress in unlocking the secrets of the pink lady's-
slipper’s life cycle. Perhaps plants will become
available to home gardeners within the next five
years. Sometimes, pink lady's-slippers are offered
for sale through catalogs or retail nurseries. Beware!
It is likely that those plants have been dug up from a
native habitat and are unlikely to prosper in your
garden.

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How can I transplant pink lady's-slipper plants?


Never dig up a pink lady's-slipper! Digging pink
lady's-slippers damages roots so badly that plants
must live on stored nutrients, depleting their
resources. New roots do not grow fast enough to
support a transplant and eventually, the plant dies.
Rhode Island law states that it is illegal to pick or
dig a plant from public or private property
without written permission of the landowner.
Can I grow pink lady's-slippers from seeds I
collected in the wild? Few wild pink lady's-
slippers produce viable seed. Many flowers are
never pollinated. When a plant does produce seed,
the capsule contains thousands and thousands of
minute, dust-like seeds. The seeds lack endosperm,
the nutrient component of seeds that supports
germinating tissues in most plants. Pink lady's-
slipper seeds, dispersed by wind, must establish a
relationship with a soil fungus that supplies nutrients
to induce the orchid seed to germinate and establish
roots. Under laboratory conditions, pink lady's-
slipper seeds have been made to germinate, but the
average gardener cannot. Possibly, if the seeds are
dispersed over an area where plants are already
growing, some seed may germinate. Remember,
Rhode Island law prohibits picking plant parts
without written permission of the landowner. Leave
seed capsules on the plants.

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Wagner: PINK LADY'S-SLIPPER: Cypripedium acaule

How can I increase the number of pink lady's-


slippers growing in my woods? One suggestion is
to increase the chances of seed production by hand-
pollinating some of your blooming plants. Get a
book from the library on botany or orchid growing
and learn to identify the sexual parts of an orchid
flower, that differ somewhat from the sexual parts in
most other flowers. Then get down on the ground
and study the pink lady's-slipper flowers until you
can identify the parts. Using a toothpick or twig, pick
up a glob of pollen from one flower and transfer it to
the underside of the stigma of a different flower.
Remember, not all plants flower every year. It may
take several years for a plant to store the energy to
flower and set seed.
There used to be lots of pink lady's-slippers in
my woods, but now there aren’t as many. Why?
What can I do about it? Pink lady's-slippers
prefer dappled or light shade. As nearby trees and
shrubs mature, they produce heavier shade, depriving
lady’s-slippers of light for photosynthesis. Cut down
or prune shrubs casting heavy shade. Limb up or
prune branches from mature trees or cut down one
or two trees to let in more light. Pink lady's-
slippers suffer from competing roots. Weed around
the orchid patch, removing aggressive vines, shrubs
and grasses. Other factors affecting pink lady's-
slipper populations may include: shifts in drainage
patterns; loss of habitat due to development; too

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much sun because of logging, clearing or


development; prolonged drought or other adverse
weather conditions; illegal digging of plants by
poachers; root damage by deer or human traffic.
Are pink lady's-slippers rare plants? Pink lady's-
slippers grow across Canada from Newfoundland
and Nova Scotia west to Manitoba, south into the
U.S. to Georgia, west to Alabama, north to
Minnesota and are frequent to abundant in dry to
moist, acid, oak-pine or coniferous forests. Stands of
pink lady's-slippers may comprise a few to dozens
of plants, but not all plants bloom every year.
Populations may decline over the years because of
increasingly heavy shade from maturing trees or from
competition from aggressive plants or from some
other cause. Some populations of lady’s-slippers may
disappear because of development. Perhaps, as
Rhode Island’s abandoned fields succeed into forest,
new stands of pink lady's-slippers may appear.
Anne Wagner, Hilltop, Portsmouth, RI

Suggested Literature:
Brown, Paul Martin. 1997. Wild Orchids of the Northeastern United
States. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. pp. 62-63.
Cullina, Bill. “Rooted in Mystery—How Does the Pink lady's-
slipper Grow?” New England Wild Flower Notes Vol. 1(1),
Spring 1997. p. 7.

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__________ “Growth Requirements of the Pink lady's-


slipper.” New England Wild Flower, Vol. 1(2), Fall/Winter
1997. p. 4.
Deno, Norman C. 1990. Seed Germination Theory and Practice
Available from the author: 139 Lenor Drive, State College,
PA 16801.
Longland, David. 1990. Pink lady's-slipper Plant Resource Sheet
Framingham, MA: New England Wild Flower Society.
Moon, Mary A. 1998. Don’t Try This at Home. New York State
Conservationist, April. p. 7.
Niering, William A. and Nancy C. Olmstead. 1995. National
Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Wildflowers—
Eastern Region. NY: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 651.
Steele, Bill. 1998. Propagating North American Cypripedium
Species from Seed: Successes and Problems. North
American Native Orchid Journal 4 (3): 200-216.

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Empiricist: AN ODDS AND ENDS COLUMN

AN ODDS AND ENDS COLUMN


The Slow Empiricist

I have gone over all my previous columns and


have up-dated some of them and have put them
together in one publication as a bonus for those people
who sent in their 2000 subscription orders by
November 15, 1999. The new compendium should be
included in with your December issue if you complied
with the directions.

When I reread and reworked my old columns,


they peaked my intent to up-date you about some of
the events that have occurred since the publication of
the some of the particular columns. I titled this column
An Odds and Ends Column so that I could bring you
this new information on some of the things that have
been happening in the world of orchids as I have found
out about them. Things seem to change all the time
and sometimes for the better.

When I wrote about Florida's dancing lady,


Tolumnia bahamensis, I complained about the
seemingly senseless policy dictating the rescuing of
threatened orchids. I have since learned that you can
rescue orchids without all the waiting for the powers

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Empiricist: AN ODDS AND ENDS COLUMN

that be to act on your request if the orchid is threatened


with immediate extermination (like from in front of a
bulldozer). This does not give you carte blanch to go
about raping the country-side but it does allow you to
act more quickly to attempt to save the orchids. Now,
this is for the state of Florida. You will have to check
your own state's or country's regulations in this matter
before you act to save a threatened orchid or you could
be in trouble. .

A further up-date on the dancing lady will


hearten you. There have been found several colonies
near the other extant sites, which bodes better for the
survival of this species. Also a rescued plant that was
grown as a terrestrial in a greenhouse environment has
survived and flowered exuberantly this spring. This
suggests that the orchid needs to be treated as a
terrestrial like it grows in the wild. Remember, it starts
in the ground and sends long shoots up a convenient
rosemary shrub where it puts out flowering spikes,
which give it the look of an epiphyte. Previous
attempts to grow it on bark saw the plant decline and
whither away.

If you think that my column on foolers was all


inclusive you must think again. As I explore for
orchids, I find there are lots more foolers lurking out
there. As soon as I can amass enough new ones I hope

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Empiricist: AN ODDS AND ENDS COLUMN

to spread the word via another column on them. One


that comes to mind is the tiny fern that puts up a leaf
that looks so much like an orchid out of flower that I
have mistaken it for the orchid. Of course finding the
Ophioglossum is also a pleaser so you shouldn't feel
too bad if you incorrectly identify it as an orchid. The
orchids are much more plentiful than the fern.

This fall when I returned from Maine to Florida,


I was exploring for flowering plants of Habenaria
quinqueseta at a preserve near my home, I kept
confusing the orchids with common sow thistles that
grew all through the same area. My persistence
rewarded me with a nice stand of about seven plants in
full flower as well as many other sites in that area.
There were large patches of rosettes with a few in
flower to some plants that had begun to ripen into fruit
as well as a few individuals in prime condition. .

New taxa are being identified almost


every month. Like the new color form for Sacoila
lanceolata. After the columns appeared about the
new color form, folsomii, several people contacted the
Journal about seeing that color form in the tropics.
Paul Martin Brown found an old botanical print of the
Sacoila this summer while vacationing in Maine, that
was definitely bronzy-orange rather than the common
red color. He checked the publication of this print at

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Empiricist: AN ODDS AND ENDS COLUMN

the herbarium at Harvard University in Cambridge,


Massachusetts. The Harvard copies were identical in
color to the print he discovered up in Maine. The
tropical plants belong to Sacoila lanceolata, but the
color form had not been described so forma folsomii
still remains true. The plants will be studied carefully
in the next few years as the article in the March 1999
Journal about them described the processes to be
employed.

Since for most of the readers this is the time of


the winter season when orchids are hard to come by in
the wild. Unless you live in a southern climate or can
take a winter vacation to a warmer place you will be
hard pressed to enjoy fieldwork as one of my winter
columns lamented. As I also pointed out in that
column, this does not mean you are to sit back and
cool your heels waiting for spring to reawaken the
little gems you love to find in nature. You can spend
some time in educational pursuits as I have urged in
several previous columns. One thing that I didn't
emphasize was the availability of good books on the
subject. If you don't have access to a good resource
like a nearby college or university, or you don't have a
good library or bookstore to explore, study the
Journal! Books are being published that are adding to
our knowledge of the orchids to be found in specific

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Empiricist: AN ODDS AND ENDS COLUMN

parts of the North American continent. You can find


information about them in most issues of the North
American Native Orchid Journal. Paul Martin Brown
usually includes a good review of the current
literature. This includes the name and address of the
publisher and the price so you may order them for you
perusal. Or, you can urge your library or local orchid
society to buy one for all to enjoy. Or, you could
donate your copy to those institutions for others to
enjoy.

I will close with the admonition that soon the


winter season will be over and you should be using
this time to enrich your knowledge with study. Lots of
my columns harped on this theme so if you have
subscribed early you will have the entire set to refresh
your memory on what can be accomplished. It is still
imperative to continue to grow in understanding and
knowledge about these often, tiny wonders of the plant
kingdom. Now is a good time to get started. Spring is
coming as surely as tax time for all the people who
live in the United States of America. I would much
rather spend time learning something new about
orchids then figuring out my income tax. Wouldn't you
find the study of orchids a similarly pleasant pastime?

The Slow Empiricist

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Empiricist: AN ODDS AND ENDS COLUMN

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Empiricist: AN ODDS AND ENDS COLUMN

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Empiricist: AN ODDS AND ENDS COLUMN

LOOKING FORWARD

MARCH 2000

Rare, Threatened and Endangered Orchids of North


America (north of Mexico)
Part 1

The Genus Habenaria in the Southeastern United


States

and more……..

332
Schairer: NEW JERSEY PINE BARRENS

NATIVE ORCHIDS OF THE NEW


JERSEY PINE BARRENS

Christine M. Schairer

New Jersey, one of the most densely populated


states in the Northeast, has a land area of only 7,509
square miles. Many people think that New Jersey is just
an overcrowded resort state, particularly the southern
half of the state. Besides casinos and miles of coastline,
South Jersey is also home to many historic sites like
Batsto and Atsion, and to some of the most spectacular
plant species known to mankind, including a surprisingly
large number of native orchids. Most of which can be
found in a 2,250 square mile stretch of land known as
the Pine Barrens.

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Schairer: NEW JERSEY PINE BARRENS

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Schairer: NEW JERSEY PINE BARRENS

335
Schairer: NEW JERSEY PINE BARRENS

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Schairer: NEW JERSEY PINE BARRENS

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Schairer: NEW JERSEY PINE BARRENS

338
Schairer: NEW JERSEY PINE BARRENS

339
Schairer: NEW JERSEY PINE BARRENS

The Pine Barrens represents a unique ecological


niche. The Barrens are home to the Pine Barrens
treefrog, Hyla andersoni, the miniature curly-grass fern,
Schizaea pusilla, as well as to 28 native orchids. Its
distinctive flora, wilderness, and complete contrast with
urban surroundings make the Pine Barrens a precious
resource. Within the pinelands there are cedar bogs,
swamps, cranberry bogs, blueberry fields, flowing
streams, and tidal rivers. The soil in the Pine Barrens
comprises an intrinsic mosaic of very acidic, sandy
uplands with very few nutrients, and little water-
retention capability-perfect habitat for our native
orchids.

Like many people, I also did not know that the


Pine Barrens was home to many unique forms of
wildlife. In Spring 1990, I came across my first native
orchid, Cypripedium acaule, commonly known as the pink
lady’s-slipper, or pink-moccasin flower, while planting
blueberry bushes on a local farm. In August of the same
year along a roadside in Mullica Township, I was
informed of a colony of plants that might be orchids. In
fact, this colony was Platanthera blephariglottis, also known
as white fringed orchid. My limited knowledge that
there may be more native orchids began to improve. It
was not until 1994, as a sophomore in college, when I
was given a list of the Pine Barren orchids that I became

340
Schairer: NEW JERSEY PINE BARRENS

determined to find out more about them. After


gathering information on the different types of
environments that native orchids will survive in, I began
my extensive search to find all 28 orchids on the list.

Our native orchids grow in many different types


of environment. Cypripedium acaule grows best in the
humus deciduous woods. I found C. acaule and its white
flowered form, C. acaule forma albiflorum, respectively
growing in blueberry fields, sides of roads, and in pine
forests. One particular area is Batsto where I can usually
find over 200 C. acaule blooming, as well as C. acaule
forma albiflorum. I first spotted this particular plant on
May 15, 1995, the day before my 21st birthday when I
almost accidentally stepped on it. Arethusa bulbosa,
dragon’s-mouth, Calopogon tuberosus, grass-pink, Pogonia
ophioglossoides, rose pogonia, Platanthera (Habenaria)
blephariglottis, white fringed orchid, and Platanthera
(Habenaria) cristata, crested yellow orchid, all grow in
boggy conditions from bogs to ditches. Rose pogonia
and white fringed orchid have been found to exist
among roadside ditches.

Native orchids are terrestrial, that is they grow in


the ground. Terrestrial orchids have a sympodial

341
Schairer: NEW JERSEY PINE BARRENS

vegetative growth, where the growth of the main axis


ceases at the end of a season and resumes the next year
by the development of a different axis. Depending on
the species, the leaves may or may not be present at time
of flowering or may appear separately at a different
season, such as Tipularia discolor, the cranefly orchid.
Many of the native orchids have prominent corms or
tubers, such as Arethusa bulbosa and Calopogon tuberosus.
According to Carlyle A. Luer, author of The Native
Orchids of the United States and Canada, excluding Florida,
terrestrial species without leaves presumably exist
without chlorophyll. In fact, they have become
essentially saprophytic, taking their nourishment from
decaying matter in the soil in conjunction with a
mycorrhizal fungus. This fungus is needed for the
survival of our native orchids. This is why when one
digs up a native orchid, it will not survive for more than
a few years as in the case of the pink lady’s-slipper.
Native orchids will not survive in an environment
different from the one they are used to.

The destruction of our natural habitats, as a result


of trampling, mowing, fires, and residential build-up
could destroy our native orchids. For example,
Platanthera nivea, the snowy orchis, once thrived in the

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Schairer: NEW JERSEY PINE BARRENS

Bennett Bogs in Cape May County1. However, due to


development this species has not been seen there since
the late 1980s. Since native orchids rely on a special
fungi, mycorrhiza, orchids can not be transplanted from
one environment to another. Due to their beauty, many
people think that no one will notice if a native orchid is
dug up or picked. In fact, orchid lovers and botanists do
notice. I did come across a corner where Platanthera
blephariglottis and Spiranthes lacera var. gracilis, slender
ladies'-tresses, were growing. The next day when I
went with my father to take pictures, all that was left
were two small holes where two tall Platanthera plants
once grew. We should cherish our native treasures, and
leave the plants and flowers for others to see. The only
true way to reproduce our native orchids is by spreading
the seeds from a seedpod onto a special formula, known
as agar. Once the seed germinates and the plants are
large enough to come out of the flask, they can be
planted back out in the environment. By doing this type
of culture, we know we can try to save some species
from extinction.
REFERENCES:

Luer, Carlyle A. The Native Orchids of the United States and Canada,
excluding Florida. 1975.

1
The Bennett Bogs in Cape May County are not technically in the Pine
Barrens, but are often included in their floras as this area represent a ''Pine
Barrens element" in southernmost New Jersey and have a plant association
more typical of the central New Jersey pinelands. PMB

343
Schairer: NEW JERSEY PINE BARRENS

Robichaud Collins, Beryl and Karl Anderson. Plant Communities


of New Jersey. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1994.

Christine M. Schairer, 418 Hamburg Ave., Egg Harbor, New


Jersey 08215 lives in the Devonshire section of Mullica Township, New
Jersey. She received a BS in Biology in 1997, and a BA in Teacher
Education with an elementary certificate in May 1999, from Richard
Stockton College of New Jersey. She has been raising orchids since
1986, at the age of 12, and belongs to Sandpiper Orchid Society since
1987. Since 1994, Christine has found 18 of the 28 native orchids in the
New Jersey Pine Barrens with the help and encouragement of her father,
Bruce C. Schairer and her boss, Nancy Burke.

PINE BARRENS ORCHIDS

Bloom Period Common Name Scientific Name

4/20-5/25 southern twayblade Listera australis

5/12-5/20 large whorled pogonia Isotria verticillata

5/15-5/30 pink lady's-slipper Cypripedium acaule

5/10-6/10 dragon's-mouth Arethusa bulbosa

5/20-6/2 putty-root Aplectrum hyemale

5/25-6/15 bog twayblade Liparis loeselii

6/3-6/20 grass-pink Calopogon tuberosus

6/3-7/2 rose pogonia Pogonia ophioglossoides

6/8-6/15 lily-leaved twayblade Liparis liliifolia

6/20-6/30 ragged fringed orchid Platanthera lacera

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Schairer: NEW JERSEY PINE BARRENS

6/27-7/4 spreading pogonia Cleistes divaricata

7/4-7/12 northern slender ladies'-tresses Spiranthes lacera var.


lacera

7/4-7/25 spring ladies'-tresses Spiranthes vernalis

7/4-8/6 green adder's-mouth Malaxis unifolia

7/10-8/15 little ladies'-tresses Spiranthes tuberosa

7/15-8/2 rattlesnake plantain Goodyera pubescens

7/15-8/3 crane-fly orchis Tipularia discolor

7/20-8/5 white fringed orchid Platanthera blephariglottis

7/21-8/15 crested yellow orchid Platanthera cristata

7/22-8/6 yellow fringed orchid Platanthera ciliaris

7/22-8/18 green wood orchid Platanthera clavellata

7/25-8/9 Canby's hybrid orchid Platanthera xcanbyi

7/25-9/10 snowy orchis Platanthera nivea

8/10-8/24 southern yellow orchid Platanthera integra

8/13-9/14 southern slender ladies'-tresses

Spiranthes lacera var. gracilis

8/20-9/10 lace-lipped ladies'-tressesSpiranthes laciniata

8/30-9/8 autumn coralroot Corallorhiza odontorhiza

9/20-10/20 nodding ladies'-tresses Spiranthes cernua

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Johnson: ORCHIDS IN BIG ROCK PARK

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Johnson: ORCHIDS IN BIG ROCK PARK

ORCHIDS IN BIG ROCK PARK,


SOUTHERN IOWA

Stephen R Johnson, Ph.D.

Big Rock Park, a name denoting an obvious focusing


point for visitors- a large glacial remnant, is a natural area in the
town of Pella, Iowa. Many people probably know Pella as the
home of Pella Windows, but as I discovered, its also home to at
least four species of orchids.

Big Rock Park is an 83-acre bottomland hardwood


forest with a dense canopy of silver maple (Acer saccharinum),
basswood (Tilia americana) and hackberry (Celtis occidentalis).
But floristic evidence indicates that Big Rock Park was once
more open. For example older trees in the park are either burr
oak (Quercus macrocarpa) or honey locust (Gleditsia
tricanthos). There are also several herbaceous plants that
usually inhabit savanna or prairie such as prairie fawn illy
(Erythronium mesochoreum), brown-eyed susan (Rudbeckia
triloba) and wild geranium (Geranium maculatum).

I first became acquainted with Big Rock in the fall of


1997. By the spring of 1998, I was familiar with both the man-

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Johnson: ORCHIDS IN BIG ROCK PARK

made and deer-forged trails. In early April 1998, I was on a deer


trail and saw the emerging leaves of showy orchis, Galearis
spectabilis. I visited these plants until the emerging foliage of
surrounding herbs and shrubs obscured the orchids' position
completely. But on a man-made trail, farther south in the park, I
found five showy orchis plants with developing flower spikes. I
visited these orchids every day to see their development. When
these known plants began to open their flowers, I walked all of
the man-made trails and discovered four other clumps of showy
orchis in bloom. All of these clumps were within one foot of
the trail.

I never saw any pollination of showy orchis but by mid


summer at least one plant from each clump had swollen fruits.

While searching in May for showy orchis on the man-


made trails, I came upon two plants of lily-leaved twayblade
orchid (Liparis liliifolia). These two plants were within four
inches of the trail edge. I monitored them all summer and saw
that they set no fruit. I saw no important insect activity around
the twayblades. In fact the only insect visitor I saw was a tiny
brown ant visiting the flowers. But later in the fall, I saw that
some larger animal had visited them. One twayblade was
flattened steamroller style while most of the trails were

348
Johnson: ORCHIDS IN BIG ROCK PARK

decorated with red, yellow and green paintballs.

The remainder of that 1998 spring revealed no more


orchids. But I was hopeful and persistent. In the first week of
September I was again rewarded with two additional orchids.
The third orchid was autumn coralroot (Corallorhiza
odontorhiza). In early September this orchid grew in profusion
along a trail in the western corner of the park and within site of
the big rock. They grew even in the trails and the park
maintenance staff mowed a few. These mid-September
"flowering" plants were cleistogamous. By the time that these
cleistogamous corral root orchids withered in early October, I
saw a single plant of an open flowered autumn coral root ( var.
pringlez) on a trail a few yards north of the cleistogamous
plants. I saw its vividly spotted pink lip in the corner of my eye.
But I found no other open flowered autumn coralroot orchids in
the area. Phil I<.eenan (1994) says that autumn coral is the least
common coralroot in North America. It was the most common
orchid in Big Rock Park.

Also in September 1998, on another trail in the


southwestern part of the park I saw a short floral spike of a
ladies'-tresses orchid-it was northern oval ladies'-tresses,
Spiranthes ovalis var. erostellata. Listed as rare in the state of

349
Johnson: ORCHIDS IN BIG ROCK PARK

Iowa (Roosa and Eilers, 1994). Spiranthes ovalis is also rare in


Big Rock Park. I found only three plants, only two of which
produced flowers. These plants also developed fruits, but the
fruiting stalks of both plants were cut before the fruits matured.
These three plants were growing on the edge of the trail and
behind them grew vigorous specimens of the invasive Amur
honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii).

The spring of 1999 was wet in southern Iowa and new


growth emerged more quickly and luxuriously than it did in the
previous year. Most of the showy orchis plants that I had found
in 1998, I couldn't find again in 1999. But I did find a
previously non-flowering clump of showy orchis along a trail in
the extreme southwestern part of the park. This comer of the
park has only a thin line of trees next to developing
urbanization. These were also the largest plats of showy orchis
I'd seen in the park. One was over a foot tall with 12 flowers.
They were also growing in the shade of a monstrous new house.

That spring brought bad news to another orchid in the


park. While my friend Mary and I were walking the trail where
the twayblades grew, she saw something that she said looked
like a garlic clove laying on top of the ground. I looked more
closely and found both twayblade corms lying exposed. A

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Johnson: ORCHIDS IN BIG ROCK PARK

bulldozing mole had apparently unearthed them. I replanted


both corms in their previously held sites but found them lolling
in sunshine two days later. So I moved them down hill about
three feet below their original sites and rereplanted them. I
visited them throughout the spring and by mid May, I saw them
rise from what I certainly thought was death. In fact the plants
looked more vigorous than they had the year before. Still they
set no seed. But they do have another chance.

Despite skirmishing paintball warriors,


encroachment by alien invasive plants and encirclement by
sterile mown lawns, with adequate maintenance, Big Rock
Parks may take its four orchids into the indefinite future. For
any wildflower enthusiast there is much more to Big Rock Park
than the big rock.

351
Johnson: ORCHIDS IN BIG ROCK PARK

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Johnson: ORCHIDS IN BIG ROCK PARK

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Johnson: ORCHIDS IN BIG ROCK PARK

354
Bentley: IN REMEMBRANCE OF BOBBY TOLER

IN LOVING REMEMBRANCE OF GEORGE


ROBERT "BOBBY" TOLER
Roanoke, Virginia

Bobby was an expert "orchid hunter." His


expertise lay not so much in knowledge gained from a
book but from going into the field and experiencing
the plants. He approached the orchids, indeed life, with
an effervescent, childlike enthusiasm. He held a
reverent appreciation for native plants and a complete
respect for all people. In the field, while his friends
stood trying to analyze the orchids and impress one
another in a superficial contest of "one-upsmanship"
about our orchid knowledge, Bobby often turned to
more important things. He would quietly assume his
place beside the plant and, with his wonderful
proficiency, unfailingly proceed to record the plant on
film in a way that impressed everyone fortunate
enough to view his photography.

Bobby's contributions to the Blue Ridge


Wildflower Society and the annual Roanoke
Wildflower Pilgrimage are measureless and
responsible in no small part for their success.

Bobby hunted orchids from Newfoundland to

355
Bentley: IN REMEMBRANCE OF BOBBY TOLER

Alaska, from the Green Swamp of coastal North


Carolina to California, and from the Great Smoky
Mountains to the Bruce Peninsula of Canada. But what
Bobby enjoyed the most was meeting new people and
being with family and friends. His humanity was
uncomplicated and genuine with an abundance of
freely given kindness toward everyone. The phrase,
"He never met a stranger," was epitomized in the
personality of Bobby Toler. His infectious and
perpetual smile was a delight for all of us.

Before their retirement, Bobby and his wife


Frieda operated their own very successful lithography
business. He was a Christian man who had a direction
in life and a serenity that few come to know. From the
young children in the Sunday School class whom he
taught to his adult acquaintances for whom he set such
a splendid human example, Bobby will be sorely
missed. Surviving are Frieda, a son Wayne and
daughter-in-law Abbe, and a special grandson Paul, all
of Roanoke.

Suddenly, I have lost a best friend. But I shall


never be without the memories of hunting orchids with
him and the absolute joy that Bobby brought to my
life. He has now surely gone on to where it is orchid
season all year long, where there is no end to the
chocolate milk, ice cream and strawberries, and Pepsi
Cola. Those of us who were personally acquainted
with Bobby know that we were blessed with his
presence in our lives. He was the best and someday,

356
Bentley: IN REMEMBRANCE OF BOBBY TOLER

when the powers that be decide to redefine the word


"friend," there will be no need for a list of exemplary
phrases. Two simple words will suffice: Bobby Toler.

Stan Bentley, 1201 MacGill St., Pulaski, VA 24301


Stan is the author of the eagerly anticipated Native Orchids of
the Southern Appalachian Mountains to be published by the
University of North Carolina Press in the fall of 2000.

357
RECENT TAXONOMIC AND DISTRIBUTIONAL NOTES FROM
FLORIDA 4.

RECENT TAXONOMIC AND


DISTRIBUTIONAL NOTES FROM
FLORIDA 4.
Paul Martin Brown
Two New Spiranthes Nothospecies from Florida
Two new Spiranthes nothospecies are described
herein. The first is a perhaps easily overlooked hybrid of
two very common species in the southeastern United
States — Spiranthes vernalis and Spiranthes praecox. The
second, very localized and often misidentified, results
from one common parent, Spiranthes praecox, and one
rare and local parent, Spiranthes ovalis var. ovalis.
Spiranthes xaustralis P.M. Brown nothospecies
nova
TYPE: UNITED STATES; Florida, Flagler County near
Korena on US 1; O. Ames s.n. April 8, 1944 (holotype:
FLAS 42682) Photo. NA Nat. Orchid Journal 1999 5(4):
374
Planta inter Spiranthes vernalis et Spiranthes praecox
intermedia et habitu, colore et forma florum, vel
proprietibus speciearum mixtis
ETYMOLOGY: australis after the southern distribution
of the taxon.

358
RECENT TAXONOMIC AND DISTRIBUTIONAL NOTES FROM
FLORIDA 4.

DISTRIBUTION:
Only specimens from the University of Florida
Herbarium (FLAS) were examined. This taxon will
undoubtedly occur throughout the southeastern United
States and possibly west to Texas.

Additional specimens examined:


FLORIDA:

Bradford County: corolla white; lip with pale green lines,


abundant; moist sandy roadside, west side of FLA 21, 100' S. of
Barnhill's Fishing Camp road, 3 mi. N. of Melrose. E. M. Hodgson
234 14 April 1965 (FLAS 90631)

Citrus County: flowers white; moist semishaded woods, along


Fla 44, east of Inverness, about 1/2 mile west of the
Withlacoochee River L. Baltzell 2089 26 April 1970

Levy County: flowers greenish white, labellum of a single color,


no stripe, frequent, scattered; sandhill; N. of Fla 24, ca. 2 mi. E of
jct. with Fla. 345, E. of Cedar Key, Cedar Key Scrub Reserve.
D.W. Hall with D. Younker 1720, 29 April 1987 (FLAS 162112)

Madison County: white flowers of two extremes and


intermediates, from tubular with lip slightly recurved with green
veins, to more open with strongly curved lip and no green veins;
1.8 mi. N. of Greenville in wet flatwoods along #221 J. Beckner
686 2 May 1965 (FLAS 91797)

359
RECENT TAXONOMIC AND DISTRIBUTIONAL NOTES FROM
FLORIDA 4.

Nassau County: Callahan, R.A. Knight s.n. 15 May 1941. (FLAS


88962) This specimen originally part of a mixed collection, with S.
praecox. (collector's note)

Taylor County: corolla white, lip markings pale green; fairly


common in dry sandy roadside, along US 27/98, 2 mi. west of
Perry. E.M. Hodgson 277 17 Apr 1965

Walton County: flowers pure white, lip crenate along margin;


solitary plant; dry woods at edge of dredged pond, N. of Waste
Water Creek, along Road 212, ca. 7 mi. W. of Portland, S31 T1N
R20W D. B. Ward with R.R. Smith & C. Chapman 6337 9 May 1967
(FLAS 107108)

Notes on the specimens:


All of the specimens cited were previously identified
and/or annotated as either Spiranthes vernalis or S. praecox.
The Beckner collection from Madison County is
especially interesting as it has eight plants on it with two
of them clearly S. xaustralis and the others S. praecox.
Although many of the specimens examined indicate large
numbers of flowering plants present, in reality only a few
would probably by S. xaustralis.
Although both parents are abundant species in the
southeastern United States and frequently occupy the
same habitat, the detection of hybrids has been
surprisingly infrequent. In most locales in Florida
Spiranthes vernalis precedes Spiranthes praecox in anthesis,
but usually there is a short period of overlap in flowering

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RECENT TAXONOMIC AND DISTRIBUTIONAL NOTES FROM
FLORIDA 4.

dates. Although the flowering habit of S. vernalis is


highly variable — even from year to year on the same
individual — the floral morphology is consistent. In S.
vernalis the sepals are divergent, the flowers are creamy-
white with the lip usually a darker cream to pale
butterscotch and the flowers as well as the rachis are
covered with dense, articulate pointed hairs. This
distinctive pubescence is evident without the aid of a
lens.

Spiranthes praecox, on the other hand, varies in both


its habit and floral morphology. Typical S. praecox is
usually described as having white flowers, with appressed
lateral sepals and distinctive raised green veins on the lip.
While this is the most easily recognized of the several
morphs, in Florida plants are more frequently seen with
the flowers entirely green to pale green and lacking in the
distinctive raised green veins on the lip. The 'green
morphs' are found not only in open areas, i.e. fields,
roadsides, etc., but also in shaded woodlands. A form
with pure white flowers, apparently lacking the raised
green veins, also occurs (forma albolabia Brown &
McCartney). Upon careful examination, these pure
white flowers will reveal the pale lemon-yellow veins on
the lip. This third morph is the least common in Florida.
In both Spiranthes vernalis and Spiranthes praecox the
floral habit, or arrangement of the flowers, is highly

361
RECENT TAXONOMIC AND DISTRIBUTIONAL NOTES FROM
FLORIDA 4.

variable from a slender, nearly secund inflorescence to


the classic single-ranked corkscrew habit to a densely
flowered multiple ranked spike. Cleistogamous flowered
plants have been observed in both species in Florida.
Hybrids between Spiranthes vernalis and Spiranthes
praecox have only been observed in the field with the
white-flowered/green veined lip morph of S. praecox,
although S. vernalis is almost always present with the
other morphs of S. praecox. Because the position of the
lateral sepals is so diagnostic on both species the hybrids
are very distinct. Plants have been found with S. vernalis
coloration and scattered articulate pointed hairs with
appressed sepals or S. praecox-like in coloration with
widely divergent sepals. Usually not more than 1 or 2
individuals of the hybrids have been seen in a given site.

Spiranthes xaustralis may help resolve the


frustration that many orchid enthusiasts have had in the
field when trying to determine of they have found S.
vernalis or S. praecox.

Spiranthes xitchetuckneensis P.M. Brown


nothospecies nova
TYPE: UNITED SATES. Florida: Columbia County,
Itchetucknee Springs State Park, wet clay soil near
Itchetucknee Springs 15 ft. N. of Blue Hole, ca. 4 mi.
N.W. of Fort White, T 6 S, R 15, E.; A. Will s.n. 5 Nov

362
RECENT TAXONOMIC AND DISTRIBUTIONAL NOTES FROM
FLORIDA 4.

1960 (holotype: FLAS 78786 (Photo. NA Nat. Orchid


Journal 1999 5(4): 374
Planta inter Spiranthes ovalis et Spiranthes odorata
intermedia et habitu et forma florum, vel proprietibus
speciearum mixtis
ETYMOLOGY: in honor of Itchetucknee River State
Park in north-central Florida.

DISTRIBUTION:
Only specimens from the University of Florida
Herbarium (FLAS) were examined. This taxon may
occur throughout the southeastern United States and
possibly west to Texas.

Additional specimens examined:


Alachua County: Sugarfoot, high hammock,
Gainesville. Watson & Murrill s.n. 11-7-39 (FLAS 25931)
Levy County: Gulf Hammock A. P. Garber s.n., October
1877 (FLAS 69862)
Sumter County: flowers pure white; infrequent; around
bases of large hardwood trees; dense hammock; rocky
knoll just E. of Withlacoochee River on Fla 48 W. of
Wahoo ca. 8 mi. W. of Bushnell. J. Beckner 1602 25
October 1966 (FLAS 96958)

363
RECENT TAXONOMIC AND DISTRIBUTIONAL NOTES FROM
FLORIDA 4.

Notes on the specimens examined:


All of the specimens examined were previously
annotated as Spiranthes ovalis, Spiranthes odorata or
Spiranthes cernua, 'small flowered race'.
Paul Catling (DAO) notes on the Garber collection:
"Spiranthes cernua (L.) L.C. Rich. These plants
represent a distinctive southern and restricted
race of S. cernua which possesses some features
of S. ovalis. With lateral sepals 8.0 mm long,
glandular hairs 0.25 mm and a lip that is
relatively thick and papillate beneath (instead
of smooth) they are clearly S. cernua. P. M.
Catling 1982."
I have been unable to find any Spiranthes cernua s.l. in
Florida in either herbaria vouchers or in the field.

The Beckner collection from Sumter County was


originally identified as Spiranthes ovalis and annotated by
D. Ward as follows:
"Called Spiranthes ovalis by J.B. on the basis of
habitat, small flower size, and all-white color,
but suggestive of S. cernua var. odorata, which
J.B. says grows nearby; in dense inflorescence
pubescence and attenuate bracts exceeding
ovaries. D. B. Ward Aug 1970”.

364
RECENT TAXONOMIC AND DISTRIBUTIONAL NOTES FROM
FLORIDA 4.

The detection of this hybrid presents a taxon that


behaves precisely as one would like a hybrid to appear.
It is intermediate in virtually all aspects between its two
parents. Spiranthes odorata is a common species of rich
floodplains, open grasslands and streamsides throughout
the southeastern United States. It is stoloniferous in
nature and therefore is capable of forming large clumps
and often is found growing in flooded areas with the
flowering stems emerging from the water. Spiranthes
ovalis var. ovalis is a rare to locally common species found
sparingly throughout the southeastern United States,
usually in rich woods and more rarely in floodplains.
Catling (1983) described Spiranthes ovalis var. erostellata, an
autogamous variety that ranges throughout the eastern
United States and southwestern Ontario. This variety is
also somewhat rare and local, but much more
widespread. In only four states did Catling show plants
of both varieties — Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi and
Florida.
Of the five known historical and extant sites for
Spiranthes ovalis in Florida three are purely var. ovalis, one
exclusively var. erostellata and one, at Itchetucknee
Springs, has both varieties present. Only at Itchetucknee
Springs does Spiranthes ovalis share its habitat with
Spiranthes odorata. For more than a kilometer along the
floodplain of the river extensive stands of Spiranthes

365
RECENT TAXONOMIC AND DISTRIBUTIONAL NOTES FROM
FLORIDA 4.

odorata occupy the wetter areas near the river's edge.


Back from the shore, closer to the bluffs that separate
the upland forest from the floodplain, can be found
small colonies of Spiranthes ovalis var. ovalis, and in two of
these colonies a few plants of var. erostellata. In the
intermediate zone between the S. ovalis and the S. odorata
occur scattered plants of what at first appear to be small-
flowered S. odorata. In fact, the specimen chosen for the
holotype has been annotated as "small-flowered S.
cernua." Although in the past Spiranthes odorata has been
considered as a variety of S. cernua, I have been unable to
find any herbarium specimens or extant sites for
Spiranthes cernua in Florida (Brown 1999). These
intermediate plants are exactly that — they are
intermediate in habit, habitat and morphology.
Measurements of ten plants of each taxon reveal that the
hybrids fall exactly between both parents. They are very
easy to identify in the field as they are larger flowered
than S. ovalis but smaller in all aspects than S. odorata.
Leaf shape on both species is similar, but the distinctive
stoloniferous aspect of S. odorata is lacking in S. ovalis. In
S. xitchetuckneensis plants are often clump-forming and
exhibit very short stallions or may occur as individuals.
The plants of S. xitchetuckneensis are never as tall as S.
odorata and never as slender as S. ovalis. The floral
arrangement is variable from the distinctive three-
ranking of S. ovalis to a densely flowered spike of S.

366
RECENT TAXONOMIC AND DISTRIBUTIONAL NOTES FROM
FLORIDA 4.

odorata. In the primary research area at Itchetucknee


Springs State Park in 1999 87 S. odorata, 29 S. ovalis var.
ovalis, 3 S. ovalis var. erostellata and 23 S. xitchetuckneensis
were found.
Whether this hybrid occurs other than in Florida
remains to be seen. If populations in the Gulf states are
found that contain both parents, especially if var. ovalis is
present, they should be carefully examined for S.
xitchetuckneensis. Catling (1983) states that var. erostellata is
capable of contributing pollen and therefore could be a
potential pollen parent. The described habitat for var.
erostellata is usually old field margins, dry woods and
disturbed areas so the likelihood of S. odorata occurring
sympatrically is lessened.
Literature Cited:
Brown, P.M. 1999. Recent taxonomic and distributional notes from Florida 1.
North American Native Orchid Journal 5(1): 3-15.
Catling, P.M. 1983. Spiranthes ovalis var. erostellata (Orchidaceae) a new autogamous
variety from the eastern United States. Brittonia 35(2): 120-1255.
Paul Martin Brown, Research Associate, University of
Florida Herbarium, Florida Museum of Natural History,
Gainesville, FL naorchid@aol.com

The author thanks Sam Cole, Park Biologist at Itchetucknee


Springs State Park, and Mark Latch and Dana Bryan of the Florida
Department of Environmental Protection who assisted in making
the research possible at the park and for permission to name the
taxon for Itchetucknee Spring State Park.

367
BOOK REVIEWS: WILD ORCHIDS OF TEXAS

Wild Orchids of Texas


By Joe Liggio and Ann Otto Liggio
David H. Riskind, Scientific Advisor
Connie Herring Hooks Series
7 x 9 7/8 in., 240 pp. Color photos, maps $29.95 hardcover
University of Texas Press
800-252-3206 www.utexas.edu/utpress ISBN 0-292-74712-8

This long-awaited work on the orchids of Texas had


finally come forth and in most every way it has satisfied the need
for a detailed work on that state. Texas has five species not found
elsewhere in the United States, and one of the species, Spiranthes
parksii, an endemic to Texas. Joe & Ann Orto Liggio's
descriptions give us full details for all of the 54 species they have
documented from Texas. Striking full color photos accompany
each description of all but Spiranthes brevilabris (see below),
Hexalectris revoluta, and Deiregyne confusa. The first set of chapters in
the book give a very complete picture of the natural history of
Texas in relation to the geography, orchid habitat and especially
the response of many orchids to periodic burning.

Each genus and species is covered with a complete natural


history of the species and throughout the book sidebars often give
some of the most interesting historical highlight concerning
orchid exploration in Texas. County dot maps of Texas
accompany each species description and the full range of the
species is given.

The only disappointment I found in the book was the lack


of keys for identification of the species and an inconsistency in the
citation of common names i.e. Lady's slipper vs. lady's-slipper and
lady's-tresses vs. ladies'-tresses. From a taxonomic standpoint a

368
BOOK REVIEWS: WILD ORCHIDS OF TEXAS

few points should be noted. Malaxis wendtii occurs only in Texas in


the United States and not in New Mexico and Arizona as stated
(there the similar taxon is M. porphyrea). The correct literature
citation is given for this range and status but the text does not
include that information. It is most certain that Schiedeella parasitica
does not occur in the United States, although research is not quite
complete yet to verify whether that taxon should be addressed as
S. fauci-sanguinea or described as a new species. Although no fault
of the authors, the photo of Spiranthes brevilabris var. brevilabris is
that of Spiranthes eatonii which was described in the March 1999
issue of this Journal, too late for inclusion in this book. It would
add another species to the orchids of Texas. An excellent
bibliography is given in the Literature Cited, although the year given
for Magrath: Sida 13(3):371 is incorrect. It should read 1989 not
1939.

I am confident that all native orchid enthusiasts will want a


copy of this informative and essential volume that presents both
an interesting and detailed narrative of the orchids of Texas. PMB

369
370
Plate 1: Brandenberg

Photos by Jim Butler

371
Plate 2 - Coleman : Hexalectris revoluta in Arizona

Hexalectris revoluta

photos by Ron Coleman

372
Plate 3: Johnson; Wagner

above:
Cypripedium acaule
pink lady's-slipper
Anne Wagner

left:
Corallorhiza odontorhiza
autumn coralroot
S. Johnson

Plate 3: Johnson; Wagner

373
Plate 4 - Brown: Spiranthes Nothospecies in Florida

Spiranthes vernalis S. xaustralis S. praecox

Levy County, Florida P.M. Brown

Spiranthes odorata S. xitchetuckneensis S. ovalis

Columbia County, Florida P.M. Brown

374