NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE ORCHID JOURNAL

Volume 5 December Number 4 1999 a quarterly devoted to the orchids of North America published by the

NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE ORCHID ALLIANCE
* * * * * * * * * *

IN THIS ISSUE:

RARE WHITE CALYPSO ORCHID IN CLEARCUT COUNTRY HEXALECTRIS REVOLUTA IN ARIZONA PINK LADY'S-SLIPPER FACT SHEET NATIVE ORCHIDS OF THE NEW JERSEY PINE BARRENS BIG ROCK PARK ……………………………….and more!

NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE ORCHID JOURNAL
Volume 5 Number 4 December 1999

CONTENTS NOTES FROM THE EDITOR 301 RARE WHITE CALYPSO ORCHID IN CLEARCUT COUNTRY: A personal journey of discovery, spirituality and hope Gregory E. Brandenburg 303 HEXALECTRIS REVOLUTA IN ARIZONA Ronald A. Coleman 312 PINK LADY'S-SLIPPER FACT SHEET Cypripedium acaule Anne B. Wagner 316 AN ODDS AND ENDS COLUMN The Slow Empiricist 325 5th ANNUAL NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE ORCHID CONFERENCE 330 LOOKING FORWARD: March 2000 332 NATIVE ORCHIDS OF THE NEW JERSEY PINE BARRENS Christine M. Schairer 333

BIG ROCK PARK Stephen Johnson 346 IN LOVING REMEMBRANCE OF GEORGE ROBERT "BOBBY" TOLER Stan Bentley 355 RECENT TAXONOMIC AND DISTRIBUTIONAL NOTES FROM FLORIDA 4. Two New Spiranthes Nothospecies from Florida Paul Martin Brown 358 Book Reviews: WILD ORCHIDS OF TEXAS J. & A. Liggio 368

Unless otherwise credited, all drawings in this issue are by Stan Folsom

Color Plates:
1. p. 371 Calypso bulbosa var. americana forma albiflora 2. p. 372 Hexalectris revoluta 3. p. 373 Cypripedium acaule; Corallorhiza odontorhiza; 4.p. 374 Spiranthes ovalis; S. odorata; S. xitchetuckneensis; S. vernalis; S. praecox; S. xaustralis The opinions expressed in the Journal are those of the authors. Scientific articles may be subject to peer review and popular articles will be examined for both accuracy and scientific content. Volume 5, number 4, pages 301-374; issued December 10, 1999. Copyright 1999 by the North American Native Orchid Alliance, Inc. Cover: Eulophia alta by Stan Folsom

NOTES FROM THE EDITOR As the century comes to a close we complete volume 5 of the Journal. Many changes have taken place over the past five years as well as four North American Native Orchid Conferences. We have had our problems with printing, color and mailing but I trust those are now behind everything and us is reasonably on track. The year 2000 promises to be an exciting and reward year in many fields and I am sure the orchids will be one of them. New species are still being discovered in North America and many old and familiar species reexamined and, in some cases, re-addressed with new (or old) names. November 1999 brought us the sad news of the sudden death of Bobby Toler, one of the first members of the Alliance. His friend, and often orchid-hunting companion, Stan Bentley has written a tribute to Bobby in this issue. I would like to dedicate this issue to Bobby's memory. Plans are well underway for the 5th North American Native Orchid Conference to be held from July 16-20, 2000 in the spectacular Olympic Peninsula in the state of Washington. If you plan on attending please do not delay in sending in your registration. One of the major features of the Journal for 2000 will be the 4-part series assembled by Anne and Ken Wagner on the Rare, Threatened and Endangered Orchids of North America (north of Mexico). This will be the first time all of this information will have

been brought together for a single periodical. The Journal is still looking for more articles on local orchid 'hot spots' and treatments of specific species or genera. Please continue to submit your articles. Several new and exciting things are happening with the orchids here in Florida with my research for the Florida Native Orchid Project and those results will continue to be published in the Journal. Paul Martin Brown Editor PO Box 772121 Ocala, FL 34477-2121 352/861-2565 - phone & fax Email: naorchid@aol.com

Brandenburg: RARE WHITE CALYPSO ORCHID IN CLEARCUT COUNTRY

RARE WHITE CALYPSO ORCHID IN CLEARCUT COUNTRY: a personal journey of discovery spirituality and hope
Gregory E. Brandenburg The boreal forest of north-central Alberta, that collectively I call home, has been a gradual ecosystematic discovery and appreciation. It's stately spruce, pine and mixed hardwoods blend with marshes, fens, and abundant springs creating a biodiversity that has been unequaled in my travels. The endearment towards the Orchid family in this northern boreal forest borders on obsessive, on behalf of botanists I have guided through these mossy pathways for the past twenty years. Here flowering orchids span the seasons of the snow free months. Eastern fairy-slipper, Calypso bulbosa var. americana being the official notification of spring, with hooded ladies'-tresses, Spiranthes romanzoffiana signaling that frost is just around the corner and announces the emergence of autumn.

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Within this phenological framing I have encountered within a twenty-km radius of area that I regularly explore for medicinal plants, more than twenty species of orchids. These include several species of coralroots, Corallorhiza, lady's-slippers, Cypripedium, rein orchids, Platanthera, twayblades, Listera, adder's-mouths, Malaxis, and orchis, Amerorchis, throughout my peregrination over these years. One of the finest and most memorable sights I've had the honour to meet was Calypso bulbosa var. americana forma albiflora. This colony of white calypso orchids, within a nation of its more typical pink counter-parts. Distinct, and to a trained eye, outstanding! The setting of this white calypso colony occurs near a scenic boreal marl spring known as "Granny' s Spring". (Granny Belcourt used to take her water from this source, and lived to be 104.) The special bog adder's-mouth, Malaxis paludosa grows here, as the setting is right. Just the gentle sounds of water flowing into the marl pools. To begin this story I'll have to introduce you to Tash (Natasha), the daughter of my friends from the closest village in the area, Marlboro (Alberta). Tash was about eight years old in 1991 when from time to time she would accompany me on excursions or adventures into the forest. Her receptive eyes and retentive memory added to an

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abundance of curiosity made her a perfect wandering companion. During the early months of 1995 Tash had developed a lump under her arm, and it kept growing. It was now towards the end of May (May 21) - a most memorable day - the worst day of my life. On this day we received word that the lump was diagnosed malignant. Cancer. A day of tears, anguish, hopelessness, finally turned into hopefulness. It was a fashioning of a stumbling block into a building block. And so a promise was now made to myself (God keeps his promise. God lives inside you.) For everything there is a reason - awareness gave the answer. This specific area has been termed by indigenous people since antiquity as "Medicine Lodge" It was in search for a botanical remedy of Tash’s clash with cancer which brought me to roam this location. I now followed a path once affirmed for me in Findhorn, Scotland. I was viewing the landscape as an Ethnobotanist, blending in my botanical excursions, the combinations of knowledge, pharmicudical botany, diagnosis and spirituality. The night before I discovered the white calypso colony was spent in preparation. The morning of May 22 began with a prayer for guidance for her botanical remedy, and a gathering I did go.

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The first ethnobotanical plant of the morning and the furthest afield I had come to gather was a portion of the large yellow lady's-slipper root, Cypripedium parviflorum var. pubescens. The erect seed stalks had withstood the winter snows and its capsules waved like a flag. Sweetgrass was lit, and a prayer of thanks given with a gift of tobacco (You must always give before you achieve.) For ethnobotany is both a spiritual and a conservation endeavor. I carefully removed a portion of the root, then liberating to the wind seeds from the crushed portion of the pods. The formula also required club-moss, Lycopodium clavatum, the last plant to be gathered. From thence time will tell, my finish will now be Tash's beginning. This club-moss was growing around moss covered rotted lodgepole pine and white spruce stumps on the edge of an area that had been selectively logged in the late 1950's. Through natural regeneration, spruce, pine, and aspen poplar now blended the forest canopy. The forest floor waved in a carpet of iridescence through an incredible proliferation of Calypso bulbosa. The beholder was truly a happy wanderer, backpack full of botanical treasures, soaked, smiling and appreciative. I recalled the phrase "what the stars are to the heavens, flowers are to the earth."

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Within a field of these pink fairy slippers a small cluster in contrast waved with an illumination exhibiting a purity, even a spiritualness that affirmed my mission and exemplified hope, clarity, and faith in miracles. They were white calypsos - eight of them in full bloom. A colony unlike any I have ever witnessed then and now. The great environmentalist and wilderness advocate John Muir had met two white calypso orchids in the Holland River Swamps of Ontario in 1866. His description of these became his first published work when it appeared in the Boston Record Dec.21, 1866. Muir's description had very much paralleled my own impressions. As he wrote" I never before saw a plant so full of life, so perfect, spiritual, it seemed pure enough for the throne of its creator. I felt as if I was in the presence of some superior being who loved me and beckoned me to come. I sat down beside them and wept for joy. Could angels in their better land show us a more beautiful plant? How good is our Heavenly Father in granting us such friends as these plant-creatures, filling us wherever we go with pleasure so deep, so pure, so endless." Later in life John Muir, queried by a news reporter for the two most significant events in his life replied,

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"meeting Ralph Waldo Emerson, and meeting the white calypso orchid in a swamp in Ontario". For myself as I gazed transfixed, the words of Wm. Blake sprang into mind "To see the world in a grain of sand. Heaven in a wild flower. To touch infinity in the palm of your hand. And eternity within the hour." To care is to share, and in this instance, it also reveals the "all to familiar" perils of trust. I shared the uniqueness of these blooming white orchids with two individuals I had guided with the hope of achieving the needed site protection and the plants receiving the necessary botanical validation. Surprise! I revisited the colony four days later, to check and say farewell. Where the white calypso once grew, all that was left was a shallow scoop, a scar in the continuity of the moss carpet. Gone! As I recall that devastating moment some compassionate thought did arise; a poem from my first summer in the forest, I titled the poem Forest Wind:
There is a forest, it lies beneath my feet. It has no path, but the one it seeks Everywhere round is beauty and life All in balance, with a touch of strife.

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Three years have now transpired, and only through the grace of God these little treasures are reappearing on the fringe of where the whole colony once grew. The scar is healing and the memories remain. The spirituality, romance, and literary aspects of the white calypsos are further enhanced with the inclusion of the encouraging response forwarded to me in July 1999 by Paul Martin Brown, Editor of the North American Native Orchid Journal. After my forwarding a series of detailed photographs to him, he informed me that his initial conclusion is that the colony appeared to he the very rare white flowered form of the eastern fairy slipper, Calypso bulbosa var. americana forma albiflora - the result from a change of a single gene within a specific seed capsule. Although the white flowered forms are often referred to as albinos they are not as they do contain chlorophyll in the leaves. Whenever seed is produced from the white flowered forms, they typically produce pink flowered plants. This seems to be the first sizeable colony of this color form ever found. The genetic anomaly normally applies to a sing1e individual never a colony. The vibrant green leaves of these plants seem to contrast from the typically yellowish tinge of other white flowered calypso anomaly, nitrogen deficient prospects. Only time and analysis will answer these questions.

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In closure I’d like to thank Dr. Jim Butler, Professor, Dept. of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, for being a catalyst in this writing and taking the time and effort in these most excellent documental photographs. Along with the above and equal appreciation; Paul Martin Brown of the North American Native Orchid Journal, whose expertise removed one self imposed stigma, "Clueless in the orchid patch" Many Thanks. And to Tash (Natasha R. Belcourt, Granny's greatgranddaughter) who is now fifteen and a half, a healthy teenager, above average, athletic student going into grade 11, whose charm and beauty can only deciphered by her moods. All is well that ends well. Although these white calypsos grow in CLEAR CUT COUNTRY, within a forest management area of WEYERHAEUSER CANADA, sound selective cutting on behalf of an earlier, small, local, conscientious foresters had left the forest floor biologically intact, facilitating these plants. Modern clear-cutting, followed by scarification and planting of favoured monocultures are less favorable to wild orchid colonies like this one. Paul Martin Brown described this colony as "very special", and encouraged careful monitoring over the years to follow this unique colony. Brown also encouraged in his communication "Immediate

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protection of the site from development, logging and poaching." The author remains hopeful that Weyerhaeuser will accept this location as an area of special management regulations in the interest of environmental protection maintaining the natural genetic and biological diversity of the boreal forest ecosystem. Many Thanks.
Gregory E. Brandenberg c/o Stan Belcourt , Box 64445 (64451), Edson, Alberta, Canada T7E 1T8

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Coleman: Hexalectris revoluta

HEXALECTRIS REVOLUTA IN
ARIZONA

Ronald A. Coleman

Hexalectris revoluta was described by Correll in 1941. It remains a little known and seldom seen species. Luer (1975) showed it in only two locations: in the state of Nuevo Leon in Mexico, and the Big Bend area of Texas. This species has now been identified in southeastern Arizona, which is a significant western and northern range extension.

Credit for the first discovery of the plant in Arizona goes to Larry Toolin and Frank Reichenbacher, who discovered it in south central Pima County in 1981. However, they identified the plant as Hexalectris spicata, which is reasonable given the keys in local floras. A second discovery, this time by Steve McLaughlin,

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was made in 1986 in the southern part of Pima County. Like

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Toolin and Reichenbacher, McLaughlin identified the plants as H. spicata. Both of these discoveries are documented with collections, housed at the herbarium of the University of Arizona. My experience with these plants dates from 1996 when McLaughlin took me to his site in southern Pima County. Only one plant bloomed that year, and it was damaged by insects. However, the next year over one dozen plants bloomed at that location, fueling up my suspicion that this was not H. spicata, but rather H. revoluta.

My tentative identity and slides of the plants taken in 1997 were sent to Paul Catling, who is studying the genus Hexalectris and preparing the treatment for the Flora of North America series. We discussed the plants several times, and in 1998 Catling and Engel confirmed my identification of the plants as Hexalectris. revoluta. The main characteristic that makes H. revoluta easy to identify is the presentation of its sepals and petals. They are free and spreading and rolled back along the outer third of their length more than 360 degrees. Their background color is light tan to pale rose. The lateral lobes of the lip have distinct purple veining over a whitish tan to rose tan base. The central lobe of the lip had the raised ridges characteristic of Hexalectris.

Hexalectris revoluta has been positively identified at three locations in Arizona, and is probable at a fourth. The first two sites are those discovered by Toolin and Reichenbacher, and by McLaughlin. The author found a third site in Pima County, about

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ten miles distance from McLaughlin's site. A fourth location in Cochise County is suspected to harbor the orchid. In 1998 flower spikes appeared in late May that looked identical to those of H. revoluta in size and color. However, the spikes all withered before the buds were mature enough to make a positive identification. No plants appeared at that site in 1999. Habitat is the same at both locations. The plants grow in canyon bottoms and on the sides of canyons at about 5000' elevation. They root in soil and duff under oaks and mesquite, often in association with Arizona walnut. Most of the plants are in moderate shade, but some grow in bright light part of the day,

Ronald A. Coleman, University of Arizona, 11520 E. Calle
Del Valle, Tucson, AZ, 85749. Ron is a frequent contributor to this Journal as well as several other orchid-related publications and is the author of Wild Orchids of California.

Literature cited: Correll, D.S. 1941. Native Orchids of North America north of Mexico. Chronica Botanica, Waltham. Luer, C.A. 1975. Native Orchids of the United States and Canada, not including Florida. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.

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Wagner: PINK LADY'S-SLIPPER: Cypripedium acaule

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Fact Sheet:

PINK LADY'S-SLIPPER

Cypripedium acaule
Anne B. Wagner Pink lady's-slipper, Cypripedium acaule, may be the best-known native wildflower. Certainly, it is the largest and most abundant of about thirty-three species of native orchids growing in Rhode Island. Unlike other orchids, the pink lady's-slipper prefers the dry, sandy, acid soils and dappled shade of pine-oak or mixed deciduous forests, although it can be found in wetter areas, too, on hummocks in bogs and swamps. Companion plants often include blueberries and huckleberries. The two oval, basal leaves lie almost flat upon the ground, maximizing the surface area available to collect sunlight filtering through the canopy for photosynthesis. A leafless 6”-15” scape supports the flower whose lower

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lip—a modified petal—forms the familiar pink pouch that reminds people of a shoe or a slipper, leading to the common names of “lady’s-slipper” or “moccasin flower.” Indeed, the botanical name “Cypripedium” derives from Greek meaning “Venus’ slipper.” Usually the pouch is a shade of pink—pale to rose to raspberry—with a tracery of red veins. White-flowered forms (forma albiflora) occasionally occur. Pink lady's-slippers are not rare in Rhode Island. Hikers may encounter large colonies carpeting forest floors during bloom time in May. Individual plants can live as long as one hundred years, but the plant may flower only 10-20 times during its lifetime. Producing flowers takes energy and a plant may need several years to accumulate enough resources to expend on flower production. Making seed requires still greater energy; a pink lady's-slipper may set seed only 2-5 times in its life. Native bumblebees pollinate the flowers. Bumblebees are strong enough to force open the fissure in the pouch. As they search for nectar along a route that brings their large, hairy bodies in contact with the saddlebag-like globs of pollen (pollinia) which attach themselves to the bee as it exits the flower and flies to

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the next bloom. Unfortunately, the next bloom may not be a pink lady's-slipper! Bees quickly learn that these orchids produce no nectar, so they choose other flowers to visit. This is one reason why so few of these orchids produce seed. When a plant does produce seed, however, the capsule may contain thousands the size and weight of dust particles. Orchid seeds are so light because they contain no endosperm, that nutrient portion of a seed that nourishes the infant plant. Chance plays a role in successful germination. Wind-borne pink lady'sslipper seeds must alight on an appropriate surface and must establish a symbiotic or parasitic connection with a soil fungus (mycorrhiza.) The mycorrhiza provides the nutrients that enable the seed to germinate and that sustain the young plant’s growth. In the laboratory, plants can be grown without mycorrhizae. In the wild, newly-germinated Cypripedium acaule plants may require several years to develop a root system before sending up their first leaf. Pink lady's-slipper roots do not grow deep. They remain in the shallow layer of oxygen-rich, biologically-active humus. Roots are brittle and delicate, easily damaged. If a root tip, the active growing portion

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of the root, is damaged, it will not regenerate and nutrient absorption ceases in that root. Digging up a pink lady's-slipper plant damages so many roots that transplants must live off stored energy. Depleted of resources, the plant dies after a year or two. Never dig a pink lady's-slipper from the wild. Dedicated amateur and professional orchid growers continue to unravel the intricate web of the Cypripedium acaule life cycle and the day will come, perhaps within five years, when pink lady's-slippers will become commercially available to home gardeners eager to include this beautiful and beloved native orchid in landscapes and gardens. Frequently-asked Questions about Pink lady's-slippers How can I grow pink lady's-slippers in my garden? At this time (1999), pink lady's-slippers are not commercially propagated in sufficient quantities for general sales. Amateur and professional orchid growers are making rapid progress in unlocking the secrets of the pink lady'sslipper’s life cycle. Perhaps plants will become available to home gardeners within the next five years. Sometimes, pink lady's-slippers are offered for sale through catalogs or retail nurseries. Beware! It is likely that those plants have been dug up from a native habitat and are unlikely to prosper in your garden.

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How can I transplant pink lady's-slipper plants? Never dig up a pink lady's-slipper! Digging pink lady's-slippers damages roots so badly that plants must live on stored nutrients, depleting their resources. New roots do not grow fast enough to support a transplant and eventually, the plant dies. Rhode Island law states that it is illegal to pick or dig a plant from public or private property without written permission of the landowner. Can I grow pink lady's-slippers from seeds I collected in the wild? Few wild pink lady'sslippers produce viable seed. Many flowers are never pollinated. When a plant does produce seed, the capsule contains thousands and thousands of minute, dust-like seeds. The seeds lack endosperm, the nutrient component of seeds that supports germinating tissues in most plants. Pink lady'sslipper seeds, dispersed by wind, must establish a relationship with a soil fungus that supplies nutrients to induce the orchid seed to germinate and establish roots. Under laboratory conditions, pink lady'sslipper seeds have been made to germinate, but the average gardener cannot. Possibly, if the seeds are dispersed over an area where plants are already growing, some seed may germinate. Remember, Rhode Island law prohibits picking plant parts without written permission of the landowner. Leave seed capsules on the plants.

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How can I increase the number of pink lady'sslippers growing in my woods? One suggestion is to increase the chances of seed production by handpollinating some of your blooming plants. Get a book from the library on botany or orchid growing and learn to identify the sexual parts of an orchid flower, that differ somewhat from the sexual parts in most other flowers. Then get down on the ground and study the pink lady's-slipper flowers until you can identify the parts. Using a toothpick or twig, pick up a glob of pollen from one flower and transfer it to the underside of the stigma of a different flower. Remember, not all plants flower every year. It may take several years for a plant to store the energy to flower and set seed. There used to be lots of pink lady's-slippers in my woods, but now there aren’t as many. Why? What can I do about it? Pink lady's-slippers prefer dappled or light shade. As nearby trees and shrubs mature, they produce heavier shade, depriving lady’s-slippers of light for photosynthesis. Cut down or prune shrubs casting heavy shade. Limb up or prune branches from mature trees or cut down one or two trees to let in more light. Pink lady'sslippers suffer from competing roots. Weed around the orchid patch, removing aggressive vines, shrubs and grasses. Other factors affecting pink lady'sslipper populations may include: shifts in drainage patterns; loss of habitat due to development; too

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Anne Wagner, Hilltop, Portsmouth, RI

much sun because of logging, clearing or development; prolonged drought or other adverse weather conditions; illegal digging of plants by poachers; root damage by deer or human traffic. Are pink lady's-slippers rare plants? Pink lady'sslippers grow across Canada from Newfoundland and Nova Scotia west to Manitoba, south into the U.S. to Georgia, west to Alabama, north to Minnesota and are frequent to abundant in dry to moist, acid, oak-pine or coniferous forests. Stands of pink lady's-slippers may comprise a few to dozens of plants, but not all plants bloom every year. Populations may decline over the years because of increasingly heavy shade from maturing trees or from competition from aggressive plants or from some other cause. Some populations of lady’s-slippers may disappear because of development. Perhaps, as Rhode Island’s abandoned fields succeed into forest, new stands of pink lady's-slippers may appear.

Suggested Literature:
Brown, Paul Martin. 1997. Wild Orchids of the Northeastern United States. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. pp. 62-63. Cullina, Bill. “Rooted in Mystery—How Does the Pink lady'sslipper Grow?” New England Wild Flower Notes Vol. 1(1), Spring 1997. p. 7.

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__________ “Growth Requirements of the Pink lady'sslipper.” New England Wild Flower, Vol. 1(2), Fall/Winter 1997. p. 4. Deno, Norman C. 1990. Seed Germination Theory and Practice Available from the author: 139 Lenor Drive, State College, PA 16801. Longland, David. 1990. Pink lady's-slipper Plant Resource Sheet Framingham, MA: New England Wild Flower Society. Moon, Mary A. 1998. Don’t Try This at Home. New York State Conservationist, April. p. 7. Niering, William A. and Nancy C. Olmstead. 1995. National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Wildflowers— Eastern Region. NY: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 651. Steele, Bill. 1998. Propagating North American Cypripedium Species from Seed: Successes and Problems. North American Native Orchid Journal 4 (3): 200-216.

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Empiricist: AN ODDS AND ENDS COLUMN

AN ODDS AND ENDS COLUMN
The Slow Empiricist

I have gone over all my previous columns and have up-dated some of them and have put them together in one publication as a bonus for those people who sent in their 2000 subscription orders by November 15, 1999. The new compendium should be included in with your December issue if you complied with the directions. When I reread and reworked my old columns, they peaked my intent to up-date you about some of the events that have occurred since the publication of the some of the particular columns. I titled this column An Odds and Ends Column so that I could bring you this new information on some of the things that have been happening in the world of orchids as I have found out about them. Things seem to change all the time and sometimes for the better. When I wrote about Florida's dancing lady, Tolumnia bahamensis, I complained about the seemingly senseless policy dictating the rescuing of threatened orchids. I have since learned that you can rescue orchids without all the waiting for the powers

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that be to act on your request if the orchid is threatened with immediate extermination (like from in front of a bulldozer). This does not give you carte blanch to go about raping the country-side but it does allow you to act more quickly to attempt to save the orchids. Now, this is for the state of Florida. You will have to check your own state's or country's regulations in this matter before you act to save a threatened orchid or you could be in trouble. . A further up-date on the dancing lady will hearten you. There have been found several colonies near the other extant sites, which bodes better for the survival of this species. Also a rescued plant that was grown as a terrestrial in a greenhouse environment has survived and flowered exuberantly this spring. This suggests that the orchid needs to be treated as a terrestrial like it grows in the wild. Remember, it starts in the ground and sends long shoots up a convenient rosemary shrub where it puts out flowering spikes, which give it the look of an epiphyte. Previous attempts to grow it on bark saw the plant decline and whither away. If you think that my column on foolers was all inclusive you must think again. As I explore for orchids, I find there are lots more foolers lurking out there. As soon as I can amass enough new ones I hope

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to spread the word via another column on them. One that comes to mind is the tiny fern that puts up a leaf that looks so much like an orchid out of flower that I have mistaken it for the orchid. Of course finding the Ophioglossum is also a pleaser so you shouldn't feel too bad if you incorrectly identify it as an orchid. The orchids are much more plentiful than the fern. This fall when I returned from Maine to Florida, I was exploring for flowering plants of Habenaria quinqueseta at a preserve near my home, I kept confusing the orchids with common sow thistles that grew all through the same area. My persistence rewarded me with a nice stand of about seven plants in full flower as well as many other sites in that area. There were large patches of rosettes with a few in flower to some plants that had begun to ripen into fruit as well as a few individuals in prime condition. . New taxa are being identified almost every month. Like the new color form for Sacoila lanceolata. After the columns appeared about the new color form, folsomii, several people contacted the Journal about seeing that color form in the tropics. Paul Martin Brown found an old botanical print of the Sacoila this summer while vacationing in Maine, that was definitely bronzy-orange rather than the common red color. He checked the publication of this print at

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the herbarium at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The Harvard copies were identical in color to the print he discovered up in Maine. The tropical plants belong to Sacoila lanceolata, but the color form had not been described so forma folsomii still remains true. The plants will be studied carefully in the next few years as the article in the March 1999 Journal about them described the processes to be employed. Since for most of the readers this is the time of the winter season when orchids are hard to come by in the wild. Unless you live in a southern climate or can take a winter vacation to a warmer place you will be hard pressed to enjoy fieldwork as one of my winter columns lamented. As I also pointed out in that column, this does not mean you are to sit back and cool your heels waiting for spring to reawaken the little gems you love to find in nature. You can spend some time in educational pursuits as I have urged in several previous columns. One thing that I didn't emphasize was the availability of good books on the subject. If you don't have access to a good resource like a nearby college or university, or you don't have a good library or bookstore to explore, study the Journal! Books are being published that are adding to our knowledge of the orchids to be found in specific

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parts of the North American continent. You can find information about them in most issues of the North American Native Orchid Journal. Paul Martin Brown usually includes a good review of the current literature. This includes the name and address of the publisher and the price so you may order them for you perusal. Or, you can urge your library or local orchid society to buy one for all to enjoy. Or, you could donate your copy to those institutions for others to enjoy. I will close with the admonition that soon the winter season will be over and you should be using this time to enrich your knowledge with study. Lots of my columns harped on this theme so if you have subscribed early you will have the entire set to refresh your memory on what can be accomplished. It is still imperative to continue to grow in understanding and knowledge about these often, tiny wonders of the plant kingdom. Now is a good time to get started. Spring is coming as surely as tax time for all the people who live in the United States of America. I would much rather spend time learning something new about orchids then figuring out my income tax. Wouldn't you find the study of orchids a similarly pleasant pastime? The Slow Empiricist

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LOOKING FORWARD MARCH 2000 Rare, Threatened and Endangered Orchids of North America (north of Mexico) Part 1 The Genus Habenaria in the Southeastern United States

and more……..

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NATIVE ORCHIDS OF THE NEW JERSEY PINE BARRENS
Christine M. Schairer

New Jersey, one of the most densely populated states in the Northeast, has a land area of only 7,509 square miles. Many people think that New Jersey is just an overcrowded resort state, particularly the southern half of the state. Besides casinos and miles of coastline, South Jersey is also home to many historic sites like Batsto and Atsion, and to some of the most spectacular plant species known to mankind, including a surprisingly large number of native orchids. Most of which can be found in a 2,250 square mile stretch of land known as the Pine Barrens.

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The Pine Barrens represents a unique ecological niche. The Barrens are home to the Pine Barrens treefrog, Hyla andersoni, the miniature curly-grass fern, Schizaea pusilla, as well as to 28 native orchids. Its distinctive flora, wilderness, and complete contrast with urban surroundings make the Pine Barrens a precious resource. Within the pinelands there are cedar bogs, swamps, cranberry bogs, blueberry fields, flowing streams, and tidal rivers. The soil in the Pine Barrens comprises an intrinsic mosaic of very acidic, sandy uplands with very few nutrients, and little waterretention capability-perfect habitat for our native orchids. Like many people, I also did not know that the Pine Barrens was home to many unique forms of wildlife. In Spring 1990, I came across my first native orchid, Cypripedium acaule, commonly known as the pink lady’s-slipper, or pink-moccasin flower, while planting blueberry bushes on a local farm. In August of the same year along a roadside in Mullica Township, I was informed of a colony of plants that might be orchids. In fact, this colony was Platanthera blephariglottis, also known as white fringed orchid. My limited knowledge that there may be more native orchids began to improve. It was not until 1994, as a sophomore in college, when I was given a list of the Pine Barren orchids that I became

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determined to find out more about them. After gathering information on the different types of environments that native orchids will survive in, I began my extensive search to find all 28 orchids on the list.

Our native orchids grow in many different types of environment. Cypripedium acaule grows best in the humus deciduous woods. I found C. acaule and its white flowered form, C. acaule forma albiflorum, respectively growing in blueberry fields, sides of roads, and in pine forests. One particular area is Batsto where I can usually find over 200 C. acaule blooming, as well as C. acaule forma albiflorum. I first spotted this particular plant on May 15, 1995, the day before my 21st birthday when I almost accidentally stepped on it. Arethusa bulbosa, dragon’s-mouth, Calopogon tuberosus, grass-pink, Pogonia ophioglossoides, rose pogonia, Platanthera (Habenaria) blephariglottis, white fringed orchid, and Platanthera (Habenaria) cristata, crested yellow orchid, all grow in boggy conditions from bogs to ditches. Rose pogonia and white fringed orchid have been found to exist among roadside ditches.

Native orchids are terrestrial, that is they grow in the ground. Terrestrial orchids have a sympodial

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vegetative growth, where the growth of the main axis ceases at the end of a season and resumes the next year by the development of a different axis. Depending on the species, the leaves may or may not be present at time of flowering or may appear separately at a different season, such as Tipularia discolor, the cranefly orchid. Many of the native orchids have prominent corms or tubers, such as Arethusa bulbosa and Calopogon tuberosus. According to Carlyle A. Luer, author of The Native Orchids of the United States and Canada, excluding Florida, terrestrial species without leaves presumably exist without chlorophyll. In fact, they have become essentially saprophytic, taking their nourishment from decaying matter in the soil in conjunction with a mycorrhizal fungus. This fungus is needed for the survival of our native orchids. This is why when one digs up a native orchid, it will not survive for more than a few years as in the case of the pink lady’s-slipper. Native orchids will not survive in an environment different from the one they are used to.

The destruction of our natural habitats, as a result of trampling, mowing, fires, and residential build-up could destroy our native orchids. For example, Platanthera nivea, the snowy orchis, once thrived in the

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Bennett Bogs in Cape May County1. However, due to development this species has not been seen there since the late 1980s. Since native orchids rely on a special fungi, mycorrhiza, orchids can not be transplanted from one environment to another. Due to their beauty, many people think that no one will notice if a native orchid is dug up or picked. In fact, orchid lovers and botanists do notice. I did come across a corner where Platanthera blephariglottis and Spiranthes lacera var. gracilis, slender ladies'-tresses, were growing. The next day when I went with my father to take pictures, all that was left were two small holes where two tall Platanthera plants once grew. We should cherish our native treasures, and leave the plants and flowers for others to see. The only true way to reproduce our native orchids is by spreading the seeds from a seedpod onto a special formula, known as agar. Once the seed germinates and the plants are large enough to come out of the flask, they can be planted back out in the environment. By doing this type of culture, we know we can try to save some species from extinction.
REFERENCES: Luer, Carlyle A. The Native Orchids of the United States and Canada, excluding Florida. 1975.
1

The Bennett Bogs in Cape May County are not technically in the Pine Barrens, but are often included in their floras as this area represent a ''Pine Barrens element" in southernmost New Jersey and have a plant association more typical of the central New Jersey pinelands. PMB

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Robichaud Collins, Beryl and Karl Anderson. Plant Communities of New Jersey. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1994.

Christine M. Schairer, 418 Hamburg Ave., Egg Harbor, New
Jersey 08215 lives in the Devonshire section of Mullica Township, New Jersey. She received a BS in Biology in 1997, and a BA in Teacher Education with an elementary certificate in May 1999, from Richard Stockton College of New Jersey. She has been raising orchids since 1986, at the age of 12, and belongs to Sandpiper Orchid Society since 1987. Since 1994, Christine has found 18 of the 28 native orchids in the New Jersey Pine Barrens with the help and encouragement of her father, Bruce C. Schairer and her boss, Nancy Burke.

PINE BARRENS ORCHIDS
Bloom Period 4/20-5/25 5/12-5/20 5/15-5/30 5/10-6/10 5/20-6/2 5/25-6/15 6/3-6/20 6/3-7/2 6/8-6/15 6/20-6/30 Common Name southern twayblade large whorled pogonia pink lady's-slipper dragon's-mouth putty-root bog twayblade grass-pink rose pogonia lily-leaved twayblade ragged fringed orchid Scientific Name Listera australis Isotria verticillata Cypripedium acaule Arethusa bulbosa Aplectrum hyemale Liparis loeselii Calopogon tuberosus Pogonia ophioglossoides Liparis liliifolia Platanthera lacera

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6/27-7/4 7/4-7/12 7/4-7/25 7/4-8/6 7/10-8/15 7/15-8/2 7/15-8/3 7/20-8/5 7/21-8/15 7/22-8/6 7/22-8/18 7/25-8/9 7/25-9/10 8/10-8/24 8/13-9/14

spreading pogonia northern slender ladies'-tresses lacera spring ladies'-tresses green adder's-mouth little ladies'-tresses rattlesnake plantain crane-fly orchis white fringed orchid crested yellow orchid yellow fringed orchid green wood orchid Canby's hybrid orchid snowy orchis

Cleistes divaricata Spiranthes lacera var. Spiranthes vernalis Malaxis unifolia Spiranthes tuberosa Goodyera pubescens Tipularia discolor Platanthera blephariglottis Platanthera cristata Platanthera ciliaris Platanthera clavellata Platanthera xcanbyi Platanthera nivea

southern yellow orchid Platanthera integra southern slender ladies'-tresses Spiranthes lacera var. gracilis

8/20-9/10 8/30-9/8 9/20-10/20

lace-lipped ladies'-tressesSpiranthes laciniata autumn coralroot nodding ladies'-tresses Corallorhiza odontorhiza Spiranthes cernua

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ORCHIDS IN BIG ROCK PARK, SOUTHERN IOWA
Stephen R Johnson, Ph.D.
Big Rock Park, a name denoting an obvious focusing point for visitors- a large glacial remnant, is a natural area in the town of Pella, Iowa. Many people probably know Pella as the home of Pella Windows, but as I discovered, its also home to at least four species of orchids.

Big Rock Park is an 83-acre bottomland hardwood forest with a dense canopy of silver maple (Acer saccharinum), basswood (Tilia americana) and hackberry (Celtis occidentalis). But floristic evidence indicates that Big Rock Park was once more open. For example older trees in the park are either burr oak (Quercus macrocarpa) or honey locust (Gleditsia tricanthos). There are also several herbaceous plants that usually inhabit savanna or prairie such as prairie fawn illy (Erythronium mesochoreum), brown-eyed susan (Rudbeckia triloba) and wild geranium (Geranium maculatum).

I first became acquainted with Big Rock in the fall of 1997. By the spring of 1998, I was familiar with both the man-

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made and deer-forged trails. In early April 1998, I was on a deer trail and saw the emerging leaves of showy orchis, Galearis spectabilis. I visited these plants until the emerging foliage of surrounding herbs and shrubs obscured the orchids' position completely. But on a man-made trail, farther south in the park, I found five showy orchis plants with developing flower spikes. I visited these orchids every day to see their development. When these known plants began to open their flowers, I walked all of the man-made trails and discovered four other clumps of showy orchis in bloom. All of these clumps were within one foot of the trail.

I never saw any pollination of showy orchis but by mid summer at least one plant from each clump had swollen fruits.

While searching in May for showy orchis on the manmade trails, I came upon two plants of lily-leaved twayblade orchid (Liparis liliifolia). These two plants were within four inches of the trail edge. I monitored them all summer and saw that they set no fruit. I saw no important insect activity around the twayblades. In fact the only insect visitor I saw was a tiny brown ant visiting the flowers. But later in the fall, I saw that some larger animal had visited them. One twayblade was flattened steamroller style while most of the trails were

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decorated with red, yellow and green paintballs.

The remainder of that 1998 spring revealed no more orchids. But I was hopeful and persistent. In the first week of September I was again rewarded with two additional orchids. The third orchid was autumn coralroot (Corallorhiza odontorhiza). In early September this orchid grew in profusion along a trail in the western corner of the park and within site of the big rock. They grew even in the trails and the park maintenance staff mowed a few. These mid-September "flowering" plants were cleistogamous. By the time that these cleistogamous corral root orchids withered in early October, I saw a single plant of an open flowered autumn coral root ( var. pringlez) on a trail a few yards north of the cleistogamous plants. I saw its vividly spotted pink lip in the corner of my eye. But I found no other open flowered autumn coralroot orchids in the area. Phil I<.eenan (1994) says that autumn coral is the least common coralroot in North America. It was the most common orchid in Big Rock Park.

Also in September 1998, on another trail in the southwestern part of the park I saw a short floral spike of a ladies'-tresses orchid-it was northern oval ladies'-tresses, Spiranthes ovalis var. erostellata. Listed as rare in the state of

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Iowa (Roosa and Eilers, 1994). Spiranthes ovalis is also rare in Big Rock Park. I found only three plants, only two of which produced flowers. These plants also developed fruits, but the fruiting stalks of both plants were cut before the fruits matured. These three plants were growing on the edge of the trail and behind them grew vigorous specimens of the invasive Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii).

The spring of 1999 was wet in southern Iowa and new growth emerged more quickly and luxuriously than it did in the previous year. Most of the showy orchis plants that I had found in 1998, I couldn't find again in 1999. But I did find a previously non-flowering clump of showy orchis along a trail in the extreme southwestern part of the park. This comer of the park has only a thin line of trees next to developing urbanization. These were also the largest plats of showy orchis I'd seen in the park. One was over a foot tall with 12 flowers. They were also growing in the shade of a monstrous new house.

That spring brought bad news to another orchid in the park. While my friend Mary and I were walking the trail where the twayblades grew, she saw something that she said looked like a garlic clove laying on top of the ground. I looked more closely and found both twayblade corms lying exposed. A

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bulldozing mole had apparently unearthed them. I replanted both corms in their previously held sites but found them lolling in sunshine two days later. So I moved them down hill about three feet below their original sites and rereplanted them. I visited them throughout the spring and by mid May, I saw them rise from what I certainly thought was death. In fact the plants looked more vigorous than they had the year before. Still they set no seed. But they do have another chance.

Despite

skirmishing

paintball

warriors,

encroachment by alien invasive plants and encirclement by sterile mown lawns, with adequate maintenance, Big Rock Parks may take its four orchids into the indefinite future. For any wildflower enthusiast there is much more to Big Rock Park than the big rock.

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354

Bentley: IN REMEMBRANCE OF BOBBY TOLER

IN LOVING REMEMBRANCE OF GEORGE ROBERT "BOBBY" TOLER Roanoke, Virginia
Bobby was an expert "orchid hunter." His expertise lay not so much in knowledge gained from a book but from going into the field and experiencing the plants. He approached the orchids, indeed life, with an effervescent, childlike enthusiasm. He held a reverent appreciation for native plants and a complete respect for all people. In the field, while his friends stood trying to analyze the orchids and impress one another in a superficial contest of "one-upsmanship" about our orchid knowledge, Bobby often turned to more important things. He would quietly assume his place beside the plant and, with his wonderful proficiency, unfailingly proceed to record the plant on film in a way that impressed everyone fortunate enough to view his photography. Bobby's contributions to the Blue Ridge Wildflower Society and the annual Roanoke Wildflower Pilgrimage are measureless and responsible in no small part for their success. Bobby hunted orchids from Newfoundland to

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Alaska, from the Green Swamp of coastal North Carolina to California, and from the Great Smoky Mountains to the Bruce Peninsula of Canada. But what Bobby enjoyed the most was meeting new people and being with family and friends. His humanity was uncomplicated and genuine with an abundance of freely given kindness toward everyone. The phrase, "He never met a stranger," was epitomized in the personality of Bobby Toler. His infectious and perpetual smile was a delight for all of us. Before their retirement, Bobby and his wife Frieda operated their own very successful lithography business. He was a Christian man who had a direction in life and a serenity that few come to know. From the young children in the Sunday School class whom he taught to his adult acquaintances for whom he set such a splendid human example, Bobby will be sorely missed. Surviving are Frieda, a son Wayne and daughter-in-law Abbe, and a special grandson Paul, all of Roanoke. Suddenly, I have lost a best friend. But I shall never be without the memories of hunting orchids with him and the absolute joy that Bobby brought to my life. He has now surely gone on to where it is orchid season all year long, where there is no end to the chocolate milk, ice cream and strawberries, and Pepsi Cola. Those of us who were personally acquainted with Bobby know that we were blessed with his presence in our lives. He was the best and someday,

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when the powers that be decide to redefine the word "friend," there will be no need for a list of exemplary phrases. Two simple words will suffice: Bobby Toler.
Stan Bentley, 1201 MacGill St., Pulaski, VA 24301 Stan is the author of the eagerly anticipated Native Orchids of the Southern Appalachian Mountains to be published by the University of North Carolina Press in the fall of 2000.

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RECENT TAXONOMIC AND DISTRIBUTIONAL NOTES FROM FLORIDA 4.
Paul Martin Brown Two New Spiranthes Nothospecies from Florida Two new Spiranthes nothospecies are described herein. The first is a perhaps easily overlooked hybrid of two very common species in the southeastern United States — Spiranthes vernalis and Spiranthes praecox. The second, very localized and often misidentified, results from one common parent, Spiranthes praecox, and one rare and local parent, Spiranthes ovalis var. ovalis.

Spiranthes xaustralis P.M. Brown nothospecies
nova TYPE: UNITED STATES; Florida, Flagler County near Korena on US 1; O. Ames s.n. April 8, 1944 (holotype: FLAS 42682) Photo. NA Nat. Orchid Journal 1999 5(4): 374 Planta inter Spiranthes vernalis et Spiranthes praecox intermedia et habitu, colore et forma florum, vel proprietibus speciearum mixtis ETYMOLOGY: australis after the southern distribution of the taxon.

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DISTRIBUTION: Only specimens from the University of Florida Herbarium (FLAS) were examined. This taxon will undoubtedly occur throughout the southeastern United States and possibly west to Texas. Additional specimens examined:
FLORIDA: Bradford County: corolla white; lip with pale green lines, abundant; moist sandy roadside, west side of FLA 21, 100' S. of Barnhill's Fishing Camp road, 3 mi. N. of Melrose. E. M. Hodgson 234 14 April 1965 (FLAS 90631) Citrus County: flowers white; moist semishaded woods, along Fla 44, east of Inverness, about 1/2 mile west of the Withlacoochee River L. Baltzell 2089 26 April 1970 Levy County: flowers greenish white, labellum of a single color, no stripe, frequent, scattered; sandhill; N. of Fla 24, ca. 2 mi. E of jct. with Fla. 345, E. of Cedar Key, Cedar Key Scrub Reserve. D.W. Hall with D. Younker 1720, 29 April 1987 (FLAS 162112) Madison County: white flowers of two extremes and intermediates, from tubular with lip slightly recurved with green veins, to more open with strongly curved lip and no green veins; 1.8 mi. N. of Greenville in wet flatwoods along #221 J. Beckner 686 2 May 1965 (FLAS 91797)

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Nassau County: Callahan, R.A. Knight s.n. 15 May 1941. (FLAS 88962) This specimen originally part of a mixed collection, with S. praecox. (collector's note) Taylor County: corolla white, lip markings pale green; fairly common in dry sandy roadside, along US 27/98, 2 mi. west of Perry. E.M. Hodgson 277 17 Apr 1965 Walton County: flowers pure white, lip crenate along margin; solitary plant; dry woods at edge of dredged pond, N. of Waste Water Creek, along Road 212, ca. 7 mi. W. of Portland, S31 T1N R20W D. B. Ward with R.R. Smith & C. Chapman 6337 9 May 1967 (FLAS 107108)

Notes on the specimens: All of the specimens cited were previously identified and/or annotated as either Spiranthes vernalis or S. praecox. The Beckner collection from Madison County is especially interesting as it has eight plants on it with two of them clearly S. xaustralis and the others S. praecox. Although many of the specimens examined indicate large numbers of flowering plants present, in reality only a few would probably by S. xaustralis. Although both parents are abundant species in the southeastern United States and frequently occupy the same habitat, the detection of hybrids has been surprisingly infrequent. In most locales in Florida Spiranthes vernalis precedes Spiranthes praecox in anthesis, but usually there is a short period of overlap in flowering

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dates. Although the flowering habit of S. vernalis is highly variable — even from year to year on the same individual — the floral morphology is consistent. In S. vernalis the sepals are divergent, the flowers are creamywhite with the lip usually a darker cream to pale butterscotch and the flowers as well as the rachis are covered with dense, articulate pointed hairs. This distinctive pubescence is evident without the aid of a lens. Spiranthes praecox, on the other hand, varies in both its habit and floral morphology. Typical S. praecox is usually described as having white flowers, with appressed lateral sepals and distinctive raised green veins on the lip. While this is the most easily recognized of the several morphs, in Florida plants are more frequently seen with the flowers entirely green to pale green and lacking in the distinctive raised green veins on the lip. The 'green morphs' are found not only in open areas, i.e. fields, roadsides, etc., but also in shaded woodlands. A form with pure white flowers, apparently lacking the raised green veins, also occurs (forma albolabia Brown & McCartney). Upon careful examination, these pure white flowers will reveal the pale lemon-yellow veins on the lip. This third morph is the least common in Florida. In both Spiranthes vernalis and Spiranthes praecox the floral habit, or arrangement of the flowers, is highly

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variable from a slender, nearly secund inflorescence to the classic single-ranked corkscrew habit to a densely flowered multiple ranked spike. Cleistogamous flowered plants have been observed in both species in Florida. Hybrids between Spiranthes vernalis and Spiranthes praecox have only been observed in the field with the white-flowered/green veined lip morph of S. praecox, although S. vernalis is almost always present with the other morphs of S. praecox. Because the position of the lateral sepals is so diagnostic on both species the hybrids are very distinct. Plants have been found with S. vernalis coloration and scattered articulate pointed hairs with appressed sepals or S. praecox-like in coloration with widely divergent sepals. Usually not more than 1 or 2 individuals of the hybrids have been seen in a given site. Spiranthes xaustralis may help resolve the frustration that many orchid enthusiasts have had in the field when trying to determine of they have found S. vernalis or S. praecox.

Spiranthes

xitchetuckneensis nothospecies nova

P.M.

Brown

TYPE: UNITED SATES. Florida: Columbia County, Itchetucknee Springs State Park, wet clay soil near Itchetucknee Springs 15 ft. N. of Blue Hole, ca. 4 mi. N.W. of Fort White, T 6 S, R 15, E.; A. Will s.n. 5 Nov

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1960 (holotype: FLAS 78786 (Photo. NA Nat. Orchid Journal 1999 5(4): 374 Planta inter Spiranthes ovalis et Spiranthes odorata intermedia et habitu et forma florum, vel proprietibus speciearum mixtis ETYMOLOGY: in honor of Itchetucknee River State Park in north-central Florida. DISTRIBUTION: Only specimens from the University of Florida Herbarium (FLAS) were examined. This taxon may occur throughout the southeastern United States and possibly west to Texas. Additional specimens examined: Alachua County: Sugarfoot, high hammock, Gainesville. Watson & Murrill s.n. 11-7-39 (FLAS 25931) Levy County: Gulf Hammock A. P. Garber s.n., October 1877 (FLAS 69862) Sumter County: flowers pure white; infrequent; around bases of large hardwood trees; dense hammock; rocky knoll just E. of Withlacoochee River on Fla 48 W. of Wahoo ca. 8 mi. W. of Bushnell. J. Beckner 1602 25 October 1966 (FLAS 96958)

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Notes on the specimens examined: All of the specimens examined were previously annotated as Spiranthes ovalis, Spiranthes odorata or Spiranthes cernua, 'small flowered race'. Paul Catling (DAO) notes on the Garber collection: "Spiranthes cernua (L.) L.C. Rich. These plants represent a distinctive southern and restricted race of S. cernua which possesses some features of S. ovalis. With lateral sepals 8.0 mm long, glandular hairs 0.25 mm and a lip that is relatively thick and papillate beneath (instead of smooth) they are clearly S. cernua. P. M. Catling 1982." I have been unable to find any Spiranthes cernua s.l. in Florida in either herbaria vouchers or in the field. The Beckner collection from Sumter County was originally identified as Spiranthes ovalis and annotated by D. Ward as follows: "Called Spiranthes ovalis by J.B. on the basis of habitat, small flower size, and all-white color, but suggestive of S. cernua var. odorata, which J.B. says grows nearby; in dense inflorescence pubescence and attenuate bracts exceeding ovaries. D. B. Ward Aug 1970”.

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The detection of this hybrid presents a taxon that behaves precisely as one would like a hybrid to appear. It is intermediate in virtually all aspects between its two parents. Spiranthes odorata is a common species of rich floodplains, open grasslands and streamsides throughout the southeastern United States. It is stoloniferous in nature and therefore is capable of forming large clumps and often is found growing in flooded areas with the flowering stems emerging from the water. Spiranthes ovalis var. ovalis is a rare to locally common species found sparingly throughout the southeastern United States, usually in rich woods and more rarely in floodplains. Catling (1983) described Spiranthes ovalis var. erostellata, an autogamous variety that ranges throughout the eastern United States and southwestern Ontario. This variety is also somewhat rare and local, but much more widespread. In only four states did Catling show plants of both varieties — Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi and Florida. Of the five known historical and extant sites for Spiranthes ovalis in Florida three are purely var. ovalis, one exclusively var. erostellata and one, at Itchetucknee Springs, has both varieties present. Only at Itchetucknee Springs does Spiranthes ovalis share its habitat with Spiranthes odorata. For more than a kilometer along the floodplain of the river extensive stands of Spiranthes

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odorata occupy the wetter areas near the river's edge. Back from the shore, closer to the bluffs that separate the upland forest from the floodplain, can be found small colonies of Spiranthes ovalis var. ovalis, and in two of these colonies a few plants of var. erostellata. In the intermediate zone between the S. ovalis and the S. odorata occur scattered plants of what at first appear to be smallflowered S. odorata. In fact, the specimen chosen for the holotype has been annotated as "small-flowered S. cernua." Although in the past Spiranthes odorata has been considered as a variety of S. cernua, I have been unable to find any herbarium specimens or extant sites for Spiranthes cernua in Florida (Brown 1999). These intermediate plants are exactly that — they are intermediate in habit, habitat and morphology. Measurements of ten plants of each taxon reveal that the hybrids fall exactly between both parents. They are very easy to identify in the field as they are larger flowered than S. ovalis but smaller in all aspects than S. odorata. Leaf shape on both species is similar, but the distinctive stoloniferous aspect of S. odorata is lacking in S. ovalis. In S. xitchetuckneensis plants are often clump-forming and exhibit very short stallions or may occur as individuals. The plants of S. xitchetuckneensis are never as tall as S. odorata and never as slender as S. ovalis. The floral arrangement is variable from the distinctive threeranking of S. ovalis to a densely flowered spike of S.

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odorata. In the primary research area at Itchetucknee Springs State Park in 1999 87 S. odorata, 29 S. ovalis var. ovalis, 3 S. ovalis var. erostellata and 23 S. xitchetuckneensis were found. Whether this hybrid occurs other than in Florida remains to be seen. If populations in the Gulf states are found that contain both parents, especially if var. ovalis is present, they should be carefully examined for S. xitchetuckneensis. Catling (1983) states that var. erostellata is capable of contributing pollen and therefore could be a potential pollen parent. The described habitat for var. erostellata is usually old field margins, dry woods and disturbed areas so the likelihood of S. odorata occurring sympatrically is lessened.
Literature Cited: Brown, P.M. 1999. Recent taxonomic and distributional notes from Florida 1. North American Native Orchid Journal 5(1): 3-15. Catling, P.M. 1983. Spiranthes ovalis var. erostellata (Orchidaceae) a new autogamous variety from the eastern United States. Brittonia 35(2): 120-1255.

Paul Martin Brown, Research Associate, University of Florida Herbarium, Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, FL naorchid@aol.com
The author thanks Sam Cole, Park Biologist at Itchetucknee Springs State Park, and Mark Latch and Dana Bryan of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection who assisted in making the research possible at the park and for permission to name the taxon for Itchetucknee Spring State Park.

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BOOK REVIEWS: WILD ORCHIDS OF TEXAS

Wild Orchids of Texas

By Joe Liggio and Ann Otto Liggio David H. Riskind, Scientific Advisor Connie Herring Hooks Series 7 x 9 7/8 in., 240 pp. Color photos, maps $29.95 hardcover University of Texas Press 800-252-3206 www.utexas.edu/utpress ISBN 0-292-74712-8 This long-awaited work on the orchids of Texas had finally come forth and in most every way it has satisfied the need for a detailed work on that state. Texas has five species not found elsewhere in the United States, and one of the species, Spiranthes parksii, an endemic to Texas. Joe & Ann Orto Liggio's descriptions give us full details for all of the 54 species they have documented from Texas. Striking full color photos accompany each description of all but Spiranthes brevilabris (see below), Hexalectris revoluta, and Deiregyne confusa. The first set of chapters in the book give a very complete picture of the natural history of Texas in relation to the geography, orchid habitat and especially the response of many orchids to periodic burning. Each genus and species is covered with a complete natural history of the species and throughout the book sidebars often give some of the most interesting historical highlight concerning orchid exploration in Texas. County dot maps of Texas accompany each species description and the full range of the species is given. The only disappointment I found in the book was the lack of keys for identification of the species and an inconsistency in the citation of common names i.e. Lady's slipper vs. lady's-slipper and lady's-tresses vs. ladies'-tresses. From a taxonomic standpoint a

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BOOK REVIEWS: WILD ORCHIDS OF TEXAS

few points should be noted. Malaxis wendtii occurs only in Texas in the United States and not in New Mexico and Arizona as stated (there the similar taxon is M. porphyrea). The correct literature citation is given for this range and status but the text does not include that information. It is most certain that Schiedeella parasitica does not occur in the United States, although research is not quite complete yet to verify whether that taxon should be addressed as S. fauci-sanguinea or described as a new species. Although no fault of the authors, the photo of Spiranthes brevilabris var. brevilabris is that of Spiranthes eatonii which was described in the March 1999 issue of this Journal, too late for inclusion in this book. It would add another species to the orchids of Texas. An excellent bibliography is given in the Literature Cited, although the year given for Magrath: Sida 13(3):371 is incorrect. It should read 1989 not 1939. I am confident that all native orchid enthusiasts will want a copy of this informative and essential volume that presents both an interesting and detailed narrative of the orchids of Texas. PMB

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Plate 1: Brandenberg Photos by Jim Butler

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Plate 2 - Coleman : Hexalectris revoluta in Arizona

Hexalectris revoluta photos by Ron Coleman

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Plate 3: Johnson; Wagner

above: Cypripedium acaule pink lady's-slipper Anne Wagner

left: Corallorhiza odontorhiza autumn coralroot S. Johnson

Plate 3: Johnson; Wagner

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Plate 4 - Brown: Spiranthes Nothospecies in Florida

Spiranthes vernalis Levy County, Florida

S. xaustralis

S. praecox P.M. Brown

Spiranthes odorata

S. xitchetuckneensis

S. ovalis P.M. Brown

Columbia County, Florida

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