NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE ORCHID JOURNAL

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Volume 6 September Number 3 2000 a quarterly devoted to the orchids of North America published by the

NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE ORCHID ALLIANCE
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MEMORIES OF PAST CONFERENCES PROCEEDINGS OF THE 5th ANNUAL NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE ORCHID CONFERENCE: Part 1. GOVENIA FLORIDANA (ORCHIDACEAE), A NEW SPECIES ENDEMIC TO SOUTHERN FLORIDA, U.S.A. PLATANTHERA XVOSSII FOUND IN RHODE ISLAND RARE, THREATENED AND ENDANGERED ORCHIDS IN NORTH AMERICA - Part 3……….and more!

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NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE ORCHID JOURNAL
(ISSN 1084-7332) published quarterly in March June September December by the

NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE ORCHID ALLIANCE
a group dedicated to the conservation and promotion of our native orchids

Paul Martin Brown
Assistant Editor: Nathaniel E. Conard Editorial & Production Assistants: Philip E. Keenan Stan Folsom Nancy Webb The Journal welcomes articles, of any length, of both a scientific and general interest nature relating to the orchids of North America. Scientific articles should conform to guidelines such as those in Lindleyana or Rhodora. General interest articles and notes may be more informal. Authors may include line drawings and/or black and white photographs. Color inserts may be arranged. Please send all inquiries or material for publication to the Editor at PO Box 772121, Ocala, FL 34477-2121 (late May early Oct. Box 759, Acton, ME 04001-0759). 2000 Membership in the North American Native Orchid Alliance, which includes a subscription to the Journal, is $26 per year in the United States, $29US in Canada and $32US other foreign countries. Payment should be sent to Nancy A. Webb, 84 Etna St., Brighton, MA 02135-2830. Claims for lost issues or canceled memberships should be made to the editorial office within 30 days.

Editor:

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NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE ORCHID JOURNAL
Volume 6 Number 3 September 2000 NOTES FROM THE EDITOR 159 MEMORIES OF PAST CONFERENCES The Slow Empiricist 161 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 5th ANNUAL NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE ORCHID CONFERENCE PART 1. A SUMMARY OF THE 5TH ANNUAL NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE ORCHID CONFERENCE Port Angeles, Washington July 16-20, 2000 Scott Stewart 171 SYMBIOTIC SEED GERMINATION OF THE FEDERALLY-THREATENED EASTERN PRAIRIE FRINGED ORCHID, PLATANTHERA LEUCOPHAEA (NUTTALL) LINDLEY, AND THREE HABENARIA SPECIES FROM FLORIDA Scott Stewart 180 ORCHIDS AT A RANGE LIMIT IN ARIZONA AND NEW MEXICO Ronald A. Coleman 193 ABOUT SOME EUROPEAN GENERA Dietrich & Ursula Rueckbrodt 201

CONTENTS

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RARE, THREATENED AND ENDANGERED ORCHIDS IN NORTH AMERICA - Part 3 Anne B. Wagner, Ken Wagner & Paul Martin Brown 216 RECENT TAXONOMIC AND DISTRIBUTIONAL NOTES FROM FLORIDA 7. GOVENIA FLORIDANA (ORCHIDACEAE), A NEW SPECIES ENDEMIC TO SOUTHERN FLORIDA, U.S.A. Paul Martin Brown 230 LOOKING FORWARD: December 2000 241 PLATANTHERA XVOSSII FOUND IN RHODE ISLAND 242

NATIVE ORCHIDS OF THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS
by Stanley A. Bentley 243 2001 RENEWAL NOTICE 244 246

PRE-PUBLICATION ANNOUNCEMENT

NATIVE ORCHIDS OF OREGON
Unless otherwise credited, all drawings in this issue are by Stan Folsom

PUBLICATION ANNOUNCEMENT

Plate 1, p. 247 Govenia floridana Plate 2, p. 248 Platanthera xvossii, Piperia unalascensis - white & yellow form, Platanthera chorisiana The opinions expressed in the Journal are those of the authors. Scientific articles may be subject to peer review and popular articles will be examined for both accuracy and scientific content. Volume 6, number 3, pages 159-248; issued September 20, 2000. Copyright 2000 by the North American Native Orchid Alliance, Inc. Cover: Cypripedium acaule by Stan Folsom

Color Plates:

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NOTES FROM THE EDITOR

Although a cool and somewhat rainy summer covered many parts of the continent this year we certainly had ideal weather for the conference in Olympic National Park. Fifty-four members and friends attended and a full report is in this issue. One of the most noticeable difference between this conference and others was the articulate and educated discussion that followed each presentation. Plans for the 2001 conference are undergoing a change at this time because of a conflict. Originally scheduled for Charlotte, North Carolina with field tips to the Green Swamp near Wilmington, NC on May 1215, a conflict has arisen with another native plant conference that same weekend in that region. Unfortunately the conference center we were using is not available for another date in May so I am making alternate arrangements for the 6th North American Native Orchid Conference to be held in northern New England September 6-9, 2001. Full details will appear in the December Journal. A number of thank yous are in order at this time. In regard to the 5th Annual North American Native Orchid Conference: to Cathy Murray for all of her pre-

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conference work and assisting with the arrangements, to Dennis Maleug for coordinating the field trips, to Larry Zettler for moderating the conference (so I could really enjoy it!) and a number of others who helped in moving tables and chairs, covering sales etc. And not to forget all of our speakers! A very special thank you goes to Ed Greenwood for all of his patient help in assisting me in preparing the publication of Govenia floridana. Lastly, there are only two color pages in this issue because additional suitable color was not submitted to accompany the articles in this issue. Paul Martin Brown, editor PO Box 772121 Ocala, FL 34477-2121 352/861-2565 PO Box 759 Acton, ME 04001-0759 207/636-3719 (late May - Sept.) naorchid@aol.com

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MEMORIES OF PAST CONFERENCES
The Slow Empiricist In looking back over the last five years, I remember that each North American Native Orchid Alliance conference was a different experience. The conferences were set up so that the latest information that was being compiled and the various areas of expertise that were being pursued might be shared with the membership. An important part of each conference was the presentation of a document that honored a noted person in the field for their efforts in orchid studies. An equally important part of each conference was the field trips to see that particular area's orchid specimens. The first conference was held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The trip down to the site was fun because we were able to explore new territory along the way for the northern slender ladies-tresses, Spiranthes lacera. Nothing breaks up a long road trip like a little botanizing. We also were on the lookout for any other species that we might happen across. Carlow College was gracious to offer us space to hold the lecture presentations at its facilities when the

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original meeting place grew too small to accommodate all those who planned to attend. Sister Mary Joy Hayward, who was in charge of the of the biology department at the college, acted a liason and arranged the meeting space at the college. She was also an avid botanist and attended all the lectures and was enthusiastic about the entire procedure. It was very hot in Pittsburgh that week and mercifully the conference meeting room was airconditioned. There were many speakers at the conference and each presented an interesting lecture about their area of expertise. There was also a round table discussion with all the participants joining in the talk. I am refraining from discussing the topics in detail because there are notes on the entire conference in the September 1996 (vol. 2. #3) Journal. That would be redundant to go over those events so I am simply relating some of my special memories of each conference. What really stands out in my mind, which tends to be visually oriented, are the orchids that we encountered on the field trips, planned and unplanned, so I intend to concentrate on that area of my experiences. I remember seeing some of the lovely orchids that grow in that area of the United States. As I stated we looked for Spiranthes on the way to the conference. I always find exploring to be exciting, especially when it pays off in discovery. We were successful. We found several sites for the Spiranthes lacera in Pennsylvania on our way to the conference.

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I also remember seeing the lovely stands of the purple fringeless orchis, Platanthera peramoena, in the damp ditches of rural Pennsylvania. This orchid is quite magnificent in size and color as opposed to the tinier, harder to spot Spiranthes. But to my mind each has a definite charm, you just have to get up close and bend down a lot to enjoy the littler species. We also had a chance to explore an area near State College, Pennsylvania, which had an interesting Listera in the park. Our Pomeranians enjoyed seeing an identical cousin being walked along the roadside at the entrance to the park. It also gave me a chance to visit my old alma mater, The Pennsylvania State University, which is located in State College. An interesting by-product of the conference was that it made us aware of the terrain and topography of this area. Several years later we returned to the area in a quest for Case's ladies-tresses, Spiranthes casei and the oval ladies-tresses, S. ovalis. We found quite a few sites for the S. casei but we had a rough time locating S. ovalis even though we had specific directions and were in the right location. I remember spending a great deal of time and effort trying to locate S. ovalis on a hillside in a rural part of Pennsylvania. We spent most of an afternoon there and had no success. We went back the next morning and finally located the ellusive plants. Of course, once we found one we began to spot more.

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The second conference was held in what I thought was a very unlikely spot and time. We were in the Tucson area of Arizona in the middle of August. I expected it to be hot and unbearable and nearly decided not to attend. I'm glad that I decided otherwise. We met for the lectures in a modern hotel convention facility that also provided easy access to food and our rooms. No problem with the heat and blazing sun there! Chuck Sheviak presented his findings on the yellow-flowered Cypripediums and received a citation from the Alliance as outstanding orchidist of the year. But again the field trips were the significant memory I want to impart to you because this is from my perspective as an amateur enthusiast. You can read about the conference in much more detail in the September 1997, vol. 3 #3 Journal. We went up into the Huachuca & Chiricahua Mountains for our exploration. The weather was cool and spring-like when we got up in elevation. I loved looking at the other spring wildflowers that were blooming along the trail. We saw a large blue flower that looked like a Batchelor Button but I was informed it was a Mexican native. There were lovely lupines and Indian paintbrushes perched along the edges. There were also lilies in bloom as well. They made a long journey to the area where the adder's-mouths, Malaxis sp., were in bloom more than enjoyable. I did marvel at the stamina of some of the older participants and their enthusiasm as they literally sailed up the mountainsides.

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The third conference was held at Lake Itasca in Minnesota. I remember this place because we stayed in a rustic resort area that is run by the Park Service. The facility was set up so that we could have the lecture presentations near our rooms and there was a dining hall in the area as well. The lectures and proceedings can be found in the September 1998, vol. 4, no. 3 Journal. One of the highlights of the field trips was seeing 3 adder's-mouths side by side, Malaxis unifolia, M. brachypoda, and M. paludosa. They were all growing nearby each other in a mossy, damp, open conifer woods. It gave everyone a good chance to compare the species differences. I enjoy walking in spongy, sphagnum mosses avoiding the obviously wet sections while I am exploring. Because I don't photograph, I have more time to roam and I usually find a number of interesting specimens. Another fond memory was standing in the prairies of Manitoba amid all the western prairie fringed orchis, Platanthera praeclara. It is certainly a commanding orchid for its large size and is crowned with lovely fringed, white blossoms poking up above the prairie grasses. One forgets the heat and unrelenting sun in such a presence as these. An interesting sidelight, after the conference closed and we got home, we heard that a tornado had gone through the Park area and actually damaged part of the dining hall where we had taken our meals.

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Although I might like to see a tornado close hand, I'm glad that I wasn't around for that one. The fourth conference took place in Tampa, Florida. I was not able to attend the lecture section of the conference but you can find all the notes about it in the June 1999, vol. 5, # 2 Journal. I remember instead how we searched for the orchids in the weeks before the conference opened. That winter had been particularly dry and the timing for the orchids to bloom was affected by the drought. I worried that there would not be anything worth looking at because everything seemed to be out of bloom or blooming earlier than expected or not even showing in the few weeks before the scheduled conference. The orchids were smaller and fewer but there were enough material for everyone to experience them in all their glory. The most indelible memory was of over 50 participants engulfing our yard photographing the clamshell orchid, Prosthechea cochleata and roaming over to a neighbor's house to see all the spring ladies tresses, Spiranthes vernalis that were blooming in their lawn. Oak Run, the complex where we live, has begun a campaign to eradicate such poor lawns much to our chagrin. The last conference I attended was this past summer in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington. This was a conference where the audience joined into the post lecture discussions and I think many learned a great deal. I certainly did about how people are learning

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to isolate mycorhiza and germinate and grow orchids from seed. Scott Stewart gave a simple and illuminating talk about the processes that made the procedures much more understandable. Of course the orchids were everywhere in that area. You only had to locate a likely spot of which there were many and start looking. There were several thousand western coralroots, Corallorhiza mertensiana, in bloom in shades of magenta, pale yellow and white. An interesting offshoot was when we went to lead the group there, we missed the spot and ended up going to the top of the Deer Park road, which is a long steep climb up to about 5,600 feet. The views were magnificent. The reason we went so far was that there was no really safe place to turn around a long convoy of automobiles and campers except at the top. We also found an unusual Piperia candida that was clearly creamy yellow and white. It may have been due to age or it may just have been a slight color variation but it was beautiful to see. On our way to the ferry to take us back to the Seattle area after the conference was over we stopped at the Diamond Point Road area where Mark Larocque and some of the others had found a lot of Piperias. We found an interesting area in the industrial park that was full of the Pacific northwestern race of Spiranthes romanzoffiana. This race is larger and very showy, especially in the quantities that there were along the damp roadside ditches. The differences may be the

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result of growing in close proximity to the water. One plant had more bracts and no open flowers. Its flower portion was like the bract form of the Dactylorhiza we saw in Alaska. The Olympic Peninsula conference took us for a journey from Maine to Washington State through parts of Canada. Of course we traveled with our orchid loving dogs, the same Pomeranians mentioned earlier. By traveling by automobile we were able to take the dogs as well as seeing the entire northern roadways across the United States and parts of Canada. It was something that we wanted to do and but for the conference would probably never have attempted to do. Another factor was that friends of ours, the Castors, were going to travel from Connecticut to the conference. They inspired us to attempt the trip. I will close with a list of all the orchids and wildlife we saw on this trip. The ones with the asterisks we saw in the Olympics, the others, on the trip to or from Washington. *Platanthera stricta *Platanthera dilatata var. leucostachys, and var. albiflora * Platanthera aquilonis *Platanthera creamy green hybrid *Piperia elegans *Piperia unalascensis *Piperia transversa *Piperia candida

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*Piperia elongata *Corallorhiza mertensiana *Corallorhiza maculata *Corallorhiza striata *Listera cordata var. nephrophylla *Listera cordata var. cordata red and green forms *Listera caurina Spiranthes porrifolia *Spiranthes romanzoffiana Spiranthes romanzoffiana Pacific Northwest coastal race Listera borealis *A creamy yellow & white Piperia Epipactis helleborine *Epipactis gigantea *Goodyera oblongifolia Cypripedium montanum Platanthera obtusata Platanthera orbiculata Calypso bulbosa in fruit Platanthera chorisiana (Lake Elizabeth) We also saw *black tailed deer, and a *nutria in the Olympic Parks and on the way there or back we saw a herd of American bison, a town of prairie dogs, a family of mountain goats, elderly ones, parents and grandchildren feeding by the roadside, pronghorned antelope also by the roadside, a coyote, a fox, a yellow headed blackbird, a red shafted flicker, inland white pelicans with black wingtips, evening grosbeaks, American bald eagles, LeConte's sparrow, a lesser prairie chicken, and a variety of hawks. We also saw

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hundreds of butterflies and moths, large swarms of horse flies on the upper reaches of the mountains and a pollinator that a spider had captured on a Piperia unalascensis. Each conference brings its own memories but the one in the Olympics probably will be very hard to top.
The Slow Empiricist

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A SUMMARY OF THE 5TH ANNUAL NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE ORCHID CONFERENCE
Port Angeles, Washington July 16-20, 2000 Scott Stewart Port Angeles, Washington, was the perfect setting for the 5th Annual North American Native Orchid Conference. Nestled between the Pacific Ocean and beautiful Olympic National Park, the city provided an ideal backdrop for the mixing both orchid hobbyists and professionals. This coming together of amateurs and professionals was the emphasis of Lawrence Zettler’s opening remarks. He stressed, that as a scientist, he sees the need for amateur orchid enthusiasts and professional orchid researchers to work together to preserve our orchids and their habitats. Following a brief opening to the conference, Paul Martin Brown presented a collage titled “Orchids Throughout North America.” The presentation was truly a potpourri of orchids from across North America, demonstrating the diversity present in our native

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orchids. Along the trip, Paul brought back some memories of past conferences and showed the audience of about 54 people many beautiful specimens, ranging from the almost common to the very rare. After a short break in the action, I presented “An Update on the Symbiotic Germination of the Federallythreatened Eastern Prairie Fringed Orchid, Platanthera leucophaea (Nuttall) Lindley, and Notes on the Germination of Three Habenaria Species from Florida.” This presentation was aimed at simplifying the technical process used by orchid researchers to propagate and cultivate orchids from seed in the laboratory. To demonstrate this process, I gave a summary of current studies at The Illinois College, which are directed at propagating four native North American orchids using the symbiotic technique. In addition to explaining the process used, I explored mycorrhizal fungi and their uses in symbiotic germination. The next presentation was by Cliff Pelchat, who spoke about Spiranthes parksii in Texas. Cliff presented a brief historical overview of the Post Oak Savanna, where S. parksii is commonly found and a description of the orchid’s habitat, naturally disturbed drainage areas. He also discussed the limited distribution of S. parksii throughout 12 counties in Texas. Cliff then concluded his talk with the morphology of the orchid, pointing out that S. parksii is leafless when flowering and is vegetative otherwise. An engineer by trade, Cliff has been interested in native orchids for about seven years. He now lives in Houston, Texas, but is originally from

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Florida where he gained most of his orchid experience with the epiphytes of south Florida. After a much needed lunch break, the conference reconvened to hear from Penny Latham about Cypripedium fasciculatum, the Clustered Lady Slipper. This is an orchid associated with old growth forests of the Pacific Northwest. She is working in conjunction with the Oregon State University Cooperative Forest Ecosystem Research project to understand the biology and management needs of C. fasciculatum. Her current efforts are in investigating possible dormancy mechanisms, morphology, and mycorrhizae of this uncommon Cypripedium species. Interestingly, Penny has discovered that this orchid is mostly found in heavy clumps, may consist of a few multi-stemmed plants, and is usually found with only one or two flowers at a time. Penny earned her M.S. and Ph.D. from the University of Montana and is currently in a postdoctoral position at Oregon State University. After some rearranging, due to the cancellation of Chuck Sheviak’s talk for medical reasons, Lorne Heshka spoke on an “Update on Platanthera praeclara at Tolstoi, Manitoba.” His presentation provided the audience with an excellent overview of the sizeable P. praeclara tallgrass prairie site in Manitoba. In this site, the orchid is found densely throughout, which is amazing, considering only 1% of the native tallgrass habitat remains in Manitoba. Also of interest was an update on work in progress on the insect pollinators of P. praeclara in Canada. Lorne has been interested in native orchids

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since 1996 and is currently president of the Manitoba Orchid Society. The last speaker for the first day of the 2000 conference was Ron Coleman, presenting “Arizona and New Mexico: Crossroads for Native Orchids,” where he showed several beautiful slides demonstrating the variety of orchids throughout Arizona and New Mexico. He also discussed the unique range limits for the majority of these orchids: Mexico to the south and the Rocky Mountains to the north. This presentation covered common and endangered orchids, with an emphasis on differentiating between color forms for many native orchids in these two states. Ron has been studying wild orchids for nearly 30 years and is currently associated with the University of Arizona as a Visiting Scholar. He is also the author of The Wild Orchids of California, and most recently, The Wild Orchids of Arizona and New Mexico, which is scheduled to be published soon. The second day of the North American Native Orchid Conference began with a presentation by Kathleen Donham, “A Wasp, a Fly, and a Rare Orchid: The Unlikely Relationship: Cypripedium fasciculatum.” This talk presented the current findings of a pollinator study being conducted on C. fasciculatum in conjunction with Carol Ferguson of South Oregon University. Kathleen discussed the team’s efforts at defining the pollinator for this orchid and efforts to develop a phonological system for flower development. Their efforts to find a pollinator of C. fasciculatum have to the discovery that a

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parasitic wasp (obligate parasite on a fungus gnat) is the probable pollinator of this orchid. Further study of this pollinator and efforts to relate flower development and insect activity are ongoing. Kathleen, who has a strong entomology background, is the volunteer research assistant under the direction of Dr. Carol Ferguson. Next, Dietrich and Ursula Rueckbrodt presented, “European Orchids With an Overview of the Genus Ophrys, the Bee Orchids.” The highlight of this presentation was certainly the genus Ophrys, but the 10 other genera covered in the talk were just as amazing. Besides Ophrys, Ursula discussed the genera Orchis, Dacrylorhiza, Barlia, Himantoglossum, Comperia, Nigritella, Epipogium, Neottia, Cephalanthera, and Serapias. Along with adequate background on each photographic specimen, habitat descriptions and distribution ranges were provided. This was certainly an all-encompassing presentation on the European genera of orchids. Dietrich and Ursula have been interested in the native orchids of Europe, especially Germany, since 1962. The two have described one new species from Turkey and rediscovered several lost species, and continue to travel the world photographing terrestrial orchids. The last official presentation was from Joe Liggio on “The Genus Hexalectris in North America Texas.” Joe’s presentation discussed the general habitat, the distribution, and some possible pollinators for this genus. Most captivating was the strange beauty of this parasitic orchid genus and its variation between some restricted and non-restricted species within the genus

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Hexalectris. Joe has his M.S. in environmental biology and, with Ann Orto Liggio is the author of The Wild Orchids of Texas, which was sold and autographed at the conference. Upon the conclusion of the invited speakers’ presentations, Dennis Malueg gave a member’s presentation on the orchids of the Great Lakes region. His slide show was a mix of native terrestrial orchids from across the Great Lakes region, both rare and fairly common. The highlight of Dennis’ presentation was certainly his wonderful photographs of the orchids. Lawrence Zettler was awarded the Conservation and Education Award for his work with native orchids and his willingness to share the information gained through his work with the public. Lawrence is an Assistant Professor at The Illinois College in Jacksonville, IL. He has worked at propagating native terrestrial orchids for the past 11 years.

Field Trips The field trips accompanying this year’s conference gave attending members the opportunity to see the strange beauty of the Olympic National Park’s orchids. One trip included a jaunt to a beautiful subalpine prairie for a unique array of northwest wildflowers including an interesting alpine onion (Allium flagelatum.) and several species of the beautiful Indian

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Paintbrush (Castilleja spp.) and Corallorhiza mertensiana (including a striking white and yellow form!). Another field trip to Hurricane Ridge in the Olympic National Park demonstrated the effects of weather exposure on orchids. Here we saw several Piperia unalascensis, all dwarfed by their alpine exposure. Along the road to Hurricane Ridge were several species of Corallorhiza and ditches full of Platanthera species and lower down Piperia candida and P. elongata as well as more P. unalascensis. The full day trip to Sol Duc Hot Springs, East Beach, and Elwha Road offered a multitude of native orchids. At Sol Duc we encountered the beautiful Listera caurina and Corallorhiza mertensiana along with the breathtaking Sol Duc Falls. East Beach presented the interesting Epipactis gigantea, while a cleared wood lot along Elwha Road contained several species of Corallorhiza, Piperia, Platanthera, and Goodyera. Topping off this year’s conference was a field trip to wonderful Lake Elizabeth. This interesting glacierfed 5-acre lake is surrounded by thriving marshes where the Platanthera aquilonis/dilatata complex grows. Another treat of this field trip was seeing the surprisingly diminutive Platanthera chorisiana growing sparsely in this habitat. A few Listera species and other Platanthera species were spread along the trail leading to the marshy areas.

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Stewart: SUMMARY OF 5TH CONFERENCE Empiricist: MEMORIES OF PAST CONFERENCES Acknowledgements – I am grateful to Paul Martin Brown for allowing me to participate in the conference. I also thank Lawrence Zettler (The Illinois College) and Michelle Stewart for their helpful critiques.

Scott Stewart is a senior undergraduate student at The Illinois College, Jacksonville, IL, majoring in biology and chemistry. He has been interested in native orchids and their mycorrhizae for two years and plans to attend graduate school in botany or mycology to continue work on North American native orchids.

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Platanthera chorisiana seen at Lake Elizabeth field trip on July 20, 2000

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SYMBIOTIC SEED GERMINATION OF THE FEDERALY THREATENED EASTERN PRAIRIE FRINGED ORCHID, (NUTTALL) LINDLEY, AND THREE HABENARIA SPECIES FROM FLORIDA
Scott Stewart In recent years, orchid habitats in populated states, such as Illinois and Florida, have been destroyed by development (Bowles, 1983; 1999). This has prompted efforts in habitat restoration by conservationists, and more recently, commercial developers have been required by law. For any of these efforts to be successful, one must understand the biotic components (e.g., vascular plants, pollinators, fungi, algae, etc.) of the habitats and their ecological interactions. One component involves the interaction of plants with soil fungi (mycorrhizae). Mycorrhizal fungi are associated with the roots of the more than 90% of vascular plants in a mutual symbiosis. When orchids form mycorrhizal associations, they consume their mycorrhizal fungi as a food source in a parasitic manner

PLATANTHERA LEUCOPHAEA

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and depend on such fungi to initiate seed germination and sustain their life cycles in nature. Orchids, therefore, have the ability to acquire nutrition through both photosynthesis and the parasitism of their mycorrhizal fungi (=mycotrophy) (Clements, 1989; Rasmussen, 1995), but have become dependant upon the fungal symbiont in the process. Thus, to successfully restore any orchid habitat, the introduction of the critically important mycorrhizal symbiont is of primary importance. One technique to facilitate this process involves growing orchids in the laboratory with mycorrhizal fungi (=symbiotic seed germination), followed by the transplantation of fungus-infected seedlings into the field (Zettler, 1997a). This technique promotes the orchid's survival in the natural habitat and enables established plants to spawn seedlings (Zettler, 1997a). In this paper I present a summary of the research conducted at The Illinois College aimed at propagating four species of native orchids from seed using fungi: Platanthera leucophaea, Habenaria repens, H. macroceratitis, and H. quinqueseta. The goal of this research is to make it possible for these orchids to be included in habitat restoration and conservation projects. When Dr. Lawrence Zettler contacted me about conducting undergraduate research, I never thought my first task would be to germinate seeds of the Federally threatened eastern prairie fringed orchid, Platanthera leucophaea, with fungi (Fig. 1). I knew nothing about the

Platanthera leucophaea (Nuttall) Lindley

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symbiotic technique and even less about orchids in general-in fact, I was an English major wanting to attend law school at the time-but Dr. Zettler felt inclined to include me in this study. Now, more than a year later, we have successfully germinated seeds of the species and are currently refining the technique used to obtain leaf-bearing seedlings. My first experiment with this orchid was, in retrospect, very simple. I was given two mycorrhizal fungus cultures, seeds of Platanthera leucophaea from two small populations in northern Illinois, and told to sow the seeds using the symbiotic technique described by Dixon (1987). Briefly, 25-300 seeds were placed on the surface of a 1 x 4 cm filter paper strip (Whatman No.4) with a wire inoculation loop, in a 9 cm diameter Petri plate containing 20 ml modified oats medium: 2.5 g rolled oats, 7.0 g agar per liter of DI water (Zettler and Hofer, 1998). For months, nothing happened. I would leave the lab each day completely frustrated because the seeds of this Federally threatened orchid were failed to germinate. Any excitement I had about conducting undergraduate research or working with P. leucophaea quickly passed as the fungus cultures I used for the experiment overran the seeds, killing them in the process. Experiment number one was a failure, but we did learn a great deal from our shortcomings.

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Fig. 1 Platanthera leucophaea eastern prairie fringed orchis

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Almost as soon as my first experiment with Platanthera leucophaea was complete, I was planning the second phase of the experiment-I was detennined at this point. For the second experiment, Dr. Zettler allowed me to plan and conduct the procedure on my own. This was a huge step for me, since I still had very little research experience. The second experiment was designed around the idea that P. Iellcophaea seeds needed a physical stripping of the seed coat (=scarification). Seeds of the eastern prairie fringed orchid were to be soaked in a surface sterilization mixture containing absolute ethanol: 5.25% NaOCI (Chlorox~: DI water (1:1:1 v/v/v) for three different scarification times of 30 min., 1 hr., and 2 hrs. These varying times were to strip either the seed coat and/or the lipid layer off the seeds, ideally increasing the percent of seed germination. Once again, the seeds were sown using the symbiotic technique outlined by Dixon (1987) and allowed to incubate for several months. After three months of checking for gennination and seeing nothing, gennination of P. Iellcophaea was finally achieved. However, this excitement faded as well as I began to collect gennination data and calculate percent gennination for the experiment; the gennination numbers were very low compared to other Platanthera species and not what we had desired. As Dr. Zettler and I realized that there must be another method to increase the percent gennination of this orchid, phase three of the P. Iellcophaea project was underway. Phase three of this project was to incorporate a technique suggested to us by Marlin Bowles and Karel

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Jacobs of The Morton Arboretum. This technique called for seeds of Platanthera leucophaea to be soaked in vials containing sterile DI water at 6° + 2° C in darkness for an extended period of time (=stratification). This procedure "fools" the seeds into a wintering mode, which is believed to help increase germination following this wintering time. As before, seeds were sown using the symbiotic method and allowed to incubate in darkness. After one month, some preliminary germination was evident, and every day after the one month that I checked the Petri plates, more development was evident. Once data collection was complete and I had calculated the final germination percentages, a drastic increase in germination rates became obvious (scarification max. =4.3%; stratification max. =67.4%). A seemingly reliable method of P. leucophaea symbiotic seed germination had been found. A problem existed though; while the germination percentages for the scarification experiment were consistently low, the percentages for stratification were variable (high = 67.4%; 10w=O.Oo/0). A consistent method of symbiotic germination was desirable order to obtain leaf-bearing seedlings. This is where the P. leucophaea project currently stands. Now that we know that prolonged exposure to both moisture and cold prompts germination in P. leucophaea, efforts are being directed at refining the cold/ moist stratification method in hopes of raising the percent germination. If these attempts are successful, we anticipate that leaf-bearing seedlings will be moved

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from in vitro laboratory conditions to ex vitro preserved or restored prairie habitats.

Habenaria repens Nuttall, H. macroceratitis (Willdenow) Luer, H. quinqueseta (Michaux) A.
Eaton While working with Platanthera leucophaea, I was also presented with an opportunity to work with a second related genus became available. Paul Martin Brown contacted Dr. Zettler about collecting root samples for mycorrhizal fungi isolation and seeds from the genus Habenaria native to Florida. Dr. Zettler saw this as an opportunity to not only expand the range of the ongoing orchid research into subtropical and aquatic orchids, but also as a chance for me to work with a leading authority on Florida orchids. Of course, I quickly accepted the offer to travel to Florida to conduct fieldwork with Paul Martin Brown, armed with the knowledge I had gained from working with P. leucophaea. The emphasis of this study was to incorporate as many Florida native Habenaria species as possible. Three seed sources were chosen from the four collected while I was in Florida: Habenaria repens, H. macroceratitis and H. quinqueseta. Dr. Zettler and I both felt that H. repens should be a focus of this study; not only is this orchid one of the only North American aquatic orchids, but its native habitat, the Florida wetlands, are facing the continued threat of destruction for commercial gain.

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Four unique mycorrhizal fungal isolates were also incorporated into this study. All four cultures were isolated from the root-like organs of native Florida orchids, three terrestrial (H. quinqueseta, H. macroceratitis and Spiranthes brevilabris) and one epiphytic (Epidendrum conopseum). These fungi were used in conjunction with the three seed sources using the standard symbiotic seed germination technique described previously. Throughout working with these Habenaria, Dr. Zettler continued to inform me that Florida orchids were like nothing I had seen to this point. Compared to northern orchids, the Florida orchids should grow like weeds. Of course, having only experience with the temperate northern orchids, I doubted this could be true and began planning phase two of the Habenaria study in preparation for the failure of the first experiment. My planning of phase two for this study was quickly halted, however. After only three weeks of incubation, germination of all three species had occurred. Germination after three weeks in any orchid is not uncommon, but unlike my previous attempts with P. leucophaea, these Habenaria species had very high germination percentages after the three-week incubation period. Not only were the high numbers impressive, but also so was the rapid development to the leafbearing stage. These Florida orchids were like nothing I had seen at that point.

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All three species (Habenaria repens, H. macroceratitis, H. quinqueseta) had germinated to some extent, but what was most astounding was the rapid development of H. repens seedlings (Fig. 2). Habenaria macroceratitis and H. quinqueseta had germinated at a maximum 50.8% and 18.10/0, respectively. While these percentages are good, outweighing any P. leucophaea germination percentage by far, the most impressive aspect of this study was the germination, development, and establishment on soil of 72 apparently mycotrophic, aquatic H. repens seedlings ex vitro in the Biology Department greenhouse. If this growth continues, we expect these seedlings to flower their first year. I had experienced germinating orchids before with P. leucophaea, but I had yet to achieve leaf-bearing seedlings. I enjoyed watching these H. repens seeds germinate with fungi, develop to leaf-bearing seedlings in vitro and then survive in the greenhouse ex vitro (Fig. 3). Besides the accomplishment of moving these seedlings outside a sterile environment, the route that produced these seedlings warrants attention. While the study utilized two fungal isolates from the genus Habenaria, along with two from other orchids, the leafbearing seedlings of H. repens were not achieved using either isolate from the Habenaria. Two isolates, one from Spiranthes brevilabris and one from Epidendrum conopseum, established these seedlings on soil at very rapid rate (83 days). This surprised both Dr. Zettler and myself; mycorrhizal fungi from one terrestrial and one epiphyte had germinated and developed an aquatic orchid in 83 days.

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This symbiotic seed germination study demonstrated several points. This is the first report of the germination of any Florida Habenaria and of a native North American aquatic orchid using symbiotic techniques. As with P. leucophaea, several other terrestrial orchids, and now the genus Habenaria native to Florida, symbiotic seed germination further demonstrates its usefulness as a practical means of terrestrial orchid propagation. The symbiotic germination of H. repens with two fungal isolates from S. brevilabris and E. conopseum demonstrates non-specificity for mycorrhizae in this species. This ability to utilize a broad range of mycorrhizal symbionts could explain the wide geographical distribution of H. repens. Finally, the information gained from this study can conceivably be used in conservation, preservation, and restoration efforts in wetland orchid habitats. While our native orchids across the country face continuing threats from habitat destruction efforts are underway to protect and restore the existing habitats. One key to this effort is the understanding of the orchid life cycle and the role that mycorrhizal fungi play during seed germination and seedling development. With this knowledge, some of our beautiful native orchids may be not only saved and protected, but also introduced into restored habitats for future generations to enjoy.

Acknowledgements

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I am grateful to Paul Martin Brown (University of Florida) for allowing me to conduct fieldwork with him, and Marlin Bowles and Karel Jacobs (The Morton Arboretum) for supplying seeds of Platanthera leucophaea and helpful suggestions. Thanks are extended to Hillary Hudgens and Jagila Minso (The Illinois College) for technical assistance during both studies, to Dr. Elizabeth Rellinger (The Illinois College) and Michelle Stewart for their helpful critiques of this paper, and to Dr. Lawrence Zettler (The Illinois College) for his editorial comments and his motivation. Kind thanks are extended to The Illinois College administration and Dr. Elaine Chapman (The Illinois College Biology Department) for financial assistance and support. References Anderson, A. B. 1991. Symbiotic and asymbiotic germination and growth of Spiranthes magnicamporum (Orchidaceae). Lindleyana, 6(4): 183-186. _____. 1996. The reintroduction of Platanthera ciliaris in Canada. In: C. Allen (Ed.), Proceedings of the North American Native Terrestrial Orchid-Propagation and Production Conference National Arboretum, Washington, D.C., pp. 73-76. Arditti, J. 1966. Orchids. Scientific American, 214: 70-78. Bowles, M. L. 1983. The tallgrass prairie orchids Platanthera leucophaea and Cypripedium candidum. Nat. Areas J., 3(4): 1437. _____. 1999. Eastern prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera leucophaea) Federal recovery plan. Dept. of the Interior, u. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Clements, M. A. 1989. Orchid mycorrhizal associations. Lindleyana, 3: 73-86. _____, and R. K Ellyard. 1979. The symbiotic germination of Australian terrestrial orchids. Am. Orchid Soc. Bull., 48: 810-816. _____, H. Muir, and P. J. Cribb. 1986. A preliminary report on the symbiotic germination of European terrestrial orchids. Kew Bull., 41: 437-445.

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Dixon, K 1987. Raising terrestrial orchids from seed. In: W. K Harris (Ed.), Modem Orchid Growing for Pleasure and Profit. Orchid Club of S. Australia, Inc. Adelaide, S. Australia, pp. 47-100. Rasmussen, H. N. 1995. Terrestrial Orchids From Seed to Mycotrophic Plant, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K Zettler, L. W. and T. M. McInnis, Jr. 1992. Propagation of Platanthera integrilabia (Correll) Luer, and endangered terrestrial orchid, through symbiotic seed germination. Lindleyana 7: 154-161. _____. 1997a. Orchid-fungal symbiosis and its value in conservation. McIlvaniea 13: 40-45. 1997b. Terrestrial orchid conservation by symbiotic seed germination: Techniques and perspectives. Selbyana. 18(2): 188-194. _____. and C. J. Hofer. 1998. Propagation of the little club spur orchid (Platanthera clavellata) by symbiotic seed germination, and its ecological implications. Env. Exper. Bot., 39(3): 189-195.

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Empiricist: MEMORIES OF PAST CONFERENCES Coleman: ORCHIDS AT A RANGE LIMIT IN ARIZONA AND NEW MEXICO

ORCHIDS AT A RANGE LIMIT IN ARIZONA AND NEW MEXICO
Ronald A. Coleman The orchid flora in the southwestern United States is amazingly diverse. Arizona boasts of twenty-six naturally occurring orchids in thirteen genera, and New Mexico has twenty-eight species in thirteen genera. Most species are in both states, but the combined orchid flora consists of 35 species in fourteen genera. Arizona has seven species and one genus not in New Mexico, and New Mexico has eight species and one genus not in Arizona. The southwestern states of Arizona and New Mexico are known for their spectacular beauty and the variety of their landscapes. The Grand Canyon and Carlsbad Caverns are here, as are the northern end of the Sonoran Desert, and the southern terminus of the Rocky Mountains. Less known, but equally impressive is the floral diversity of the southwest. This region interests students of North American native orchids because of its confluence of habitats and its rare and unusual plants. Think of Arizona and New Mexico as a great floral crossroad, with major influences converging from north and south. The northern influence comes via the Rocky Mountains. Even though the Rocky

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Mountains end in New Mexico, their floral signature extends into Arizona. A distribution map of some of our native orchids would show them in the extreme northern parts of the United States and in Canada, flowing south along the Rocky Mountains, and fanning out from the southern terminus of the Rocky Mountains into adjacent parts of New Mexico and Arizona. Equally important for our orchid flora and the proximity of Mexico and the abundance of plants more typical of the Mexican Sierra Madres and regions of Mexico even farther south. Because part of our flora is common with adjacent Mexico, we have several orchids that occur in Arizona, New Mexico, and a small corner of Texas, but nowhere else in the United States. Although the major influences on our orchid flora are from the north and south, to a lesser extent the California floristic province and the eastern United States are represented here. Most of our orchids are more common elsewhere, but Arizona has one endemic orchid, and one near endemic, known only from the Four Corners Region. Because this region is somewhat of an orchid melting pot, of the thirty-five native orchids, twentynine, or an amazing eighty-three percent, including the one endemic, are at a limit of their range, as shown in Table 1. Nine are at their northern limit,

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eleven their southern limit, and five their western limit. One orchid is at its southwestern limit; one at its southeastern limit; and one at its northwestern limit. Perhaps because they are at the limits of their range, many of our orchids are relatively rare here, though they may be more plentiful elsewhere.
Table 1 Orchids at Range Limit in Either Arizona or New Mexico Range Limit Northern Species Hexalectris revoluta, Malaxis corymbosa, M. porphyrea, M. soulei, M. tenuis, Platanthera limosa, P. brevifolia, Schiedeella arizonica, Stenorrhynchos michuacanum Calypso bulbosa, Corallorhiza trifida, Goodyera repens, Listera convallarioides, L. cordata, Platanthera aquilonis, P. huronensis, P. purpurascens, P. zothecina, Spiranthes romanzoffiana, Spiranthes magnicamporum Coeloglossum viride, Corallorhiza wisteriana, Hexalectris spicata var. spicata, H. spicata var. arizonica, H. warnockii Cypripedium parviflorum Piperia unalascensis Hexalectris nitida Spiranthes delitescens

Southern

Western

Southwestern Southeastern Northwestern Endemic to Arizona

Calypso bulbosa is one of the northern plants that reach their southern limit here due to the influence of the Rocky Mountains. The entire plant is barely 4 inches tall, but it more than makes up for its lack of size by abundance of beauty, aroma, and intricacy of design. It blooms in late May and early June in moderate shade of

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fir, pine and aspen forest, often within sight of melting snow banks. The flowers are so dainty that even along well traveled trails they are overlooked by most hikers. Cypripedium parviflorum var. pubescens, the large yellow lady’s-slipper, is at its southwestern limit here. Fewer than 50 plants remain in Arizona, but it is far more plentiful in New Mexico. The yellow lady’s slipper has the largest flower of our wild orchids. At nearly 4 inches, the flower alone is larger than the entire plant of some of its more diminutive brethren. The frog orchid, Coeloglossum viride, is at its western limit in the White Mountains of Arizona, but occurs in many places in New Mexico. Coeloglossum viride is the orchid with the fewest known occurrences in Arizona, and may be only an occasional visitor. It has the strange habit of blooming, and then disappearing for several years. Each of the thirty or more flowers on the stem is a delight, with shades of green, yellow, and pink. It takes a leap of imagination, but if you try, you can visualize a frog in the flower, with the lip forming its out-stretched legs, and the rest of the flower the other body parts. Several of the orchids that reach their northern limits in Arizona are very dependent on our summer monsoon rainy season. They don’t even appear above ground until after the summer rains begin. Most of these monsoon orchids are known in the United States only from Arizona and New Mexico and a few isolated spots in Texas.

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The largest of the monsoon orchids is Stenorrhynchos michuacanum, named for the Mexican State of Michoacan where it was first discovered. Within a week or so of the first summer rains, several broad shiny leaves will appear at the drip line of the junipers as the orchids emerge from dormancy. As the rainy season matures, perhaps one out of every twenty plants will send up a flower spike. When the rains end, the leaves fade and wither away, but the few flower spikes that survive foraging by deer and predation by insects continue to grow until early fall. Then, nearly totally camouflaged by the drying grasses that surround it, S. michuacanum opens its tubular flowers. Each of the ten to twenty flowers is green with green stripes, and nearly one-half inch across. The monsoon orchids include four members in the genus Malaxis, and all of them reach their northern limits in Arizona or New Mexico. Within the United States, three of these Malaxis are also in either Texas or New Mexico, but M. corymbosa, the Madrean adder’s mouth, grows only in Arizona. This tiny plant, which grows in damp places along streams and in mossy outcrops on canyon and hillsides, is one of the belly orchids. To see the flower in detail you must be prepared to plop down on your belly and use a hand lens. The entire plant fits within the outline of a single flower of the yellow lady’s slipper, and each of the thirty or more flowers arrayed in an umbrella-like spray is only about 3/16” long. The other three Malaxis here are M. soulei, M. tenuis and M. porphyrea.

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Another of the belly orchids is the intriguing Schiedeella arizonica, formally called S. parasitica, the fallen ladies'-tresses. This is one of the first orchids of spring. In late April to early May a slender leafless flower spike, barely 4” tall emerges from the pine litter. The absence of leaves led the discovers to assume the orchid was a parasite, living off some other plant. Many years later botanists realized that the orchid did produce leaves, but they did not appear until the start of the monsoons, and withered in the late fall. The creamy white flowers, highlighted with hints of rose, have a red spot in the center of the lip. Hexalectris means something like six crests, in reference to the raised ridges running down the center of the lip. All four Hexalectris in this region are at a range limit here. Two of our Hexalectris are very rare, not only in Arizona, but also across their entire range. The Texas purple spike, H. warnockii, has been found in only a few isolated oak lined canyon bottoms in three of Arizona’s southeastern mountain ranges. It is also found in Texas and Mexico, but Arizona is its northwestern limit. A frail, purple stem emerges from the oak litter duff about two weeks after the monsoons start, and the buds open from mid-August to early September. The bract protecting each of the four or five flowers is the same shade of purple as the stem, and so are the sepals and petals. The lip is mostly white except for seven wavy yellow ridges that terminate in a large purple dot at the tip.

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Hexalectris revoluta grows in the same habitat as H. warnockii, but the two have never been found together in Arizona. It also grows in Texas and Mexico, and is at its western limit here. Hexalectris revoluta is a recent addition to Arizona’s flora. The first plants were not discovered here until the 1980’s, and it was not correctly identified until the late 1990’s. The flower is instantly recognizable because of the revolute nature of the sepals and petals. The tips curl backwards more than 360 degrees, forming a complete circle. Hexalectris nitida is at its northwestern range limit in southern New Mexico, where it has been observed only once. Both H. spicata var. spicata and H. spicata var. arizonica are at their western limits here. Platanthera zothecina, the alcove orchid, occurs only in the states of the four corners region, and reaches its southern limit in Arizona. Platanthera zothecina was only recently described, and its total distribution is not known; it has not yet been documented in New Mexico for example, although it has been found in Arizona, Colorado, and Utah. Its most distinctive feature is the length of its spur-like nectary in relationship to the length of the lip. The spur is more than one and onehalf times as long as the lip, and its length suggests pollination by a moth or butterfly. Platanthera purpurascens, P. huronensis and P. aquilonis are at their southern limits here, and P. limosa and P. brevifolia are at northern limits.

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Spiranthes delitescens, the lone orchid endemic to Arizona, is listed as a Federally endangered plant. Known as the Canelo ladies’ tresses, it occurs only in four locations in Santa Cruz and Cochise Counties. It lives in permanently wet meadows or cienegas, an ecological niche rapidly disappearing from the southwest. Like many terrestrial orchids, S. delitescens is a fickle bloomer, with hundreds blooming one year, and only a handful the next. Habitat requirements and distribution patterns suggest several other orchids may eventually be added to the flora of Arizona and New Mexico, because their range limits are relatively close. Platanthera dilatata should be looked for in northern Arizona and New Mexico in suitable habitats near the Colorado, Utah and Nevada borders. Spiranthes diluvialis is in Utah, and may have followed waterways into northern Arizona. Platanthera obtusata grows in Colorado within ten miles of New Mexico, and should be sought at high elevations in the northern part of the state. The beautiful Dichromanthus cinnabarinus grows in the Chisos Mountains of west Texas, and identical habitat exists in Arizona and New Mexico. Any of these orchids would be a delightful addition to this part of the southwest, and would be at a range limit in these states.
Note: Some of this material was excerpted from the Author’s The Wild Orchids of Arizona and New Mexico, now in press. Ronald A. Coleman, 11520 E. Calle Del Valle, Tucson, AZ 857498865 ronorchid@aol.com

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ABOUT SOME EUROPEAN GENERA
Dietrich & Ursula Rueckbrodt Dear friends of native orchids, I am glad to talk to you about European native orchids. Many thanks to Paul Martin Brown, that this is possible today. When we, my husband and I, came to North America for the first time, we were surprised to see so many orchid species and also some orchid genera, which were new to us. I think it would be the same, if you will come to Europe. So I have selected only some characteristic genera with their characteristic species. North America Comparing North America and Europe North America with about 25 million km2 and 240 million inhabitants. Europe Europe with about 10 million km2 and 567 million inhabitants North America is covering 2½ times the area of Europe but has less then the half of the people of Europe. Both maps are showing the continents in the same scale. Now to the native orchids of Europe. The orchid family got its name from the genus Orchis, and I begin

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with this genus. Orchis is a Greek word and means testicle because of the 2 ovoid tubers. The type specimen of the genus Orchis is Orchis militaris so I am showing you this species first. Orchis militaris means Military Orchid. Both sepals and petals are forming a helmet - therefore the name. It occurs in Middle Europe in calcareous grasslands. The plant is about 25-45 cm high. There are 3-6 broad lanceolate leaves near the base. The lip looks a little like a person with arms and legs. The helmet is greyish pink with purple veins inside. The lip is white in the middle with reddish tufts of hair, the ends of the lobes are light to deep pink, the inflorescence with 10-40 flowers. The flowers are opening from bottom to top. Flowering season is April in the South to June in the North.

Orchis militaris L.

Orchis simia LAM.

Very closely related to the Military Orchid is the Monkey Orchid - Orchis simia. It is a little bit smaller and the terminal flowers open first - from top to bottom. The sepals are long-acuminate and the lobes of the lip are linear and narrower than the ones of the Military Orchid. The flowering period of both species is the same - April to June.

The Lady Orchis - Orchis purpurea is the tallest species of this group. It can grow up to 80 cm (about 32 inches). The flowers are forming a dense inflorescence. The helmets are brownish purple outside. The lip is whitish or pale rose with tufts of reddish purple papillae, the

Orchis purpurea HUDS.

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middle lobe is obcordate or ovate-cuneate. This species grows together with the former ones, and there are often hybrids.

Orchis italica POIR.

The wavy leafed Monkey Orchid - Orchis italica has its name from Italy. It is a Mediterranean plant. In Italy it is called ”naked man”. An important characteristic is their leaves with wavy edges.

Orchis punctulata also belongs to this group - the Punctate Orchid, which grows up to 70 cm (18 inch) with spikes up to 60 flowers. The color is yellow to brown. The plants are found in the eastern part of the Mediterranean region: in Turkey, Cyprus, Israel and eastwards to the Iran. The ‘feet’ are yellow to darkbrown. Orchis galilaea - the Galilean Orchid. It grows in the region of the Holy Land. The plant is more slender. The flowers open from top to bottom; they are yellow or red with narrow ”arms” and ”legs”. With this curious species I will finish this group of the genus Orchis.

Orchis punctulata LINDL.

Orchis galilaea (BORNM. & M. SCHULZE) SCHLTR.

Both belong to the genus Orchis, and both are growing in the eastern part of the Mediterranean region, the former one in Israel, the latter one in Greece. Both open their flowers from top to bottom. Sepals and petals do not form a close helmet.

Orchis israelitica H. BAUMANN & DAFNI Orchis boryi Rchb. fil.

Orchis mascula L.

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The Early Purple Orchid is probably the most common species of the genus Orchis with several subspecies. It is found in open woodlands or in moist grasslands. The lateral sepals are reflexed. The plants are 20-55 cm tall with many flowers - this spike has more than 30 flowers.

Orchis pallens L.

Orchis pallens is one of the few yellow species in the genus Orchis. It is closely related to Orchis mascula. The Pale-flowered Orchid is found in woods and meadows. It has a stout stem with 4-6 broadly lanceolate unspotted leaves and a dense spike.

These are 2 different but closely related species, growing in wet meadows. Orchis laxiflora has strongly reflexed lateral lobes; the middle lobe of the lip is absent or minute, thus having a distinct recess between the lateral lobes. The Marsh Orchid has a middle lob longer than the lateral lobes Orchis anatolica occurs in the eastern part of the Mediterranean region. The plants are slender, the spikes are lax with relatively large flowers. It grows in dry stony soil, sometimes in dense clusters.

Orchis laxiflora LAM.; Orchis palustris JACQ.

Orchis anatolica BOISS.

I think this is the most beautiful species of the genus Orchis. There are 2 subspecies: the Large Flowered Butterfly Orchid with its large lips with stripes, growing

Orchis papilionacea ssp. grandiflora; Orchis papilionacea ssp. heroica

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in the western part of the Mediterranean area; the Heroic Butterfly Orchid with stripes of dots on the lip.

Orchis langei K. RICHTER Dactylorhiza praetermissa (DRUCE) SOÓ

In the past both species belong to the genus Orchis. They have some different characteristics and there are no hybrids proved by science. Orchis has small membranous bracts, as you see on the left and undivided ovoid tubers; Dactylorhiza - on the right - has larger herbaceous bracts and divided tubers. At an international congress Soó - professor in Hungary proposed to put these plants to the genus Dactylorchis, but shortly after this he made many new combinations in Dactylorhiza.

Here the comparison of the tubers: undivided ovoid in the genus Orchis, divided in the genus Dactylorhiza. The latter comes from the Greek words finger (dachtilo) root (risa) On the right you see Dactylorhiza baltica, a nice group in the Baltic state of Estonia.

Dactylorhiza baltica (KLINGE) ORLOVA

Dactylorhiza elata (POIR.) SOÓ Dactylorhiza ericetorum (LINTON) AVER.

The genus Dactylorhiza is a very difficult and confusing genus. In addition the different species hybridize very easily. In some meadows it is difficult to find a specimen of the pure species - nearly all plants are hybrids. Here are 2 extremes: Dactylorhiza elata, the Tall Marsh Orchid. The other a very tiny plant from western Ireland near the coast: Dactylorhiza ericetorum, the Heath

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Spotted Orchid with only 4 cm in height, less than 2 inches.

Dactylorhiza maculata (L.) SOÓ

This is the Spotted Orchid from Scandinavia right: the spike from a plant from Germany.

Now 2 different species from Ireland: The Northern Marsh Orchid with rich reddish-purple flowers and the Dune Early Marsh Orchid with brickred flowers.

Dactylorhiza purpurella (STEPH.) SOÓ Dactylorhiza coccinea (PUGSL.) AVER.

Dactylorhiza foliosa (VERM.) SOÓ)

On the small island of Madeira in the Atlantic Ocean there is Dactylorhiza foliosa. It is a very beautiful species. In the garden of the ranger station about 800 m (2600 feet) over sea-level we took the photo on the left. The photo on the right shows the spike of a single plant.

Dactylorhiza praetermissa (DRUCE) SOÓ

These 2 photos we have taken in Great Britain in Southern Wales. This species is called the Southern Marsh Orchid, that means southern Great Britain.

Dactylorhiza cordigera (FRIES) SOÓ

The Heart-Shaped Orchid grows in Greece and Yugoslavia. The leaves are broad with dark spots, the lip is very broad heart-shaped.

Within the genus Dactylorhiza there is an interesting group of species that occur in 2 various colors - in yellow and in red - both growing together. This is the

Dactylorhiza romana (SEBAST.) SOÓ

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Roman Orchid, named after the Roman state. The left photo we made in Sicily the large island in southern Italy. The right photo shows a plant in Turkey. Sometimes such intermediate flowers appear in a population. Beside the 2 genera Orchis and Dactylorhiza there are some genera that are closely related to them. To the genus Barlia belong only 2 species. Here I show you Barlia metlesicsiana. This very colorful species is only known from the Canary island Tenerife. The other is Barlia robertiana and not so colorful, but it is wide spread in the Mediterranean area. Both are very robust plants with a dense spike. The lip is distinctly 3-lobed and the lateral lobes are crinkled at their outer edges. The genus Himantoglossum has very characteristic flowers. Sepals and petals are forming a hood, the lip is 3-lobed with a very elongated middle lobe that is divided at its end. The English name is Lizard Orchid. The Latin name comes from the Greek words (hiemas) = strap and the Greek word (glossa) = tongue.

Barlia metlesicsiana TESCHNER

Himantoglossum caprinum (BIEB.) SPRENG.

Himantoglossum formosum (STEV.) KOCH

This Himantoglossum is the Beautiful Lizard Orchid. The Latin word formosus means beautiful. This species is very rare. It is only known from the southeastern part of the Caucasus. Until 1994 no photo of this species existed or had been published. Finally in 1994 we rediscovered this species in Azerbaidjan

Comperia comperiana (STEV.) ASCHERS. &GRAEB.

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Comperia is a monotypic genus. The flowers are one of the important characteristics of this orchid of the eastern part of the Mediterranean area. It cannot be confused with any other Mediterranean orchid. The sepals are fused into a hood, only their tips are free. The lip is 3-lobed and the middle lobe is split into 2 very long segments up to 8 cm or more, (more than 3 inches). Now we are going from the Mediterranean area to the mountainous region of Europe. Nigritella means ‘Little Black’. This species mostly has a black-red spherical spike. Sometimes the color changes to red or yellowishred. The flowers are not resupinated, so the lip points upward. At its base the lip is more or less constricted.

Nigritella nigra (L.) RCHB. fil.

Here are 2 more different species of this genus. On the former the flowers are opened with a darker base becoming lighter at the top; on the latter the flowers are not opened. This is an apomictic species, and most species of this genus are apomictic. The above plants are growing in Austria.

Nigritella stiriaca (RECH.) TEPPN.&KLEIN Nigritella archiducis-joannis TEPPN.&KLEIN

Nigritella runei [TEPPN.&KLEIN] Nigritella lithopolitanica RAVNIK

Nigritella runei with a very characteristic color grows in Sweden, also an apomictic one. Nigritella lithopolitanica is a very nice plant. In bud the flowers are pink and becoming nearly white when fully opened.

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This rare saprophytic orchid cannot produce chlorophyll. It has a coral-like rhizome, no green leafs and the flower is not resupinated, so the lip points upward. On the lip there are longitudinal rugose reddish callosities. The spur is short and thick obtuse.

Epipogium aphyllum SW.

Neottia nidus -avis (L.) RICH.

An other saprophytic orchid is the Bird’s Nest Orchid. Its name comes from the form of the roots. All, stem and flowers are brown, but you can easily identify sepals, petals and the lip.

Also saprophytic is Cephalanthera austiniae here in the western United States, and we are very interested to see this species. In Europe and in the Near East there are 8 species to be found. We will show you 2 white flowering and 2 red flowering species. In woods of the southern slopes of the Caucasus and in northern Iran grows the beautiful Cephalanthera caucasica with a dense spike and broad green leaves reaching the spike. Cephalanthera longifolia has a more lax spike and long linear lanceolate spreading leaves. This species grows in most parts of Europe.

Cephalanthera caucasica KRÄNZL. Cephalanthera longifolia (L.) FRITSCH

Cephalanthera rubra (L.) RICH. Cephalanthera kurdica BORNM.

In Germany we call the species of this genus: ”little bird of the wood”, because they mostly occur in woods. The lateral sepals seem to be wings of a bird. Cephalanthera

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rubra is widespread in Europe, but Cephalanthera kurdica only grows in southern Turkey, northern Iraq and northwestern Iran. Cephalanthera kurdica has a long many-flowered spike and only some short green leaves.

Serapias cordigera L.

Serapis, the Egyptian god of fertility gave the name to this genus and the ancient physician of Greek called an orchid Serapis. The plants look very strange. All sepals and petals are forming a helmet. The flowers are crowded at the top of the stem. The lip is divided in an epichil and a hypochil, which looks like a tongue. This species is found in southern Europe from Spain, Italy, Greece to only a few points in southwestern Turkey.

Another species of this genus is Serapias neglecta. It is usually a smaller plant, the flowers are lighter and the bracts are longer than these of Serapias cordigera. This species occurs in large colonies, but its distribution is restricted to southern France, northern Italy, Corsica, Sardinia and southwestern Yugoslavia. It grows usually near the coast. Ophrys Now the last genus of European orchids I will show you. It is one of the most interesting and most strange ones of the family of Orchidaceae. The map shows the distribution of the genus. In Scandinavia there is found only one species. The greatest number of species and varieties is found around the Mediterranean lands. Ophrys flowers are spectacular in close-up, but they are remarkably easy to overlook. At the right hand side you

Serapias neglecta DE NOT.

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see our friend standing in a population of Ophrys plants. All the dark dots are Ophrys flowers. Ophrys insectifera, in Great Britain called Fly Orchid, is the type species of the genus Ophrys. This Ophrys species is widespread in Europe, also in the northern parts: Great Britain and Ireland, Norway and Sweden, through the Baltic States to Russia. The members of the genus Ophrys are clearly separated from the other orchids of Europe. The name Ophrys was created by Plinus the Elder, who has written 37 books with the title ”Naturalis historia” (Natural History). The name Ophrys means eyebrow, due to the brown color of the lip. Mostly the lips look insect-like, not only to us but also to the males of insects, which think there is sitting a female of its species, and so it wants to marry it. So the pollination happens.

Ophrys insectifera L.

Now 2 flowers of other Ophrys species: the Yellow Beeorchid and a form of the Cretan Bee-orchid. Between these 2 flowers there is a fundamental difference in pollination.

Ophrys lutea CAV. Ophrys ariadnae H. F. PAULUS

On the Yellow Bee-orchid the pollinator is sitting on the lip with its back to the ovary and to the column. The polliniums will be fixed at the back of the insect. In this

Ophrys lutea CAV. Ophrys ariadnae H. F. PAULUS

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way the pollination happens at all species of the group of Yellow Bee-orchid and the group of Dull Ophrys. On the lip at the right-hand side the insect is sitting with the head to the ovary and to the column. So the polliniums will be fixed at the head of the insect. At the back you see the copulation instrument of the insect groping to the appendage. Each Ophrys species has its own species of pollinator. The flowers produce a scent like the females of this species. Also hairs, humps and bumps on the lip are essential as a stimulus.

Here are 2 other different species of the group of Dull Ophrys. We have discovered and described them. They are late flowering species. The left one we discovered on the Greek island of Rhodes, the right one in southwestern Turkey. The flowering season is end of April to beginning of May. Other species of this group are blooming already in January, some other in February or March. They are blooming just at the time when their pollinator insects are coming out.

Ophrys attaviria RUECKBRODT & WENKER Ophrys phaseliana D. & U. RUECKBRODT

Ophrys omegaifera H. FLEISCHM. Ophrys atlantica MUNBY

Two more species of this group. Left: Ophrys omegaifera from the eastern Mediterranean region from Greece and southern Turkey. The flowers are relatively large with about 1 inch in length. This species has its name from the Greek letter ”Omega”, the last in the Greek alphabet.

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Ophrys atlantica from the western Mediterranean region from northwestern Africa and southern Spain.

Ophrys blitoperthoa H. GACKOphrys iricolor DESF.

F.

PAULUS

&

C.

This Yellow Bee-orchid is still stranger than the others the pollinator is a beetle and not a bee. At the right you see Ophrys iricolor, the Blue-colored or the Iris-colored Ophrys. The lip is about 1 inch long and its backside is mostly reddish.

An other very strange looking bee-orchid is the ”mirror orchid”, because the blue middle of the lip seems to be a mirror. This mirror is surrounded with long purple brown hairs. Very close related is Ophrys regis-ferdinandii, so called in honor to King Ferdinad 1st of Bulgaria. The sides of the lip are rolled vertically. The sepals are green with brown strips. The petals are dark purple brown velvety and often curved backward.

Ophrys speculum LINK Ophrys regis-ferdinandii (RENZ) BUTTLER

Ophrys holoserica (BURM.) W. GREUTER Ophrys apifera HUDS.

These 2 species are looking very similar: at the left the late spider-orchid Ophrys holoserica and at the right the bee-orchid Ophrys apifera. Both live in middle Europe, but they are rare. The flower at the left-hand side has an appendage, that is pointing forward. This plant needs an insect for pollination. At the right-hand side the appendage is pointing backward. Only very, very seldom the pollination will happen by an insect. In most cases the pollinium is curving out of the bursicle and curving

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down to the stigmatic surface. So this species is pollinating itself.

These 2 bee-orchids have nearly globose lips. At the left you see the Bumble Bee-orchid Ophrys bombyliflora. It is one of the smallest Ophrys specie in flower-shape and plant size. The lip is three-lobed and the side-lobes are strongly deflected. The species at the right got is name in honor to the German botanist Max Schulze and is called Ophrys schulzei. It is found from the eastern Mediterranean region to southwestern Iran.

Ophrys bombyliflora LINK Ophrys schulzei BORNM. & H. FLEISCHM.

Ophrys ferrum-equinum DESF. Ophrys aveyronensis (J. J. WOOD) DELFORGE

Here you see 2 beautiful looking species: Ophrys ferrumequinum - the Horse-shoe Orchid - growing from Greece to western Turkey. The lip is velvety-purple with a horse-shoe-like speculum. On the right you see Ophrys aveyronensis from southern France in the region of Aveyron.

The eastern part of the Mediterranean region seems to be the center of evolution of the genus Ophrys. These 2 species are growing in this region. Ophrys cilicica was described by SCHLECHTER in 1923 from a single dried plant. For a long time nobody knew, where this species was growing and how it looks. Finally in 1972 we found these plants in southeastern Turkey. As no specialist

Ophrys cilicica SCHLTR. Ophrys reinholdii H. FLEISCHM.

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could tell us what it might be, so we described it as Ophrys kurdica. Some years later it was identified as Ophrys cilicica. So we did not find a new species but have only rediscovered an old one. At the right-hand side the species was named in honor to the medical practitioner Mr. Reinhold as Ophrys reinholdii. The colors of the sepals vary from pink, to whitish-green or greenish-purple. The lip is three-lobed, the lateral lobes are strongly deflected. The color is velvety dark blackish-purple with 2 white spots or white surrounded spots. At the end of our talk we will show you one of the most beautiful and interesting species, Ophrys tenthredinifera or the Sawfly Orchid. It is a great experience to find such a nice group of plants. Every flower is a work of art of nature. The sepals are pink to white, just as the petals. The lip is yellow to brown or to green colored. The margins are very hairy, especially above the apical appendage. There is a tuft of rather long hairs. This was a short introduction in European and Mediterranean orchids. We think it was interesting to you, perhaps it was very strange. We hope that you are not too confused and perhaps you are interested to see some of these orchids by yourselves.
DIETRICH & URSULA RUECKBRODT EUROPARING 22 D-68623 LAMPERTHEIM GERMANY DU.Rueckbrodt@t-online.de

Ophrys tenthredinifera WILLD.

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RARE, THREATENED AND ENDANGED ORCHIDS IN NORTH AMERICA Part 3. Ohio - Wyoming
Anne B. Wagner, Ken Wagner, Paul Martin Brown In continuing the four-part article on the listed orchids in North America, the data accumulated by Anne & Ken Wagner for the remaining United States covering Ohio - Wyoming is presented. The fourth installment in December will cover Canada and also will include a summary and synonymy. Please remember in reading this information it is essential to know that each state or province has its own criteria and definitions of rare, threatened and endangered. Unfortunately personal opinions and priorities often color the makeup of these lists. We are trying to give references wherever possible for the plants that are listed. Some states update continually other as far apart as 10 years! Very few states afford legal protection to the plants. Websites are given and a contact person when known. The nomenclature used is as it was received from the various sources and often does not agree with contemporary usage. In the December Journal a

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complete list of cross-reference for the names will be given as well as a summary by species. If a given species is not listed for a given state or province it means that the status has not been determined - and that for any number of reasons. When available, the status within the state or province is given. Although abbreviations are not always consistent the following usually are reliable: (may be preceded by a S for state) E = Endangered S1 T = Threatened S2 R=Rare S3 SC= Special Concern S3 X= extirpated H = historical U = unknown For precise definitions and current status readers are encouraged to contact the sources listed for each state and province. OHIO Patricia Jones Data Services Administrator Division of Natural Areas & Preserves Ohio Department of Natural Resources (614) 265-6472 pat.jones@dnr.state.oh.us 1998-1999 Arethusa bulbosa E Calopogon tuberosus T

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Coeloglossum viride E Corallorhiza maculata P Corallorhiza trifida E Corallorhiza wisteriana T Cypripedium calceolus var. parviflorum - E Cypripedium calceolus var. pubescens -P Cypripedium candidum T Cypripedium reginae T Goodyera tesselata X Hexalectris spicata T Isotria medeoloides E, FT Listera cordata X Malaxis unifolia P Platanthera blephariglottis E Platanthera ciliaris T Platanthera flava P Platanthera grandiflora X Platanthera hookeri X Platanthera hyperborea X Platanthera leucophaea T, F T Platanthera orbiculata P Platanthera psycodes E Pogonia ophioglossoides T Spiranthes lucida P Spiranthes magnicamporum P Spiranthes ovalis P Spiranthes romanzoffiana T Triphora trianthophora T

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OKLAHOMA Platanthera leucophaea FT Platanthera praeclara FT NO STATE-LISTED SPECIES OREGON Cypripedium fasciculatum - List 1 (rare, threatened or endangered throughout range) Cypripedium parviflorum - List 2-ex (no current records from Oregon) Listera borealis - List 2 (threatened or endangered in Oregon but more common or stable elsewhere) Platanthera obtusata - List 2 Cypripedium californicum - Watch List Cypripedium montanum - Watch List Corallorhiza wisteriana - Review List PENNSYLVANIA Steve Grund Western Pennsylvania Conservancy/ Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory–Western Office 209 Fourth Ave Pittsburgh, PA 15222 Sgrund@paconserve.org Aplectrum hyemale Arethusa bulbosa Coeloglossum viride r e tu

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Corallorhiza wisteriana Cypripedium candidum Cypripedium parviflorum Cypripedium pubescens Cypripedium reginae Goodyera repens Goodyera tesselata Isotria medeoloides Listera australis Listera cordata Listera smallii Malaxis brachypoda Malaxis bayardii Platanthera blephariglottis Platanthera ciliaris Platanthera cristata Platanthera dilatata Platanthera hookeri Platanthera hyperborea Platanthera leucophaea Platanthera peramoena Spiranthes casei Spiranthes lucida Spiranthes magnicamporum Spiranthes ovalis Spiranthes romanzoffiana Spiranthes tuberosa Spiranthes vernalis Tipularia discolor Triphora trianthophora

tu x e n t n tu e e e e tu r n tu x e tu e x tu e n x e e tu e r e

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RHODE ISLAND Arethusa bulbosa Calopogon tuberosus C Coeloglossum viride var. virescens ST Corallorhiza maculata C Corallorhiza odontorhiza ST Corallorhiza trifida C Cypripedium calceolus var. pubescens ST Cypripedium calceolus var. parviflorum ST Orchis spectablis SE Isotria medeoloides FT Liparis liliifolia ST Liparis loeselii ST Listera cordata SH Malaxis unifolia SE Platanthera blephariglottis ST Platanthera ciliaris SE Platanthera flava var. herbiola SE Platanthera hookeri SE Platanthera hyperborea ST Platanthera orbiculata ST Platanthera orbiculata var. macrophylla ST Platanthera psycodes C Spiranthes lucida SH Spiranthes tuberosa SE Spiranthes vernalis C

SE

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SOUTH CAROLINA Extracted from “list_sc.html” in SC folder Last Update: 5/25/96 Name: Katherine Boyle, SCHP Arethusa bulbosa Calopogon barbatus Cypripedium pubescens Epidendrum conopseum Galearis spectabilis Habenaria quinqueseta Isotria medeoloides Liparis liliifolia Listera australis Listera smallii Platanthera integra Platanthera integrilabia Platanthera lacera Platanthera peramoena Ponthieva racemosa Pteroglossaspis ecristata Spiranthes laciniata Spiranthes longilabris Triphora trianthophora rc sc sc sc sc sc ft sc sc sc sc c2 sc rc sc c2 sc sc sc

SOUTH DAKOTA Extracted from “rareplants.htm” in SD folder Calypso bulbosa S3

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Corallorrhiza odontorhiza S1 Corallorrhiza trifida SU Cypripedium calceolus SU Cypripedium candidum S1 Epipactis gigantea S1 Liparis loeselii SU Listera convallarioides S1 Platanthera dilatata S2 Platanthera orbiculata S1 Platanthera praeclara SH LT Spiranthes cernua S2 Spiranthes magnicamporum SU Spiranthes vernalis S2 None have STATE ENDANGERED or THREATENED status. TENNESSEE Extracted from “Plantlist.doc” downloaded from web 28 APR 1998 Coeloglossum viride var. virescens E Corallorhiza maculata T Cypripedium acaule E-CE Cypripedium kentuckiense E Cypripedium reginae E Isotria medeoloides LT E Liparis loeselii E Listera australis E Listera smallii T Platanthera flava var flava S

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Platanthera flava var herbiola Platanthera grandiflora Platanthera integra Platanthera integrilabia Platanthera nivea Platanthera orbiculata Platanthera peramoena Platanthera psycodes Pogonia ophioglossoides Spiranthes lucida Spiranthes ochroleuca Spiranthes odorata TEXAS Cypripedium kentuckiense Hexalectris revoluta Hexalectris warnockii Spiranthes parksii NO STATUS GIVEN

T E E E E E-PT S T T T E-P E

FT

UTAH info extracted from "endemic.pdf" in UTAH folder Coeloglossum viride spp.bracteatum Cypripedium calceolus var. pubescens Cypripedium fasciculatum Listera borealis S1 S1 S1 S1 S1

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Listera cordata Lysiella obtusata Platanthera hyberborea var.gracilis Platanthera sparsiflora var.ensifolia Platanthera stricta Platanthera zothecina Spiranthes diluvialis

S1 S2 S3 S3 S2 S1 LT

VIRGINIA Extracted from plantXX.htm files inVA folder Arethusa bulbosa s1 Calopogon pallidus sh Calopogon tuberosus s2 Cleistes bifaria s1 Cleistes divaricata s1 Corallorhiza maculata var. occidentalis s1 Cypripedium candidum s1 Cypripedium kentuckiense s1 Cypripedium reginae s1 Isotria medeoloides s2 FT Liparis loeselii s2 Platanthera blephariglottis var conspicua s1 Platanthera grandiflora s1 Platanthera leucophaea s1 FT Platanthera peramoena s2 Spiranthes lucida s1 Spiranthes magnicamporum s1

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Spiranthes ochroleuca Triphora trianthophora VERMONT Aplectrum hyemale Arethusa bulbosa Calypso bulbosa Corallorhiza odontorhiza Cypripedium arietinum Isotria medeoloides Isotria verticillata Liparis liliifolia Listera auriculata Listera australis Malaxis brachypoda Platanthera flava Platanthera hookeri Triphora trianthophora

s1 s1

T T T T T E FT T T E E T T T T

WASHNGTON John Gamon, Acting Manager / Botanist Washington Natural Heritage Program Department of Natural Resources PO Box 47016 Olympia, WA 98504-7016 (360) 902-1661 Cephalanthera austiniae W

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Cypripedium fasciculatum Cypripedium montanum Cypripedium parviflorum Epipactis gigantea Liparis loeselii Listera borealis Platanthera chorisiana Platanthera obtusata Platanthera orbiculata Platanthera sparsiflora Spiranthes diluvialis Spiranthes porrifolia

T W E S E S T S W S E FT S

WEST VIRGINIA Extracted from plants.html downloaded from web. Calopogon tuberosus var. tuberosus Cleistes bifaria Coeloglossum viride var. virescens Corallorrhiza trifida Corallorrhiza wisteriana Cypripedium reginae Hexalectris spicata Liparis loeselii Listera cordata var. cordata Listera smallii Malaxis bayardii Platanthera psycodes Pogonia ophioglossoides S2 S1 S2 S1 S2 S1 S1 S2 S2 S2 S1 S1 S2

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Spiranthes lucida Spiranthes tuberosa Spiranthes vernalis Triphora trianthophora

SU S1 S1 S2

WISCONSIN From Wisc NHP Working List (Wisc_list10.htm in folder) Arethusa bulbosa SC Calypso bulbosa T Corallorrhiza odontorhiza SC Cypripedium arietinum T Cypripedium candidum T Cypripedium parviflorum SC Cypripedium reginae SC Goodyera oblongifolia SC Listera auriculata E Listera convallarioides T Malaxis brachypoda SC Platanthera dilatata SC Platanthera flava var herbiola T Platanthera hookeri SC Platanthera leucophaea LT END Platanthera orbiculata SC Spiranthes ovalis var erostellata SC Triphora trianthophora SC WYOMING

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www.uwyo.edu/wyndd Walt Fertig WYNDD botanist [Extracted from Wyoming Rare Plant Reference List(wyolist.htm) in Wyo Folder] Amerorchis rotundifolia Cypripedium fasciculatum Cypripedium montanum Epipactis gigantea Spiranthes diluvialis S1 S2 S1 S1 S1 FT

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Figure 1.

Govenia floridana Florida govenia photograph by C. A. Luer, Miami-Dade County, Florida November 1961

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RECENT TAXONOMIC AND DISTRIBUTIONAL NOTES FROM FLORIDA 7.

(ORCHIDACEAE), A NEW SPECIES ENDEMIC TO SOUTHERN FLORIDA, U.S.A.
Paul Martin Brown Plants from the genus Govenia were discovered in 1957 by Dr. Frank C. Craighead in a dense hammock in Everglades National Park. With the literature available at that time they were identified as Govenia utriculata (Swartz) Lindley (Correll, 1947; Greenwood, 1991). When Carlyle A. Luer (1972) was preparing his exhaustive work on the native orchids of Florida he noted that the Florida plants differed from typical G. utriculata in two critical characters: the petals were spotted rather than barred and the sheath was angular rather than inflated (Fig. 4). Nonetheless, Luer addressed the plants as G. utriculata and included photographs he took from the Craighead site as well as those of plants from the Bahamas and mixed them in both his photos and description.1 The destruction of native habitat by Hurricanes Donna in 1960 and eventually Andrew in 1991 resulted in both habitat
Luer (1972) plate 74, p. 245. nos. 1 & 2 = Govenia floridana; nos. 3 & 4 = G. utriculata.
1

GOVENIA FLORIDANA

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change and partial destruction of the hammock. In addition, Craighead felt that possibly plants had been removed by collectors for living collections. Apparently, only six herbarium specimens were taken. Searches of the original site in the late 1980's had failed to reveal any more plants and until 2000 the hammock was nearly impenetrable as a result of Hurricane Andrew. In 1990 a fruiting plant was reported by Ruben Saleuda from nearby Osteen Hammock and in 2000 four small, immature plants were seen by the author in Craighead's original site. No specimens were taken from either of these finds, although a photograph was deposited at USF of the Saleuda report. In a subsequent article Ed Greenwood (1991) meticulously compared the Florida specimen with Govenia utriculata and clearly demonstrated that they were not the same species. Because of the paucity of specimens and lack of living plant material, Greenwood felt strongly that the Florida plants must remain an unidentified species. Therefore the Florida Govenia could be known as Govenia sp. This became a very difficult situation from the standpoint of listing of endangered species in Florida and as far as protecting the plants other than by the general protection afforded by their presence in Everglades National Park. In preparation for the upcoming Flora of North America, Greenwood continued to attempt to solve the identity of the Florida Govenia and tentatively assigned it to Govenia alba A. Rich. & Gal. (Greenwood, pers. comm.). Eventually careful examination and

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comparison of the columns of the Florida material and the type of G. alba showed a significant difference (Fig. 3). This evidence, combined with the previous differences noted by Greenwood and Luer, is sufficient for describing the Florida plant as a new species. A summary of Greenwood & Luer's work is given in Appendix 1.

Govenia floridana P.M. Brown, sp. nov.
TYPE: UNITED STATES, Florida: Miami-Dade County2. Everglades National Park. Only 8 plants seen, 2 in flower. 22 Nov 1964, D.B. Ward 4354 [with] F.C. Craighead (Holotype: FLAS 88955a). Paratype: color photographs bottom right and left flowering plants showing distinctive plicate leaf and close-up of flower showing spotting on petals; November 1961, photos by F. C. Craighead, NA Nat. Orchid J. 6: 247. 2000; figs. 14. Govenia, gregis capitata, floribus pusillus, semi-aperta, alba, petala punctatus purpureus subtiliter in paginae interiore Govenia, of the capitata group, flowers small, partly open, white, petals finely spotted purple on the inner surface. PLANT: terrestrial, up to 50 cm tall from a subglobose corm of several internodes, 3-6 cm in length. ROOTS: few, from the lowest internodes of the new corm, long, slender, round, irregularly spreading. LEAVES: 2, from the uppermost nodes of the corm, petiolate, blades dark
2

Dade County became Miami-Dade County in November of 1998.

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green, soft, plicate, elliptical, 20-35 x 8-11 cm, articulated to the petioles, these from the topmost nodes of the corm, erect, fleshy, tubular, concentric. SHEATHS: 3, from the lower intermediate nodes of the corm, tubular, concentric, alternate, roughly 4-sided, 3 corners keeled, 10-20 cm long, successively longer upwards, 1.5-2 cm diameter; mottled maroon. INFLORESCENCE: lateral from an upper internode of the corm, usually between the inner sheath and the outer petiole, erect, stiff, round, 1-bracted, raceme of 515 small, white, not wide-opening flowers, petals finely spotted purple internally. FLORAL BRACT: green, lanceolate, 25 x 4 mm. OVARY: pedicellate, slender, white. DORSAL SEPAL: obovate, concave, 18 x 6 mm. LATERAL SEPALS: obovate, falcate, 15 x 5 mm. PETALS: obovate, falcate, oblique, 13 x 7 mm, with tiny flecks of purple on inner surface. LIP: arcuate, transversely concave, simple, 11 x 6 mm, white with 3-5 marginal purplish-brown spots, hinged to column-foot by a claw. COLUMN: arcuate, with a long column-foot, prominently winged, bright yellow, suffused and mottled with pink, the anther terminal, pollinarium 1 with 2 pairs of pollinia. CAPSULE: pendent, ellipsoid, 3-4 x .75-1 cm. Flowering period: November - December Etymology: named for the State of Florida Distribution: hardwood County, Florida. hammocks, Miami-Dade

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Brown: RECENT TAXONOMIC AND DISTRIBUTIONAL NOTES FROM FLORIDA 7. Govenia floridana

Additional specimens cited: United States: Florida, Miami-Dade County: Palma Vista Hammock, Everglades National Park; on new road near Palma Vista in deep shade. 1/12/57 F.C. Craighead s.n. (AMES 76835); P(alma) V(ista) II; 10 April 1960 F. C. Craighead s.n., (FTG 7873) Everglades National Park - Dade Co., 4/22/62 F. C. Craighead, s.n. (EVER 9087); Long Pine Key, Palma Vista Hammock, 10/21/62 F.C. Craighead, s.n. (EVER 9088); Very rare and local; Palma Vista Hammock #2, Long Pine Key, Everglades National Park, Fall 1963 F.C. Craighead 1467(FLAS 88955b). Govenia floridana is represented in herbaria by only the six above collections. All of the specimens are fragments. Craighead appears to have never collected an entire plant. The Ward collection (with Craighead) at FLAS is the only one with flowers and therefore was chosen for the holotype. The remaining Craighead collections are either leaves or fruiting stems. Govenia floridana is not only one of the rarest species (within any family) known in the United States, but one of the few endemics in Florida. It is unlikely that living plants or specimens have been overlooked elsewhere in the region, as they are large, distinctive plants both vegetatively and in flower. The fact that all Govenia plants from the Bahamas and Caribbean are Govenia utriculata and those plants from the United States are G. floridana supports the possibility that the Florida plants are endemic.
Appendix 1.

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Brown: RECENT TAXONOMIC AND DISTRIBUTIONAL NOTES FROM FLORIDA 7. Govenia floridana

From: Greenwood, E. 1991 AOS Bulletin 80(9): 867-869 (September 1991); reprinted in NANOJ 2:344-349. 1996. ………………The genus Govenia is unusual in the Orchidaceae in that plant or flower morphology is not a dependable basis for species determination. If the morphologies of two specimens are different, the species are very probably distinct, but if the morphologies are the same, the plants may still be of different species, in which case other characters have to be used by the taxonomist. I have emphasized this situation, and given an example of the confusion that it has caused, in another place (Greenwood, unpub.). Govenia utriculata has one outstanding character that has been emphasized by Swartz in his original description (Swartz, 1788) and by subsequent authors as definitive; the basal sheaths are much inflated. ………………. A negative feature goes with this one; although the longitudinal veins of the sheaths are slightly prominent, there are no keels. In the Florida Govenia the sheaths are not inflated. Instead, they form cylinders of subpolygonal cross-section, with keels at the corners. Luer (1972) emphasizes the four-sided shape in the text of his treatment. Flower colour patterns provide another character sometimes useful for distinguishing Govenia species. Luer (1972) states that the petals have “ --- tiny flecks of purple on inner surface--- “ and his drawing on the same page shows a pattern of small dots. The only herbarium sheet with flowers that I have located, FLAS 88955, has a note by the collector that the petals have internally a number of small spots of colour. However, the petals of G. utriculata are not spotted, but barred transversely with narrow, irregular magenta lines (Ackerman, personal communication). Differences so extreme do not occur within species of Govenia.

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• • • •

During 1987-1988 I examined with great care the Govenia holdings of several major herbaria (K, W, US, NY, TEX, LL, and MEXU), and for G. utriculata found highly important and interesting results: (1) All specimens so identifiable have inflated sheaths. (2) All such specimens are from the islands of the Caribbean and the Bahamas. (3) G. utriculata is the only Govenia species in that area.

(4) No specimens at all of G. utriculata could be found for any continental locality, although there were specimens incorrectly so labeled.

Paul Martin Brown Research Associate Florida Museum of Natural History University of Florida PO Box 117800, Gainesville, FL32611-7800 naorchid@aol.com Acknowledgements: Without the earlier observations, research and work of both Carlyle A. Luer, M.D. and, especially, Edward W. Greenwood, Govenia floridana could not be prepared for publication. I am indebted to both of them for permitting the generous use of their work in preparing this manuscript as well as extensive comments and suggestions from Ed Greenwood. I also thank the curators and managers of the following herbaria: AMES, FLAS, FTG, USF, and Everglades National Park; Robert Dressler for re-examining the flowers and K. Gandhi for assistance in citing the paratype.

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Brown: RECENT TAXONOMIC AND DISTRIBUTIONAL NOTES FROM FLORIDA 7. Govenia floridana

References: Correll, D. S. 1947. Revision of the genus Govenia. Lloydia 10: 218--278. Fawcett, W. and A.B. Rendle. 1910. Flora of Jamaica. 7 vols. London. Vol. 1, p. 113. Greenwood, E. W. 1981. Govenia in Mexico, an introductory note. Orquidea (Mex.) 8(1): 114-120. ______________1991. The Florida Govenia. Amer. Orch. Soc. Bull. 69: 867--869. Luer, C. A. 1972. The Native Orchids of Florida. Bronx, New York.

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Brown: RECENT TAXONOMIC AND DISTRIBUTIONAL NOTES FROM FLORIDA 7. Govenia floridana

Figure 2 Govenia floridana Florida Govenia drawn by Stan Folsom

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Brown: RECENT TAXONOMIC AND DISTRIBUTIONAL NOTES FROM FLORIDA 7. Govenia floridana

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LOOKING FORWARD
December 2000
PROCEEDINGS OF THE 5 ANNUAL NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE ORCHID CONFERENCE: Part 2 including:
th

The Genus Hexalectris An Update on Platanthera praeclara at Tolstoi, Manitoba Platanthera aquilonis Spiranthes parksii in Texas Species Pairs
RARE, THREATENED AND ENDANGERED ORCHIDS IN NORTH AMERICA - Part 4

and more…….

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Underwood: PLATANTHERA XVOSSII

PLATANTHERA XVOSSII FOUND IN
RHODE ISLAND
On August 5 Francis Underwood E-mailed me to report finding a curious plant of Platanthera clavellata that looked to him like the photo in Wild Orchids of the Northeastern United States of Platanthera xvossii. He attached photos (see color plate 2, p. 248) of the plant. Platanthera xvossii was described in 1983 by Fred Case as a hybrid of Platanthera clavellata and P. blephariglottis from a plant growing in Michigan (Case, F. W. 1983. Michigan
Botanist. 22: 141-144).

It is most easily recognized by it very long, tapered spur, larger ovate lip and whiter color that typical P. clavellata. Although the two parent species frequently occur nearby or together, the hybrid has been rarely reported. I do no think it is simply overlooked as I have searched many suitable areas for it over the past 20 years and never have seen it. On August 9, 2000 Stan Folsom and I drove down to East Greenwich, Rhode Island and Francis took me to the plant to confirm its identity.
PMB

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PRE-PUBLICATION ANNOUNCEMENT:

NATIVE ORCHIDS OF THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS
by Stanley L. Bentley
University of North Carolina Press 229 pages; extensive full color throughout large 8 X 10" format several newer taxa fully described

This long-awaited publication will be a handsome and informative addition to every native orchid lover's library. It is scheduled for release on October 23, 2000. A full review will appear in the December issue. Full ordering information is included with this issue of the Journal.

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2001 RENEWAL NOTICES
have been sent to all domestic subscribers. Canadian and Foreign notices are included with this issue. Your early renewal helps the Journal plan more effectively for 2001. 2001 promises several exciting articles including the March issue that will be devoted to a lengthy manuscript by Roger Hammer on the orchids of south Florida. Subscription rate remains the same at $26 per year.

244

Upon occasion a member will ask exactly how your $26 is spent. The following will summarize the expenses of the Journal. $26 domestic membership & subscription printing costs $12 ($3 per issue) color costs 8 (average $2 per issue) postage 4.84 (@ $1.21 per issue) office supplies 5 pro rated per membership incl. telephone (this is a fair approximation) total $29.84 This does not include electricity (which is part of our home expenses, and difficult to pull out, although it is considerable). All expenses over the $26 are borne by occasional gifts from members with their renewals and the balance made up by PMB. The additional membership costs for Canadian and foreign go towards the additional shipping costs. The target mailing date is always the 20th of the cover month, but occasionally delays do occur such as contributors not getting material to me in a timely manner, printer delays and personal time commitments. Please remember that I have no help in formatting, assembling and mailing the Journal. It takes 2-3 weeks after I receive it from the printer before it is ready to mail. Thank you for your continued support and patience. PMB

245

PUBLICATION ANNOUNCEMENT

NATIVE ORCHIDS OF OREGON
A new publication of the Oregon Orchid Society, Inc.
Text by Rick Burian, photos by Wilbur Bluhm

This neatly produced 40 page booklet covers all of the known species found in Oregon with a detailed descriptive and narrative text and 27 full color photographs. It includes an excellent glossary, basic information on what an orchid is and background on orchid taxonomy A limited number of copies remain from the conference and are available from the Alliance. $7 postpaid Send orders to: NANOA PO Box 772121, Ocala, FL 34477-2121 or e-mail your request to naorchid@aol.com

246

Color Plate 1- Brown: Govenia floridana

Govenia floridana Florida govenia

Photos by F. C. Craighead top: entire plants; note angled sheath Dec. 1959 bottom left: flowering plants showing distinctive plicate leaf Nov. 1961 bottom right: close-up showing spotting on petals

247

Color Plate 2 - Underwood; NANOC Platanthera xvossii (P. blephariglottis x clavellata) E. Greenwich, RI Aug. 2000 Photo by Francis Underwood

Two highlights of the 2000 conference Left: a yellow and white Piperia unalascensis Sequim, WA Right: Platanthera chorisiana Lake Elizabeth, Snoqualimie, WA

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