Application Note

Multiple Source Synchronization for MIMO
MG3700A

Vector Signal Generator

Multiple Source Synchronization for MIMO Anritsu September 2007 (1. – MIMO is pronounced “my-mo”.Application Note . and the test configuration techniques for a MIMO receiver.00) Slide 1 MG3700A-E-F-13 Introduction • This application note gives a brief description of the fundamentals of MIMO technology. MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 2 1 .

"Output" means the output from spatial channel (i.e. receiving antenna).Contents • MIMO Technology 4 • MIMO Receiver Test 11 • Synchronous Frequency on Common Reference Oscillator 13 • Synchronous Timing Alignment of Baseband Signal Generation 14 • Phase Synchronous RF Signal Generation 18 MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 3 MIMO Definitions Spatial channel • MIMO » Multiple Input Multiple Output Input Transmitter Output Receiver – Multiple transmitting and receiving antennas system • "Input" means the input to spatial channel (i. transmitting antenna).e. • SIMO » Single Input Multiple Output – Receiver diversity – Receiver beamforming Transmitter Receiver • MISO » Multiple Input Single Output – Transmitter diversity – Transmitter beamforming Transmitter Receiver • MIMO-MU » Multiple Input Multiple Output .Multiple User Transmitter Receiver Transmitter Receiver Transmitter Receiver MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 4 2 .

MIMO Concept • • • MIMO offers a higher transmission rate for the same bandwidth using spatial multiplexing with parallel data streams.16e – Mobile WiMAX • STC-MIMO (Matrix A option) • SM-MIMO (Matrix B option) (2×1 MISO) – Similar to transmit diversity technique STC: Space Time Coding SM: Spatial Multiplexing MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 6 3 .11n – Wi-Fi WLAN – Minimum two spatial streams Maximum four spatial streams • SDM-MIMO SDM: Spatial Division Multiplexing • BF-MIMO or SVD-MIMO (option) BF: Beamforming SVD: Singular Value Decomposition • STBC (option) (2×1 MISO) STBC: Space Time Block Coding – Similar to transmit diversity technique • IEEE802. Transmitter sends different data streams in parallel on same frequency from multiple antennas. Two spatial streams R bps Data Serial to Parallel Parallel to Serial 2 × R bps R bps MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 5 MIMO Practical Application • 3GPP – Release ’99 • WCDMA Transmit diversity (2×1 MISO) – STTD: Space Time Transmit Diversity – TSTD: Time Switched Transmit Diversity – Release 7 • HSPA+ – HSDPA-MIMO (28 Mbps) – Release 8 • LTE – MIMO-OFDMA • IEEE802. Receiver detects signals to separate spatial streams.

MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 8 4 . with directional radio emission patterns. using weighting-control of amplitude and phase for array antenna » Directivity control technique – Eigenbeam-SDM.SDM and SM • Spatial Division Multiplexing » Beamforming in desirer or null-steering in interferer. beamforming with Channel State Information (CSI) known to transmitter • Spatial Multiplexing » Integrating coding and error correction technologies into transmit and receive diversity technologies » Antennas decorrelation technique – Space-Time coding and Layered Space-Time coding SDM concept SM concept MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 7 SM/SDM and Diversity • SM/SDM Ch1 E C A h11 E Signal Detector Ch2 F D B 2 h1 Modulator Ch1 C A Higher transmission rate SM/SDM Modulator Ch2 F D B • Transmit Diversity Ch1 A Space Time Encoder -s2* B s1 A h1 h2 1 h22 Diversity Ch1 Space Time Decoder A Wider coverage and higher reliability due to higher fading tolerance Modulator Modulator Ch2 B s1* A s2 B h2 Ch2 B s* represents complex conjugate of s.

Basic Transmitter Model For WLAN. PSDU MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 10 5 . PSDU • SDM-MIMO Channel Encoder Puncturer NSS = NTX NTX Transmit antennas Frequency Interleaver Constellation Mapper IFFT Nc Subcarriers GI Insertion RF Chain Spatial Stream Parser NSS Spatial Streams Frequency Interleaver Constellation Mapper Baseband Clock & LO GI Insertion RF Chain IFFT • For WLAN. PSDU SVD-MIMO or BF-MIMO Puncturer Channel Encoder Spatial Stream Parser NSS Spatial Streams Puncturer Frequency Interleaver Frequency Interleaver Constellation Mapper Power setting per spatial stream Spatial Stream Power Ratios NSS ≤ NTX Nc Subcarriers Constellation Mapper Beam Steering Transformation per subcarrier IFFT GI Insertion RF Chain NTX Transmit antennas IFFT Baseband Clock & LO RF Chain GI Insertion MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 9 Basic Receiver Model RF Chain Time and LO & Baseband Frequency Synchronization Clock RF Chain Estimation and compensation GI Removal FFT GI Removal FFT MIMO Signal Detection for Subcarriers Constellation Demapper Constellation Demapper Channel Estimation Deinterleaver Spatial Stream Demultiplexer Deinterleaver Channel Decoder Soft decision Viterbi decoding For WLAN.

MIMO Receiver Test • Single source » Receiver testing starts with single channel tests using a single signal source. Signal source Receiver Spatial stream 1 B Spatial stream 2 MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 11 MIMO Receiver Test • Multiple source » Consider needs for the following: – Timing alignment of baseband signals because of different arrival time – Requirement for common local oscillator due to phase-coherence between signal generators Signal source Spatial stream 1 Spatial stream 2 Receiver MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 12 6 . Receiving antenna chains are tested separately. » Simulation of signal conditions is comparatively simple.

MG3700A I/Q Baseband Generator I Q I/Q Modulator IF RF t Clock 10 MHz Reference Oscillator MG3700A I/Q Baseband Generator Frequency Synthesizer Carrier Frequency Synthesizer LO Frequency Synthesizer ∆φ Same frequency I Q I/Q Modulator IF RF t Clock Frequency Synthesizer Reference Oscillator Carrier Frequency Synthesizer LO Frequency Synthesizer Oscillators not phase-locked Phase of one cannot be aligned with other MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 13 Synchronous Timing Alignment of Baseband Signal Generation • When two spatial streams on baseband generated simultaneously. t Spatial stream 1 MG3700A I/Q signals Spatial stream 2 Phase-coherence between RF signals t Spatial stream 1 t I/Q signals 1 t Spatial stream 2 t I/Q signals 2 t MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 14 7 . » 2×1 MISO One MG3700A unit provides phase-coherence between RF signals at zero delay time setting.Synchronous Frequency on Common Reference Oscillator • Common 10 MHz reference signal for multiple signal generators allows synchronization of each generating frequency.

10 MHz MG3700A #1 Spatial stream 1 t I/Q signals MG3700A #2 Spatial stream 2 t Spatial stream 2 Spatial stream 1 t I/Q signals 1 t ∆φ t I/Q signals 2 t Trigger Generator Start trigger MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 16 8 . t Spatial stream 1 MG3700A I/Q signals Spatial stream 2 Phase-coherence between RF signals RF phase is supposed to delay. t Spatial stream 2 t Spatial stream 1 t I/Q signals 1 t Delay I/Q signals 2 t MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 15 Synchronous Timing Alignment of Baseband Signal Generation • When two spatial streams on RF generated simultaneously.Synchronous Timing Alignment of Baseband Signal Generation • When two spatial streams on baseband generated with time difference. » 2×1 MISO One MG3700A unit cannot provide correlation with RF delay at any delay time setting. » 2×2 MIMO Multiple MG3700As cannot provide phase-coherence between RF signals.

fs 100 MHz. ∆t 10 ns) MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 17 Phase Synchronous RF Signal Generation • The phase between the RF signals can be precisely adjusted using the MG3700A Phase Adjust function. 10 MHz MG3700A #1 Spatial stream 1 t I/Q signals MG3700A #2 Spatial stream 2 t Spatial stream 2 Spatial stream 1 t I/Q signals 1 t ∆φ → 0 t I/Q signals 2 t Trigger Generator Start trigger MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 18 9 .Synchronous Timing Alignment of Baseband Signal Generation • The two separate baseband clock for each of MG3700A I/Q baseband generator do not be phase-locked. – This phase adjustment is lost if the frequency is changed. MG3700A I/Q Baseband Generator 20 k to 20 MHz Baseband Memory Fs Interpolator 80 M to 160 MHz fs Interpolator D/A Module 200 M to 400 MHz DAC I/Q Passing >20 M to 160 MHz >20 M to 160 MHz Start trigger input captured by fs clock Trigger Generator Start trigger MG3700A #1 fs clock Asynchronous sampling clock MG3700A #1 I/Q MG3700A #2 fs clock MG3700A #2 I/Q Maximum timing error ∆t 1/fs sec (e.g.

Technique for Calibrating RF Signal Phase Example of oscilloscope display 10 MHz MG3700A #1 →t Frequency ƒc Suitable output level for mixer spec.1 Hz (0.01 Hz) Suitable output level for measuring voltage Modulation Off Change MG3700A #2 frequency from ƒc + 0.1 Hz (or + 0. MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 19 Technique for Calibrating RF Signal Phase Example of oscilloscope display 10 MHz MG3700A #1 (degrees) →° Frequency ƒc Suitable output level for mixer spec.01 Hz) to ƒc here. Modulation Off LO RF MG3700A #2 IF 0. Modulation Off LO RF MG3700A #2 IF DC Voltmeter or Oscilloscope Frequency ƒc Suitable output level for measuring voltage Modulation Off 0° (0 rad) 90° (π/2 rad) 180° (π rad) -90° (3π/2 rad) MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 20 10 .1 Hz (or + 0.01 Hz) Voltmeter or Oscilloscope 10 sec (100 sec) Frequency ƒc + 0.

8 GHz • 3 GHz for 3 GHz RF unit. the phase difference change is lower. • The difference in phase between two MG3700A RF outputs is measured to check performance.Phase Stability and Repeatability • Temperature affects phase drift of the MG3700A RF output.8 GHz for 6 GHz RF unit (Option) » Temperature 25 ± 2°C • 25°C → 27°C → 23°C → 25°C MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 21 Measured Phase difference at 3 GHz 90 60 Phase Difference [deg] 25℃ 27℃ 23℃ 25℃ 30 0 -30 -60 -90 0 5 10 Elapsed Time [hours] Slide 22 15 20 MG3700A-E-F-13 11 . » Output frequency 3 GHz and 5. and 5. » If all MG3700A temperature changes are the same.

8 GHz 90 25℃ 60 27℃ 23℃ 25℃ Phase Difference [deg] 30 0 -30 -60 -90 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Elapsed Time [hour] MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 23 12 .Measured Phase difference at 5.

• India • U.p. The Comtech (Lobby A) Singapore 118502 Phone: +65-6282-2400 Fax: +65-6282-2533 7F. 1 Science Museum Road. Ltd. Phone: +44-1582-433200 Fax: +44-1582-731303 • France Edificio Veganova Avda de la Vega. Kowloon. Atsugi-shi.1 Andar 01327-010-Paraiso-São Paulo-Brazil Phone: +55-11-3283-2511 Fax: +55-11-3288-6940 Kirkebjerg Allé 90.R. 7th Floor Dubai. No.S. FI-01530 VANTAA. Kanagawa.R. Tsim Sha Tsui East.K. Suit 701. 5. U. France Phone: +33-1-60-92-15-50 Fax: +33-1-64-46-10-65 • Germany Anritsu GmbH P O Box 500413 .. 200 Capability Green. Bangalore 560 001. LU1 3LU. No. Suite 100. Korea Phone: +82-2-553-6603 Fax: +82-2-553-6604 • Australia Anritsu Pty.Specifications are subject to change without notice. No. Praca Amadeu Amaral. Dubai Liaison Office 8F Hyunjuk Building. Taipei 114. 243-8555 Japan Phone: +81-46-223-1111 Fax: +81-46-296-1264 • Italy Anritsu S. Konrad-Zuse-Platz 1 81829 München. MG3700A-E-F-13-(1. Oficina de Representación en España Room 1515. Esteem Red Cross Bhavan. Dong-San-Huan Bei Road. Greenfield Tower. India Phone: +91-80-32944707 Fax: +91-80-22356648 Borgafjordsgatan 13. 700 Silver Seven Road. Via Elio Vittorini 129. S-3. Yeoksam Dong. Australia Phone: +61-3-9558-8177 Fax: +61-3-9558-8255 • Taiwan Nemetschek Haus. Race Course Road. 164 40 KISTA.A. Anritsu EMEA Ltd. U. Sec. n˚ 1 (edf 8. Anritsu Pte. Ltd. 27 .Dubai Internet City Al Thuraya Building.A. Ltd. China (Hong Kong) Anritsu Company Ltd. DK-2605 Brøndby.A. Bedfordshire. United Arab Emirates Phone: +971-4-3670352 Fax: +971-4-3688460 Unit 21/270 Ferntree Gully Road. Ontario K2V 1C3. No.972-644-1777 Fax: +1-972-671-1877 Anritsu AB Unit No. Seoul. Luton.K. 26. Concordia Plaza. 1. Notting Hill. Sweden Phone: +46-8-534-707-00 Fax: +46-8-534-707-30 • P. Spain Phone: +34-914905761 Fax: +34-914905762 Anritsu Corporation. TX 75081. Suite 120.S. Beijing Representative Office Anritsu Eletrônica Ltda. Hong Kong Phone: +852-2301-4980 Fax: +852-2301-3545 • Brazil • Denmark • Spain • P. pl 1. 135-080. Kangnam-ku. Victoria 3168. Denmark Phone: +45-72112200 Fax: +45-72112210 • U. Toll Free: 1-800-267-4878 Phone: +1. Kanata. 832-41. Beijing Fortune Building. Canada Phone: +1-613-591-2003 Fax: +1-613-591-1006 Teknobulevardi 3-5. 60 Alexandra Terrace. Taiwan Phone: +886-2-8751-1816 Fax: +886-2-8751-1817 Please Contact: 070801 Printed on 70% Recycled Paper No. 316. of 8) 28108 ALCOBENDAS . India Branch Office Anritsu Company • Sweden • Finland 1155 East Collins Blvd. Anritsu Corporation 5-1-1 Onna.00) Printed in Japan 2007-9 AKD . 16/18 avenue du Québec-SILIC 720 91961 COURTABOEUF CEDEX. Beijing 10004. 28th Floor. China Phone: +86-10-6590-9230 Fax: +86-10-6590-9235 • Korea Anritsu EMEA Ltd. Tower 1. China (Beijing) Anritsu A/S Anritsu Company Ltd. Neihu Rd. • Canada Anritsu AB Anritsu Electronics Ltd.A. Italy Phone: +39-6-509-9711 Fax: +39-6-502-2425 Anritsu Pte. • United Arab Emirates Anritsu EMEA Ltd. 00144 Roma. Anritsu S. P..Madrid. Germany Phone: +49-89-442308-0 Fax: +49-89-442308-55 • Singapore Anritsu Company Inc. Finland Phone: +358-20-741-8100 Fax: +358-20-741-8111 Units 4 & 5. Richardson. Chao-Yang District.R. Second Floor. #02-08. Ltd.