edu/res rch/citmanage/apa
APA Citation Style APA citation style refers to the rules and conventions established by the American Psychological Association for documenting sources used in a research paper. APA style requires both in-text citations and a reference list. For every in-text citation there should be a full citation in the reference list and vice versa. The examples of APA styles and formats listed on this page include many of the most common types of sources used in academic research. For additional examples and more detailed information about APA citation style, refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association and the APA Style Guide to Electronic References. Also, for automatic generation of citations in appropriate citation style, use a bibliographic citation management program such as Refworks or EndNote. You can find more information on this in our Citation Management page. Reference Citations in Text In APA style, in-text citations are placed within sentences and paragraphs so that it is clear what information is being quoted or paraphrased and whose information is being cited. Examples: Works by a single author The last name of the author and the year of publication are inserted in the text at the appropriate point. from theory on bounded rationality (Simon, 1945)

In parenthetical material join the names with an ampersand (&). Kahneman. (1991) found Works by associations. The names of groups that serve as authors (corporate authors) are usually written out each time they appear in a text reference. include only the surname of the first author followed by "et al. 2007) When appropriate. four. Simon (1945) posited that Works by multiple authors When a work has two authors. The general rule for abbreviating in this . and Thaler (1991) found In all subsequent citations per paragraph. as has been shown (Leiter & Maslach. (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH]. 1998) In the narrative text.If the name of the author or the date appear as part of the narrative." (Latin for "and others") and the year of publication. join the names with the word "and. government agencies. cite only missing information in parentheses." as Leiter and Maslach (1998) demonstrated When a work has three. or five authors. the names of some corporate authors are spelled out in the first reference and abbreviated in all subsequent citations. Knetsch. always cite both names every time the reference occurs in the text. etc. corporations. cite all authors the first time the reference occurs. Kahneman et al.

(Stigter & Das. brochure. capitalizing each word. on climate change ("Climate and Weather. chapter. . 218). on climate change (Anonymous. include the page. p. from the hands of philosophers" (p. or Web page. etc. 2007) Works with no author When a work has no author. 2008) Specific parts of a source To cite a specific part of a source (always necessary for quotations). periodical.. (NIMH." 1997) Guide to Agricultural Meteorological Practices (1981) Anonymous authors should be listed as such followed by a comma and the date. or report. chapter of a book. use the first two or three words of the work's title (omitting any initial articles) as your text reference. 1981. 96) De Waal (1996) overstated the case when he asserted that "we seem to be reaching .manner is to supply enough information in the text citation for a reader to locate its source in the Reference List without difficulty. (with appropriate abbreviations) in the in-text citation. Italicize the title if it refers to a book.. Place the title in quotation marks if it refers to an article.

These abbreviations are also used to designate pages in encyclopedia articles and chapters from edited books. Two additional pieces of information should be included for works accessed online. • Titles: Capitalize only the first word of a title or subtitle. Italics*: It is appropriate to use italics instead of underlining for titles of books and journals." or the heading and following paragraph.If page numbers are not included in electronic sources (such as Web-based journals). or pp. • Authors: Write out the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work. to designate page numbers of articles from periodicals that do not use volume numbers. M. & Jones. Order: Entries should be arranged in alphabetical order by authors' last names. and all subsequent lines are indented (5 to 7 spaces) to form a "hanging indent". Use an ampersand (&) instead of the word "and" when listing multiple authors of a single work.g. This list provides the information necessary to identify and retrieve each source. 9) Reference List References cited in the text of a research paper must appear in a Reference List or bibliography. and any proper names that are part of a title. J. e. D. especially newspapers. • Pagination: Use the abbreviation p. • Indentation*: The first line of the entry is flush with the left margin. • Underlining vs.. 2008 para. (Mönnich & Spiering. Sources without authors are arranged alphabetically by title within the same list. • • Internet Address**: A stable Internet address should be included and should direct the reader as close as possible to . Smith. provide the paragraph number preceded by the abbreviation "para.

(2008). and page numbers. However. If the URL is not stable.08. doi:10. journal title. G. refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. article title. ** See the APA Style Guide to Electronic References for information on how to format URLs that take up more than one line. magazines. use a stable URL.the actual work.Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. Examples: Articles in journals. date of publication. 105(2). 221-232. volume number. If there is no DOI or similar handle. one author. the date within the main body of the citation is enough. If the work has a digital object identifier (DOI).2007. include the date that you retrieved the information. if the work is not dated and/or is subject to change. issue number (if applicable). use the home page of the site you retrieved the work from. as in the case of a journal article.obhdp. accessed online Ku. • Date: If the work is a finalized version published and dated.002 . as in the case of an online encyclopedia article. or consult with your instructors or editors to determine their style preferences. use this.1016/j. as is often the case with online newspapers and some subscription-based databases. For more detailed information on these publication standards. Learning to de-escalate: The effects of regret in escalation of commitment. * The APA has special formatting standards for the use of indentation and italics in manuscripts or papers that will be typeset or submitted for official publication. Journal article. and newspapers References to periodical articles must include the following elements: author(s).

59(4). 286-295.1045/july2008-hirtle Journal article from a subscription database (no DOI) . and the difficulty of determining copyright status.9293. M. Hogan. D.. B. doi:10.286 Journal article. accessed online Van Vugt.182 Article from an Internet-only journal Hirtle. 14(7/8). July-August). more than two authors. doi:10.4. (2008.59. 182-196. Leadership. accessed online Sanchez. E. R. B. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research. Addressing disparities consultation and outreach strategies for university settings. P.. D-Lib Magazine. 63(3).63. doi:10.Journal article. (2007). & Kaiser. & King-Toler.3. (2008).1037/1065.. Copyright renewal. copyright restoration. and evolution: Some lessons from the past. R. two authors.1037/0003-066X. followership. American Psychologist.

Books References to an entire book must include the following elements: author(s) or editor(s). Thailand pitches OPEC-style rice cartel. (2008. May 5). January 28). 73-79. July 21). Microsoft ends pursuit of Yahoo. Newspaper article. J. . (2008. date of publication. 54-60.. in print As prices surge. title. in print Delaney. Newspaper article. K. (2008. G. A. Retrieved from http://search. Retrieved from Business Source Complete. The Wall Street Journal. EBSCO. A1. discontinuous pages. R. Fortune. The Wall Street Journal. 171(4). in print Kluger.ebscohost. May 5). J. place of publication.. M. Karnitschnig. pp. reassesses its online options. no author. (2008. and the name of the publisher. Magazine article. p. Time. multiple authors. & Guth. Why we love.Colvin. A12. Information worth billions. 158(2).

). Springfield. Brown & Company.pdf Edited book . Retrieved fromhttp://www. & Bernanke.ausstats. (1981). Tasmanian year book 2000 (No. H. Corporate author. (2003). Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. B. T. accessed online Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian Capital Territory: Author. Principles of macroeconomics (3rd ed. R.No Author or editor. Canberra.. in print Kidder. Boston: Little.Webster. nsf/0/CA2568710006989..). (2000). One (2007). in print Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (11th ed. Two authors. in print Frank. The soul of a new machine.$File/13016_2000. 1301. author as publisher. MA: Merriam.

Crossing boundaries in urban ecology: Pathways to sustainable cities(Doctoral dissertation). Children of color: Psychological interventions with culturally diverse youth. and institution (if you accessed the manuscript copy from the university collections). title. (2007). essay or chapter title. Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. R. date of publication. 327681) Essays or chapters in edited books References to an essay or chapter in an edited book must include the following elements: essay or chapter authors. One author . N. J. place of publication. & Huang. date of publication. T. Dissertation.Gibbs. accessed online Young. Dissertations References for dissertations should include the following elements: author. (Eds. F.. If there is a UMI number or a database accession number. essay or chapter page numbers. include it at the end of the citation. book title. L. (UMI No. and the name of the publisher. book editor(s). (2001).).

values. . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. & Adelman. The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians(2nd ed. (2003). title. Two editors Hammond. Encyclopedias or dictionaries and entries in an encyclopedia References for encyclopedias must include the following elements: author(s) or editor(s). Magrini (Ed. Body and voice: The construction of gender in flamenco. L. (1986). (2002). 6786). In T. K. J. and the name of the publisher. include the retrieval date as the entry may be edited over time. For sources accessed online. Science.. Chicago: University of Chicago Press..Labajo. and human judgment.. J. 1-29). In H. 127-143). Hammond (Eds. & Tyrrell. Vols. Music and gender: perspectives from the Mediterranean (pp.). date of publication.) Judgement and decision making: An interdisciplinary reader (pp. R. R. R.). Encyclopedia set or dictionary Sadie. place of publication. Arkes & K. S. (Eds. New York: Grove.

from http://search. T. 1.. and name of publisher. Washington. Department of Health and Human Services. In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 6. CA: Sage Publications. report number. pp. Research reports and papers References to a report must include the following elements: author(s). contract number. Government report. InEncyclopedia of Leadership (Vol. B.eb. include the URL. Walt (1901-1966): Founder of the Walt Disney Company. (2008). give that number in parentheses immediately after the title. Disney. date of publication. If the issuing organization assigned a number (e.g. 2008. If it was accessed online. OEI-05-05.Article from an online encyclopedia Encyclopedia article Kinni.S. title. accessed online U. or monograph number) to the report. place of publication. (2005). 345-349). Medicaid drug price comparisons: Average manufacturer price to published prices (OIG publication No. DC: Author. . (2004). Thousand Oaks.00240).

S. The lengthening of childhood (NBER Working Paper 14124). accessed online Deming. D. Program on Energy and Sustainable Development Web site: (2008).Retrieved from http://www. Effects of gasoline prices on driving behavior and vehicle markets: A CBO study (CBO Publication No. from http://www. Cambridge. DC: U. accessed online Congressional Budget Office. N.S. Retrieved from Stanford University. Government Printing Office. & Dynarski.pdf Government reports. GPO publisher. (2008). Retrieved July Document available on university program or department site Victor. Retrieved from http://www. (2008). Washington.pdf Technical and/or research reports. Gazprom: Gas giant under strain. M. MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.. 2883).

g. (Director/Producer).http://pesd.stanford. (Speaker). Abbott. location or place of production. mindfulness. T. If the medium is indicated as part of the retrieval ID. J. Boulder. (1998). (Producer) (2004). date. The corporation [DVD]. title. (Writer). M. CO: Sounds True Audio. & Simpson.. and meditation [Cassette Recording]. and name of the distributor. Canada: Big Picture Media Corporation. Mindful living: a collection of teachings on love. _under_strain/ Audio-visual media References to audio-visual media must include the following elements: name and function of the primary contributors (e. producer. Videocassette/DVD Achbar. Audio recording Nhat Hanh. Motion picture . (Director). the medium in brackets. brackets are not needed. director). Bakan. B.

(Executive Producers). blogs.. 60 Minutes [Television broadcast]. Beat it. (1999. and data ..Gilbert. Burbank. Television show from a series Whedon. DC: CBS News. (1982). (Producer). C. Washington. Music recording Jackson.. Kuzui. December 14). (1980). On Thriller [CD].. & Kuzui. Undated Web site content. M. R. K. (Director/Writer). & Morgan. G.. B. New York: Sony Music. Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Nine to five [Motion Picture]. & Higgins. June 20). (2008. C. Television broadcast Anderson. S. (Producers). Berman. United States: Twentieth Century Fox. J. (Screenwriter/Director). CA: Warner Bros. Gallin. In Whedon. J. Hush [Television series episode]. F..

For undated Professional Web site National Renewable Energy Laboratory. (2008). keep in mind the goal of a citation is to give the reader a clear path to the source material. books. title. Retrieved May 6. (2008.html Data set from a database Bloomberg L. Include the author. For electronic and online materials.For content that does not easily fit into categories such as journal papers. include the date the resource was accessed. (2008). Retrieved Dec. and reports.P. Biofuels. 2008. Message posted to http://www. August 5). Central Statistics Office of the Republic of Botswana.techcrunch. The viral video guy gets $1 million in funding. Return on capital for Hewitt Packard 12/31/90 to 09/30/08. 2008. from Bloomberg database.nrel. and date published when available. 3. Blog entry Arrington. (2008). Gross domestic product per capita 06/01/1994 to . include stable URL or database name. from http://www.

Available from CEIC Data database.06/01/2008 [statistics] no Reference List entry is required if the address for the site is cited in the text of your paper. . Witchcraft In Europe and America is a site that presents the full text of many essential works in the literature of witchcraft and demonology (http://www. Entire Web site When citing an entire Web site (and not a specific document on that site).psmedia.