Optical Communication

UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION TO OPTICAL FIBERS

1. What are the major components and addition components of optical fiber communication system? Major components-Transmitter ,receiver ,optical fiber link Addition components- connector, optical splice, optical coupler or beam splitter, optical amplifier, regenerator, repeater

2. What is the wavelength range of windows in spectrum of optical fiber? First window range is 800 nm to 900 nm Long wavelength regions range is 1100 nm to 1600 nm The two windows defined inside the long wavelength region are second window centered around 1310 nm &third window around 1550 nm.

3. Define wave front. Wave front is defined as locus of all points in the wave train which have the same phase. They are also called as phase front.

4. Define Geometrical optics. Large scale optics effect such as reflection & refraction can be analysed by the simple geometrical process of ray tracing .This view of optics is referred to as ray or geometrical optics.

5. When did the light waves said to be transverse? When the wave motion is perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels , the light waves said to be transverse.

thus causing the pulse to spread out in time as it travels along the fiber. variations in the refractive index 3. State law of reflection According to law of reflection . What is intermodal dispersion? The modes in a given optical pulse arrive at the fiber end at slightly different times . This power radiation out of the wave guide is due to tunnel effect.n2)/ n1 10. 7. asymmetrical lateral stresses 12. State any two function of cladding It reduces scattering losses which occur as a result of discontinuities in the core surface It prevents core from absorbing surface contaminants which comes in contact with core 11. 8. non circular core 2.6.the angle of which the incident ray makes with the interface is equal to the angle which the reflected ray makes with the same interface. What are the imperfections occur in the practical situation of the fiber? 1. What are leaky modes? Leaky modes are partially confined to the core region &attenuate continuously by radiating their power out of the core as they propagate along the fiber. Define critical angle. . This is intermodal dispersion or intermodal distortion. 9. What is the index difference for the graded index fiber? Index difference=n12-n22/2 n12=(n1. Critical angle is defined as the angle of incidence for which the refracted ray just traverses the interface between the 2 media .

What is the typical value of index difference for step index fiber? For single mode fiber-0. State the cutoff conditions of the fiber modes A mode is referred to as being cutoff when it is no longer bound to the core of the fiber . What is the basis of weakly guiding fiber approximation? In a typical step index fiber the difference between the indices of refraction of the core and cladding is very small . What is the mode field diameter? The fundamental parameter of single mode fiber is the mode field diameter (MFD). 18.2% to 1% For multimode fiber -1% to 3% 17. . 16. 14.This is the basis of weakly guiding fiber approximation . What is ray congruence? The wave front is made up of large number of plane waves. What is the useful feature of the LP modes designation ? The useful feature of the LP modes designation is the ability to readily visualize a mode. The family of plane waves is called as ray congruence 15. 19. longer decays on the outside of the core.so that its field no.13.This parameter can be determined from the mode field distribution of the fundamental LP01 modes. What is meridional rays? It is the ray which is move in straight line or moving by reflection.

LP=2 / 23. What is WKB method? WKB method is the most widely used analysis of modes in a graded index fiber named after Wenzel. Define V number V number of fiber indicates the number of possible propagation modes in the core. the two modes will beat at this point and the input polarization state will be reproduced. 3. 2. Kramers and Brillouin 22. 21.D=0 . thin flexible fibers from the material The material must be transparent at a particular wavelength in order for the fiber to guide light efficiently y Physically compatible materials having slightly different refractive indices for the core and cladding must be available.20. Write Maxwell¶s equation for a linear isotropic dielectric material 1.When this phase difference is an integral multiple of 2 . Vnum=(2 / )a*NA a is the radius of core. What is fiber beat length? If light is injected into the fiber so that both vertical and horizontal modes are excited then one will be decayed in phase relative to the other as they propagate . xE= -ðB/ðt x H=ðD/ðt . Give the requirements in selecting material for optical fibers y y It must be possible to made long. Define Birefringence The modes propagate with different phase velocities and the difference between their effective refractive indices is called as fiber birefringence. 24. 25. The length over which this beating occurs is the fiber beat length.

define attenuation? Signal attenuation is defined as the ratio of the optical output power from a fiber of length L to the optical input power . what are the other names for signal attenuation? Fiber loss & signal loss are the other names for signal attenuation. compositional fluctuations can occur.This is the function of wavelength. extrinsic absorption 3. 3. 9. . structural inhomogenities. intrinsic absorption 6.B=0 UNIT -2 1. what are the basic attenuation mechanisms? (i) absorption (ii) scattering (iii)radiation losses 4 . 2. defects due to manufacturing. 8 . 3. atomic defects. P2O5. = 10/L log (Pin/Pout) 5.give the reasons for scattering loss ? 1. microscopic variations in the material density. GeO2. What is macroscopic bending loss? The loss which occurs when a fiber cable turns a corner is known as macroscopic bending loss. what are the classification of absorption? 1. and from structural inhomogenities occurring during fiber manufacture. from compositional fluctuations. 2. 7. Attenuation is given by.4. reasons for occurrence of scattering losses? Scattering losses arise from microscopic variations in the material density. 2. what is atomic defects? Atomic defects are imperfections of the atomic structure of the fiber material such as missing molecules and high density crystals. b)since glass is made up of several oxides such as SiO2. . State the two effects which gives rise to refractive index variations which occur within the glass? a)glass is composed of a randomly connected network of molecules which contains regions in which the molecular density is either higher or lower than the average density in the glass.

What is microscopic bending loss? The loss which occurs due to the microscopic ends of the fiber axis that can arise when the fibers are incorporated into cables. Define effective cutoff wavelength.10. 3. high quality signal transfer. 18. 17. 4. 14. Mode coupling tends to average propagation delay associated with the modes thereby reduce intermadal dispersion. It is used for optical wavelength division multiplexing. What is group delay? When the light propagates along the fiber . It is the alternate method to reduce fiber dispersion by spreading the dispersion over a broader range . mode field diameter. What are the advantages of single mode fiber? 1. cutoff wavelength. bending loss. 4. How material dispersion occurs? Material dispersion occurs because the index of refraction varies as a function of the optical wavelength. and to undergo a time delay or group delay per unit length.define information capacity determination. dispersion. very low attenuation. 19.this is known as dispersion flattening . advantages of mode coupling. What is inter modal dispersion? Intermodal dispersion is a signal degradation which is a result of different values of the group delay for each individual mode at a single frequency.km. 15. 1. 2. large bandwidth. The effective cutoff wavelength is defined as the largest wavelength at which the order mode LP11 mode power relative to the fundamental LP01 mode power is reduced to 0. A measure of the information capacity of an optical waveguide is usually specified by the bandwidth ±distance product in MHz. 13. dispersion flattening fiber. 12.1 dB. 16. 3.each spectral component can be assumed to travel independently. 5. refractive index profile. long installation lifetime 2. 11 . . design optimization characters.

23. unreacted starting materials and crystallized regions in the glass. Define radiance or brightness . why losses of multimode fibers are higher than there of single mode fibers? The losses of multimode fibers are generally lesser than those of single mode fibers. intramodal distortion 22 .which arise from the variation of the refractive index of the core material as a function of wavelength.What are the main causes of intramodal dispersion? Material dispersion . . For indirect band gap materials the conduction band minimum and valence band minimum energy level occur at different values of momentum. Indirect band gap materials The recombination of an electron and hole is carried out by emission of a photon . 2. These defects may be in the form of trapped gas bubbles. intermodal distortion 2. What are the 2 types of distortion? 1. This is a result of higher dopant concentrations and the accompanying larger scattering loss due to greater compositional fluctuation in multimode fibers. UNIT -3 FIBER OPTICAL SOURCES 1. What are the different classifications of semiconductors ? 1. 25. Waveguide dispersion which occurs because a single mode fiber only confines about 80% of the optical power to the core.20.If the electrons and holes has the same momentum then it is called as direct band gap materials. What are the 2 types of dispersion flattening fiber? 1)double clad (or) w profile 2)quadrupole-clad profile 21. Direct band gap materials 2. define intermodal delay? Intermodal delay is a result of each mode having a different value of group velocity at a single frequency. 24. how structural inhomogenities are created & what are their forms? Structural inhomogenities are created during fiber and can also cause scattering of light out of the fiber.

This time delay is a factor limiting the band width with which the source is modulated directly by varying the injected current . Edge emitter consist of an active junction and two guiding layers .Radiance is a measure in watts of the optical power radiated in to a unit solid angle per unit area of the emitting surface . 0 =Rr/(Rr+Rnr) Rr ± radiative recombination rate per unit volume Rnr .the guiding layers have refractive index lower than the active region . Define emission response time Emission response time is define as the time delay between the application of current pulse at the optical junction . 4. High radiance output 2.Lasers use this technique for light emission . Surface emitter 2.High radiance are needed to couple high optical power levels into a fiber . 3. What is internal quantum efficiency ? Internal quantum efficiency is the fraction of electron hole pairs that recombine radiatively . 6. Which are the two basic LED configurations used for fiber ? 1. What is diffusion length and how it is related to bulk recombination life time? . What are the factors that an LED should have for useful fiber transmission applications? 1. Edge emitter For surface emitter the plane of active light emitting region is oriented perpendicular to the axis of the fiber . Fast emission response time 3. 7.Bulk recombination life time& r-radiative recombination lifetime 8. Define population inversion Stimulated emission of electrons occur only if the population of the excited states is greater than the ground state . High quantum efficiency .This condition is called population inversion . 5.non radiative recombination rate per unit volume 0= / r .

Ga or In) and group 5 elements (such as P. some will disappear by recombination. Define index guided lasers? . Define modes of a cavity The optical radiation within the cavity of a laser diode sets up a pattern of electric and magnetic field lines called modes of the cavity . ext = i(gth.Bulk recombination life time L ± Diffusion length 9.Diffusion co-efficient .This distance is know as diffusion length .lateral and transverse half sinusoidal electro magneticfields along the major axis of the cavity.)/gth 13. 11. 10. Define gain-guided lasers? The injection of electrons and holes into a device alters the refractive index of the active layer directly below the stripe.tertiary and quaternary materials. Which are the compounds used as direct bandgap materials ? Direct gap materials are made from compounds of group 3 elements (such as Al. as the charge carriers diffuse through the materials.For operation in the 800 900 nm spectrum. complex waveguide that confines the light laterally. 12.In a semiconductor light source. Define external differential quantum efficiency ? The external quantum efficiency is defined as the number of photons emitted per radiative electron hole pair recombination above the threshold. 14.They are conventionally separated in to two independent sets of TE and TM modes . The profile of these injected carriers creates a weak . L=(D )1/2 Where D . For longer wavelengths we use InGaAsP .Each set of modes can be described in terms of longitudinal . Why GaAlAs and InGaAsP are chosen to make semiconductors light sources ? This is because it is possible to match the lattice parameters of the hetero structure interfaces by using proper combination of binary . They move a distance Le and Lh For electrons and holes respectively . This device is commonly referred to as gain-guided lasers. As or Sb ) . the material used is GaAlAs .

19.Define single mode lasers? If a particular index guided laser supports only the fundamental transverse mode and the fundamental longitudinal mode. In negative index waveguides. Inner stripe confinement 4. the active layer has lower refractive index than outer regions. 17. Negative index In positive index waveguide. Burried hetero structure 2.The dielectric waveguide structures are fabricated in lateral directions. Distributed Bragg reflector lasers 3. 16 . Positive index 2. Regrowth of back biased PN junction . the central region has more refractive index than the Outer regions. What are the modulation methods used to vary the optical output from laser diodes? 1. List the four methods for the construction of lasers? 1. Varying thickness structure 4. Distributed reflector lasers. The variation of the real refractive index of various materials in these structures control the lateral structures in the laser. These devices are called as index guided lasers. Preferential dopant diffusion 2. Which are the three types of laser configurations in single mode fibers? 1. 20. Selectively diffused construction 3. Proton implantation 3. then that lasers are called as single mode lasers. What are the four basic current configuration methods? 1. Amplitude modulation in analog data transmissions. 18. 15. Distributed feedback lasers 2. Pulse modulation in digital systems 2. Bent layer configurations 21 What is the special feature of the vertical cavity surface emitting lasers? . Which are the two types of index guided lasers? 1.

Define photon lifetime Photon life time is an average lifetime that the photon resides in the lasing cavities before being lost either by absorption or by emission through the facets. Brief on temperature effects laser diodes. 2.What is minimum detectable optical power? The sensitivity of a photodetector in an optical fiber communication system is desirable in terms of the minimum detectable optical power. This parameter increases with temperature in all types semiconductor lasers because of various complex temperature dependent factors. This feature facilitates the integration of multiple lasers on to a single chip in one or two dimensional arrays which make them attractive for wavelength division multiplexing applications. 2. What are the draw backs of laser diodes? 1. The optical output power level is strongly dependent on temperature 3. A narrower spectral width of the output which implies less dispersion induced signal distortion . 2. so that much greater modulation rates are possible with the laser diodes. The photodetector and amplifier noises should be kept as low as possible.What is quantum efficiency? . A much higher optical power level that can be coupled into the fiber with the laser diode. The threshold current of laser diodes are temperature dependent. 3. What are the advantages of the laser diodes over LEDs? 1. Ith(T) = Ize(T/To) To-relative temperature insensitivity and Iz is a constant UNIT-4 1. 24. They are susceptible to catastrophic face at degradation which readily reduces the device life time 25. what are the conditions should be satisfied? The photodetector must have a high quantum efficiency to generate a large signal power. 3. Their construction is more complicated . faster response time. thus allowing greater transmission distances. 22 .The special feature is that light emission is perpendicular to a semi conductor surface. It is denoted by ph 23.To achieve high signal to noise ratio. This is the optical power necessary to produce a photocurrent of the same magnitude as the root mean square of the total noise current .

This carrier multiplication mechanism is known as impact ionization.What are the three factors determining the response time of a photodiode together with its output circuit? 1. 7. 5.which are known as photocarriers since they are photon generated charge carriers.What is the mechanism used in APD? APD¶s internally multiply the primary signal photocurrent before it enters the circuitry of the following amplifier.The RC time constant of the photodiodes and its associated circuit.The quantum efficiency is the number of electron.hole carrier pairs generated per incident photon of energy h and is given by number of electron ±hole pairs generated = number of incident photons 4.The transit time of the photocarriers in the depletion region . 8.Avalanche photodiode . 2.Inorder for carrier multiplication to take place.senses the luminescent power falling upon it and converts thenvariation of this power into correspondingl varying elelctric current. the photon can give up its energy and excite an electron from the valence band to the conduction band.What is impact ionization ? In high field region.How do you measure the photodetector performance by using ionization rate? The ratio of hole ionization rate to the electron ionization rate is the measure of photodetector performance K= 10.The diffusion time of the photo carriers generated outside the depletion region 3.This process generate free electron hole pairs .Define ionization rate.the photo generated carriers must traverse the region where a very high electric field is present.This carrier multiplication mechanism is known as impact ionization. The average number of electron-hole pairs created by a carrier per unit distance travelled is called ionization rate.in avalanche photodiodes electron or hole can gain enough energy so that it ionizes bound electrons in the valence band upon colliding with them.What is meant by photodetector? The first element of optical receiver photodetector. 6. Eg:Pin photodiode. 9.In this high field region a photogenerated electron or hole can gain enough energy so that it ionizes bound electron in the valence band upon colliding with them.What is meant by photo carriers?Why is it called so? When an incident photon has an energy greater than or equal to the bandgap energy of the semiconductor material.

by the number Nt of pulses transmitted during this interval. What are the wavelengths required for short and long distance? The wavelength provided for the devices to operate for a short distance is 850nm and that for long link is 1300nm &1550nm . 19. bon nonimpulse p=10 log bon impulse 15.What is quantum limit? The minimum received optical power required for a specific bit error rate performancein a digital system is called as the quantum limit.Define pulse penalty? The additional or excess power required for pulse shape other than the impulses is normally defined as the power penalty. It is measured in decibels.What is non zero extinction ratio ? Non zero extinction ratio is defined as the ratio of the optical power in a zero pulse to the power in a one pulse.Mention the variations of on the SAM (separate absorption and multiplication)structure due to the addition of other layers to the device -Using the grading layer between the absorption and multiplication regions to increase the response time and bandwith of the device -Adding a charge layer that provides better control of the electric field profile -Incorporating the resonant cavity that decouples the optical and electrical path lengths to achieve high quantum efficiency and bandwidths 18.Give an application of analog amplifier Extension of microwave and satellite links CATV Transmission system 17.Explain the effect of temperature an avalanche gain If the operating temperature decreases and the applied bias voltage is kept constant the ionization rate for electrons and holes will increase and so will the avalanche gain. 14. =boff /bon 12. BER=Ne /Nt 16.What makes the evaluation of the shot noise more difficult than that of the thermal noise? The non Gaussian nature of the photo detection and the avalanche multiplication noise makes the evaluation of the shot noise more difficult than that of the thermal noise.Define bit error rate(BER) The ratio of number Ne of errors occurring over a certain limit interval t. 13.11.

high sensitivity 4. F=<m2> /<m>2 =<m2> /M2 22.Define signal to noise ratio at the output of an optical receiver S/N = signal power from photocurrent /(photo detector noise power+amplifier noise power) 21.It depends on surface defects .20.Define excess noise factor F The ratio of actual noise generated in an avalanche photodiodes ot the noise that wopuld exist if all carrier pairs were multiplied by exactly m is called excess noise factor.Define responsivity R=Ip /Po =nq /nv where Ip=average photocurrent generated by a steady average optical power Po incident on a photodetector.bias voltage and surface areas 24.What is meant by surface dark current? Surface dark current is also referred to as surface leakage current or simply leakage current. 23.Why semiconductor based photodetector is used almost for fiber system? The semiconductor based photodetector have the following properties 1. .cleanliness.small size 2.fast response time 25.Define photo diode dark current The photo dioe dark current is the current that continues to flow through the bias circuit of the device when no light is incident on the photodiodes.suitable material 3.

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