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1

**Luis F. Ochoa1,3, Rade M. Ciric2, A. Padilha-Feltrin1, Gareth P. Harrison3
**

UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira - Ilha Solteira, Brazil 2 University of the West of England - Bristol, UK 3 University of Edinburgh, School of Engineering and Electronics - Edinburgh, UK luis_ochoa@ieee.org, rciric@netscape.net, padilha@dee.feis.unesp.br, gareth.harrison@ed.ac.uk and could be considered as almost negligible [4]. An expanded power flow algorithm for three-phase fourwire radial distribution networks, based on current summation backward-forward technique [5], is applied. Results obtained utilizing medium and low voltage distribution feeders are presented and discussed. 2 LOSS EVALUATION In general, after solving the respective three-phase (four-wire or three-wire) power flow of a given distribution network, line section loss calculation can be performed utilizing one of the following procedures: 2 • Using the original resistances of the wires in the I R formula. Thus, losses on phase a, b and c losses can be computed. In addition, after the calculation of neutral currents (performed after solving the threephase three-wire power flow), neutral wire losses can be computed. The sum of them gives the total losses. Here, phase losses, neutral wire losses and total losses are correct. • Using the difference between input and output power (Sin – Sout) in each phase. The sum of the phase losses (a, b and c) gives the total losses, and it is not possible to compute the neutral losses. In this procedure the value of total losses is correct, but the losses in each phase are incorrect [6]. When four-wire line sections are represented by a reduced 3x3 matrix (performing Kron’s reduction) in order to use a three-phase three-wire power flow algorithm (such as [7]), phase voltages and currents will be obtained with acceptable accuracy [8]. Nevertheless, if the resistances values from the reduced 3x3 matrix are used for calculating losses into the I2R formula, one will obtain erroneous results. Since the neutral wire is explicitly represented in the utilized power flow technique [5], neutral currents are calculated directly. Thus, with all current values, power losses can be computed by using the original phase and neutral wire resistances in the I2R formula. System losses are calculated under various scenarios, from balanced loads (considered here, as the first unbalance scenario) to the highest load unbalance allowed by the analyzed system. In that way, the impact of load unbalance on system losses can be clearly visualized.

Abstract – Distribution network losses can vary significantly depending on the load unbalance. Here, an analysis of distribution system losses is presented that considers load unbalance and the effect of explicitly represented neutral wire. A general power flow algorithm for threephase four-wire radial distribution networks, based on the current summation backward-forward technique is applied. Loss analysis results obtained from three-phase four-wire medium and low voltage test feeders with unbalanced load scenarios are presented and discussed considering: a) original phase and neutral wires resistances; and b) resistances obtained by performing Kron’s reduction.

Keywords: Distribution networks, losses, load unbalance, power flow, three-phase four-wire 1 INTRODUCTION Since system losses represent a considerable cost for utilities, its evaluation and reduction have been recognized as of interest by researchers. There are many distribution network devices responsible for energy loss, the most important being the primary and secondary lines, due mainly to overloaded low voltage (LV) feeders and unbalanced loads. Unbalance is a common occurrence in three-phase distribution systems. However, it can be harmful to the operation of the network, its reliability and safety. Furthermore, measurements show that real power losses increase due to unbalanced loads. Thus, a distribution system unbalance phenomenon has been the focus of research in recent decades [1]-[3]. This problem in distribution networks exists in both three-wire and fourwire systems due to the fact that loads are switched on and off by end users [1]. In medium voltage (MV) distribution networks in North America, unbalance is due to the presence of single-phase laterals and a large number of single-phase customers. In Europe, although the MV distribution system is developed as a three-wire or four-wire system and most of the MV customers are three-phase, unbalanced load problems also arise. Therefore, considering the importance of loss analysis, the objectives of this work are to evaluate losses due to load unbalance and highlight potential mistakes in loss analysis. It is assumed here that a load unbalance affects only the fundamental component of the neutral current since the harmonic power losses are, in general, small compared to the fundamental active power losses

15th PSCC, Liege, 22-26 August 2005

Session 10, Paper 6, Page 1

The presentation is Results of the loss analysis obtained by applying unbalance type B (variable demand) for the same distribution network are shown in Figures 4 and 5. Figure 2: IEEE-34 test feeder. The load was modelled as constant power. a percentage of the b-phase load is increased.3 TEST NETWORKS The proposed methodology for evaluation of power losses due to load unbalance is applied on MV and LV distribution networks. This kind of unbalance reduces the total network load under each unbalanced scenario. Using the reduced matrix resistances leads again to larger losses (20. a percentage of the load of phase b is decreased. the total network load remains constant under each unbalance scenario.9 kV/4. Line-to-line base voltage is Vb = 24. In this paper the following networks are used: LV-29: 29-bus real-life four-wire three-phase LV feeder from Bragança Paulista city. Impedances for the four-wire model are calculated considering a ground resistivity of 100 Ω-m and using the formulation in [5]. 300 290 280 270 260 250 240 230 220 210 200 190 180 EQ. and 72% of the loads are concentrated 56 km away from the root node (with the most distant node 59 km away). SP-Brazil (data supplied by Grupo Rede) (Figure 1). It is noticed that despite demand being maintained.13% (Figure 5). The networks operate with isolated neutral wire and have radial topology.5% Unbalance (type A) 33 14 11 9 10 1 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 13 24 21 19 17 12 15 16 18 23 20 31 28 26 25 22 27 29 32 30 Real Power Losses.1 Analysis of LV Distribution Network Figures 3 to 5 present real power losses for the LV29 distribution network. The automatic voltage regulator is also not represented. In this way. W Figure 1: LV-29 distribution network Original Resistances Reduced Matrix Resist. Due to the decrease in demand under each unbalance scenario. Page 2 . This is mainly because the neutral wire is being considered.29 (balanced loads) to 1.7 kW) means from 1.5%). IEEE-34: 34-bus IEEE four-wire three-phase MV feeder (Figure 2) [9]. 10. Liege. 22-26 August 2005 Session 10. the amount of losses also decreased. which in terms of demand (17. Subsequently. 15th PSCC.0 V.9% in average for considered unbalance scenarios) than using original resistances. The total demand is 17. Paper 6. and the loads are distributed along the network (the most distant node is 170 m from the root node). the three-phase four-wire power flow algorithm [5] is applied on the MV and LV distribution networks presented previously. Afterward.16 kV) with a line and the network is modelled at the single voltage level.1% for a 15% unbalance as compared to a fully balanced system (EQ. while the decrease is twice this value in phase c. Losses computed with original resistances diminished 21% at the last unbalance scenario. 4. 4 APPLICATIONS In this work. 2.9 kV. total losses calculated by the explicit four-wire approach increased by 4. The load data for the LV-29 test network is given in [5]. while the same value is decreased in phase c.7 kW.0% 15. The original IEEE-34 test feeder is simplified by replacing the autotransformer (24. The total demand is 1770 kW. whereas with the impact of unbalance they are less pronounced. The following types of unbalance are considered: Unbalance Type A: Firstly the overall network load is balanced for the three phases. Line-to-line base voltage is Vb = 210. When the reduced matrix approach is used.5% 7.0% Figure 3: Real Power Losses for the LV-29 distribution network with unbalance type A. Figure 3 shows results of the loss analysis for the LV-29 distribution network when the unbalance type A (constant demand) was applied. overall losses compared to the correct procedure are much larger for the balanced scenario (by 21. Unbalance Type B: Firstly the overall network load is balanced for the three phases.). 20 19 16 13 8 2 4 9 6 0 1 3 7 5 11 12 10 14 21 25 22 17 23 15 18 24 26 27 28 focused on the discrepancy of loss calculation when a) original phase and neutral wire resistances and b) reduced matrix resistances (representation of four-wire line sections performing Kron’s reduction) are used in the I2R formula.

a reduction from 20.5. The main reason for this situation is that load concentration in the IEEE-34 is far away from the root node.15 1. 7.0 % 12.0% Unbalance (type A) 7.5.2% at the last unbalance scenario compared to the EQ. % 1. 1.0. 2.5 21.0 % 10.25.0.0 % 5. W 12000 9000 6000 3000 0 original resistances.10.0 21. in terms of demand. 450 Real Power Losses.0 % Original Resistances Reduced Matrix Resist.15.9% (last unbalance scenario) compared to the balanced load scenario.30 1.0% Original Resistances Reduced Matrix Resist.40 1. b and c and neutral wire losses for the IEEE-34 network considering unbalance type A and using original wires resistances.10.0 % Unbalance (type B) 7.5% 5. • Usage of reduced matrix resistances for calculating losses into the I2R formula leads to results much larger than using original wires resistances. Page 3 . scenario. Paper 6.25.5.0 % Unbalance (type B) 18000 15000 Demand. the exclusion of the autotransformer and voltage regulators from the original IEEE-34 network allowed larger voltage drops and losses as well.5.5 20.0 % Figure 8: Percentage of Real Power Losses respect to the demand for the IEEE-34 distribution network with unbalance type B.10 EQ.0 % 12. Based on the performed simulations the following observations can be made: • Different unbalance scenarios considering a given demand (unbalance type A) showed that total power losses in distribution networks increase with the load unbalance.0 % 7. This represented.20.0 % 5.0 % Unbalance (type B) Real Power Losses.5. 24. Moreover.0 20. Demand 2000 1800 Real Power Losses.0 % Unbalance (type B) Reduced Matrix Resist.15. 2.20.0 18.5.0 17.55 Real Power Losses (%) 1.5.15.300 275 Real Power Losses.60 1.2 Analysis of MV Distribution Network Figures 6 to 8 present real power losses for the IEEE34 distribution network. 500 450 Original Resistances 400 350 300 250 EQ. Figure 5: Percentage of Real Power Losses respect to the demand for the LV-29 distribution network with unbalance type B. Figure 6: Real Power Losses for the IEEE-34 distribution network with unbalance type A. Losses computed with original resistances diminished 12.0.5.0 22. Results of loss analysis for the IEEE-34 distribution network applying the unbalance type A are shown in Figure 6. 15th PSCC. 4. 2.5. Figures 7 and 8 show the results of loss analysis obtained by applying unbalance type B for the same network.5 23. 22-26 August 2005 Session 10.5 22. Demand Figure 4: Real Power Losses for the LV-29 distribution network with unbalance type B.3% greater in average) than using It should be noted that the percentage losses (Figure 8) in the IEEE-34 distribution network are significantly greater than in the LV-29 network.0 % 5.50 1. kW 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 Demand.5. Using reduced matrix resistances leads again to larger losses (13. Total losses calculated with original phase and neutral wires resistances increased 4.0. Figure 7: Real Power Losses for the IEEE-34 distribution network with unbalance type B. 2.5.10.5 EQ. 2. W 250 225 200 175 150 EQ.45 1.20 Original Resistances Reduced Matrix Resist.5% 10.0 % 5.5% to 18% (Figure 8).0 23.8% at the first unbalance scenario increasing to 14.5% at the last unbalance scenario) than the correct procedure.0 % 10.10.5.5 19. Figure 9 shows phases a.5 18. kW 425 400 375 350 325 300 EQ. This decomposition of the total power losses (Figure 6) is useful to evidence how neutral wire losses affect indeed the overall value of losses in unbalanced load scenarios.35 1.15. kW Original Resistances Reduced Matrix Resist.0.0 19.0 % 7.25 1. Liege.0. Using reduced matrix resistances into the I2R formula produces much larger results (13.5.5.

4% at the last unbalance scenario. D. C. 4(2). R. which should be considered since unbalance is a common every-day occurrence in three-phase distribution systems. Meliopoulos.e. another minor unbalance occurs because of the coupling between phases that appears since there is no transposition. Moreover. 2. Cespedes. pp 1799-1804. on Power Systems. “A three-phase power flow method for real-time distribution system analysis”. Kennedy. F. IEEE Trans. This approach improves loss calculation due to the explicit representation of the neutral conductor. October 2000 [5] R. 6(3). Borghetti and G. REFERENCES [1] A. 3. Ochoa. Constant admittance load model leads to lower amounts of losses and provides higher levels of unbalance than the constant power load model within the same specified tolerance [5]. Contaxies. pp 852-857. J.0% 7. pp 1283-1290. “Power distribution practices in USA and Europe: Impact on power quality”. November 2003 [6] W. Oliva. 10(2). November 2004 [9] W. pp 710-717. September 2003 [7] C. “Distribution Line Models for Loss Calculation in Three-phase Three-wire Power Flow Algorithms”.03% at balanced load scenario and 2. Usage of reduced matrix resistances (representation of four-wire line sections performing Kron’s reduction) into the I2R formula is a procedure that should be avoided since leads to incorrect results. C. IEEE Trans. Liege. pp 1401-1407. Yang. Richardson. Though it is an indirect procedure. Kersting. October 1997 [3] T.g. A general power flow algorithm for three-phase four-wire radial distribution networks. scholarship no. April 1989 Phase a Phase b Phase c Neutral wire 10 5 0 Unbalance (type A) Figure 9: Phase and neutral wire losses for the IEEE-34 distribution network with unbalance type A. High levels of load unbalance produced greater losses while the same demand is maintained at each unbalance scenario. IEEE/PES T&D Latin America Proceedings. 18(4). October 2001 [4] E. E04D046001BR. the European Union Programme of High Level Scholarships for Latin America. Power Delivery. based on backward-forward technique was applied. Ciric. 16(4). With these values it is possible to calculate phase and neutral wires losses by using the I2R formula and original wires resistances.SP. Power Delivery. October 1998 [2] J. IEEE Trans on Power Systems. Shirmohammadi. pp 391-396. A. “Radial distribution test feeders”.5% 10. January 1990 [11] M. This means that network reconfiguration considering load balancing is highly recommend in order to diminish overall system losses. Baran and F. Soder. P. August 1991 [10] R. On Power Systems. This occurs because the topology of the IEEE-34 test feeder is not uniform. Brazil) and the Programme Alban. F. Chen and W. “Power Flow in Four-Wire Distribution NetworksGeneral Approach”. Cheng and D. C. Nevertheless. Kersting. May 1995 [8] L.Neutral losses account for 0. IEEE Trans. It is also noticed in Figure 9 that phase losses are not equal at the balanced load scenario. pp 978-983. Ochoa and A. 8th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power Proceeding. “On the estimation of harmonic power losses in distribution systems”. 9th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power Proceedings. 200 30 25 20 15 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 EQ. pp 1-6. Balda. D.. it is important to notice that some three-phase three-wire power flow algorithms (e. H. “Network reconfiguration in distribution systems for loss reduction and load balancing”.0% Neutral Wire Losses (kW) Real Power Losses (kW) 180 culations. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The first is grateful for the financial support given by FEPISA (Ilha Solteira . Wu. Padilha-Feltrin and L. Padilha-Feltrin. pp 24-29. W. 12(4). Thunberg and L. 5(1). pp 671-769. presents some single-phase line sections which unavoidably produce more unbalance at each considered unbalance scenario. pp 975-985. “Measurements of neutral currents and voltages on a distribution feeder”. 5 CONCLUSIONS In this paper we presented a loss analysis in distribution systems considering different load unbalance scenarios. The selection of the load model to be used in the analysis plays an important role in the overall loss cal- 15th PSCC. McNabb and R. A. “New method for the analysis of distribution networks”. IEEE-PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition Proceedings. S. i. Nucci. F. E. IEEE Trans on Power Systems. Paper 6. A. “The computation of neutral and dirt currents and power losses”. power summation based algorithms [10] and [11]) require loss calculation within their iterative process which means that the final power flow solution will not be reliable if reduced matrix resistances were used [8]. A. 3. IEEE Trans. Page 4 . M. “Analysis of multigrounded four-wire distribution systems considering the neutral grounding”. 22-26 August 2005 Session 10. On Power Delivery. H.5% 5. neutral currents could be computed from phase currents obtained with a three-phase three-wire power flow algorithm. IEEE Trans. H. which is reflected in the line impedance matrix as mutual impedances.

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