Electrical Energy Efficiency (E3), Renewable Energies and the role of the IEC

Jack Sheldon
IEC Standardization Strategy Manager

Contents
The IEC role IEC and Electrical Energy Efficiency IEC and Renewable Energies What IEC means to different stakeholders Conclusion

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Why are E3 and RE so “hot”?
The Climate Change Studies Electricity is a fundamental need for the functioning of today’s world. The world will require more electricity as population and development increases. The IEC is creating the framework for making efficient use of electricity and for generating electricity from renewable energy sources.

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The IEC View of Electrical energy… Rotating machinery (TC 2) Hydraulic turbines (TC 4) Overhead lines (TC 11) Overhead electrical conductors (TC 7) Systems aspects for electrical energy supply (TC 8) Switchgear and controlgear (TC 17) Electric cables (TC 20) Insulators (TC 36) Surge arresters (TC 37) Power systems management and information exchange (TC 57) 4 .

wires.And in the home… Electrical accessories (TC 23) Multimedia (TC 100) Fibre optics (TC 86) Cables. waveguides (TC 46) Household appliances (TCs 59 & 61) Electric cables (TC 20) Lamps and related equipment (TC 34) 5 .

So IEC covers wide spectrum Construction – integrating electrical energy efficiency Consumer goods – getting the performance using the least power Electricity generation. transmission and distribution – reducing losses even further Electronics – An integral part of all aspects Environment Heavy industry – The biggest users of electricity Information technology Manufacturing – Cutting energy helps reduce costs Testing and certification – proving the equipment and systems deliver 6 .

Saving in the Household IEC TC 59. prepares standardized methods for assessing functional performance and for measuring energy usage needed for this performance Examples include: Electric cooking ranges.Measurement of standby power (IEC 62301) Upcoming work: New Standard on refrigerating equipment New performance indicators for cooking ranges New reference dishwashers (front and top-loading!) 7 . Performance of household and similar electrical appliances. hobs. ovens and grills (IEC 60350) Electric dishwashers (IEC 60436) Clothes washing machines (IEC 60456) Microwave ovens (IEC 60705) Tumble dryers (IEC 61121) Household electrical appliances .

Transmission and Distribution Production and utilization of electricity often separated by large distances Transmission already highly efficient but room for improvements 8 .

HV Overhead lines PP SUS SDS MV/LV Transf users MV/LV Transf 9 . Therefore.5% Between PP and SDS losses are 3-5% Between SDS and users losses 3-5%.Room for improvement? Efficiency of large power transformers in SUS and SDS is quite high and may reach 99% but depends mostly of the power delivered compared with the assigned rating value MV/LV transformers are of different types and their efficiency may range from 90% to 98% Cables carrying out great current sustain great heating and therefore create more losses by Joule effect Utilities generally try to limit the energy losses in overhead lines to about 2. overall losses between PP and users 8-15%.

Evaluation and qualification of electrical insulating materials and systems. Magnetic alloys and steels TC 112. tariff. Power transformers TC 17. Overhead lines TC 13. Power electronics for electrical transmission and distribution systems TC 51. Switchgear and controlgear TC 20. Magnetic components and ferrite materials TC 55. Winding wires TC 68.IEC TCs at work TC 7. Fluids for electrotechnical applications TC 11. 10 . Electric cables SC 22F. Overhead electrical conductors TC 10. Electrical energy measurement.and load-control TC 14.

New technologies High efficiency transformers Electricity savings potential of switching to high efficiency transformers estimated to be 200 TWh* High efficiency transformers are not new Available to customers who want to use them but prices are higher Issue is for the customers to estimate the energy savings which can be made during the life cycle of the transformer Regulators may also impose to use that kind of transformers in the context of the Kyoto protocole. *Source Leonardo ENERGY 11 .

HTS transformers in 10 MVA and higher range are projected to be substantially more efficient and less expensive than conventional counterparts. superconductors present no resistance to the flow of electricity. Joule heating of copper coil adds considerably to amount of lost energy (only 1% but still important) Unlike copper and aluminium.New technologies (cont) High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) transformers When transformer is loaded. therefore losses due the Joule effect become zero Even with added cost of refrigeration. 12 .

lighter weight. 90. Cables. Transformers. and more compact dimensions Can lead to easier and faster installation of the cable system. and reduced use of land Higher performance leads to reduced materials use and lighter and more compact cable technology HTS cable backbones would be designed as DC systems with power ratings in multiples of GVA. or as actual backbones traversing continents HTS backbones as alternative or complement to gas and oil pipelines. Superconductivity and 113. They can be designed as "virtual backbones" joining and reinforcing existing networks. Nanotechnologies. oil tankers and overland transport of hydrogen or other energy media IEC TCs are 14. 13 . 20. fewer joints.New technologies (3) High temperature superconducting (HTS) cables offer lower loss.

Much of RE is an emerging field of research. technology and manufacturing and a new industry is growing up.Importance of Renewable Energy World production of electricity expected to double over next 25 years* Renewable energy production expected to increase by 57% Large scale use of renewable energy important: To eliminate dependence on fossil fuels To combat global warming To raise the living standard of people in developing countries. * International Energy Outlook 2006 14 .

15 .IEC role in Renewable Energies Standardization helps technologies to become marketable by Providing foundation for certification systems Promoting international trade of uniform high quality products Supporting transfer of expertise from traditional energy systems Standardization of renewable energy technologies requires dedicated effort to keep pace with developments IEC is working to set the International Standards that can serve the planet in this market sector.

IEC role in RE Provide technical performance and safety standards Certification schemes when needed to ensure quality to protect customers everywhere 16 .

Fuel cell technologies In certification. Wind turbines. Sun: TC 82.IEC in Renewable Energies IEC works in three areas Water: TC 4. Wind: TC 88. Solar photovoltaic energy systems. IECEE operates Photovoltaic Certification 17 . Hydraulic turbines. And also TC 105.

Hydro Some of the world’s biggest hydroelectric powerplants produce millions of kilowatts and billions of kilowatt hours Small means up to 15 MW Microhydro schemes can be as large as 500 kW and are generally run-of–the-river developments for villages Pico-hydro systems have a capacity of 50 W to 5 kW and are generally used for individuals or clusters of households. 18 .

storage pumps and pump-turbines of all types as well as related equipment such as speed governors and performance evaluation and testing 19 . manufacturing. is river projects These include turbines. for now. commissioning. Hydraulic turbines prepares standards and technical reports for designing.IEC Technical Committee 4 IEC Technical Committee 4. testing and operating hydraulic machines Its focus.

upgrading and rehabilitation Particle erosion is a potential future topic for TC 4. control systems testing. vibration. Evaluating both cavitation pitting and discharge measurement methods Hydraulic turbine efficiency. stability.TC 4 Work Programme Two main forces driving much of TC 4’s work are new large-scale hydroelectric river projects and refurbishment and up-rating of existing plants Work programme focuses on: Turbine runners and pump impellers Acceptance tests of hydro turbines. 20 .

mostly as prototypes.New horizons on Oceans Ocean energy devices work with tides or with waves Ocean currents are another potential source of power These devices are either floating or fixed and. they tend either to oscillate or to rotate Research started in Japan in the 1940s. to generate electrical energy. IEC/SMB may set up a new technical committee at meeting in June 2007 21 . the technology for it has been around since the 1970s and functioning units have been deployed in various countries in the 1990s.

Solar Power: Off-grid Today global market demand for PV (photovoltaic) exceeds USD 5 billion annually Systems are now being deployed throughout the industrialized and developing world on a commercial scale Solar panels have mostly been used as standalone systems for energy Market has developed in all markets Developing countries: off-grid and hybrid village grid electrical services are now becoming available to thousands of remote villages. 22 .

slower take off. Europe.Solar: Grid connected Technically possible to connect solar panels to electricity grid Three developments show how important this branch is becoming: Largest PV power plant (10 MW) facility in Bavaria. Germany US manufacturer started marketing a 3 kW Grid Tie Solar Inverter for home use Systems rapidly increasing in numbers (government supported programmes in Australia. typically owned by utilities. Japan and the USA) Most systems located on residences and public/commercial/industrial applications Installations of large scale centralized PV power stations. 23 . Germany Largest roof-top PV installation (5 MW) in South Hessen.

and parameters of stand-alone systems Future work will include: System commissioning. northern latitudes and marine areas Other areas such grid-connected systems on buildings and utility-connected inverters Environmental protection. 24 . the interface with electrical system(s) Standards produced on terms and symbols. and including. design qualification and type approval of modules. such as tropical zone. maintenance and disposal Characterization and measurement of new thin film photovoltaic module technologies New technology storage systems Applications with special site conditions.IEC and Solar: TC 82 “Photovoltaic energy system“ includes the entire field from light input to a solar cell to.

modelling) Improved aerodynamic efficiency Cost reductions (value engineering.Blowing in the Wind 72 million gigawatts is potential (five times world consumption of energy of all types in 2002)* China set to become leader in wind power turbines (already driving down wind turbine prices) Trends include: Increased size and rating for offshore installations Variable-speed operation Use of direct-drive generators Principal associated developments are: Resource evaluation (wind measurements. development of offshore sites advancing in the United States. component development) Advanced turbine development (new concepts) Greater use in Europe. *Journal of Geophysical Researchsees 25 .

measurement of mechanical loads. 26 . and communications for monitoring and control of wind power plants Current work programme includes both standards and design requirements for offshore wind turbines. for gearboxes and for wind farm power performance testing. measurement techniques and test procedures for wind turbine generator systems Standards for design requirements.IEC TC 88 Work IEC Standards deal with safety. acoustic noise measurement techniques.

and standards are an important step towards commercialization 27 .Fuel Cells Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert hydrogen-rich gases or hydrocarbons and oxygen from air into electrical power and heat Field of application is broad and technologies are developing quickly and the industry is in the transition The challenge to introducing fuel cell technology into the mass market includes ensuring overall safety and intercompatibility with existing systems.

they have to take into account the specific interests of authorities. component manufacturers. system integrators. approval organizations. and fuel suppliers and interests related to infrastructure surrounding Fuel Cell Systems TC 105 has already standardized the terminology and produced a standard covering the essential aspects of a fuel cell module Now developing standards for safety and performance of stationary and micro-systems. installers and users. 28 . Moreover.TC 105 and Fuel Cells IEC TC 105 created in 1998 to develop safety and interface standards TC 105 standards are intended to cover the market demand of fuel cell manufacturers.

you can save money and contribute to a better world. 29 . By making our standards. Look at how you can use and save electricity Governments: Standards can help in legislation. you do the same Other international. and we can help you raise awareness for your publics Industry: By using IEC Standards.Stakeholders and E3 and RE Public: IEC can help you understand the issues. regional and national organizations: Need to know about the IEC’s work.

Conclusion IEC has done a lot of excellent work in these fields New Standards being developed to support new technologies IEC is reaching out to stakeholders to make most of IEC work We count on your support in delivering the message. 30 .

.Thank you.