Albert Z Carr Everyone agrees that business managers must understand finance and marketing.

But is it necessary for them to study ethics? Managers who answer in the negative generally base their thinking on one of three rationales. They may simply say that they have no reason to be ethical. They see why they should make a profit, and most agree they should do so legally. But why should they be concerned about ethics, as long as they are making money and staying out of jail? Other managers recognize that they should be ethical but identify their ethical duty with making a legal profit for the firm. They see no need to be ethical in any further sense, and therefore no need for any background beyond business and law. A third group of manager¶s grant that ethical duty goes further than what is required by law. But they still insist that there is no point in studying ethics. Character is formed in childhood, not while reading a college text or sitting in class. These arguments are confused and mistaken on several levels. To see why, it is best to start with the question raised by the first one: why should business people be ethical?

WORKS OF ALBERT CARR Men of power Business as a Game Is Business Bluffing Ethical MAJOR WORK OF ALBERT CARR Albert Carr¶s very popular essay, ³Is Business Bluffing Ethical?´ argues that deception, for example, is a legitimate part of business. Business, he says, is like a poker game. There are rules, but within the rules it is permissible to bluff in order to mislead others. In fact one must do so or lose the game. The ethical rules of everyday life therefore do not apply to business. ALBERT CARR THEORY USING THE POKER GAME ANALOGY Carr, like Friedman, has a point. Bluffing is expected in many business contexts, no less than in poker. No one expects negotiators to put all their cards on the table, or advertisers to tell the whole truth about their product. What the poker analogy actually tells us, however, is that ³deception´ is not really deception when everyone expects it as part of the game. Nobody is deceived when advertisers say their product is the best on the market; everyone says that. So Carr does not actually defend deception. Hiding a card up one¶s sleeve, on the other hand, is truly deception because it breaks the rules of poker and no one is expecting it. Carr agrees that this sort of behavior, which he calls ³malicious deception,´ is wrong. One problem with Carr¶s poker analogy is that he overextends it. In a poker game everyone knows the rules, but business situations can be very ambiguous. If a food processor places false labels on packaging, it is highly unclear that consumers are ³in on the game´ and expect this sort of thing. If Mom and Dad take the kids to school in the family car, it is hard to argue that they ³expect´ the car to be unsafe, as was the Ford Pinto with its famous exploding gas tank. Such practices are now illegal precisely because they genuinely deceived customers, sometimes with deadly results. The example of the political contribution, as well as several others in his article, suggest that Carr is making an even stronger claim. He seems to argue that the business game justifies a whole range of activities beyond bluffing, such as perversion of the political process. The difficulty with this argument is that it proves too much. It implies that executives can do anything they want if it is part of a business game in which people play by the rules. But suppose

the game is a shakedown racket, and everyone in town understands the rules: one must pay protection money or get roughed up by company thugs. This does not make it all right to participate in the racket, even if it is legal, which it is not. In fact, it is illegal precisely because it is the wrong kind of game to play. EXAMPLES SUPPORTING THE THEORY Using examples from the 1960s era in which he wrote the paper, Carr defends: 1. ³Food processors´ that use ³deceptive packaging of numerous products´; 2. ³Automobile companies´ that ³for years have neglected the safety of car-owning families,´ as described in Ralph Nader¶s famous book Unsafe at Any Speed; 3. ³Utility companies´ that ³elude regulating government bodies to extract unduly large payments from users of electricity.´ 4. ³As long as they comply with the letter of the law,´ he says, ³they are within their rights to operate their businesses as they see fit.´

Playing to Win If a man plans to take a seat in the business game, he owes it to himself to master the principles by which the game is played, including its special ethical outlook. He can then hardly fail to recognize that an occasional bluff may well be justified in terms of the game's ethics and warranted in terms of economic necessity. Once he clears his mind on this point, he is in a good position to match his strategy against that of the other players. He can then determine objectively whether a bluff in a given situation has a good chance of succeeding and can decide when and how to bluff, without a feeling of ethical transgression. Example: To be a winner, a man must play to win. This does not mean that he must be ruthless, cruel, harsh, or treacherous. On the contrary, the better his reputation for integrity, honesty, and decency, the better his chances of victory will be in the long run. But from time to time every businessman, like every poker player, is offered a choice between certain loss or bluffing within the legal rules of the game. If he is not resigned to losing, if he wants to rise in his company and industry, then in such a crisis he will bluff-and bluff hard. Every now and then one meets a successful businessman who has conveniently forgotten the small or large deceptions that he practiced on his way to fortune. "God gave me my money," old John D. Rockefeller once piously told a Sunday school class. It would be a rare tycoon in our time who would risk the horse laugh with which such a remark would be greeted. In the last third of the twentieth century even children are aware that if a man has become prosperous in business, he has sometimes departed from the strict truth in order to overcome obstacles or has practiced the more subtle deceptions of the half-truth or the misleading omission. Whatever the form of the bluff, it is an integral part of the game, and the executive who does not master its techniques is not likely to accumulate much money or power. ILLUSTRATION THROUGH THE SALES EXECUTIVE EXAMPLE Carr tells of a sales executive who made a political contribution he did not believe in, to keep an important client happy. When the executive told his wife about it, she was disappointed with her husband and insisted he should have stood up for his principles. The executive explained to her how he must humor clients to keep his job. She understood the dilemma but concluded that ³something is wrong with business.´

Carr analyzes the incident as follows: This wife saw the problem in terms of moral obligation as conceived in private life; her husband saw it as a matter of game strategy. As a player in a weak position, he felt that he could not afford to indulge an ethical sentiment that might have cost his seat at the [poker] table. Carr not only expects the executive to make such choices but cautions him not to agonize over them. ³If an executive allows himself to be torn between a decision based on business considerations and one based on his private ethical code, he exposes himself to a grave psychological strain.´ Relevance Today The article was written by Albert Z. Carr in 1968, but still seems very relevant today. Its applications and justifications seem to fit perfectly in today¶s business world. Today business is all about making a profit. Man¶s greed has blinded his senses so much that he can go to any extend to make a profit. Money seems to be the ultimate goal. Albert Z. Carr¶s philosophy or this take on business ethics strengthens and supports the take of today¶s business supporting them on their stand that the business of business is to do business. He was such a visionary that in 1968 he wrote an articale that was very relevant for the 21st century. Albert Z. Carr take on business ethics is a major source of support for people today who do not follow ethical practices in business as his philosophy helps them justify their stand.

CONCLUSION The unavoidable fact is that some business games are good and some are bad. The right kind of competition, for example, can allow everyone to come out ahead, while the wrong kind can be destructive. When one plays the wrong game, then indeed ³something is wrong with business.´ How does one know which game to play? There is a field that deals with this issue, and it is called ethics. Carr compounds his error when he advises executives not to agonize over business decisions. He is right to say that they must not let personal sentiment cloud their judgment, particularly when it comes to such unpleasant duties as laying off employees or shutting down a plant. They certainly should not be paralyzed by indecision and doubt. But they must nonetheless struggle with the alternatives. Hard decisions are part of life. Sometimes the game of business requires one to compromise oneself in order to make a larger contribution. Perhaps the sales executive can promote an exciting new product only by putting up with little indignities like kowtowing to his clients. But he should never compromise his values without soul searching, which is to say, without carefully reviewing the ethical situation. Carr¶s assertion to the contrary is profoundly unwise.

which is the basis for discovering moral truth. Kant separated reason into 'theoretical reason' (which covers things such as math and logic). moving philosophy beyond the debate between the rationalists and empiricists. and David Hume. Hegel. they must be obeyed in all scenarios and circumstances if our behaviour is to observe moral law. . a "blank tablet.e. It encompasses an attack on traditional metaphysics and epistemology. through a careful consideration and evaluation of choices." no more than a bathtub full of silicon chips could be a digital computer. and history. Kant's most original contribution to philosophy is his "Copernican Revolution. This also means that it is logically impossible for practical reason to lead people to have a sense of 'ought' about something they cannot. because only this had the ability to give us knowledge as to how we should live. namely the discovery of the retardation of the rotation of the Earth." that. he made an important astronomical discovery." About the Author Immanuel Kant [22 April 1724 ± 12 February 1804] was an 18th-century German philosopher from the Prussian city of Königsberg (now Kaliningrad." as Kant alternatively puts it. This principle is based on the Deontological moral system. i.Categorical Imperative The above theory is the main philosophical concept in the moral philosophy of Immanuel Kant. He published important works on epistemology. He became a university lecturer in 1755. They are principles that are naturally valid. which investigates aesthetics and teleology. there was a considerable amount of attention paid to his thought. though he did have a positive influence on Reinhold. much of it critical. Perceptual input must be processed. he came up with Critique of Pure Reason. Kant was the last influential philosopher of modern Europe in the classic sequence of the theory of knowledge during the Enlightenment beginning with thinkers John Locke. The other main works of his maturity are the Critique of Practical Reason. and do it. recognized. During his own life. or should not do "Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law. we can be to understand what we should and must always do. Something like this now seems obvious: the mind could be a tabula rasa. Kant defines the demands of the moral law as ³categorical imperatives´. people could come to realise what their moral duty was.Immanuel Kant . and the Critique of Judgment. as well as works relevant to religion. This particular idea was introduced in ³Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals´ by Kant. and Novalis during the 1780s and 1790s. Also. This concept forms the basis of rationality from which all moral requirements are derived. and highlights Kant's own contribution to these areas. which concentrates on ethics. This introduced the human mind as an active originator of experience rather than just a passive recipient of perception. Kant believed practical reason was superior to theoretical reason. as he puts it. In 1781. it is the representation that makes the object possible rather than the object that makes the representation possible. Russia). Thus by working out what we 'ought' to do. Fichte. In others words. for which he won the Berlin Academy Prize in 1754."less even than a dream" or "nothing to us. Kant created a new widespread perspective in philosophy which influenced philosophy through to the 21st Century. Kant also held that practical reason was grounded in a sense of ought. law. Schelling. or it would just be noise -. One of his most prominent works is the Critique of Pure Reason. Kant¶s thought was very influential in Germany during his lifetime. The philosophical movement known as German Idealism developed from Kant's theoretical and practical writings. George Berkeley. and 'practical reason'. an investigation into the limitations and structure of reason itself.

Kant¶s principle of the categorical imperative." Lying is the action. what the agent believes is his reason to act. . The above obligations are situational. Let us consider the following examples ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Never steal or cheat. Floss your teeth every day.e. the motivation is to fulfil some sort of desire. An ³imperative´ is a command. 1.. Hypothetical means conditional and Categorical means unconditional. In simplified form it is this: ³Always and only do those actions that you could approve of everyone in similar circumstances doing as a rule (and not the exception)´. Contrary to this let us look into following examples ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Do your homework and study for your tests. places the moral authority for taking action on individual¶s duty toward other individuals and humanity. no matter who they are. and so on. The obligations are unconditional. others as well as you treat yourself. Find the agent's maxim (i. Ultimately Kant believes that all the categorical imperatives that make up the ³moral law´ are grounded in a single imperative.´ One interpretation of the first formulation is called the "universalisability test´. let us understand what these terms means. Take for example the declaration "I will lie for personal benefit. Never lie or deceive. There are three versions of Kant¶s imperative Theory. not the left. He calls it the ³Categorical Imperative. . 1. according to Kant. We are given ³commands´ all the time.³Always do those actions that you would approve of everyone doing. An obligation is conditional if it applies only under certain circumstances an obligation is unconditional if it applies under any and all circumstances. Treat yourself as well as you treat others. flossing is for self interest. Kant contrasts categorical with hypothetical. Always treat people respectfully and fairly. is his "subjective principle of human actions": that is. like you have to study because you are a student. An agent's maxim. A categorical imperative is a command that expresses an unconditional obligation. they form the maxim. Commands tell us what our obligations are. an action paired with its motivation).Theory/Concept on Business Ethics ‡ To understand categorical imperative philosophy. The universalisability test has five steps: i. Drive on the right hand side of the road. Take two tablets once per day for ten days. The first formulation (Formula of Universal Law) of the moral imperative "requires that the maxims be chosen as though they should hold as universal laws of nature". whatever may be the situation. Paired together. and these cannot go wrong.

2.´ John¶s motivation: ³Benevolence. and never as means. Three expert swimmers (Amit.. Kant says that only one of the three is doing the action on the basis of a good will. John. ³Always follow those principles which your own nature as a rational being judges to be universally true. 5. and in some instances required.e. If there is no contradiction.e. Amit knows that the child belongs to a well-to-do family. ³Always treat people (yourself included) as ends. and only that person has the correct motivation. He has good reason to think that if he succeeds in saving the child.´ i. must serve in every maxim as the condition restricting all merely relative and arbitrary ends. Realizing that the drowning will cause a great deal of sorrow that he has the ability to probably prevent.´ Do not follow the principles that some authority imposes on you from the outside. as by its nature an end and thus as an end in itself. 4.. he risks his life to save the child. iv. treat people with respect.ii. treat people as having value in themselves. Amit¶s motivation: ³Self-interest. He decides to save the child but only because he realizes that he has a duty to do so.´ . John loves people. Examples To understand better. Decide whether any contradictions or irrationalities arise in the possible world as a result of following the maxim. he will be richly rewarded. He acts only on that motivation. iii. let us look into this example A child is drowning. It says "that all maxims which stem from autonomous legislation ought to harmonize with a possible realm of ends as with a realm of nature. The second formulation (or Formula of the End in Itself) holds that "the rational being.´ Tarun¶s motivation: ³Duty. 3. but those principles that you know a priori to be true. Tarun realizes that since he has the ability. v. then acting on that maxim is permissible. i. not just as having value for you. he has a duty to try and save the drowning child. acting on that maxim is not allowed in the real world. If a contradiction or irrationality arises. He quickly calculates that the potential reward will be worth the risk. nor is he motivated by feelings of compassion. He is not concerned with whether there is a payoff for him. Imagine a possible world in which everyone in a similar position to the real-world agent followed that maxim. 2. The third formulation (Formula of Autonomy) is a synthesis of the first two and is the basis for the "complete determination of all maxims". and feels compassion when they suffer. Tarun) jump into the water to attempt to rescue the child. Do not ³use´ people! 3.

Amit is motivated by greed. Determine whether the universalized maxim could be a universal law. that is. The maxim will have something like this form: "in situations of sort S." or "in situations in which anyone needs money and knows he or she cannot pay it back. since there would be no such thing as a promise to falsely make." (For example: "in situations in which I am thirsty and there is water available. you have a perfect obligation not to perform the action. everyone will do A." 3. say A. contrary to what Kant thinks. John by compassion. Universalize the maxim." (For example: "in situations in which anyone is thirsty and water is available. I will do A. That is. A universalized maxim will look something like this: "in situations of sort S. The Formula for universal law First. He offers several formulations of this principle. but Kant argues that the second maxim could not be a universal law: if everyone started making false promises." As we discussed in class. Both Amit and John are motivated by ³inclination. That is. (In fact. so no one would be able to make a false promise. he or she will falsely promise to pay it back. figure out what general principle you would be acting on if you were to perform the action. the test for the morality of an action that Kant expresses here is something like the following. Formulate the maxim of the action.´ An inclination is a feeling that they are experiencing at the moment. I will falsely promise to pay it back. Kant thinks that it could be the case that everyone refused to ever help .Only Tarun has the proper ethical motivation. But perhaps the maxim could be a universal law. whether it is possible for everyone to act as the universalized maxim requires. that person will drink it. Then I must go through the following steps: 1. which he regards as all saying the same thing. I will drink it. the institution of promising would disappear. there is the formulation Kant regards as most basic: "act only on that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should be a universal law. Morally worthy actions cannot be based on transitory feelings. Suppose that I am trying to decide whether or not to perform a particular action. 4.) Two of these formulations are especially important for our purposes. but must be based on a regard for universally true and necessary moral principles! Critical Analysis The central principle of Kant's ethical theory is what he calls the Categorical Imperative.) If the universalized maxim could not be a universal law.") 2. regard it not as a personal policy but as a principle for everyone. (Our first example seems harmless. Then we need to ask a further question: could we will that the maxim be a universal law? (For example. they seem to say different things." or "in situations in which I need money and know I can't pay it back.

That would seem to eliminate a very large number of human interactions! Treating others as mere means. and therefore cannot himself contain the end of this action. For he whom I propose by such a promise to use for my own purposes cannot possibly assent to my mode of acting towards him. But what would it be to treat someone as an end in him or herself? Kant's idea seems to be that we treat someone as an end only insofar as we act toward him or her in a way that he or she can understand as appropriate or justified: we should be able to explain our reasons in such a way that the person will see the reasonableness of acting in the way we propose. Kant writes: "he who is thinking of making a lying promise to others will see at once that he would be using another man merely as a mean. certain kinds of corporate and sexual relationships seem like clear examples of it." The idea here is that everyone. appears to be actions which treat others in such a way that they do not have the opportunity to consent to what we are doing. but you could not will that it be a universal law. Kant¶s maxim against insincere promises and his maxim that we should always aid someone in distress. without the latter containing at the same time the end in himself. never as mere means. If it is immoral to lie in one situation it is immoral to lie in all situations. we ought therefore to treat people as having a value all their own rather than merely as useful tools or devices by means of which we can satisfy our own goals or purposes. treating them only as devices we can use to help us satisfy our desires. Other people are valuable not merely insofar as they can serve our purposes. j j j Kant¶s philosophy fails because it concentrates only on the reason for an action and does not consider the results of an action. j j j According to Kant¶s philosophy.) If the maxim could be a universal law. they are also valuable in themselves. So we treat others as mere means when we force them to do something. Thus. "act so as to treat people always as ends in themselves." What is ruled out by this formulation. seems a clear enough notion.others in distress. Should you aid your family and make a promise you have no intention of keeping or should you let your family die? Kant¶s philosophy does not allow for exceptions and so when principles are in conflict it leads to a contradiction. . principles can conflict and in order to adhere to one involves the violation of another. See his fourth example. Note that the formula does not rule out all cases of using someone else to satisfy my own desires or projects. The major weaknesses Kant¶s categorical imperative include j j j Kant does not allow for any exceptions to his principle of morality. insofar as he or she is a rational being. There are situations where making an insincere promise could help someone ± suppose that your family will starve to death unless you obtain food immediately and a billionaire offers to provide the food if you will promise repayment within 24 hours. or when we obtain their consent through coercion or dishonesty. There are numerous examples when people have been well-intentioned but the resulting consequences of their actions are terrible. but that we could not will that this be the case because that would mean no one would help us when we were in distress. you have an imperfect duty not to perform the action. for example. therefore. is intrinsically valuable. Telling someone they look nice even though it isn¶t true is immoral even if it saves hurt feelings and human relationships. The formula for end in itself The second formulation that is important for us is the formula of the end in itself: roughly. For example.

The workers should not be allowed to work in unhealthy environment even if there is no law preventing it. For example any decision taken by company should be considered for will affect the shareholder¶s interest. For example. Everyone should be driven by the universal law. j j j It does not allow for prioritizing options available. Is this act moral just because the parent intended on helping a child in distress? Clearly not. what would be the decision makers expectation had they been a stake holder. Conclusion Immanuel Kant focused his thoughts mainly on considering each activity undertaken by human being to be a universal one. in present scenario there are certain firms. This can help individuals and also businesses to make more logical decision considering everybody¶s welfare. which claim that they are not unethical for the reason there is no law preventing their actions and claiming their activities to be permissible. Such thoughts have to be changed. employees should be given humanitarian consideration in case of sickness. unhealthiness. In another perspective. There should not be any inclined motive of self interest. . etc. The parent gives the child a large dosage of medicine to make them feel better. but the child overdoses and dies. the outcome of the act is as important as the intention ± the parent would probably be charged with manslaughter for their action ± not their good intention. Relevance Today The theory proposed by Kant can be widely applied to the stake holder analysis.o Consider a parent who has the intention of easing a sick child¶s pain. and will they take this decision every time.

forced the Prussian government to close the paper. he also wrote a polemic (The Poverty of Philosophy) against the idealistic socialism of P. In the Manuscripts. became a communist and set down his views in a series of writings known as the Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts (1844). Marx was expelled from Paris at the end of 1844 and with Engels. He also was the author of the movement¶s most important book. commonly known as The Communist Manifesto. Marx settled in London in the year 1849 and rejoined the Communist League and wrote two pamphlets on the 1848 revolution in France and its aftermath. and writing in the British Museum. He gradually moved into journalism and. Proudhon. he did manage to comment substantially on contemporary . He published (with Friedrich Engels) Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei (1848). his social. These writings and others by Marx and Engels form the basis of the body of thought and belief known as Marxism. Marx became a member of the Young Hegelian movement which produced a radical critique of Christianity and by implication. Marx then immigrated to France and during his first few months in Paris. economic and political ideas gained rapid acceptance in the socialist movement after his death in 1883. Marx's articles. became the editor of the influential µRheinische Zeitung¶. Marx's health declined and he was incapable of sustained effort that had so characterized his previous work. the most celebrated pamphlet in the history of the socialist movement. a liberal newspaper backed by industrialists. He joined the Communist League. 1818. During the first half of the 1850s. particularly those on economic questions. influenced by the philosophy of Ludwig Feuerbach and based on a contrast between the alienated nature of labour under capitalism and a communist society in which human beings freely developed their nature in cooperative production. concluding with the threevolume Das Kapital. enrolled in the Faculty of Law at the University of Bonn. Marx outlined a humanist conception of communism. economist. the liberal opposition to the Prussian autocracy. he became a journalist." At the same time Marx was composing The German Ideology.KARL MARXS Karl Marx was revolutionary. researching. and economist. However. Although he was largely ignored by scholars in his own lifetime. the last two volumes of which Engels wrote from Marx's rough notes and manuscripts. moved to Brussels where he remained for the next three years. While in Brussels Marx devoted himself to an intensive study of history and elaborated what came to be known as the materialist conception of history. Marx spent years reading. Brussels. he wrote the Communist Manifesto in 1848. He came from a long line of rabbis on both sides of his family and at the age of seventeen. which remained unpublished until the 1930s. J. and finally London. followed by numerous other works. This he developed in a manuscript. sociologist. During the last decade of his life. historian. Marx was a brilliant scholar. an organization of German émigré workers with its centre in London of which Marx and Engels became the major theoreticians. he married and had 6 children and worked as a foreign correspondent for the New York Daily Tribune. of which the basic thesis was that "the nature of individuals depends on the material conditions determining their production. in October 1842. It was in Paris that Marx developed his lifelong partnership with Friedrich Engels. Das Kapital. About the Author: Karl Heinrich Marx was born into a comfortable middle-class home in Trier on May 5. and philosopher. There. The Class Struggles in France and The 18th Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte. After studying law and philosophy in Prussia (now Germany). His radical ideas led to successive exiles in Paris. With his close friend Friedrich Engels.

In the book Marx argued that the superstructure of law. Eg: The major powers of the world like the United States have a key role in maintaining global peace. Marx died March 14. He went on to argue that the conflict between these two classes would eventually lead to revolution and the triumph of the proletariat. Employee welfare: Marx gave the concept of financial and physiological safety to the employee. With the disappearance of the bourgeoisie as a class.politics. . religion. Instead. Employers could appropriate the new output value because of their ownership of the productive capital assets²protected by the state. Marx believed that these two classes are not merely different from each other. 1883 and was buried at Highgate Cemetery in North London." Marx argued that if you are to understand human history you must not see it as the story of great individuals or the conflict between states. he wrote. but also have different interests. but their social existence that determines their consciousness. Might is Right: The Marxism principle of might equals right can be analysed from 2 different dimensions. especially the role played by a democratic hegemony and liberal major powers. The second approach. "the consciousness of men that determines their existence. "It is not". the workers constantly reproduced the condition of capitalism by their labour. ESI Act 1948: This act provides insurance and protection to the employee and is based on Marxian theory. By producing output as capital for the employers. ³right makes might´. emphasizes the importance of authority for creating liberal peace. was in the exploitation and alienation of labour. traces the evolution of the systemic democratic peace to shifts in morality and liberal norms. you must see it as the story of social classes and their struggles with each other. ³might makes right´. art and philosophy was determined by economic forces. according to Marx. politics. there would no longer be a class sovietised in them. By the term bourgeoisie Marx meant the owners of the factories and the raw materials which are process. Also the heads of every nation use the powers that are vested upon them to ensure the rights of its citizens. The ultimate source of capitalist profits and surplus was the unpaid labour of wage labourers." Das kapital The central driving force of capitalism. Marx explained that social classes had changed over time but in the 19th century the most important classes were the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. The first approach. particularly in Germany and Russia. "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles. RELEVENCE: Karl Marx theories and philosophy is still relevant today and is followed by many countries worldwide 1) 2) 3) 4) Minimum Wage Act 19 : This act of providing equal opportunity and fair wages to labour class is based on the concepts provided by Marx. ABOUT HIS BOOKS: The Communist Manifesto It begins with the assertion. A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy This book was published in 1859.

An illustration for might is right is the American invasion of Iraq. failed to materialize. sociology. a "negative ideology. Many of his expectations about the future course of the revolutionary movement have. his stress on the economic factor in society and his analysis of the class structure in class conflict has had an enormous influence on history." concerned primarily with criticism of the status quo. leaving Marxism. so far. resulting in several different and competing Marxist views of the way a communist society should be organized Conclusion Marx's contribution to our understanding of society has been enormous. µMight is right¶ concept is also used in Darwinism concept of survival of the fittest. Later generations of Marxists have attempted to fill in the gap. The mightier will overcome the lesser strong and thereby would survive and the others would perish. and study of human culture . CRITICAL ANALYSIS: Criticisms of Marxism have come from the political left as well as the political right Marx and Engels never dedicated much work to show how exactly a communist economy would function. The violent attacks on the people of Iraq under the pretence of removing terrorism have been justified because of their might as a global super power. However.Eg: The awakening of people for their need for independent existence in countries like Namibia and India made them cry for their rights and thereby create an independent nation and political system. at least in its classical form.

invasion. According to him. This period was marked by political instability. is generally accepted as an early contributor to the scientific revolution because he looked at power and the nature of sovereignty through the eyes of a scientist. cruelty. About Niccolò Machiavelli (1469±1527) Niccolò Machiavelli was born on May 3. His theory can be explained with the following examples: . Savonarola who set up a true Florentine Republic. It includes the period between years 375 and 1492 but the main focus is on the events that took place after 1434. of this new republic. He was engaged in diplomatic missions through France and Germany as well as Italy. The Prince uses a very pragmatic approach. Niccolò Machiavelli began his career as an active politician under the titles of Secretary of the Second Chancery and Secretary to the Ten of Liberty and Peace. He did so by observing the phenomena of politics. The Prince. After more than a decade of public service. The Florentine Histories is his longest work. individual leadership. and intrigue as the tiny states of Italy were pulled into the politics and wars of Europe by the two large states. Spain and France. He considered a successful ruler to be above morality. Whereas in Discourses. reasons about matters of warfare and finally returns to the theme of The Prince. His repeated efforts to win the confidence and approval of the new regime were unsuccessful and he was forced into retirement. When Savonarola was himself thrown from power and burned. The Art of War. Niccolò Machiavelli (14691527). since the safety and expansion of the state are the supreme objectives. even to the point of cynicism. to political action. His life spanned the greatest period of cultural achievement in Florence to its ultimate downfall. He also witnessed the downfall of the Medici power as Lorenzo's son and successor. In his lifetime. Throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. and willfully destructive rationality. Piero de'Medici. Machiavelli was the first major Western thinker to discuss politics and social phenomena in his own terms without recourse to ethics or jurisprudence. The Medici imprisoned and tortured him in 1513 and eventually banished him to his country estate at San Casciano. the ends justify the means. he was driven from his post in 1512 when The Republic was crushed by the Spanish who installed the Medici's as rulers of Florence once again.MACHIAVELLI Among the most original thinkers of the Renaissance is a brilliant and slightly tragic figure. focused completely on the goal without regard for religion and morals and ethics. a political philosopher. In 1498. Theory on business ethics Niccolo Machiavelli. a second Republic was set up under Soderini in 1498. was thrown from power by the Dominican monk. It was during his exile in San Casciano that he wrote his principle works: the Discourse on Livy. he saw the efflorescence of Florentine culture and political power under the brilliant political genius of Lorenzo de'Medici. Florentine Histories and Mandragola (a play). Machiavelli talks about the internal structure of the republic. his name was synonymous with deviousness. 1469 in Florence as a lawyer¶s son. fear. reading all that has been written on the subject and describing political systems in his own terms. Machiavelli separated ethics from politics. He was educated according to the humanist ideals of the Renaissance with the focus on Latin and the classics. The Art of War is a dialogue on military affairs. The Price is about principalities where as the Discourses is about republics.

or simply being a µgood person¶ but it is the effective governing of the state. Machiavelli makes observations about the actual conduct of political leaders and looks at whether or not they achieve the results they set out to achieve. he puts forth a view in favor of a Republic without corruption and with rights for the citizens. most notably The Discourses. rather. According to him. This can only be accomplished through the acquisition and preservation of power. when of the two. Therefore. arguing that such a condition cannot be achieved without recognizing the reality of politics. in essence." or "prowess"] in both favorable and adverse circumstances. force or beastly actions will save the prince. The Prince (Il Principe) is Machiavelli¶s most famous book. However he realizes that while it is important to be feared. . This means that the prince should work within the laws and within traditional conceptions of morality whenever possible. false. Machiavelli actually spends five pages detailing the atrocities committed by Borgia and then says ³having reviewed all the actions of the Duke I would not wish to criticize him.´ According to Machiavelli. They are usually willing to throw out moral concerns if it is to their advantage.The Shakespearean view of the man is the ³murderous Machiavel´. one must have recourse to the latter. He is. rulers must seem to be generous while spending their money wisely. However to be a truly effective ruler. the ruler needs to acquire a good reputation while actually doing whatever wrong seems necessary in the circumstances. The only way is to learn not to be moral but to be ruthless when you must. In Machiavelli¶s career and in his other works. This is why Machiavelli is criticized by many for suggesting fraud and treachery as an acceptable tactic. and sometimes injustice and violence." "skill. Critical Analysis Machiavelli has a negative view on human nature and in his work. Machiavelli believes that morality has its place among regular men. In the case of Cesare Borgia. The Elizabethan English were the harshest critics. the prince must be prepared to step outside these bound. Machiavelli feels that failing to be cruel in certain situations is much less merciful in the long run.Eg. there are two ways of contending: one by using laws and the other by force. He believes that small acts of cruelty are preferred to mass suffering. fickle. The ultimate goal of princely morality is not justice. it is much safer to be feared than loved. He then uses these considerations as a basis of practical recommendations and these recommendations frequently go against common morality. however since a prince is not a regular man. he seems to me worthy to be held up as a model. the need for cunning. This book offers practical advice on how to rule a city like sixteenth-century Florence. he must ascribe to a sort of princely morality. They can¶t be trusted. He understands that the prince is living and governing in the real world and not some ideal city. cowardly and covetous. a ruler must know well how to imitate beasts as well as employing properly human means. Thus according to Machiavelli. either must be dispensed with because People are ungrateful. condemning him as "a truly evil man" . Thus. Machiavelli is an archetypical realist. appear to be compassionate while ruling their armies cruelly and act with great cunning while cultivating a reputation for integrity. deception. it is equally important not to incur the hatred of the citizens otherwise no amount of cruelty. Its overall theme is that the successful prince must exhibit virtù [variously translated as "strength. he argues that the social benefits of stability and security can be achieved even in the face of moral corruption. The first is appropriate for men and the second is for animals but because the former is often ineffective.

Often during a major merger or acquisition it is necessary to relocate the corporate offices for just the reasons Machiavelli indicates. the prince should "come to live in it". the disturbances would not have degraded into general massacres. Otherwise the moral man will lose out to a ruthless one. innocent people should not be executed but at times it might be necessary. For Machiavelli the ends justify the means. Rather. anarchy must be averted and a Prince must protect his subjects and create conditions for stability. This is good advice for any decision-maker. It is important to understand the context in which Machiavelli wrote his books. Machiavelli¶s emphasis on political expediency was not in the service of the personal power of a politician or leader but in allowing that leader to do what is necessary for the sake of the people. public opinion was against such a move. In the early 1500¶s the town of Pistoia was under the Florentine sphere of influence but a rivalry between the Cancellieri and Panciatichi families started riots and unrest. Hence through his works. The result was a civil war and unrest in 1502-03 where people were hacked in the streets and mass killing and anarchy occurred. He advised the leaders of the republic that Florence should avoid anarchy so close to the city by going in with its overwhelming power and simply taking control from the Pistoians. They feared a reputation for cruelty and instead tried to simply continue to broker a deal. success in modern business usually concerns the ability to manage who are your friends and who are your enemies. However one feels that Machiavelli is greatly misunderstood. Thus Machiavelli believes that small acts of cruelty are preferred to mass suffering and points to the Florentines and asserts if they would have punished the ring leaders of the factions involved in the riots. if possible. At that time. avarice. However drawing a connection between Machiavelli¶s states and modern day corporations is not difficult since the psychology of human behavior is still the same. However in Florence. Machiavelli describes mercenaries as useless and dangerous. Machiavelli suggests that when an acquired kingdom is difficult to manage. Machiavelli¶s advice to today¶s manager would be to cultivate his own employees and be extremely cautious in utilizing the popular temporary services. peace and prosperity. According to him. The use of mercenaries is soundly criticized in The Prince. For the latter usually harm a whole community whereas the executions ordered by a ruler harm only specific individuals.The popular belief about µThe Prince¶ is that it is just a manual on how to gain power by any means necessary. Machiavelli encourages the prince to avoid being hated. His experiences as a young man are reflected in his works. Even the concepts of power and military force have changed drammatically since 1945. Relevance today Machiavelli's model of city-state politics 500 years ago does not give us the degree of confidence necessary for our acceptance of his conclusions today. His belief that a leader should maintain an army rather than use mercenaries can be compared to the current trend towards utilizing temporary workers. The ends are noble but due to human nature ± greed. with no regard to how you should use that power. Indeed. Much of what is considered objectionable in The Prince is clearly laid out by Machiavelli to be emergency actions that should be employed cautiously and only when the survival of the state requires such action. Machiavelli deals with the realities of deception and power politics. . but the ends themselves are not simply power for power¶s sake. Florence was a republic and Niccolo Machiavelli was Chancellor of the Florence Republic. and weakness ± one needs to do whatever it takes to achieve those ends.

Mutiny. The challenge to idealists and humanists is to not simply deny or reject Machiavelli. rather than remain neutral when neighbors are at war. He captures an aspect of politics that existed in Italy in the 16 th century. back-stabbing. Conclusion Machiavelli¶s ideas can¶t be ignored or dismissed. I personally feel that it all depends on the circumstance that the person is in and that in today¶s world. enriching him. has got both positive and negative sides to it and different viewpoints can be used to justify the same. The challenge of the realist is clear and present: to talk about the ³ought´ question while ignoring the ³is´ question risks self-delusion. Clearly. Selecting and grooming proper lieutenants is as important for today¶s executives as for Machiavelli¶s prince. and exists yet today. the Prince should be considerate of him. binding him to himself by benefits and sharing with him the honours as well as the burdens. . he will become the prey of the victor to the satisfaction and delight of the vanquished. Thus Machiavelli presents good advice concerning the hiring of senior employees. is particularly pertinent because if he fails to do so. and deceit in the quest for individual gain are too common in today¶s business world. dignifying him. The use of unethical practices to do a good deed. one has to be shrewd enough even to do right things at the right time and the right place. Though all of these axioms are quite valuable for today¶s executive. a modern executive would do well to consider the attitudes of all the players involved in a conflict and act in such a manner as to preserve and enhance his own power and influence. To keep his Minister good.Machiavelli also states that a Minister thinking more of himself can never be a good Minister or one that can be trusted. and violence will usually result in the ultimate demise of the perpetrator. Machiavelli¶s guidance for princes to choose a side. for the victor dislikes doubtful friends and the vanquished will have nothing to say. Machiavelli did fail to acknowledge the value of dependability and that systematic deceit. treachery. but confront what gives his ideas power centuries after they were written and think seriously about what it might take to have a world where political expediency does not require amorality.

3. Bentham sketched a felicific ("happiness-making") calculus. The ends of an action justify the means taken to reach those ends. An action is morally right if it produces the greatest good for the greatest number of people An action is morally right it the net benefits over costs are greatest for a will affected compared with the net benefits of all other possible choices An action is morally right if its benefits are greatest for each individual and if these benefits outweigh the costs and benefits of the alternatives. From 1830 to his death. of an action. Jeremy Bentham & John Stuart Mill are the founders of the concept of Utilitarianism. political theorist. was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century whose works on liberty justified freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state control. Bentham's campaign for social and political reforms in all areas. He insisted that happiness was to be assessed not merely by quantity but by quality. Bentham's ambition in life was to create a "Pannomion". although his conception of it was very different from Bentham's. which takes into account the intensity. Although various interpretations of the concept exist. they are wrong. Utilitarianism includes 1.UTILITARIANISM BASIC DEFINITION Actions are right if they produce more good than bad when the consequences to all affected parties are considered. Happiness is identified with pleasure and the absence of pain. extent. had its theoretical basis in his utilitarianism. As a consequentialist principle. political economist. John Stuart Mill. He clearly set forth the premises of the scientific method. which approves of an action in so far as an action has an overall tendency to promote the greatest amount of happiness. likelihood. a work written in 1780 but not published until 1789. THE AUTHOR(s) Jeremy Bentham was an English utilitarian philosopher and social reformer. WHAT IS GOOD?    Pleasure Absence of pain Happiness . or results. the basic view holds that an action is judged as right or good on the basis of its consequences. an English philosopher. most notably the criminal law. Otherwise. and that welfare consists of their happiness. the moral authority that drives utilitarianism is the calculated consequences. but also expounded an underlying moral principle on which they should be based. civil servant and Member of Parliament. duration. a complete utilitarian code of law. To work out the overall tendency of an action. he tried to persuade the British public of the necessity of a scientific approach to understanding social. expounded in his Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. regardless of other principles that determine the means or motivations for taking the action. etc of pleasures and pains. [2] He was an exponent of utilitarianism. 2. Bentham not only proposed many legal and social reforms. In it he formulated the principle of utility. Sir William Blackstone. political and economic change while not neglecting the insights of poets and other imaginative writers. His Utilitarianism 1861 remains the classic defence of the view that we ought to aim at maximizing the welfare of all sentient creatures. an ethical theory developed by Jeremy Bentham. He first attained attention as a critic of the leading legal theorist in eighteenth century England.

Never to kill another human being may seem to be a good rule. from that. by unhappiness. we must first consider the likely consequences of potential actions and. It can be contrasted with deontological ethics(which do not regard the consequences of an act as the sole determinant of its moral worth) and virtue ethics (which focuses on character). when faced with a choice. acts should be classified as morally right or wrong only if the consequences are of such significance that a person would wish to see the agent compelled. If the difference in the consequences of alternative acts is not great. it is possible for the right thing to be done from a bad motive. According to Mill.  Satisfaction of preferences Well-being ABOUT UTILITARIANISM AND ITS TYPES ³The creed which accepts as the foundation of morals. By happiness. Act utilitarianism states that. Utility or. The right action remains that which produces the best consequences but the best consequences are those that satisfy personal preferences and can be a variety of goods/values besides pleasure. begins by looking at potential rules of action. or to prevent the greatest amount of suffering for the greatest number. as well as with other varieties of consequentialism. This is not pluralist utilitarianism. whether arising after the act has been performed or during its performance. pain and the privation of pleasure´ ± John Stuart Mill in Utilitarianism. for. choose to do what we believe will generate most pleasure.´ ³right. according to the Utilitarian. this type of utilitarianism falls victim to the Repugnant Conclusion. which recognises several important values Utilitarianism also differs from ethical theories that make the rightness or wrongness of an act dependent upon the motive of the agent. Total utilitarianism advocates measuring the utility of a population based on the total utility of its members. Negative utilitarianism (NU) requires us to promote the least amount of evil or harm. he does so with reasons drawn from the principle itself. the Greatest Happiness Principle holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness. In the notion of consequences the Utilitarian includes all of the good and bad produced by the act. is intended pleasure and the absence of pain. Utilitarianism can thus be characterised as a quantitative and reductionist approach to ethics. Rule utilitarianism has been criticized for advocating general rules that will in some specific circumstances clearly decrease happiness if followed. Preference Utilitarianism. The rule utilitarian. wrong as they promote the reverse of happiness. not merely persuaded and exhorted. According to Derek Parfit. Bentham believed that only in terms of a Utilitarian interpretation do words such as ³ought. but it could make self-defence against malevolent aggressors very difficult. some Utilitarian¶s do not regard the choice between them as a moral issue.´ and ³wrong´ have meaning and that whenever anyone attempts to combat the principle of utility. . this type of utilitarianism defines the good to be maximised as the fulfilment of people¶s preferences. However there is within rule utilitarianism a distinction between the strictness and absolutism of this particular branch of utilitarianism. to act in the preferred manner. whereby large numbers of people with very low but non-negative utility values can be seen as a better goal than a population of a less extreme size living in comfort. on the other hand.

as a rule it is immoral. but that does not mean that they reject them altogether: first. would agree that acts such as enslavement and genocide always cause great unhappiness and very little happiness. Lack of convincing proof Another criticism of utilitarianism is that it is not proven. too. much the same applies to utilitarianism. Utilitarians simply try their best to maximise happiness (or other forms of utility) and. human rights could be considered rules of thumb so that. rendering impossible the task of adding up the various pleasures of multiple individuals. are not required to have perfect knowledge. make their best estimates of the consequences. Supporters claim that this is common to all ethical schools. Once this is recognised. The aggregation of utility becomes futile as both pain and happiness are intrinsic to and inseparable from the consciousness in which they are felt. to be the correct ethical system. Predicting consequences Utilitarians. indeed. do not accept human rights as moral principles in and of themselves. although torture might be acceptable under some circumstances. on the other hand. is satisfactorily resolved. it may make sense to follow an ethical rule which has promoted the most utility in the past. and. and may align far more closely with our moral intuitions. institutions and punishment. and indeed the system of logic itself. act utilitarians often support human rights in a legal sense because utilitarians support laws that cause more good than harm. Human rights Act and rule utilitarians differ in how they treat human rights themselves. not at the desires or intentions that motivate them. that they are unable to make a decision. and rules. however. certain knowledge of consequences is impossible because consequences are in the unexperienced future. Act utilitarians. mistakenly ignoring the separation of consciousness. supporters argue that utilitarianism becomes a much more complex. most act utilitarians. finally. Bad intentions may cause harm (to the agent and to others) even if they do not result in bad acts. and rich. and will always remain so unless the problem of the regress argument. praise and blame. An action intended to cause harm but which inadvertently causes good would be judged equal to the good result of an action done with the best intentions. He argues that this entails treating a group of many as if it were a single sentient entity. moral theory. to do this. Many utilitarians argue that utilitarianism applies not only to results but also to desires and dispositions. Under rule utilitarianism. either by science or by logic. a human right can easily be considered a moral rule. It . If the consequences of a decision are particularly unclear. as explained above. however. second. or at least the is-ought problem. which many consider important. Importance of intentions Utilitarianism has been criticised for looking only at the results of actions. This does not mean.CRITICISM Aggregating utility John Rawls gives a critique of Utilitarianism in A Theory Of Justice that rejects the idea that the happiness of two distinct persons could be meaningfully counted together. Utilitarians also note that people trying to further their own interests frequently run into situations in which the consequences of their decisions are very unclear.

but this incentive is not active in a situation where one can personally gain by breaking it without punishment. then there is also an infinite number of people and therefor infinite amount of pain and pleasure. According to Nick Bostrom. may propose means to maximise self-interest that conflict with the means proposed by another egoist. but the foundational ethical imperative would not. However. be utilitarian. If it is true. Infinitarian paralysis According to most modern cosmology theories the universe is infinite. we can affect only finite amount of pain and pleasure. out of self-interest."He further states that we can not use an ethical theory which combined with our current best scientific guesses means that it is always ethically indifferent what we do. The legal system might punish behavior that harms others. Yet an infinite quantity can not be changed by adding or subtracting a finite quantity. The means proposed may incidentally coincide with those prescribed by utilitarianism. this means that "every possible act of ours therefore has the same net effect on the total amount of good and bad in a canonically infinite world: none whatsoever. As a result. Individual interests vs. a greater sum of lesser interests Critics have also asked why one should follow utilitarianism instead of ethical egoism. . it behooves them to compromise with one another in order to avoid conflict. all sides claiming that their proposed solution is the one that increases human happiness the most. however. One egoist. of course.might instead be argued that almost all political arguments about a future society use an unspoken utilitarian principle.

 Moral virtues: This virtue is common to all humans. Virtue theorists also emphasize the need for people to learn how to break bad habits of character. These character traits will. Good leaders (parent and civic leaders) are necessary to guide us in the development of good habits. Virtue-based ethical theories place less emphasis on which rules people should follow and instead focus on helping people develop good character traits. These are called vices and stand in the way of becoming a good person.Virtue ethics Both teleological and deontological ethical theories are called µdeontic¶ or action-based theories of morality because they focus entirely upon the actions which a person performs. but it may vary in degree according to our capacities. but it must be developed through constant practice. habit. but it must be developed through constant practice. ³Will this act help lead me to be the person I should be? Will I be a person of good character´ People have a natural capacity for good character. but important. in turn. all important. "Which action should I choose?" Virtue ethics. Business and Professional Ethics application: We should ask. lawyer. its name. or rather. doctor. Those theories focus on the question. Virtuous acts (following the Mean) can lead to good habits. Moral virtue ³is the outcome of habit.e. etc. like greed or anger. cook. Happiness Good Character Good Habits Good Actions Good thoughts Virtuous thoughts lead to good acts. farmer. they will differ for a truck driver.  Humans can have two kinds of virtue:  Intellectual virtues: these relate particularly to our professions. A good character can be happy. Good leaders (parent and civic leaders) are necessary to guide us in the development of good habits . Good habits make for a good character. however. is derived from ethos. Virtue ethics' founding fathers are Plato and.´   Both intellectual and moral virtues are needed for us to achieve happiness (eudaemonia) People have a natural capacity for good character. i. ethike. It suffered a momentary eclipse during the nineteenth century but re-emerged in the late 1950's in Anglo-American philosophy. such as kindness and generosity.. take a very different perspective. allow a person to make the correct decisions later on in life. So the difference between one and another training in habits in our childhood is not a light manner. more particularly Aristotle (its roots in Chinese philosophy are even more ancient) and it persisted as the dominant approach in Western moral philosophy until at least the Enlightenment.

y Virtue ethics . there will be less focus on lying and more consideration will be paid to the character and moral behavior of the person in question who ends up lying . The virtue of a knife is sharpness . lying is always wrong as the character of an act like lying is defined immoral and unjust . the person lives in the state of EUDAMONIA if he practices virtues . the virtue of race horse is speed . According to Deontology . consequentialism and deontology are talked in the same frame of reference Consequentialism . Also provides rationale and foundation for peace education . Deontology ± according to this theory the rightness or the wrongness of an act is judged by the character of he act . To mark the difference between these three lets take an example : According to Consequentialism . y Virtues are defined as the habit / quality that enables the bearer to succeed his purpose . EUDAMONIA is defined as the state of happiness and blissfulness . According to Virtue ethics . . lying can be acceptable if the it results in any social benefit to people . y y Virtue ethics theories form a part of the predominant contemporary normative ethical theories . In the similar fashion Aristotle categorized human virtues as moral and intellectual There as 8 moral virtues : Prudence Fortitude Liberality Magnaminity Justice Courage Magnificence Temperence Intellectual virtues are basically of 9 types but the most important one is wisdom Even the wisdom virtue is further fragmented in two : Theoratical Wisdom Practical Wisdom Application of virtue ethics : y y Helps in the formation of a balanced approach for capitalism in capitalist societies .y Virtue ethics emphasizes the character of the agent than the rules or consequences as the key element of the ethical thinking . For eg. In Virtue ethics .according to this theory the result of an act forms the basis for the judgement.

Following are the values in their value statement : Empathy Innovation Integrity Courage Criticism of the theory : y There involves a certain level of difficulty in establishing the nature of virtue . In Levis . the code of conduct for the employees form the deontological part whereas the statement of values form the part of virtue ethics . rules and regulations reflect these values For eg. . y The virtue ethics school of thought does not focus on what sorts of actions are morally permitted and which ones not but focuses on what qualities someone ought to have to foster to become a good person .In the frame of business ethics the most common manifestations of virtue ethics is business statement of values In business organizations . It means that different people or cultures have different opinions on what constitute a virtue .

Such rights are freedom of speech. Such rights are right to health care. It put the rightness of an action above its goodness.RIGHTS ETHICS: A MORAL AND LEGAL ENTITLEMENT BASED APPROACH In the rights ethical theory the rights set forth by a society are protected and given the highest priority. It acknowledges the existence of moral rights. or a combination of them. This theory is based on upholding an individual's human or legal rights. Negative rights refer to freedom from outside interference in certain activities which are defined by the social norm of the moment. Therefore. morality is based on the social contact between government and its citizens. For example in America people have the right to choose their religion because this right is upheld in the Constitution. Positive rights "are those that give one what is needed to freely pursue his or her interests. Those rights include: liberty rights and welfare rights. This contract provides certain inalienable rights such as life. in order for the rights theory to be useful. . Contractarianism is a rights-based approach to morality and ethics. The friend who was given the ability to borrow the car now has a right to the car in the afternoon. Throughout history many ethical theories have developed. a person may say that her friend may borrow the car for the afternoon. liberty and property. y The justification that individuals are entitled to rights can be used to disguise and manipulate unjust political claims and interests.based on the tradition of Locke and Hobbes. However there are certain limitations to the principle of rights ethics. For example. the Jews were persecuted for their religion because Hitler decided that Jews were detrimental to Germany's future success. rights are split up into positive and negative rights. is that one must decipher what the characteristics of a right are in a society. is a deontological theory. The society has to determine what rights it wants to uphold and give to its citizens. Each individual must choose one. education and other similar things. such as the rights to privacy and ownership of property. chose to eradicate the Jewish religion and those who practiced it. The American government upholds freedom of religion while the Nazi government did not uphold it and. it must be used in conjunction with another ethical theory that will consistently explain the goals of the society (1). However. The rights ethics is a protest towards absolutist ethics (absolutist ethics). CRITICAL ANALYSIS The rights ethics is a protest towards absolutist ethics. Rights are considered to be ethically correct and valid since a large or ruling population endorses them. Individuals may also bestow rights upon others if they have the ability and resources to do so. This suggests that it is not just what you do but how you do it is also important. It acknowledges the existence of moral rights. In the philosophical arena. Ensuring the rightness and soundness of each action will indirectly ensure the delivery of the right results rightly. According to this approach. under Hitler's reign in Germany. A major complication of this theory on a larger scale. however. One of the goals of the founding fathers' of America was to uphold this right to freedom of religion. In order for a society to determine what rights it wants to enact. instead. Rights-based ethics -. the right to liberty and privacy. it must decide what the society's goals and ethical priorities are. Contractarianism stresses that a system must be fair and accord all its participants due respect.

y The limits of rights come into question. Issues of reverse discriminations have arisen from this reasoning. where businesses operate without any territorial boundaries. be permitted? CURRENT RELEVANCE OF RIGHTS ETHICS Ethics as such is disappearing not just from the business arena. This philosophy is not universal as the rights in the world are not similar for all. so that business ethics will be standardized. it is essential to have a uniformity in rights. Such a loosely structured system provides an inappropriate ethical environment. Here. CONCLUSION In the rights ethical theory the rights set forth by a society are protected and given the highest priority. Men today are focused only on his rights and are not at all concerned about their duties.y Protection of rights can exaggerate certain entitlements in the society at the expense of others. Fairness and equity issues may be raised when the rights of an individual or group take precedence over the others. not considering the rights of others. And this is one of the reasons why ethics is vanishing from the business arena. rights are created to satisfy the unlimited and irrational wants of the law makers. . This right is different for different people. Such a situation widens the gap between individuals and societies and there exist no uniform standards. the absence of which will not deliver successfully to business ethics. but threaten certain rights. and is possible that what is right and ethical for one need not so for his fellow being. To what extent should practices that may benefit society. but also from the world as a whole. In this era of globalization. Rights are considered to be ethically correct and valid since a large or ruling population endorses them. Thus rights get into the system as the situation demands and it results in unequal distribution of rights in the society.

Knowledge having a bearing on human life was placed highest. all other knowledge being secondary. yi." Therefore. working hard to earn a living. commonly translated as "sincerity") and fidelity (xiao) to the ones to whom one owes one's existence (parents) and survival (one's neighbours. To our modern minds. Traditional ethics had been perverted by legalism. while an ignorant person will flounder and encounter difficulty. how a moral outcome can be achieved in specific situations (applied ethics). a person must become aware of every fact (and its context) relevant to his existence. His concepts of li. In this view. A self-aware person will act completely within their capabilities to their pinnacle. ontological. he will do good and be content. that is not always so obvious. He codified traditional practice and actually changed the meaning of the prior concepts that those words had meant. when a person acts in accordance with his nature and realizes his full potential.. Evil or bad actions are the result of ignorance. and ren can be seen as deeper expressions of honesty (cheng . in order to be content and complete. Self-knowledge was considered necessary for success and inherently an essential good. Unhappiness and frustration are caused by the unrealized potential of a person.. a baby is not a person. if he wishes to attain self-knowledge. such as what the fundamental semantic. hard to distinguish from any other dictatorship. Self-realization. To Socrates. colleagues. He posited that people will naturally do what is good. leading to failed goals and a poor life. Morality and Ethics are always interesting historical topics. Aristotle said. are merely means to the end. and epistemic nature of ethics or morality is (meta-ethics). if they know what is right. and what moral values people actually abide by (descriptive ethics). All other things. AUTHOR/S Greek Philosophy Socrates Socrates was one of the first Greek philosophers to encourage both scholars and the common citizen to turn their attention from the outside world to the condition of man. Aristotle Aristotle posited an ethical system that may be termed "self-realisationism. the child's inherent potential must be realized. Confucian ethics Confucius stresses honesty above all. how moral values should be determined (normative ethics). how moral capacity or moral agency develops and what its nature is (moral psychology). "Nature does nothing in vain. At birth. such as civic life or wealth. Yet most ancient societies certainly had standards of conduct in one form or another. but even today in some societies. etc. it is imperative for persons to act in accordance with their nature and develop their latent talents. but a potential person. Happiness was held to be the ultimate goal. This had ossified by then into an Imperial hierarchy of rigid property rights. is the surest path to happiness. inferiors in rank)." In Aristotle's view. In order to become a "real" person. the awareness of one's nature and the development of one's talents.ETHICS IN ANCIENT TEXTS Ethics (also known as moral philosophy) is a branch of philosophy which seeks to address questions about morality. what is basically ethical and moral sometimes seems relatively clear. His model of the Confucian family and Confucian ruler dominated Chinese life into the early 20th century. . such as not cheating or stealing.

argues that human nature must be nurtured through ritual (li). honesty and loyalty. Christian ethical principles are based on the teachings within the Holy Bible. Clearly. The main branch of Confucianism. Buddhist monks and nuns take hundreds more such vows. mercy and forgiveness. however. and are enriched by teachings in the Psalms and morals contained in historical accounts. doubt and fear. The New Testament on which Christianity diverges from Judaism added an eleventh ethical commandment: to ³love your neighbor as you love yourself´. Specific ethical behaviors originate in the Old Testament¶s Ten Commandments. sexual misconduct. the ideal ruler is one who does virtually nothing that can be directly identified as ruling. While interpretations of some passages vary. and the use of anthropological evidence from traditional Buddhist societies.Daoist ethics Laozi and other Daoist authors argued for an even greater passivity on the part of rulers than did the Confucians. Most scholars of Buddhist ethics thus rely on the examination of Buddhist scriptures. Personal ethics are the means to avoid or correct sin. or other enlightened beings that followed him. or affirming one's commitment to Buddhism.. Kindness and hospitality are key Hindu values. known as the doctrine of karma yoga. According to traditional Buddhism. Moral instructions are included in Buddhist scriptures or handed down through tradition. Christian thought is fairly unanimous on the key points of ethics. lying. stealing. In becoming a Buddhist. to justify claims about the nature of Buddhist ethics. This notion of brotherly love comes from the belief that God so loved the world that he gave His son to sacrifice Himself for humanity. mercy. a layperson is encouraged to vow to abstain from these negative actions. while the Daoists argued that the trappings of society were to be gotten rid of. Other tenets include maintaining personal integrity and the lack of hypocrisy. and forgiveness because of human weakness. Ethics in different religious texts/scriptures Buddhist ethics Ethics in Buddhism are traditionally based on the enlightened perspective of the Buddha. Key Biblical parables also teach the virtues of approaching life¶s decisions through a sense of personal peace and suppression of worry. the foundation of Buddhist ethics for laypeople is the Pancasila: no killing. The Buddha provided some basic guidelines for acceptable behavior that are part of the Noble Eightfold Path. culture (wen ) and other things. both Daoism and Confucianism presume that human nature is basically good. This precept defines a non-violent attitude toward every living thing. and thus selfless action for the benefit of others without thought for oneself is an important role in Hinduism. happiness and Godly devotion. For Laozi. The initial percept is non-injury or non-violence to all living creatures from the lowest insect to humans. The greeting namaskar is founded on the principle that one salutes the spark of the divine in the other. including loving your enemy. and teaching others in your life through personal joy. . which requires essential atonement. They begin with the notion of inherent sinfulness. as one may end up in someone else's shoes in their next incarnation. Intention is seen as very important. rejection of materialism and the desire for wealth and power. Christian ethics Christian ethics in general has tended to stress the need for grace. which is a way of expressing the need for reciprocity. Hindu ethics Hindu ethics are related to reincarnation. Christian ethics are founded upon the notion of personal freedom to choose and act righteously. or intoxicants.

From the viewpoint of subsequent generations. seeing himself facing his great grandfather Bhishma and his teacher Drona on the other side. deity. Beyond that. the Devi. satya (truth). 3) Mahabharata: According to the culture/norms when a messenger from one king goes to the other kingdom. Injury involved positive interference and so there was to be exhortation to practise non-interference. according to the Qur'an. Human being. orphans. Jain ethics Jainism encourages spiritual development through reliance on and cultivating one's own personal wisdom and selfcontrol . the Mother is a Divine Figure. For Muhammad. although pre-Islamic Arabia exemplified "heedlessness. humans are believed to have a moral responsibility to submit to God's will and to follow Islam. The goal is realization of the soul's true nature. and hell-being are the four forms of the samsari souls. Therefore. subverted by mankind's focus on material success: such focus first presents itself as a need for basic survival or security. and the aspect of the creative female energy plays a major role in the Hindu ethos. together constitute the path of liberation (moksha) from the the universal cycles of births and deaths. world view. Islamic ethics The foundational source in the gradual codification of Islamic ethics was the Muslim understanding and interpretations of the mankind have been granted the faculty to discern God's will and to abide by it. An emphasis on domestic life and the joys of the household and village may make Hindu ethics a bit more conservative than others on matters of sex and family. and others in need and for the establishment of justice. All worldly relations of one's jiva with other jiva and ajiva are based on its karma. ahimsa (non-violence). Every mundane soul has to follow the path as described by the Jinas (Tirthankaras) to attain moksha. Krishna wakes him up to his call of duty in the famous Bhagavad Gita section of the epic. 2) Ramayana : Ravan is considered to be a unethical person due to the fact that he had kidnapped and held Sita without her wish which lead to the his downfall at the hand of Lord Rama. brahmacarya (celibacy) and aparigraha (non-possession). has doubts about the battle and he fails to lift his G ndeeva bow. The Triple gems of Jainism. asteya (non-stealing). Muhammad approved and exhorted certain aspects of the Arab preIslamic tradition. The first is considered to be the most important because Jains believe in 'continuity of consciousness' and that one has no right to interfere with the progress (spiritual) of any being. he is not supposed to be harmed but then Lord Krishna went to Hastinapur as a peace messenger to convince them to . These changes lay in the reorientation of society as regards to identity and life of the Muslim belief. right vision or view (Samyak Darsana). animal and plant. such as the care for one¶s near kin. this caused a great transformation in the society and moral order of life in the Arabian Peninsula." it was not entirely without merit. The universe consists of living (J va) and non-living beings (Aj va). and the hierarchy of values. Those who have attained moksha are called siddha (liberated souls) and those who are attached to the world through their karma are called samsarin (mundane souls).More emphasis is placed on empathy than in other traditions. and women are sometimes upheld not only as great moral examples but also as great gurus. for widows. even the one-sensed. but then tends to manifest into a desire to become distinguished among one's peers. regardless of their environment. Examples Hindu Scriptures 1) Mahabharata: Before the battle. right knowledge (Samyak Jnana) and right conduct (Samyak Caritra). Arjun. There are five ethical principles prescribed by Mahavira to his followers. This natural inclination is. The samsarin (worldly) soul takes various forms of life.

pillar of fire and pillar of cloud. Also there are instances of Joseph¶s unwavering trust on God whom he loved. manna for food and springs gushing out of rocks during their sojourn to Canaan to display his love and faithfulness to his people. Islamic Scriptures The Islamic Scriptures such as the Koran finds much similarity to the examples mentioned in the Old Testament. practicing honesty. he was ordered to be captured by Duriyadan which was unethical which became one of the major reasons leading to full fledged war which could have been avoided by ethical handling of situation. in every teaching there lies a deep meaning which gets summed up in Matthew 22:37-39(which tells us to Love your Lord with all your heart. Can reason alone provide us with adequate motivation to do the right thing? Here the answer appears to be ³no. Whether it the story of the lost sheep. prophets to address the people about how they should live their lives 1) Exodus: Here God Almighty handed his servant Moses the Ten Commandments written by him on the Mount of Sinai. culture.´ Do you think that God intended us to be masters over the environment and all that in entails? . Christian Scriptures Old Testament In the Old Testament. Content. finding God within yourself and considering God¶s Will above all else. God anointed and appointed priests. The only thing God wanted from the Israelites was to be obedient and trust him 2) Genesis: There are instances of God testing Abraham¶s faith by asking him to sacrifice his only son. it narrows down to basic fact that all scriptures advocate the foundation of religion in reason that is.´ Motivation. which he wanted his people to engrave in their hearts. the sowing of the grain. pursuing justice. how do we enter it. the prodigal son. who was born to him in his old age.avoid war. all your soul and all your mind and Love your neighbor as yourselves). So there are 2 basic questions that need to be addressed: 1. all human beings beliefs. teachers of law. Also God performed many miraculous signs such as the crossing of the red sea. Are religion and reason related to one another in making ethical decision? The above question can be sub-divided into two subquestions i) ii) 2. Can reason alone provide us with adequate guidelines about how we should act? The answer appears to be ³yes. behaviors are shaped by their respective religious teachings of love for fellow-beings. Prophet Mohammed cites several real-life instances to guide people¶s way of living. respecting the will of the Almighty (Allah) above all else. New Testament In the four books of gospel. what kind of behavior God expects from us through parables. Critical Analysis After analyzing understanding the philosophies and teachings of various authors and religions. This he calls as summation of all the commandments to lead a upright and righteous life according to the will of God. Lord Jesus talks about the kingdom of heaven. values.

Religious books still form the basis for determining the ethical code of conduct. There are certain communities who still follow the Aristotle. Aristotle and Confucius and many examples of which some have been cited below substantiate this fact:  Oscar Romero of El Salvador fought for the rights of the poor and was assassinated by government troops  Mother Teresa of Calcutta left the life of a teacher to work with the ³poor of the poor´ in the streets of Calcutta. beliefs and finally behavior. values and social norms of cultures and societies. On the Whole we can see that the contribution of the ancient scriptures to the ethics is remarkable due to the face that its these scriptures that defines cultures. Hinduism. it becomes quite evident that y Religion can be an indispensable part of ethics because religion helps transcend and address the difficulties and inequities of life. though with passage of time it is fading away. But in today¶s scenario religions have a definitive impact on the beliefs. so it¶s the responsibility of business corporation to responsibly use the limited natural resources and create a sustainable environment for all future generations. . which was thought to affect every aspect of the ancient land of Egypt. Jain Scriptures.The above situations are some of the instances. support the belief that all creation has to be preserved and taken care of. Buddhism or Jainism. Today¶s Relevance Ancient Texts and scriptures are definitely relevant in today¶s context. Confucious. different NGO¶s taking initiatives to preserve the ecosystem and formation of international like the IPCC. In situation one Lord Krishna reminded Arjuna of his duties. and told him his duties are above all and he should not be influenced by personal feelings but should think of the whole society and in other instances we can see how the unethical practices of an individual resulted in the downfall of the big empires. which attempt to show the ethical issues and illeffect of being unethical. as it shapes an individual¶s values. WWF and the UNEP. ecological shifts. Socrates school of thought. Koran. India y All religions whether Christianity. This has shaped the formation of environmental activists. drastic climatic changes all find its roots in the scriptures of Holy Bible. Conclusion Based on critical analysis. An excellent example of ethical code of conduct that has faded away is the ancient Egyptian faith on Ma¶at who was a goddess representing the divine harmony and balance of the universe. Take for example. the consequences of environmental degradation which mankind is facing or is about to face in terms of natural calamities. which is fully supported by the philosophies of Socrates. Bhagwad Gita.