Slip     Liquid  clay  body  containing  clays,  flux  and  filler.  It  is  used  for  joining  2   pieces  of  clay  together  and  for  decoration.       Colorants  are  added  to  slips  to  give  it  color  for  decoration.     Application   Apply  in  layers  allowing  each  layer  to  dry  before  adding  the  next.   Depending  on  consistency  of  slip,  apply  1-­‐3  layers  (brushed)     Slips  are  formulated  for  a  specific  stage  of  clay.  Most  of  the  time  slips   are  applied  at  the  leatherhard  stage,  but  formulas  for  bone  dry  and   bisque  also  exist.  Be  sure  you  are  putting  the  right  slip  on  your  piece.     If  you  do  not  match  the  appropriate  slip  to  the  wet/dry  state  of  your   object,  it  may  flake  off.     Firing   Slips  are  formulated  for  specific  temperatures.  Never  over-­‐fire  a  slip.   Slips  fired  too  hot  may  turn  to  glass  and  melt  off  your  work.     Over-­‐fire  means  you  are  firing  to  a  temperature  above  its  maturation  –   firing  too  hot.     Slips  may  be  under  fired  (firing  to  a  temperature  lower  than   maturation)  but  may  flake  off.     Engobe/   An  engobe  is  a  slip.  It  is  called  a  vitreous  slip  because  it  fluxes  (melts)  a   Under-­‐ bit.   glaze     An  under-­‐glaze  is  also  a  slip  but  generally  manufactured  commercially   and  applied  at  bone  dry  or  bisque  state.       Glaze  is  the  name  of  the  “liquid  clay/glass”  coating  applied  to  bisque   ware  to  create  the  desired  surface  effect.  Glazes  are  primarily  silica   (glass)  combined  with  other  material  to  get  the  desired  color  and   surface  texture.     It  has  been  said  that  there  are  no  “bad”  glazes,  only  poor  application  of   the  glaze  being  used.  Also  that  80%  of  the  success  ratio  in  glazing  is   due  to  application.  Since  glaze  is  not  an  air  temperature  pigment,  the   fired  color  and  surface  quality  is  emitted  when  the  glaze  recipe   (chemical  components)  are  heated  to  the  correct  temperature  for   maturing  the  melt  of  the  materials  in  the  mixture.     Test  tile  samples  are  often  used  and  are  available  to  you  in  our  glaze   lab  to  aid  in  selections  made  for  surfacing.     Application   It  is  important  to  have  an  adequate  thickness  of  the  coating  of  glaze    








Over-­ glaze      

applied  to  the  piece.  On  the  average  the  glaze  coating  should  be  the   thickness  of  a  playing  card  or  approximately  1/32  of  an  inch.   Thickness  of  applied  glaze  can  be  checked  when  the  glaze  dries   completely  (five  minutes  on  the  average)  by  scratching  through  the   glaze  with  your  fingernail.  This  will  reveal  the  thickness  of  the  wall  of   glaze.     Application   Dipping   Pouring   Sponging   Techniques   Spraying   Brushing             Considerations  when  you  are  applying  glaze:       The  thickness  of  the  glaze  liquid  will  vary  and  must  be  taken  into   consideration  when  glazing.  If  the  glaze  is  applied  too  thick  then  your   glaze  may  run  or  flake  off.  Too  thin  and  the  work  may  look  as  though  it   was  never  glazed  or  the  color  may  not  be  what  you  expected.     The  length  of  time  that  the  ware  is  dipped/poured  into  or  over  the   ware  will  determine  thickness.  Submerging  ware  in  a  glaze  for  10   seconds  will  be  thicker  than  5  seconds.     The  thicker  the  wall  of  the  piece  the  more  glaze  it  will  absorb.   Conversely,  thin  walled  pieces  can  become  over  saturated  with  the   glaze  liquid.  This  will  cause  thinner  application  and  problems  in  drying   the  glaze  on  the  surface.     Allow  each  layer  to  dry  before  applying  the  next.     If  the  glaze  is  applied  too  thick  then  your  glaze  may  run  or  flake  off.   Too  thin  and  the  work  may  look  as  though  it  was  never  glazed  or  the   color  may  not  be  what  you  expected.     Firing   All  glazes  are  formulated  for  a  specific  firing  temperature.  It  is  crucial     that  the  glaze  reach  that  temperature  without  being  under  or  over-­‐ fired.     An  over-­‐fired  glaze  may  loose  its  color  and  run  off  the  piece  and  onto   the  shelves  making  a  huge  mess     An  under-­‐fired  glaze  may  not  melt  at  all  and  become  bisqued  on.  This   is  usually  not  attractive.  It  is  dry  and  lumpy.       Over-­‐glazes  are  applied  after  the  glaze  firing  and  over  the  glaze.  Once   an  over-­‐glaze  is  applied,  the  work  is  fired  again  at  a  much  lower   temperature.  Some  artists  will  fire  their  work  5-­‐10  times  all  the  while   building  their  surface  with  over-­‐glazes.     Types   China  Paint,  Enamel,  Luster