FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

MSc ADVANCED PRODUCT DESIGN

MNM201 - INTEGRATED CAD/CAM
J. A. GARCIA

THE FUTURE OF CAD/CAM
2010/2011

SUBMITTED BY: ARUN REDDY ALTE - K0961306 SANTHEEP KUMAR PAULRAJ - K0959118

Arun Reddy Alte (K0961306) Santheep Kumar Paulraj (K0959118) 2 . I declare that all references contained in this coursework have been correctly cited and the original authors are properly acknowledged.DECLARATION OF PLAGIARISM: I declare that I have fully read and understood the Kingston University’s definition of plagiarism. I declare that all additional work presented in this coursework is our own.

.......................................6 4............................................. PRESENT DEVELOPMENT METHOD WITH CAD/CAM...3....................................9 5.................................. CAD/CAM IN CERAMICS INDUSTRY ................ 12 7............................................... COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN (CAD)............2.......5 3....................................... FUTURE OF CAD/CAM INCERAMICS .... 13 8.. ABSTRACT ...................... 10 6............ LIST OF REFERENCES...... TRADITIONAL DEVELOPMENT METHOD .....................................8 5....7 5................. INTRODUCTION ....... FUTURE OF CAD/CAM IN GENERAL ......................6 3......................2.......................................4 2........................................................................8 5........................ FUNDAMENTALS OF CAD/CAM .................................................. 14 9........................................................................ 15 3 ............................ CONCLUSION..............................Table of Contents: 1......................................................................................................................................................................6 3........................................ DISCUSSION . HISTORY OF CAD/CAM .......................1..................1........................................................ COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING (CAM) .........................

1. history and future of CAD/CAM. The development of CAD/CAM over decades and its various advantages in the present engineering field is also briefed. ABSTRACT: Computers play a major role in human life. the developments and additional features to be incorporated in CAD/CAM software’s to satisfy the customer needs at present and in future has been discussed. Apart from this. 4 . Also the future trends and breakthrough of CAD/CAM in general is covered. present development and future development. In specific the introduction and impact of CAD/CAM in ceramics industry is taken as the key topic which includes the traditional development. This paper also covers the fundamentals. The advantages and benefits of implementing the CAD/CAM along with Rapid Prototyping process in ceramics industry have been explained. This assignment paper is focused on a computer based technology called CAD/CAM. which is marking its step in various industries performing the design and production activities.

2. The expectation level of product quality and reliability among the industry and consumers are growing higher. the other technologies which are growing higher in the product development process are Rapid Prototyping (RP) and Reverse Engineering (RE). history. Due to this global competition there is an increasing pressure on major companies to introduce new products and processes to the market as early as possible without compromising the product quality and performance. This situation has led to the rapid development and advancement in new technologies usually involving the computers. But still there is no end point for any technology and innovation. The current state of these technologies are almost stabilised by fulfilling the major requirements for a modern automated factory. both in terms of time and material resources. Followed by the evolution of CAD/CAM. To overcome this shorter lead time. applications and the future of CAD/CAM and RP are briefed. INTRODUCTION: In present scenario there exists a tough competition for manufactured products in the world market. In the following pages the fundamentals. so the future trends and the next revolution of these technologies are nearing. manufacturing and marketing have been squeezed. Though the application of these technologies has marked rapid strides in various industries. The decrease in the cost of computers and development of various features assisting the engineering works using computers has entirely changed the flow of factory works from the traditional way. this speculative paper focuses its integration in the Ceramics Industry to discuss about the existing usage and future development. the processes involved in the product design. testing. CAD/CAM (Computer-Aided Design / Computer-Aided Manufacturing) is one of the major technologies which are considered to be the base for all emerging technologies in the field of design and manufacturing. functions. 5 .

Apart from assisting in manufacturing.2 Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) is concerned with the integration of computer system into the manufacturing process with the aid of software which generates the Numerical Code (NC) for machining and various other processes. At present the CAD software’s are designed in such a way that it is easily integrated to the CAM. 1999). The CAD is operated as software which consists of programs to implement the computer graphics and application programs on the system to make ease the engineering functions of the respective company. CAD can also be defined as “A tool used to speed up (or) eliminate the efforts by engineers within the design/analysis cycle” (Mish. 1984). tolerances and manufacturing processes depending on the application (Groover. The model generated in the CAD software is taken as the input for CAM software. This application program varies for different companies based on their products and manufacturing methods. et al.1 Computer Aided Design (CAD) is a general term that describes the use of computer technology for designing an object. The primary objective of the CAM is to increase the production rate. production scheduling. material requirements planning and shop floor control (Groover. 1984). 3. which is either virtual (or) real. precision manufacture of the components and tooling’s and material consistency (minimizing the raw material wastage). 6 . CAM is also used to support the process planning. FUNDAMENTALS OF CAD/CAM: 3. These codes are fed into the CNC machines to manufacture the real product designed in the CAD. Due to this factor there was a need to develop different CAD systems as per the individual firm requirements. Similar to the manual drafting of engineering drawings the CAD software output also contains all the information including dimensions.3. which then generates the codes.

2001). CAM software’s were qualified by manual programming oriented and APT (Automatically Programmed Tool) based systems (Alan. The sketch pad is CAD software which allows the designer to create drawings directly on the computer monitor by using light pen. This evolution of CAD/CAM has rapidly changed the industrial sectors and improved the product quality. Han Ratty. These stages were carried out using pencil & paper and the final outcome is stored as blueprints for manufacturing purpose. The first CAM system was created in 1957 itself named as PRONTO. product design and drafting was manual. Euclid was often known as the Father of Geometry. elaborated many of the demands and axioms which stood as the foundation for Euclidian geometry.e. This traditional way of approach for a product design was a time taking process resulting in very less production rate. A milestone of research was encountered in computer graphics after 2300 years of Euclid invention. The changes in the design (or) analysing the failure of a design at any point consumes more time. every stage in the field of engineering design i. This tool was used only for 2D drawings and drafting. This software’s are developed with an ease for installation in the computer and provides much flexibility for the designer to use the tool in design and manufacturing a product. a numerical control programming tool by Dr. Later on this technology was adopted by other sectors too.4. a piece of writing on mathematics ‘The Elements’ by a Greek mathematician Euclid. In 1960. He is most often referred as the Father of CAD/CAM.C. ultimately affecting the production time and launch of the product in market. This serves as the basic platform on which present CAD software systems are built. accuracy and production rate. The CAD/CAM software’s which are very 7 . At present there are many CAD/CAM software’s which are used in various industries. Patrick J. In 350 B. During this period the CAD/CAM technology was started spreading all over the world. calculation. Ivan Sutherland invented the first design program for industrial use called sketch pad. Automobile sectors were the first to follow this technology especially for designing their vehicle bodies. HISTORY OF CAD/CAM: Prior to the invention of CAD/CAM technology.

Now the CAD/CAM technology is moving in a constant path of fine-tuning the early innovations to improve the efficiency and make it user friendly. For producing a plaster production mould. a polyurethane mould is created from the plaster cast. 2007) The above figure shows the different CAD/CAM software’s used in various industries for 3D modelling. The master model is created in clay to build a plaster cast. clay products are produced in a small series. IDEAS. Restriction in freedom of form (or) shape of the product. SOLIDWORKS. INVENTOR. 5. UNIGRAPHICS. the model is built based on the hand sketches.1 Traditional development method: In traditional development method. 8 .widely used now are CATIA. This traditional method has following drawbacks. Then the product undergoes a firing process to identify the need for design modifications. Using this. PRO-E. Trial and error method to identify the feasibility of producing the designed product in the proposed form. CAD/CAM IN CERAMICS INDUSTRY: 5. Figure 1 – DIFFERENT CAD/CAM SOFTWARE’S (Lee.

Creating the demo models to true scale with the aid of CAD/CAM and Rapid Prototyping techniques takes less time and simple too. The changes in design and evaluation are made quickly.K. To achieve greater accuracy in the prototype model the triangles are kept smaller. paper or thermoplastics depending on the application. This process is carried out with various materials like wax.Design assessment purely based on a scale model. Depending on various 9 . In this STL format the smooth curved surfaces are depicted on triangles.treadwaygallery. 5. A demo model is must in product development for discussing and assessing the shape. proportions and functionality of the designed product. (Chua C.com) Tooling plays the major role in this development method. The restriction in the freedom of form for designers is overcome by using the CAD’s extended features in the initial design phase itself. et al. The CAD design of the tool is developed from the products 3D CAD design. The term rapid prototyping is the construction of physical part as layers by using the additive technology of manufacturing.2 Present development method with CAD/CAM: The introduction of CAD/CAM. The 3D cad model converted into a STL file (Structural Triangulation Language) serves as the input for RP machines. 2003) Figure 2 – CERAMIC MODEL USING CAD/CAM (www. Rapid Prototyping and Tooling offers many advantages in the present product development method.

5. With current advantages CAD can be very well used as a tool for marketing as the changes in product design can be incorporated as per the customer’s requirement in a very short time. et al. manipulating the decoration to make positives and negatives is another requirement. which serves as the base for transfer.com) 10 . 2001) Figure 3 – SPRING VASE UNDER DEVELOPMENT USING CAD/CAM & RP (www.brianadamsceramics. The products which are not imaginable to be manufactured by the traditional method will become very simple with few mouse clicks by the ongoing developments in CAD/CAM. At present the decorations are embossed in a flat plane. some industries even desired to modify the existing decorations to suit it for new models.3 Future of CAD/CAM in Ceramics: The introduction of CAD/CAM in ceramics industry has created a much sophisticated environment for the designers to bring their innovations as a real product. The CAD/CAM software’s with these features are on its way to the market. geometry and quantity of product the decision is made for developing the master tool in a best way. Many ceramic industries have raised some requirements to be included in the CAD/CAM tools. One such requirement is to print the decorations using CAD/CAM on the curved surfaces. Moreover the design tool can be broadened with computing programs which forecast the decorations and amount of shrinkage during the process of firing and drying. (McDonald J A. For the purpose of silkscreen printing technique. Apart from this. Without deformation transferring a smooth curved surface to a flat surface is highly impossible.factors like manufacturing techniques.

processing and improvement of material properties. flexibility in manufacturing leading to minimum storage for parts. ease of post . prototype quality and building speed. advanced technology and design provide the possible path for a good future.F. which is then used in manufacturing processes like moulding (or) casting” (Leong K. Though there are many flaws and drawbacks in the concept modelling. If this process could be developed further for the product manufacture in a robust way. (Ryall C J. The major areas that will drive forward the growth of Rapid Prototyping are concept modelling and Rapid Manufacturing & Tooling (RM&T). 2003) The potential benefits received from Rapid Manufacturing are reduced tooling cost. ability to design and manufacture a product with complex geometry. then it will have a striking impact in the field of design and manufacturing. This is a process “that uses the RP technology to produce a template. 11 . At present the existing RP machines can be used for rapid manufacturing but the new machine designs are required in the long run. The reason for replacing the concept modelling over higher version of RP is due to its cost effectiveness and speed. All these future trends and development in the discussed technologies are mainly based on the evolution of CAD/CAM. it also gives a quality tool and end product. Ultimately. The other future developments in RP are ease of use. material cost. feasibility to manufacture the graded materials. accuracy. this proves that the CAD/CAM has served as the base platform for developing a computer-integrated robotic factory in the mere future. production speed and surface finish. 2001).The CAD/CAM features not only provide the profit in time and cost. The Rapid Prototyping technology which is used in many ceramic industries to manufacture the end product have many limitations which push this back in many leading industries. Concept modeller allows the designers to start and finish the prototype in a day (or) two. et al. The limitations which currently exist in Rapid Prototyping technology are output from machine. The major change that needs to be incorporated in rapid manufacturing is increase in the construction speed. standardization of systems. Rapid Prototyping in manufacturing is the base for Rapid manufacturing & tooling (RM&T).

With the implementation of this CAD/CAM digital process. CAD/CAM provides the manufacturing units with the capability of ‘art-to-part’. tools and tool paths are selected automatically giving less work to the programmers (Katrina. The success key for CAD/CAM growth in the global market is that it provides an additional function of enhancing the collaboration between various departments in a company. In special. recent innovations like animated ‘Walk-through’ are still less utilized in many fields. This is one of the areas a breakthrough will occur in future CAD/CAM. the CAM is getting automated to high extend like the cutting parameters. the CAD/CAM marketers integrated the tools that assist in bringing together the different departments very closely than before and in data sharing. FUTURE OF CAD/CAM IN GENERAL: For quite long-time. many designers still prefer 2D designs. which is given high priority in many developed and developing companies. 12 . produce quality products and launch the product to market in a short duration. In addition to the various improvements in CAD. Despite multiple features and advantages available in 3D CAD/CAM. the solid modelling with CAD/CAM offers more flexibility to the design engineers like naturalistic views of the product and allows the integration for analysis very easily.6. At present the research and development in CAD/CAM is one step ahead of the user requirements. with FEA & simulation accessibility and knowledge management requires to be fully adopted. Due to this reason. This trend is driven by many industries in order to avoid the theft of information and data loss. This gives a hint that a rapid change in the revolution of CAD/CAM is not far away. Autodesk’s DWF and Solid Work’s EDRW. This is an animated technique which allows the designers to take a visual tour in and around the model and glance it from various angles. Another future trend of CAD/CAM development is the exchange of information in the non-CAD format like Adobe’s PDF. The power to merge CAD/CAM. the manufactures gain an effective interaction between the departments. which is nothing but the design from concept stage to tooling is completely digitalized. 2005). As a response for this. an outstanding CAD/CAM innovation has not taken place.

the developments of technologies are purely based on the customer requirements rather than the resources available. With the increased demand for sophistication the system developers increase their market value. Though the cost of computers and its related parts are decreased before many years. 13 . many industries have to take up this investment regardless whether the end product is successful in the market (or) not. In addition the demand for man power in the field of manufacturing is getting reduced due to the automation of factory. DISCUSSION: In the growing global market and competition. reduce the production cost. The new ideas/concepts. innovative designs and creations in various field by the designers brings the need for development and up gradation of the CAD/CAM technology in regular interval of time.7. For satisfying the customer needs. The need for developments in CAD/CAM from the traditional practice is to improve the quality of product. On the other hand this rapid development and competition has increased pressure on the industries regarding the huge investments over the CAD/CAM software’s and highly sophisticated computerised machines. This development is considered as the remarkable achievement in the history of mankind. which is leading to a stage of unemployment in some sectors. the final package of the software’s and machines are of high cost. reduce the production time and make ease of the manufacturing process. The evolution of CAD/CAM is a best example for this.

It is clear that the available technology in the market is not 100% perfect and stabilised. There is nothing called impossible in the field of design and manufacturing with the current trends of CAD/CAM technology. One or the other features need to be added at every stage of requirement. At present it can be assumed that there is nothing more to develop than the existing technologies. 14 .8. but predicting the future is always a hardship. But still there is a huge demand for the updates in the existing systems for the future designs. Every time the change (or) update of any system rectifies the flaws and drawbacks in the previous version. since it took place in a short duration. CONCLUSION: The need for development in technology is not only associated with the customer requirements. There may be a massive breakthrough or revolution of CAD/CAM than what it has created so far. This rapid development in CAD/CAM is unimaginable.

D. M. LEONG K. McDONALD. C.cncinformation.com/cad-software-history-2000-2004. AVAILABLE: http://www. LIST OF REFERENCES: GROOVER.9. RYALL.htm. LAST ACCESSED 12/02/10 WEBSITE (2004) CAD SOFTWARE-HISTORY OF CAD CAM. M.I (2001) RAPID PROTOTYPING CASEBOOK.P AND ZIMMERS. LAST ACCESSED 10/02/10. J. CHUA C.K.ht ml THOMAS NET NEWS (2005).J AND WIMPENNY. AVAILABLE: http://www.com/IMT/archives/2005/01/the_future_of_c.S (2003) RAPID PROTOTYPING PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS. KYRAN D.html 15 .com/IMT/archives/2001/02/cadcam_past_pre. HAIGH.A.thomasnet. PRENTICE HALL PUBLICATION.com/cam-software-cam-computer-aidedmachining-soft/evolution-of-cam. ALAN CHRISTMAN (2001) EVOLUTION OF CAM SOFTWARE CAD/CAM OUTLOOK. AVAILABLE: http://news. THOMAS NET NEWS (2001). MISH AND JOSEPH MELLO (1995) MECHANICAL ENGINEERING HANDBOOK.J (1985) AN INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING.thomasnet. E. AVAILABLE: http://news.cadazz.F AND LIM C.W (1984) CAD/CAM COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING.