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9/9/2005, in class

1

1. We do not consider the trivial case where either |v or |w is the null vector. Suppose we construct an orthonormal basis {|i } for the vector space such that the ﬁrst member of the basis is |1 = |w / w|w . Using the completeness relation |i i| = |1 1| +

i i=1

|i i| =

|w w| + w|w

|i i|

i=1

we have v|v w|w =

i

v|i i|v w|w =

v|w w|v w|w

w|w +

i=1

v|i i|v w|w ≥

v|w w|v w|w

w|w = | v|w |2

where we dropped the non-negative term

i=1

v|i i|v w|w .

For the equality to hold, the dropped term must be zero. This can be true only if v|i = 0 for all i = 1. These |i ’s form the basis for vectors orthogonal to |w . Hence we conclude that the equality holds iﬀ |v is parallel to |w , i.e., |v = λ|w with λ an arbitrary c-number. ˆ ˆ 2. (a) Consider the quantity ψ|A|ψ and its complex conjugate ψ|A|ψ ∗ : ˆ ψ|A|ψ

∗

ˆ ˆ = ψ|A† |ψ = ψ|A|ψ

ˆ ˆ ˆ In the last step, we have used A = A† . Since ψ|A|ψ is equal to its complex conjugate, it must be real. ˆ (b) Let λi be an eigenvalue of U with the corresponding eigenvector |i , i.e., ˆ U |i = λi |i Take the adjoint of the above, we have ˆ i|U † = i|λ∗ i Therefore fore we have ˆ ˆ 1 = i|U † U |i = i|λ∗ λi |i = |λi |2 i 3. (a) There are three eigenvalues with corresponding eigenvectors: √ √ 0 1/ 2 1/ 2 √ √ λ1 = 0, |1 = 0 ; λ2 = 1, |2 = i/ 2 ; λ3 = −1, |3 = −i/ 2 1 0 0 Don’t forget the normalization! The matrix has a block-diagonal form. You should immediately recognize that one of the eigenvalues is 0. You only need to ﬁnd the eigenvalues of the 2 × 2 matrix 0 −i i 0

s. the above equation needs to be changed to me c2 = In the end. the unitary matrix that diagonalizes M can be assembled as √ √ 0 1/ 2 1/ 2 √ √ U = (|1 |2 |3 ) = 0 i/ 2 −i/ 2 1 0 0 You can switch the orders of the eigenvectors. we have me c2 = e2 rc for the SI units. ˆ ˆˆˆ ˆ ˆ ˆˆ U † AB U = U † B AU ˆ ˆ Left multiply U and right multiply U † on both sides. you should get the same answer: rc = 2.g.e. the angular 5 moment is e2 4πε0 rc L = Iω = 2 2 2 me rc ω = me rc v 5 5 where v = ωrc is the velocity of the point at the equator. Since two diagonal matrices commute with each other. units. (a) θ θ | + n = cos | + z + sin | − z 2 2 . In the c. Let DA = U † AU and DB = U † B U be the diagonalized form of A and B. we have immediately ˆˆ ˆˆ AB = B A 5. ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆˆ ˆ ˆˆ 4. respectively. 6.8 × 10−13 cm = 2. we have ˆ ˆˆˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆˆ ˆ ˆ ˆˆ ˆ ˆˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ DA DB = U † AU U † B U = U † AB U = DB DA = U † B U U † AU = U † B AU i. which shows that the spin angular momentum of electron cannot arise from the mechanical motion.. This velocity is much larger than the speed of light in vacuum. From this we can calculate that v ≈ 6 × 1012 cm/s in order for L = /2.8 × 10−15 m 2 For a spinning sphere with angular velocity ω and moment of inertia I = 2 me rc .Physics 311: Problem Set # 1 2 (b) Once you ﬁnd all the normalized eigenvectors.

there would be no particles survive the last measurement. .e. we must choose θ = π/2. the orientation of the second SG device is along the x-axis. The 2 probability a particle in the state | + n is transmitted by this SGz device is | +n| − z |2 = sin2 θ 2 The total probability of surviving the third meaduremrnt is the product of the probabilities of being transmitted by the second and third devices: P = cos2 θ 1 θ sin2 = sin2 θ 2 2 4 (b) To maximize P . i. (c) Without the second device.Physics 311: Problem Set # 1 3 Thus | +n| + z |2 = cos2 θ is the probability of reaching the third SG device.. The maximum probability is 1/4.

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